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  • 1.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Genetic Algorithms in the Brill Tagger: Moving towards language independence2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [no]

    Da Brill (1992) presenterte sin enkle regelbaserte ordklasse-tagger ble det igjen aktuelt å bruke regelbaserte system for tagging av ordklasser. Taggerens grunnlag er en algoritme som automatisk lærer seg transformasjonsregler fra et korpus. I tillegg til at taggeren yter like bra som moderne stokastiske metoder for ordklasse-tagging har Brill-taggeren den fordelen at reglene den lærer seg kan presenteres i et format som lett kan oppfattes av mennesker.

    Til tross for sine styrker er Brill-taggeren relativt språkavhengig ettersom den fungerer mye bedre for språk som ligner engelsk enn språk med rikere morfologi. Denne oppgaven forsøker å løse dette problemet gjennom å definere regelmaler automatisk med et søk som er optimert med Genetiske Algoritmer. Dette lar Brill GA-taggeren søke gjennom et mye større område enn den ellers kunne ha gjort etter maler som i sin tur genererer regler som er tilpasset målspråket, hvilket også har fordelen at forskere ikke trenger å definere regelmaler manuelt.

    Brill GA-taggeren yter signifikant bedre (p<0.001) enn Brill-taggeren på alle 9 målspråk (Kinesisk, Japansk, Tyrkisk, Slovensk, Portugisisk, Engelsk, Nederlandsk, Svensk og Islandsk), med en feilprosent som er mellom 2% og 15% lavere i alle språk.

  • 2.
    Bowin, Helena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Effekten av talarformanten och F0's styrka på otränade röstbedömare2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tal och röst styrs av komplicerade processer, där vitt skilda funktioner används i dess produktion och perception. Hur tal och röst uppfattas skiljer sig på flera sätt från den objektiva mätbara akustiska talsignalen. Grundtonens, F0’s, styrka och det man kallar talarformanten är två parametrar som påverkar hur rösten låter. Studien hade som syfte att undersöka om grundtonens styrka och med eller utan talarformant påverkar vilka stimuli otränade röstbedömare tycker bäst om. För att undersöka detta skapades ett syntetiskt /a/ efter formantfrekvenser för svenska vokaler (Fant, 1959), som varierades med utan eller med talarformant och med sju olika grundtonsstyrkor, totalt fjorton stimuli. Tolv kvinnor och åtta män, fick lyssna på /a/:na och skatta dem från det /a/ som de gillade mest till det /a/ som de gillade minst. Studiens frågeställningar bekräftades, variationer av grundtonens styrka och med eller utan talarformant påverkade vilka stimuli otränade röstbedömare föredrog, och män och kvinnor föredrog olika stimuli. De två /a/:na med svagast och det /a/ med starkast grundton, gillades minst av hela gruppen. De fyra /a/:na däremellan tyckte informanterna om ungefär lika mycket. Studerade man var för sig vad män och kvinnor skattade blev resultatet annorlunda. Kvinnor föredrog stimuli med talarformant mer än de utan talarformant, medan män föredrog stimuli med stark grundton. Ytterligare studier kunde vara intressanta att göra, för att undersöka om stimulus egenskaper med avseende på talarformant och grundtonsstyrka har någon effekt på hur tal uppfattas och tolkas. 

  • 3.
    De Matos Lundström, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Los aspectos pragmáticos en manuales suecos de español como lengua extranjera: Su contribución al desarrollo de la competencia pragmática en el bachillerato2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo de esta monografía es tratar de determinar en qué medida y de qué manera cuatro manuales didácticos suecos de español como lengua extranjera (ELE), usados en la enseñanza en el nivel de bachillerato, tratan aspectos pragmáticos. Además, evaluaremos el potencial y la relevancia de la información metapragmática y las actividades relacionadas a los aspectos pragmáticos para el proceso de adquisición de una competencia tanto metapragmática como pragmática. En este estudio se parte de la noción de la competencia pragmática como una destreza orientada a saber crear y comprender significados en la interacción de manera eficaz (Thomas, 1995), que supone, más que los conocimientos lingüísticos en una interacción intercultural, los conocimientos extralingüísticos (cf. Bravo, 2005). La hipótesis de partida de este trabajo postula que los manuales no explican a fondo por qué cierto lenguaje se utiliza en ciertos contextos y que el contenido pragmático sería poco variado y difícil de asimilar y que los ejercicios no estarían diseñados principalmente para desarrollar la competencia pragmática. Hasta cierta medida se puede decir que los resultados de esta investigación confirman la hipótesis: los manuales podrían efectivamente ser más exhaustivos en cuanto a los temas que abarcan, asimismo podrían variar y explicar más a fondo aquellos temas. No obstante, parece haber un esfuerzo de incorporar actividades comunicativas e información extralingüística, sin embargo, hace falta una conceptualización y progresión en cuanto a cómo tratar estos temas como el propósito principal. Ni siquiera se ofrecen en las guías del profesor modelos didácticos o información adicional, y por lo general, no se combina la información metapragmática en los manuales con actividades complementarias que pretenden desarrollar las destrezas comunicativas.

