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  • 1. Bakker, Peter
    et al.
    Daval-Markussen, Aymeric
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Plag, Ingo
    Creoles are typologically distinct from non-creoles2013In: Creole languages and linguistic typology / [ed] Parth Bhatt, Tonjes Veenstra, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 9-45Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    BINNICK, Robert. 2012. The past tenses of the Mongolian verb. Brill.2013In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 235-241Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Analysing Secondary Predication in East Asian Languages2013In: Linguist List, ISSN 1068-4875, no 24, article id 4359Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Yu Wonsoo (2011): A Study of Mongol Khamnigan spoken in Northeastern Mongolia2013In: Acta Orientalia Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae, ISSN 0001-6446, Vol. 66, no 2, p. 239-241Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    How telicity creates time2013In: Journal of Slavic Linguistics, ISSN 1068-2090, E-ISSN 1543-0391, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 45-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most treatments of temporal semantics start out from the conception of time as a line stretching from the past into the future, which is then populated with eventualities or situations. This paper explores how time can be seen as emerging from the construction of representations of reality in which the basic building blocks are static—i.e., timeless—representations, which are connected to each other by events that are transitions between them and that create an ordering which can be understood as temporal. This connects to von Wright’s “logic of change” and the “hybrid semantics” suggested by Herweg and Löbner. In this context, telicity is seen as the capacity of events, or of the predicates that express them, to “create time” in the sense of defining a before and an after. The basic elements of the model are global states, which are timeless taken in isolation but are connected by transition events, which transform one global state into another and thereby define the temporal relationships between them. Transition events, corresponding to Vendlerian achievements, represent simple changes which are then the basis for all other constructs in the model, most notably delimited states, Vendlerian activities (atelic dynamic eventualities), and accomplishments (telic non-punctual eventualities), but also time points and intervals. Transition events are further instrumental in constructing narrative structures and are responsible for narrative progression.

  • 6.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Tense-aspect-mood-evidentiality (TAME) and the Organization of Human Memory2013In: Time and TAME in language / [ed] Karina Veronica Molsing; Ana Maria Tramunt Ibaños, Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2013, p. 22-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Evaluative morphology and noun classification: a cross-linguistic study of Africa2013In: SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics, ISSN 1336-782X, E-ISSN 1336-782X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 114-136Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at illustrating how, in languages with grammatical gender, this feature of noun morphology interacts with evaluative morphology. This is done on the basis of a sample of sixty-two African languages. The paper shows that interactions among gender and evaluative morphology are quite regular in the African languages. Two major types of interactions are found depending on whether a language hasa rich or a limited number of noun classes. The geographic diffusion and diachronic stability of these interactions are discussed. The correlation between gender and evaluation in the African languages has promising implications for our understanding of the two grammatical domains and fostersfurther research questions as to how common the relationships between these domains are cross-linguistically, and why they emerge in the first place.

  • 8.
    Dicle, Ramazan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Location events in bilingual Danish and Turkish language contact: A comparative analysis of location events in Danish, Turkish and bilingual use of the two languages2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Location events can be mainly described as the relationship setting up the location of a particular object(s) in relation to the other object(s). Location events are akin to motion events whose typology is well studied in the literature especially in the work of Talmy (1991, 2000), but differ from them in that ‘motion events’ focuses on the motion, while location events focuses on the spatial relationships between the Figure, object that is being located, and the Ground, object(s) that conform to the location of the Figure. Languages express these locative relationships differently. This study analyzes how two typologically different languages, Turkish and Danish, express the location events and how bilingual speakers of these two languages express location events in both Danish and Turkish. The study utilizes quantitative and qualitative tools to analyze the data gathered from the picture based elicitation from the monolingual and bilingual speakers. The study suggests that language contact in bilingual Turkish and Danish has a major role in the operating typology of the two languages and in the encoding of the spatial relationships in location events.

  • 9.
    Fuster Sansalvador, Carles
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Germanic languages: A micro-typological study on negation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, typological classifications have been done in a macro-typological perspective; that is,they have been based on balanced world-wide samples of languages, which often avoid includingclosely related languages, since these are supposed to act alike with respect to their typologicalfeatures and structures. However, attention has recently been drawn to the idea that even closelyrelated languages, as well as dialects within languages, may differ on their typological features. Theintention of this thesis is to give an overview of and study how the Germanic languages differ fromeach other in regards to their negative word orders and negation strategies. Mainly their negativeadverbs (English equivalent not), but also their negative indefinite quantifiers, are analyzed in mainclauses, subordinate clauses, and (negative) imperative structures. The focus lies on the standardlanguage varieties, but some of their non-standard varieties are included, in order to be able to give amore detailed description of the variation within the family. The expected result that the ratherhomogeneous described area of the Germanic languages will turn out to be much more complex, withrespect to negation aspects, is confirmed. The results show that the standard language varieties behavedifferently than the non-standard ones, which are less "rare" cross-linguistically. In addition, the nonstandardNorth-Germanic varieties show that multiple negation occurs in the North-Germanic branch,which is traditionally claimed to not occur.

  • 10.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Imitation vs association in child-adult and child-child interaction2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of imitation in language development is debated and unclear (e.g., Meltzoff, 2011; Heyes, 2001; Paulus, 2012) in part because of the difficulty to define imitation. Is it when A copies an act or an utterance from B within a specific time frame, or is it when the goal of B is captured and executed by A, regardless of the means to reach the goal? Further, must A be aware that s/he imitated B, or should low-level cognitive mechanisms be regarded as imitation as well?

    The aim of the present study was to identify and describe imitative behaviors in young children as they appear in a longitudinal material of child-child and child-adult interaction. “Imitation” was defined as: any verbal/vocal/nonverbal act that i) occurs after an identical such act; ii) semantically and/or pragmatically repeats an earlier verbal/vocal/nonverbal act. An example of the first kind would be a child, A, clapping his hands against his head hollering “hallo” and another nearby child, B, starts doing the same while watching A. The second kind could be illustrated with a child, C, saying to another mother than his own “mommy there is no need to talk, you can just go straight away” to which his own mother says “I recognize that comment, that’s what I say to grandma”. While the first example appears to be a direct, situated, practice where instant imitation is taking place, the second is a sequence where a more or less formulaic verbalization is copied from some previous occasion/s and delivered in a situation where it appears to fit, an associated imitation.

    In the talk, different imitative behavioral will be illustrated and related to instant vs associated contextual aspects. It will be argued that both behaviors build on common mechanisms of learning (Schöner, 2009; Smith & Katz, 1996), that they appear in parallel throughout the ages studied (see below), but that they differ in cognitive – although not necessarily social – complexity, as well as in their part in language development and socialization routines.

    Data consists of 22 hours of video recordings of 5 Swedish families with in all 11 children. The children are in the ages 0;9 to 5;10 years old and were recorded during a period of 2 ½ years. The recordings were done in a home environment together with siblings and parents.

  • 11.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Andraspråksforskning med ASU-korpusen2013In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 7-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ASU is a longitudinal corpus of L2 production by adult learners of Swedish, which is now accessible on the web for searching and analysis. This is a presentation of its intentions and structure, how to work with it, and how to access it. Some examples are also given of the research on L2 Swedish which has been carried out based on data from ASU.

    After a brief introduction on different kinds of corpora and their degree of accessibility, the next section discusses the various requirements that should be met by a longitudinal corpus, and how these have been handled in ASU. An aim for ASU has been to follow individuals longitudinally from the start of their acquisition of the L2 to an elaborate stage of proficiency, and to be able to observe a clear and coherent development over time. ASU is also characterized by the parallel collection of oral and written material, and by a control material from native Swedes. Foreign students at Stockholm University were recorded individually during conversations with Swedes, and in addition to this they also wrote essays. Corresponding data were collected from native Swedish students. The material was then transcribed and tagged morphologically.

    The corpus, which was compiled in its early form in the 1990s, is now converted into a modern format and has been connected to the user interface ITG, which is handled by the Swedish Language Bank (Språkbanken) at Gothenburg University. This is a flexible instrument for searching, analysing and editing data from the corpus. The article describes briefly how to work with corpus data using ITG.

    The corpus has been used for research on several areas of L2 Swedish. Some examples which are presented briefly here concern reference to future, syllable structure, possessive constructions, the utterance process, and the role of background languages in third language use.

    A description of how to access the corpus terminates the article.