  • 4.
    Dervisevic, Melisa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A Comparative Study of Possible Early Bilingual Advantages in EFL Writing2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This project involved a quantitative study of written proficiency in the English Language of early balanced bilingual Bosnian/Swedish learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). 15 early bilingual Bosnian/Swedish EFL learners were recruited for the study and matched with their respective control groups of intermediate-advanced EFL learners (15 speakers of Bosnian as their first language (L1) and 15 speakers of Swedish as their L1). Prior to the experimental task, the participants and their respective controls were asked to self-assess their linguistic skills on a 6-point Likert scale, then they were instructed to write a reflective text in English without prior preparation about the most significant invention of the 20th century. The written data were analyzed in L2 Syntactic Complexity Analyzer and TL software programs respectively. Data analysis involved measures of syntactical and lexical complexity, specifically t-units and type token ratio. It was found that the participants’ written data were characterized by superior type token ratio values as well as by superior T-units scores.

  • 5.
    Dicle, Ramazan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Location events in bilingual Danish and Turkish language contact: A comparative analysis of location events in Danish, Turkish and bilingual use of the two languages2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Location events can be mainly described as the relationship setting up the location of a particular object(s) in relation to the other object(s). Location events are akin to motion events whose typology is well studied in the literature especially in the work of Talmy (1991, 2000), but differ from them in that ‘motion events’ focuses on the motion, while location events focuses on the spatial relationships between the Figure, object that is being located, and the Ground, object(s) that conform to the location of the Figure. Languages express these locative relationships differently. This study analyzes how two typologically different languages, Turkish and Danish, express the location events and how bilingual speakers of these two languages express location events in both Danish and Turkish. The study utilizes quantitative and qualitative tools to analyze the data gathered from the picture based elicitation from the monolingual and bilingual speakers. The study suggests that language contact in bilingual Turkish and Danish has a major role in the operating typology of the two languages and in the encoding of the spatial relationships in location events.

  • 6.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Effects of conventionality and proficiency in metaphor processing: A response time study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Some researchers that work with metaphor theory claim that metaphors and figurative language are understood and processed just as easily as literal language. However, as this thesis will explore in detail, other research indicates that such is not always the case. That is, if the category of metaphor is further subcategorized into conventional and non-conventional metaphor, the scope will change because of the fact that it is possible to argue that non-conventionalized metaphors require a more conscious path of processing. In order to explain this alternative path, there are two primary approaches to language processing worth introducing: implicit and explicit. These approaches vary in required attention and speed of processing. With regards to conscious effort, these approaches are rather similar to the way in which we process conventionalized and non-conventionalized metaphors. Conventional metaphors are processed more quickly and easily than non-conventional ones. Hence, the claim that all metaphors are similarly processed may not always be true. Furthermore, an individual’s level of proficiency presumably correlates with speed in language processing. However, if non-conventional metaphor requires a more deliberate path of processing, this thesis assumes that the processing of this type of metaphor will be relatively unaffected by proficiency level, thus causing informants to process them in similar manners. In this thesis, 24 non-native speakers (NNS), categorized into intermediate proficient and advanced proficient, and seven native speakers (NS) were tested with an RT-test on subjective metaphor comprehension. Results were compared using mean response times and standard deviations, as well as looking at correlations and coefficient of variation. The results showed a distinct difference in processing speed with conventional metaphors being processed significantly faster. Moreover, the findings indicate that conventional metaphor processing speed seems to be predicted by proficiency, whilst non-conventional processing speed is not. The RT differences remained relatively consistent in both conventional and non-conventional metaphor processing, but when taking correlations, variance and coefficient of variation into consideration, the findings indicate that these other factors help level out the differences in non-conventional metaphor processing in more subtle ways than simply by RT’s.