  • 12.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Teoretiska ramar för andraspråksforskning2013In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Lindberg, Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2013, 2, p. 27-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Third language acquisition2013In: The Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 644-648Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A review of Arbib, M. A. 2012. How the Brain got Language: the mirror system hypothesis. Oxford University Press: Oxford2013In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 36, p. 91-96Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Heinat, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Gradient Well-formedness of Finnish Passive Constructions2013In: Proceedings of the 24th Conference of Scandinavian Linguistics / [ed] Tirkkonen, J. and Anttikoski, E., Joensuu, Finland: University of Eastern Finland Press , 2013, p. 59-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    How do things get done: on non-canonical passives in Finnish2013In: Non-canonical passives / [ed] Alexiadou, A. and Schäfer, F., Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 213-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The neurophysiological correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish2013In: Language and cognitive processes (Print), ISSN 0169-0965, E-ISSN 1464-0732, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 388-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language comprehension is assumed to proceed incrementally, and comprehenders commit to initial interpretations even in the absence of unambiguous information. Initial ambiguous object arguments are therefore preferably interpreted as subjects, an interpretation that needs to be revised towards an object initial interpretation once the disambiguating information is encountered. Most accounts of such grammatical function reanalyses assume that they involve phrase structure revisions, and do not differ from other syntactic reanalyses. A number of studies using measurements of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) provide evidence for this view by showing that both reanalysis types engender similar neurophysiological responses (e.g., P600 effects). Others have claimed that grammatical function reanalyses rather involve revisions of the mapping of thematic roles to argument noun phrases (NPs). In line with this, it has been shown that grammatical function reanalysis during spoken language comprehension engenders a N400 effect, an effect which has been shown to correlate with general problems in the mapping of thematic roles to argument NPs in a number of languages. This study investigated the ERP correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish. Postverbal NPs that disambiguated the interpretation of object-topicalised sentences towards an object-initial reading engendered a N400 effect with a local, right-parietal distribution. This ‘‘reanalysis N400’’ effect provides further support for the view that grammatical function reanalysis is functionally distinct from syntactic reanalyses and rather involves a revision of the mapping of thematic roles to the sentence arguments. Postverbal subject pronouns in object-topicalised sentences were also found to engender an enhanced P300 wave in comparison to object pronouns, an effect which seems to depend on the overall infrequency of object-topicalised constructions. This finding provides support for the view that the ‘‘reanalysis N400’’ in some cases can be attenuated by a task-related P300 component.

  • 18.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerna: myten, historien, språken2013Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ljudförändringar och informationsteori2013In: Text, tal & tecken: Några perspektiv inom språkforskningen / [ed] Lindblom, Björn, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2013, p. 62-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vocative and the grammar of calls2013In: Vocative!: Addressing between System and Performance / [ed] Barbara Sonnenhauser, Patrizia Noel Asiz Hanna, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013, p. 219-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocative forms appear in calls, which constitute a type of utterances; other types are statements, questions, and commands. Grammatical descriptions usually focus on sentences, the grammatical form of statements. This paper presents a sketch of the grammar of calls. The basic form of a call is a noun phrase denoting a person. Calls may include special marking to show the utterance type. There may be markers outside the noun phrase (utterance marking) or marking within the noun phrase (noun phrase marking). Some languages have one of the types and some have both. The types typically do not interfere but occur independently of each other. Utterance marking consists of special intonation or of an optional vocalic particle. Noun phrase marking may consist of suppletion, contraction or apocope of the noun, or of addition of an affix. The noun then has a special vocative form. In languages with obligatory case marking, noun marking of calls and marking of case may interfere in complex ways.

  • 21.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    КРАТКА ИСТОРИЯ НА ЕЗИЦИТЕ2013Book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Assessing language acquisition from parent-child interaction: An event-related potential study on perception of audio-visual cues in infancy2013In: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 134, article id 4106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper promotes a theory-driven model development of parent-child interaction. In our project, we identify, test, and simulate some of the fundamental components of speech,gestures, and social-emotional behaviors and the consequences they might have on child language development. Our theoretical position is part of the connectionist tradition; language acquisition is described to be an emergent consequence of the interplay between the infant and the ambient linguistic environment, including sensory information of all modalities. It is well known that speech comprehension and production are significantly influenced by the presence of co-speech gestures. These gestures may be articulatory in nature or hand/beat co-gestures that keep the rhythm of speech. However, since the extent of this integrated relationship is difficult to determine from behavioral research solely, studies addressing neural mechanisms that underlie cognitive processes and behaviors are of importance. This paper reports an electroencephalography/event-related potential (EEG/ERP) pilot study on children’s early perception of congruent versus incongruent audio-visual pairings (e.g., acoustic informationmatching vs not matching the articulation shown). Ultimately, it is our hope that understanding the integrated speech-gesture relationship may provide insights into how children allocate resources while speaking and help clinicians/teachers to better identify and treat children withdevelopmental disorders.

  • 23.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Modellering av förälder-barn interaktion (MINT): Komponenter hos audio-visuella ledtrådar och deras konsekvenser för språkinlärning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerhom, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The Stockholm Babylab Multimodal Approach: Modelling Infant Language Acquisition Longitudinally from Parent-Child Interaction2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory communicative interaction is in general best analyzed with the help of simultaneously recorded visual information about discourse objects and the positioning of interlocutors in space. Access to visual information is even more important in parent-child interaction since this type of communica-tion is largely based on use of contextual gestures, gaze and imitation. The un-derstanding of parent-child interaction benefits further from information on brain activation involved in speech processing. This paper introduces the Stockholm Babylab approach to study multimodal language learning in typi-cally developing infants and young children. Our effort is to build a multimodal corpus that incorporates EEG (electroencephalography) data in the model. Ap-plication fields are social signal processing (SSP), improvement of diagnosis of late or atypical language development, and further development of habilitation methods for individuals with neurocognitive and language deficits.   

  • 25.
    Kolehmainen, Leena
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland .
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nordlund, Taru
    Johdanto: Kielten vertailu menetelmänä kieli- ja käännöstieteessä2013In: Kielten vertailun metodiikka / [ed] Kolehmainen, Leena; Miestamo, Matti; Nordlund, Taru, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2013, p. 7-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26. Kolehmainen, Leena
    et al.
    Miestamo, MattiStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.Nordlund, Taru
    Kielten vertailun metodiikka2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A Mozart sonata and the Palme funeral: The structure and uses of proper-name compounds in Swedish2013In: Morpho-syntactic categories and the expression of possession / [ed] Börjars, Kersti, Denison, David & Alan Scott, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 253-290Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on Swedish nominal compounds with a personal proper name as their first component (PropN-compounds), e.g. en Mozart+sonat ‘a Mozart sonata’ or Palme+mord-et ‘the Palme murder’ (‘Palme+murder-the’). Although these expressions have so far hardly appeared in the scientific discourse on possession, they do in fact constitute an important resource for expressing possession in the broadest sense in Swedish and, further, in Germanic. For instance, many PropN-compounds are more or less synonymous with nominals modified by preposed s-genitives and/or by postposed prepositional phrases, i.e. by the two constructions that make up the core of adnominal possession in Swedish. In the present paper I will be mostly interested in the structure and meanings/uses of PropN-compounds, in particular, as compared to the other “possessive” constructions in Swedish.

  • 28.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Approaching lexical typology2013In: Classics in linguistic typology / [ed] Dai, Qingxia & Wang, Feng, Bejing: Commercial press , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    From Aleksandr Evgen'evič's garden2013In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 17, no 3, p. 518-518Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language Typology and Syntactic Description2013In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 107-156Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Lebenswerd, Patric Joshua
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Distinctive features in Jewish Swedish: A description and a survey2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the contemporary speech used by Swedish Jews, and places it in the context of the most recent understandings in Jewish interlinguistics. Jewish Swedish derives most of its non-Swedish components from the main Jewish liturgical languages, Hebrew and Aramaic, in addition to the foremost ancestral language Yiddish. These components have provided Jewish Swedish with lexical, morpho-syntactic, phonological and semantic features, which distinguish it from Standard Swedish. The thesis, additionally, contains a survey, investigating the correlations between a number of socio-religious factors, and inter- communal variation in use of distinguishing features. The study reveals a great deal of variation between different age groups, social groups, religious groups, men and women, in terms of word knowledge and usage. This study will hopefully contribute to the field of contemporary Jewish linguistics, and the general understanding of speech used by minority communities.