  • 7.
    Franzén, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Vokalkvalitet och duration hos diftonger i benadiri och nordsomaliska2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I beskrivningar av somaliska noteras i vissa kontexter en dialektal variation i vokalkvalitet och duration mellan sydsomaliska (benadiri) och nordsomaliska. Modersmålstalare av somaliska bekräftar noterade dialektala skillnader i vokalkvalitet och duration, och anser att det finns en possessivändelse på benadiri eey vilken skiljer sig från den nordsomaliska motsvarigheten ay.

    Undersökningen syftade till att ta reda på om och på vilket sätt vokalkvalitet och duration varierar, i diftongen ay i de somaliska dialekterna sydsomaliska (benadiri) och nordsomaliska. Studien begränsades till mätning av vokalkvalitet och duration i possessivändelsen -ay. Värden för F1 och F2 i diftongens initialfas, såväl som diftongens duration, mättes i uttal som av modersmålstalare kategoriserats som nordsomaliska respektive sydsomaliska.

    De uppmätta skillnaderna i vokalkvalitet motsvarade förväntningarna. Genomsnittliga värden för F1 och F2 var lägre respektive högre i samtliga mätgrupper för de uttal som av modersmålstalare klassificerats som sydliga, än för de som klassificerats som nordliga. Det noterades dock att avståndet mellan diftongerna i nordliga och sydliga uttal var betydligt större i ordet aabahay än i hooyaday. Orsaken till detta bör utredas vidare, med fokus på kontextuella skillnader. Endast en obetydlig genomsnittlig durationsskillnad uppmättes. Ett förväntat samband i längdskillnad mellan sydligt och nordligt klassificerade uttal kunde således ej konstateras. 

  • 8.
    Fuster Sansalvador, Carles
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Negation in Germanic languages: A micro-typological study on negation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, typological classifications have been done in a macro-typological perspective; that is,they have been based on balanced world-wide samples of languages, which often avoid includingclosely related languages, since these are supposed to act alike with respect to their typologicalfeatures and structures. However, attention has recently been drawn to the idea that even closelyrelated languages, as well as dialects within languages, may differ on their typological features. Theintention of this thesis is to give an overview of and study how the Germanic languages differ fromeach other in regards to their negative word orders and negation strategies. Mainly their negativeadverbs (English equivalent not), but also their negative indefinite quantifiers, are analyzed in mainclauses, subordinate clauses, and (negative) imperative structures. The focus lies on the standardlanguage varieties, but some of their non-standard varieties are included, in order to be able to give amore detailed description of the variation within the family. The expected result that the ratherhomogeneous described area of the Germanic languages will turn out to be much more complex, withrespect to negation aspects, is confirmed. The results show that the standard language varieties behavedifferently than the non-standard ones, which are less "rare" cross-linguistically. In addition, the nonstandardNorth-Germanic varieties show that multiple negation occurs in the North-Germanic branch,which is traditionally claimed to not occur.

  • 9.
    Gadea, Marisa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    La importancia de la lengua en la percepción de la identdidad en la Comunidad Valenciana: La zona rural vs la zona urbana2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    En el presente estudio vamos a indagar de qué formas influye la lengua materna en la percepción de la identidad en la Comunidad Valenciana. La investigación se basa en un estudio realizado en dos zonas claramente diferenciadas, la zona rural y la zona urbana. Supuestamente hay una diferencia en la percepción de la identidad dependiendo del uso de las dos lenguas oficiales: el valenciano y el castellano.

    La hipótesis es que las personas cuya lengua materna es el valenciano se sienten más valencianos que los que tienen como lengua materna el castellano. Para comprobar la hipótesis hemos realizado una encuesta con la ayuda de informantes de dos zonas, una zona urbana donde suponemos que el porcentaje que tiene el castellano como lengua materna será más alto y una zona rural donde el porcentaje del uso del valenciano debe ser predominante.

    Los resultados en gran medida han corroborado nuestra hipótesis, pero no siempre ha sido así. Dado que se desprendía una imagen más compleja, hemos optado por profundizar en otros factores que no sea el hábitat del individuo. Se ha visto que ambas  circunstancias pueden influir en la percepción de la identidad. En un mundo globalizado hemos llegado a la conclusión que los límites culturales no son tan fijos, especialmente entre gente joven y que la lengua entre ellos a veces no señala la pertenencia sociocultural.

    Además se ha verificado que los informantes se adaptan al entorno y a las situaciones, sintiéndose más valencianos en un micro contexto, es decir cuando están con la familia más cercana, como por ejemplo con la madre, el padre, hermanos, abuelos, incluso primos y cuando habla con éstos.