  • 32.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Multi-level lexical convergence along the Silk Road2013In: 46th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea: Book of abstracts / [ed] Bert Cornillie and María Sol Sansiñena Pascual, Split, 2013, p. 213-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This preliminary study, partly based on fieldwork data, partly on available descriptions, looks at lexical convergence resulting from language contact in the Greater Hindu Kush (northern Pakistan, north-eastern Afghanistan, and Kashmir), a region characterized by a combination of linguistic diversity (including Indo-Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman and the isolate Burushaski), a high level of multilingualism and by serving as an age-old transit zone between South, West, and Central Asia (Tikkanen 1988; Bashir 2003, 821–823). A few influential “culture carriers” of change are: Islam; a common Persian culture; poetry; and, in more recent times, media in which regional lingua franca-filtered English plays an increasing role. The lexical convergence can be observed on three interrelated levels: a) a micro-level characterized by shared internal semantic structure, b) a mid-level, whereby the structure of entire semantic domains display significant similarities, and c) a macro-level, with shared features of lexicon organization.

    The first level encompasses single lexemes across languages, e.g. shared specializations (Kamviri (Strand 2013): nuč ‘three days ago’, nutrí ‘the day before yesterday’, dus ‘yesterday’, strák ɡaaǰaar ‘today’, daalkẽ́ ‘tomorrow’, aatrí ‘the day after tomorrow’, aačǘ ‘three days hence’; Dameli (Morgenstierne 1942, 137–178, Emil Perder pc.): učoo/čoo diyoo,itrii, doos, mu(n)dya, beraa, truida, čoo/čooa ki, respectively), shared polysemy (Kalasha (Trail and Cooper 1999, 112): ɡríik; Pashto: axistəl ‘take’ – ‘buy’), and metaphorical extensions (Kashmiri: toon; Palula: šidáalu ‘cold’—‘hostile, unkind’). The second level is defined by semantic domains, and includes lexical relations between semantically related concepts (Khowar: ma oraru ɡoyan [lit. to-me sleep is coming] ‘I’m feeling sleepy’ vs. xaphosi parir ‘Xaposi sleeps’; Palula: asaám húluk dítu de [lit. on-us heat is fallen] ‘We were feeling hot’  vs. anú wíi táatu ‘This water is hot’; where the subjective experience is expressed as the stimulus coming to the experiencer) and shared derivational pathways, such as a participial ‘attaching’ marking the “manipulee” in causative constructions (Kalasha (Trail and Cooper 1999, 289; Bashir 2003, 823): a ísa aawái, ɡoník čhinawáis ‘I had him break the stick’; Kalam Kohistani (Baart 1999, 94–95): yä murād ā ǰämāl bakānt ‘I’m making Murad beat up Jamal’). The third level is probably the most interesting, as it facilitates lower-level convergence. One example is the gradual substitution of the single verb inventory by “new” complex predicates (Ladakhi: ban-coces (cf. indigenous satces); Indus Kohistani (Zoller 2005, 301): bʌ́n karʌ́v̄; Pashto bandawəl [lit. closed-do] ‘to turn off’, modelled on Urdu band karnaa). Other examples are the prevalence of co-lexicalized intensifiers (Burushaski (Berger 1998, 226–227): qhal-matúm ‘pitch black’; Gilgiti Shina: khutún šaróo ‘full autumn’, the first component often being a unique lexical unit) and the presence of cross-cutting pro-categories, reflecting multiple deictic contrasts (Kohistani Shina (Schmidt and Kohistani 2008, 97–98): paár ajóo ‘over there where I point’, paár adí ‘right over there’, paár asdí ‘right over there somewhere’, pér adí ‘over there (near, known but invisible)’, pér asdí ‘over there (out of sight)’; Kashmiri (Koul 2003, 914): kūtāh ‘how much?’, yūtāh ‘this much’, hūtāh ‘that much (within sight)’, tˈūtāh that much (out of sight)’).

    References

    Baart, Joan L. G. 1999. A Sketch of Kalam Kohistani Grammar. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies  Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics.

    Bashir, Elena L. 2003. “Dardic.” In The Indo-Aryan Languages, ed. George Cardona and Danesh Jain, 818–894. 1 Mul. London: Routledge.

    Berger, Hermann. 1998. Die Burushaski-Sprache von Hunza und Nager 3. Wörterbuch. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

    Koul, Omkar N. 2003. “Kashmiri.” In The Indo-Aryan Languages, ed. George Cardona and Danesh Jain, 895–952. 1 Mul. London: Routledge.

    Morgenstierne, Georg. 1942. “Notes on Dameli: A Kafir-Dardic Dialect of Chitral.” NTS 12: 115–198.

    Schmidt, Ruth Laila, and Razwal Kohistani. 2008. A Grammar of the Shina Language of Indus Kohistan. Beiträge Zur Kenntnis Südasiatischer Sprachen and Literaturen 17. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

    Strand, Richard F. 2013. “Richard Strand’s Nuristân Site: Lexicons of Kâmviri, Khowar, and Other Hindu-Kush Languages.” Accessed January 10. http://nuristan.info/lngFrameL.html.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1988. “On Burushaski and Other Ancient Substrata in Northwestern South Asia.” Studia Orientalia 64: 3030–325.

    Trail, Ronald L, and Gregory R Cooper. 1999. Kalasha dictionary with English and Urdu. Islamabad; United Kingdom: National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University ; Summer Institute of Linguistics.

    Zoller, Claus Peter. 2005. A Grammar and Dictionary of Indus Kohistani: Volume 1, Dictionary. Trends in Linguistics 21-1. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

     

  • 33.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Notes on Kalkoti: A Shina Language with Strong Kohistani Influences2013In: Linguistic Discovery, ISSN 1537-0852, E-ISSN 1537-0852, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 129-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some novel and hard-to-access data from Kalkoti, an Indo-Aryan language spoken in northern Pakistan. The particular focus is on showing how this Shina variety in a relatively short time span has drifted apart from its closest known genealogical relatives and undergone significant linguistic convergence with a Kohistani variety in whose vicinity Kalkoti is presently spoken. Among other features, we explore what seems like an ongoing process of tonogenesis as well as structural “copying” in the realm of tense and aspect.

  • 34.
    Lindblom, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Romance languages: A micro-typological study on negation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Languages that are genealogically or areally related often exhibit similar typological features due to their affinity. Large scale typological studies aiming to explain universal patterns and structural variation tend to exclude data from genealogical and areally related languages not to compromise the validity of the results. This typological study investigates the micro- and the macro-typological relation by examining negation features as well as word order of negative markers in relation to the verb in a number of genealogically and areally related Romance languages. The hypothesis is that the selected languages, despite their close relatedness, will exhibit a high degree of variation in regards to negation features. Most likely, not all of the non-standard languages will exhibit the same negation features as their standard language. The results show no correlation between genealogical relatedness and negation features. Moreover, they show that standardization has no demonstrable effect on the negation constructions employed by non-standard languages and that language contact is relevant in regards to the position of the negative marker and a language's position in Jespersen's cycle. The results support the theory that the diachronic evolution of negation is governed by a language's need to emphasize negation.

  • 35.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Linguistic classification: Sprachklassifikation2013In: Wörterbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (WSK) Online: Theories and Methods in Linguistics / [ed] Schierholz, Stefan J. & Wiegand, Herbert Ernst; Kortmann, Bernd, Berlin: De Gruyter , 2013, onlineChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Löfstrand, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    En jämförelse mellan ord för ansiktsuttryck på svenska och mandarin: En intervju- och korpusbaserad studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen har användningen och betydelsen av ett utvalt antal översättningsekvivalenter av ord och fasta uttryck som betecknar ansiktsuttryck på svenska och mandarin studerats. Uppgiften närmades genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med modersmålstalare av svenska och mandarin, samt genom en korpusbaserad kollokationsundersökning. Analysmetoden Natural Semantic Metalanguage har använts för att beskriva det inre sinnestillståndet hos personer när de handlar på de sätt som orden och uttrycken beskriver, samt vilka känslor och tankar som tillskrivs dessa personer av dem som bevittnar handlingarna. Vissa intressanta skillnader mellan översättningsekvivalenterna har observerats.