  • 10.
    Hultgren, Annie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    An Analysis of Rhetorical Devices, with the Focus on Schemes and Repetition, in the Two Speeches “We Shall Fight on the Beaches” and “Invasion of France” by Winston Churchill2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation analyzes two speeches, namely “We Shall Fight on the Beaches” and “Invasion of France”, by Winston Churchill from a semantic point of view. The main focus is on the intra-linguistic components. The aim of this study is to find what kinds of rhetorical devices are used in both speeches, if the rhetorical devices are similar or different when comparing the two speeches, analyze what function the prominent figures of speech have in the speeches, and lastly what the general rhetorical effect of the devices chosen is. This was done by looking at the factually descriptive, the interpersonal, the affective, the poetic, and the textual function. Note that (language) function and (language) meaning are synonymous in this work. Another theoretical framework includes classical rhetoric.

    In “We Shall Fight on the Beaches”, the following was discovered in the poetic meaning. The first characteristic was the use of coordinating two words that are from the same lexical field. The second is about building up a factual scenario in the sentences. The third aspect is about repetition, including parallelism. The last characteristic is the schematic phonological features found throughout the speech, with alliteration as the most noticeable feature.

    In “Invasion of France”, quite similar rhetorical strategies were found. Within the poetic meaning, the use of coordinating two words from the same lexical field was used. The use of repetition, especially the use of verbatim, was also found. The most prominent trope found was the noticeable instances of metaphor.

    Different kinds of rhetorical devices were found in the four other language functions and in classical rhetoric in both speeches. Mostly, they had similar functions and patterns. On the whole, the devices containing potential of rhetorical force used in the speeches make the speeches more coherent, reasonable, smooth, and ultimately more persuasive. All rhetorical aspects contribute in some way to making the speech more convincing, perhaps especially the parallelistic schematic repetitions, which was the main focus of this study.

    Note: italicised words are used to highlight terminology or examples of Churchill’s speech throughout the essay.

  • 11.
    Joelsson, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    ¿Cómo se expresa el desacuerdo en la conversación coloquial?: un estudio comparativo de conversaciones coloquiales entre jóvenes suecos y españoles.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo del presente estudio es comparar la expresión del desacuerdo en dos conversaciones coloquiales, una española y una sueca. Partimos de la hipótesis de que los españoles en mayor grado que los suecos, expresan el desacuerdo claramente mediante estilos y recursos argumentativos que pueden ser interpretados como francos y que pueden hacer que corran riesgos de causar un conflicto entre los interlocutores. En lo que concierne a los suecos suponemos que utilizan, en mayor grado que los españoles, formas mitigadas de articular el desacuerdo, a fin de evitar conflictos.

    El estudio lo realizamos de forma cualitativa y cuantitativa mediante el análisis de las conversaciones. Los desacuerdos encontrados los analizamos cualitativamente clasificando cada uno por el estilo argumentativo y el recurso argumentativo usado al expresarlos. A continuación, para poder realizar una comparación entre las conversaciones, aplicamos el método cuantitativo. Al comparar los resultados cuantitativos de las conversaciones, nos fijamos en las formas más usadas en cada conversación y pretendemos mostrar algunos vínculos entre el uso y la imagen básica de cada cultura. Posteriormente discutimos el grado de franqueza que tienen los estilos argumentativos y recursos argumentativos empleados en las conversaciones, con el propósito de poder concluir en qué conversación, de las dos estudiadas, hay más grado de franqueza en la expresión del desacuerdo.

     La hipótesis defiende que existe una diferencia del grado de franqueza al expresar el desacuerdo en las conversaciones. Sin embargo, la diferencia no es tan grande como nos esperábamos, teniendo en cuenta la imagen básica de las dos culturas.

  • 12.
    Jonsson, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Achieving Communicative Competence in Business English: A study of teacher and participant attitudes in Business English courses2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing globalization of trade has resulted in a growing need for Swedish corporations to ensure that their work force is able to communicate in English. In order to meet this demand, there is a growing market of companies offering courses in Business English. When English is used for communication between people from different linguacultural backgrounds in a business context it is referred to as BELF (Business English as a Lingua Franca). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the participants and teachers in different classes of Business English are more open to the non-native speaker model, as this type of course is supposed to prepare the students for communication with people of various nationalities. This was done with the aim to explore how these attitudes can be linked to the development of communicative competence in a business context. In the study a survey was distributed to twenty-one participants of courses in Business English and four teachers were interviewed. The study showed that although the business context affects the attitudes of the participants, there is still a preference for a native-like model. However, the teachers show an open attitude towards BELF, focusing instead on promoting communicative competence in their teaching. The findings of this study support previous research in the field indicating that there exists a certain discrepancy between the perceptions of the teachers and learners as to what constitutes an effective communicator.