  • 37.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Constructions and paradigms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kielten vertailu kielitypologisessa tutkimuksessa2013In: Kielten vertailun metodiikka / [ed] Kolehmainen, Leena; Miestamo, Matti; Nordlund, Taru, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2013, p. 27-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The marking of nominal participants under negation2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Narin, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kinesiskans påverkan på hmu vid användning av genitiv och nominalisering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Chinese language and the Miao Language Hmu live in close contact with each other. The influence from Chinese has been noted in the language of Hmu in both lexicon and phonology. This research examines what the influence from the Chinese language looks like in the syntax of Hmu when it comes to genitive and nominalization. In Chinese this is expressed with one single particle, which has an equivalent in Hmu. The research is divided into two parts: a corpus study and an analysis of sentences based on two different editions of the New Testament in Hmu. In the earliest edition the Hmu particle, which is said to express genitive and nominalization, is used frequently and the corpus study showed a decreased usage of this particle in the later edition of the New Testament. The analysis of sentences showed that there is a Chinese influence on the usage of genitive but not on the nominalization. The picture of what Chinese influence looks like on these particular syntactic functions in Hmu is now clearer.

  • 41.
    Norrman, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Försämringsuttryck på finska: En undersökning av hur uttryck för organiska produkters försämringsprocess väljs i finska2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to find categories for deterioration verbs and other expressions that describe the deterioration of organic products, by looking at and comparing which verb takes which subject. The methods used in this study were mainly corpora and dictionaries for describing the deterioration verbs and expressions, and to find combinations of deterioration expressions and their subjects where the deterioration expressions are used in. The result was that some of the deterioration expressions can be used with many different organic products (for example mädäntyä ’rotten’, can both be used with meat products and with fruits) while other deterioration expressions only can be used with one organic product (for example eltaantua ‘to become/turn rancid’ can only be used with fat products such as oils and nuts). All of the deterioration expressions described a change in one or more parameters – a change in taste, smell, appearance or texture etc., but one common denominator was that they always described a difference in apperance.

  • 42.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Iamitives: Perfects in Southeast Asia and beyond2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores grammatical markers with meanings similar to the English perfect tense and words like already, as found in numerous languages across the world, and perhaps especially in languages of Southeast Asia, with the aim of describing the main function of these markers. Such items have previously been treated as belonging to the same category as the perfects of European languages but are tentatively termed "iamitives" in this study (from Latin iam 'already') since they differ from perfects in many respects. The investigation focusses on the semantic and pragmatic factors that determine the use of iamitive-like markers in Indonesian/Malay, Thai, Vietnamese and Mandarin Chinese, based on questionnaire data obtained through work with native speakers of the languages, with additional data coming from a number of languages spoken in other parts of the world. The results highlight the differences and similarities that can be found between iamitives, perfects and 'already', and explicates a number of conditions that are crucial for the use of iamitives, notably involving notions such as change-of-state and speaker expectations

  • 43.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Access, prestige and losses in contact languages2013In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 746-747Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bakker, Peter
    Pidgins2013In: Contact languages: A Comprehensive Guide / [ed] Peter Bakker, Yaron Matras, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013, p. 15-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bakker, Peter
    Pidgins2013In: Oxford bibliographies, Oxford University Press, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Simulating the genesis of Mauritian2013In: Acta Linguistica Hafniensia. International Journal of Structural Linguistics, ISSN 0374-0364, E-ISSN 1949-0763, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 265-273Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a computer simulation of the genesis of Mauritian Creole. The input consists of detailed demographic data and typological information on Mauritian as well as the languages which contributed to its birth. The simulation is deliberately a simplistic one – the idea is to have as few potentially controversial assumptions as possible built into the model, and add additional parameters only to the extent that its output differs from the real-world result. As it turns out, the model generates a language which is highly similar to Mauritian as it is spoken today, and thus, very little “tweaking” seems necessary. Most notably, the model produces the desired result without the postulation of targeted language acquisition, and while one cannot conclude that this was not a part of the creolisation process, our simulation suggests that it is not a necessary assumption.

  • 47.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Tense and aspect systems in Dardic languages: A comparative study2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The languages belonging to the group commonly known as the “Dardic languages” are on some levels insufficiently researched and have barely been subject to any comparative research on their finer grammatical structures, such as their tense and aspect systems. This comparative study analyses three Dardic languages spoken in the central Dardic speaking area (Khowar, Gawri, Palula) in view of their tense and aspect system, to find out how similar the languages are in this respect. The comparison is based on Dahl‟s 1985 Tense and Aspect questionnaire, partly to have an equal, comparable data set, and partly to be able to tie the results to the greater field of language typology. The study shows that the languages studied have a common primary focus on IPFV:PFV distinction, where past tense often is a secondary implicature following perfective aspect. There are notable differences in how and if the languages mark future tense and habitual aspect. The subject merits further studies on an extended sample and with more languages from the Dardic group.