  • 13.
    Karlberg Hauge, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier, Avdelningen för spanska.
    El uso de la descortesía en los debates electorales televisivos: Un análisis contrastivo entre políticos suecos y españoles.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    En muchos países, ante las elecciones, los representantes de los dos partidos más importantes se encuentran en un debate político televisivo cara a cara. La forma normal del debate político es polémica y, para poder dañar la imagen del otro, los ataques verbales de descortesía son frecuentes. En Suecia existe una larga tradición de debates electorales televisivos, mientras que en España es un fenómeno bastante nuevo.

    Este trabajo es un estudio cualitativo contrastivo sobre el uso de descortesía en dos debates políticos, televisivos, uno sueco y otro español. El objetivo es el de estudiar la argumentación y más específicamente el grado y el tipo de descortesía usados para ver si existen algunas diferencias culturales y nuestra hipótesis es que el debate político español debe ser más conflictivo que el sueco y la descortesía más frecuente.

     La imagen básica describe los rasgos principales homogéneos de una cultura y a veces se puede notar que las actitudes típicas de un país se reflejan en el debate político. Sin embargo, no siempre es así, sino que constatamos que factores personales y estrategias aplicadas para conseguir un objetivo específico, también afectan el estilo elegido por el político.

    El resultado revela que el debate español es más conflictivo y que se usa un estilo más directo que se empareja con la imagen básica española. Sin embargo, no son rasgos españoles generales, sino más bien individuales y el estilo discursivo varía durante el debate. Los dos políticos suecos tienen un estilo similar que resulta menos conflictivo, algo que encaja bien con la imagen básica sueca. El resultado de la investigación corrobora por lo tanto sólo parcialmente la hipótesis.

  • 14.
    Lebenswerd, Patric Joshua
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Distinctive features in Jewish Swedish: A description and a survey2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the contemporary speech used by Swedish Jews, and places it in the context of the most recent understandings in Jewish interlinguistics. Jewish Swedish derives most of its non-Swedish components from the main Jewish liturgical languages, Hebrew and Aramaic, in addition to the foremost ancestral language Yiddish. These components have provided Jewish Swedish with lexical, morpho-syntactic, phonological and semantic features, which distinguish it from Standard Swedish. The thesis, additionally, contains a survey, investigating the correlations between a number of socio-religious factors, and inter- communal variation in use of distinguishing features. The study reveals a great deal of variation between different age groups, social groups, religious groups, men and women, in terms of word knowledge and usage. This study will hopefully contribute to the field of contemporary Jewish linguistics, and the general understanding of speech used by minority communities.

  • 15.
    Löfstrand, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    En jämförelse mellan ord för ansiktsuttryck på svenska och mandarin: En intervju- och korpusbaserad studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen har användningen och betydelsen av ett utvalt antal översättningsekvivalenter av ord och fasta uttryck som betecknar ansiktsuttryck på svenska och mandarin studerats. Uppgiften närmades genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med modersmålstalare av svenska och mandarin, samt genom en korpusbaserad kollokationsundersökning. Analysmetoden Natural Semantic Metalanguage har använts för att beskriva det inre sinnestillståndet hos personer när de handlar på de sätt som orden och uttrycken beskriver, samt vilka känslor och tankar som tillskrivs dessa personer av dem som bevittnar handlingarna. Vissa intressanta skillnader mellan översättningsekvivalenterna har observerats.

  • 16.
    Markovic, Biljana
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Self-presentation in the asynchronous communication on Facebook in Kenya and Uganda2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Flows of languages, cultural forms and people both in real and virtual space are consequences of globalization. The mobility of people in the virtual sense is facilitated through the Internet, where one of the most popular ways of communication and self-presentation is currently through Facebook. This research focuses on analyzing the orthographic and lexical strategies in self-presentation on Kenyan and Ugandan Facebook profiles, trying to see whether the forms reflecting the East African variety of English are present in asynchronous communication and whether there is appropriation of other varieties and registers. This was done through a reiterative process of reading 10 Kenyan and 10 Ugandan Facebook profiles, comparing the findings with online data on informal sociolinguistic situations in Uganda and Kenya such as YouTube videos and comments, blogs and newspaper articles and through informal conversations with some Kenyans and Ugandans. The results showed that the local forms as described in the literature are used on Facebook and that there are forms unaccounted for in the literature but whose presence was confirmed in the online data and the informal conversations. Appropriation of American English and hip hop and Rastafari languages was found in the sample. It was inferred that English has several usages in the sample, which serve to express the neutral, the local and the appropriated meanings in the asynchronous communication on Facebook and that those meanings are used strategically for the creation of the desired identities.

  • 17.
    Narin, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Kinesiskans påverkan på hmu vid användning av genitiv och nominalisering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Kinesiska och miao-språket hmu har nära kontakt med varandra och påverkan från kinesiskan har iakttagits i hmu på lexikal och fonologisk nivå. Denna studie undersöker hur påverkan från kinesiskan ser ut även på syntaktisk nivå i fråga om användningen av genitiv och nominalisering. På kinesiska uttrycks detta med en och samma partikel, vilken har en motsvarighet i hmu. Studien delades upp i två delar: en korpusundersökning och en meningsanalys över två olika upplagor av Nya testamentet på hmu. I den tidigare upplagan användes den partikel flitigt som på hmu sägs uttrycka genitiv och nominalisering och korpusundersökningen visade en minskad användning av denna partikel i den senare upplagan av Nya testamentet. Meningsanalysen visade att kinesisk påverkan finns på användningen av genitiv men inte på nominalisering i hmu. Med detta har vi fått en klarare bild av hur kinesisk påverkan ser ut på just dessa syntaktiska funktioner i hmu.

  • 18.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkdidaktik.
    Target Langauge in the Primary Classroom: Teachers' beliefs and practices2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of a monolingual norm in foreign language teaching during the last decades studies throughout the world show that teachers’ target language use varies significantly. This study sets out to examine to what extent the target language (TL) is used with young language learners and how this use correlates to teachers’ beliefs about foreign language teaching and first language (L1) inclusion. Moreover the paper discusses functions for L1 use and strategies used by teachers to support comprehension in the TL. Lesson observations and qualitative interviews were performed with four Swedish primary school class teachers. Despite the prevailing idea of exclusive TL use three of the four teachers do not subscribe to this approach and find L1 inclusion necessary. An emerging theme is the impact of teachers’ beliefs and how these are shaped by personal experience and/or education. L1 is legitimized in order to support comprehension and prevent pupils’ frustration. To varying degrees the L1 is used, mostly to facilitate learning but also for classroom management. The data suggests that teachers are well aware of their language use although they lack awareness and professional language to describe and be articulate about strategies they employ.

  • 19.
    Norrman, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Försämringsuttryck på finska: En undersökning av hur uttryck för organiska produkters försämringsprocess väljs i finska2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftade till att hitta kategorier till hur olika organiska produkters försämringsprocess beskrivs och hur försämringsuttrycken väljs på finska. Med hjälp av korpusar och ordböcker togs kombinationer av försämringsuttryck och deras subjekt fram samt beskrivningar på de olika uttrycken och deras etymologi. Resultatet blev att många av försämringsuttrycken går att använda med många olika organiska produkter (som mädäntyä ’ruttna’, som både kan användas med köttprodukter och frukter), medan användningen av andra försämringsuttryck kan vara väldigt begränsade och produktkategoriinterna och alltså bara går att användas med en viss organisk produkt (som eltaantua ’härskna’, som bara kan användas med fettprodukter). Alla försämringsuttrycken beskrev en skillnad i någon eller några parametrar – smak, lukt, utseende, konsistens osv., men en gemensam nämnare som alla försämringsuttrycken hade var att de alltid beskriver en skillnad i utseende.

  • 20.
    Nylin, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Is e- the new cyber?: A corpus study on fashion cycles in vocabulary2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A central area of research in linguistics is the study of changes in vocabulary over time, be it over historical time periods or faster changes within generations. One contributing factor driving such fast changes could be “fashion cycles”, as this is a very general cultural phenomenon. Here, results are reported from a corpus study investigating trends over time in the use of cyber as the first part of compound nouns, and of alternatives which carry a similar meaning, such as e- as short for electronic. It is found that cyber was commonly used in the time period 1995-2004. Usage then strongly declined, but there was a new peak in popularity in the last year of available data (2012). Interestingly, cyber was initially used in positively charged or neutral contexts (e.g. cyberspace), but in recent years mostly in negatively charged words such as cyberbullying or cyber warfare. The hypothesis that cyber has been replaced with e- was partially supported (in particular in the case of e-mail, but e-books is another prominent example of a recent rising trend in vocabulary). However, in most other contexts usage of e- actually peaked a few years before the last years of the available corpus data. In general, results were consistent with “fashion cycles” in that the popularity of using cyber or e-, and in particular of specific words including these compound noun parts, seems to come and go rapidly over time. Interestingly use of cyber was seen mostly in negative contexts during later time periods. No such change was apparent in the use of e-. An emerging hypothesis partially supported by the data is that words in commercial contexts (e.g. cyber-business, e-business) rapidly lose their positive charge as they become common and are replaced by other, more novel and more fashionable words. Corpus linguistics is a very powerful tool for investigating such patterns of change in the popularity of words, and the processes behind them.