  • 48.
    Skirgård, Hedvig
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Français Tirailleur: - A Corpus Study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Français Tirailleur (FT) is a pidgin language that was spoken by West Africansoldiers and their white officers in the French colonial army approximately 1857-1954.The aim of this study is to investigate a corpus of previously unanalyzed utterancesof FT in order to discern linguistic structures and test previous statements about thenature of FT. Much of previous literature on FT is based on an anonymous manualpublished by the French military in 1916, this thesis aims to provide new informationto our understanding of this pidgin. These are some of the findings: standardnegation is expressed by means of a preverbal particle (pas), polar interrogation byintonation, grammatical gender is not a productive category and attributive possessionis expressed by possessive pronouns, juxtaposition (possessum - possessor) andprepositional constructions. The standardized type-token-ratio of this corpus, 26%,suggests that the lexicon of pidgins needs to be further studied. Comparisons withcorpuses of spoken language are needed. There are two very frequent pre-predicatemarkers that are considered characteristic of FT: ya and yena. These two markershave previously been described as stative verbs, relativizers and markers of finiteness.The two markers are very frequent in a majority of the sources and are highly polysemous,functioning as stative verbs, copula or copula-like markers and possibly alsopredicate markers. The status of adjectives as a part-of-speech in FT is also discussed.

  • 49.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Selected Topics in the Grammar of Nalca2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyzes a selection of topics in the grammar of Nalca (Mek language; Papua), with a focus on verbs and nominals. No published grammar or dictionary is available for Nalca, but a translation of the New Testament was used as a parallel text. The results showed that Nalca is split-ergative, strongly suffixing and agglutinating, with subject-object-verb (SOV) as the dominant word order. Verbs consist of a stem and a series of suffixes expressing tense/aspect/mood, negation, number and person. The case alignment is ergative-absolutive for nouns, for which syntactic function is indicated by a series of postpositions. These postpositions agree with nouns in gender. Ergativity was not observed for pronouns; while the results were inconclusive, they appeared to show a nominative-accusative case alignment. The numeral system is an extended body-part system with the base 27. Many of the features found in Nalca are comparable with other Mek languages, with the gender system and split-ergativity being two major exceptions. Finally, the use of the New Testament as a parallel text was a success, with a basic description of the grammar of Nalca having been made, although further investigation is needed.

  • 50.
    Söderberg, Benny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Double Passive in Swedish: A case of creating raising verbs in the Scandinavian languages.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this thesis is to map the syntactic and semantic nature, and the frequency of the Double Passive in Swedish. The results showed that the Double Passive is a control construction where the internal argument (OBJ) of the embedded verb is raised to subject of the s-passive matrix verb, and the verb of the infinitival complement co-occurs as an s-passive infinitive. In the thesis Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is used as a model for semantic and syntactic analysis. The analysis showed that when the AGENT in a Double Passive construction is suppressed, it creates an argument structure that triggers an equi verb to occur as a raising verb (cf. Ørsnes 2006:404). Overt agents within constructions containing the Double Passive showed an even lower frequency than the low frequencies documented in previous research of passive constructions by Silén (1997) and Laanemets (2010). The lower frequency is partly a result of the fact that agents in a Double Passive construction are suppressed twice. The results of a corpus study showed a frequency of 3.57 % of overt agents within constructions containing Double Passives. The complementizer att ‘to’ in the subordinated infinitive clause of a Double Passive is overtly expressed, partly depending on the degree of modality of the matrix verb (cf. Sundman 1983; Teleman 1999; Lagerwall 1999), and the degree of semantic bonding between the matrix verb and the complement (Givón 2001b). The data (matrix verbs) collected in the corpus study were analysed according to a categorising-system in SAG (Teleman et al. 1999) and in Givón (2001a) and Givón (2001b). The matrix verbs with strong nominal (lexical) properties, e.g. planera ‘plan’, showed a high frequency of co-occurrence with full infinitives, as compared to matrix verbs with largely grammatical meaning, e.g. avse ‘intend’.

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