  • 21.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Iamitives: Perfects in Southeast Asia and beyond2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores grammatical markers with meanings similar to the English perfect tense and words like already, as found in numerous languages across the world, and perhaps especially in languages of Southeast Asia, with the aim of describing the main function of these markers. Such items have previously been treated as belonging to the same category as the perfects of European languages but are tentatively termed "iamitives" in this study (from Latin iam 'already') since they differ from perfects in many respects. The investigation focusses on the semantic and pragmatic factors that determine the use of iamitive-like markers in Indonesian/Malay, Thai, Vietnamese and Mandarin Chinese, based on questionnaire data obtained through work with native speakers of the languages, with additional data coming from a number of languages spoken in other parts of the world. The results highlight the differences and similarities that can be found between iamitives, perfects and 'already', and explicates a number of conditions that are crucial for the use of iamitives, notably involving notions such as change-of-state and speaker expectations

  • 22.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Tense and aspect systems in Dardic languages: A comparative study2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The languages belonging to the group commonly known as the “Dardic languages” are on some levels insufficiently researched and have barely been subject to any comparative research on their finer grammatical structures, such as their tense and aspect systems. This comparative study analyses three Dardic languages spoken in the central Dardic speaking area (Khowar, Gawri, Palula) in view of their tense and aspect system, to find out how similar the languages are in this respect. The comparison is based on Dahl‟s 1985 Tense and Aspect questionnaire, partly to have an equal, comparable data set, and partly to be able to tie the results to the greater field of language typology. The study shows that the languages studied have a common primary focus on IPFV:PFV distinction, where past tense often is a secondary implicature following perfective aspect. There are notable differences in how and if the languages mark future tense and habitual aspect. The subject merits further studies on an extended sample and with more languages from the Dardic group.

  • 23.
    Sandin Johansson, Christopher
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A study of attitudes towards English as a Lingua Franca: Perspectivesand experiences of university students2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    My aim is to study university students’ attitudes towards using English as a first language when studying. This exploratory study will be conducted through a series of interviews but also a review of the students’ course syllabus to see if there occurs any pattern of variation amongst the literature used for their course.The results indicate that there is a favourable attitude towards the use of English because of both overt and covert prestige that is attached to it in academia. However, I have also discovered that there is a link between the students’ proficiency and their confidence in using English as an educational medium. This occurs because of the students’ own acceptance of the material given to them by the educational institutions. This acceptance of the literature is closely related to the students’ own reason to acquire a greater knowledge and proficiency through the use of English literature. By combining Kachru’s theory of concentric circles and the Milroys’ theory about overt and covert prestige, I have discovered that the globalization process has influenced Sweden’s choice of what second language to introduce into the educational system. Looking at the more informal and covert level I have found out that students strive to acquire a high level of proficiency in English due to cultural or social aspects that are involved.

  • 24.
    Seidel, Thorsten
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska, Avdelningen för tyska.
    Anglizistische Berufsbezeichnungen in deutschen und schwedischen Stellenanzeigen: -Eine kontrastive Studie anhand der Tageszeitungen Süddeutsche Zeitung, Dagens Nyheter und Svenska Dagbladet-2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 25.
    Sjons, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Automatic Induction of Word Classes in Swedish Sign Language2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying word classes is an important part of describing a language. Research about sign languages often lack distinctions crucial for identifying word classes, e.g. the difference between sign and gesture. Additionally, sign languages typically lack written form, something that often constrains quantitative research on sign language to the use of glosses translated to the spoken language in the area. In this thesis, such glosses have been extracted from The Swedish Sign Language Corpus. The glosses were mapped to utterances based on Swedish translations in the corpus, and these utterances served as input data to a word space model, producing a co-occurence matrix. This matrix was clustered with the K-means algorithm. The extracted utterances were also clustered with the Brown algorithm. By using V-measure, the clusters were compared to a gold standard annotated manually with word classes. The Brown algorithm performs significantly better in inducing word classes than a random baseline. This work shows that utilizing unsupervised learning is a feasible approach for doing research on word classes in Swedish Sign Language. However, future studies of this kind should employ a deeper linguistic analysis of the language as a part of choosing the algorithms.

  • 26.
    Skirgård, Hedvig
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Français Tirailleur: - A Corpus Study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Français Tirailleur (FT) är ett pidginspråk som talades av västafrikanska soldateroch deras vita officerare i den franska kolonialarmen cirka 1857-1954. Den häruppsatser beskriver denna språkvatietet utifrån ett korpus som består av de dokumenteradeyttranden som hittills hittats. Studien visar bland annat att standardnegation uttrycks med en pre-verbal partikel (pas), ja/nej-frågor uttryckts främstgenom intonation, genussystemet är inte produktivt, det finns ingen skillnad mellansubjekt och objekt i pronomensystemet och attributiv ägande uttrycks med possessivapronomen, juxtaposition eller prepositioner. Den standardiserade type-token-rationär 26%, vidare forskning om ordförråd i pidginspråk och jämförelser med talat språkbehövs. Det finns två former som är väldigt frekventa och som anses vara mycketkarakteristiska för FT: ya och yena. Dessa former har tidigare beskrivits som stativaverb, relativmarkörer och finithetsmarkörer. De förekommer i majoriteten av alladokument i korpuset. De fungerar som stativa verb, kopula eller kopulalika markörer,samt potentiellt även som predikatsmarkörer. Frågan om huruvida adjektiv är enrelevant språklig kategori i denna pidgin diskuteras också i denna uppsats.

  • 27.
    Smolentzov, Andre
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Automated Essay Scoring: Scoring Essays in Swedish2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Good writing skills are essential in the education system at all levels. However, the evaluation of essays is labor intensive and can entail a subjective bias. Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is a tool that may be able to save teacher time and provide more objective evaluations. There are several successful AES systems for essays in English that are used in large scale tests. Supervised machine learning algorithms are the core component in developing these systems.

    In this project four AES systems were developed and evaluated. The AES systems were based on standard supervised machine learning software, i.e., LDAC, SVM with RBF kernel, polynomial kernel and Extremely Randomized Trees. The training data consisted of 1500 high school essays that had been scored by the students' teachers and blind raters. To evaluate the AES systems, the agreement between blind raters' scores and AES scores was compared to agreement between blind raters' and teacher scores. On average, the agreement between blind raters and the AES systems was better than between blind raters and teachers. The AES based on LDAC software had the best agreement with a quadratic weighted kappa value of 0.475. In comparison, the teachers and blind raters had a value of 0.391. However the AES results do not meet the required minimum agreement of a quadratic weighted kappa of 0.7 as defined by the US based nonprofit organization Educational Testing Services.

  • 28.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Selected Topics in the Grammar of Nalca2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyzes a selection of topics in the grammar of Nalca (Mek language; Papua), with a focus on verbs and nominals. No published grammar or dictionary is available for Nalca, but a translation of the New Testament was used as a parallel text. The results showed that Nalca is split-ergative, strongly suffixing and agglutinating, with subject-object-verb (SOV) as the dominant word order. Verbs consist of a stem and a series of suffixes expressing tense/aspect/mood, negation, number and person. The case alignment is ergative-absolutive for nouns, for which syntactic function is indicated by a series of postpositions. These postpositions agree with nouns in gender. Ergativity was not observed for pronouns; while the results were inconclusive, they appeared to show a nominative-accusative case alignment. The numeral system is an extended body-part system with the base 27. Many of the features found in Nalca are comparable with other Mek languages, with the gender system and split-ergativity being two major exceptions. Finally, the use of the New Testament as a parallel text was a success, with a basic description of the grammar of Nalca having been made, although further investigation is needed.

  • 29.
    Söderberg, Benny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    The Double Passive in Swedish: A case of creating raising verbs in the Scandinavian languages.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this thesis is to map the syntactic and semantic nature, and the frequency of the Double Passive in Swedish. The results showed that the Double Passive is a control construction where the internal argument (OBJ) of the embedded verb is raised to subject of the s-passive matrix verb, and the verb of the infinitival complement co-occurs as an s-passive infinitive. In the thesis Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is used as a model for semantic and syntactic analysis. The analysis showed that when the AGENT in a Double Passive construction is suppressed, it creates an argument structure that triggers an equi verb to occur as a raising verb (cf. Ørsnes 2006:404). Overt agents within constructions containing the Double Passive showed an even lower frequency than the low frequencies documented in previous research of passive constructions by Silén (1997) and Laanemets (2010). The lower frequency is partly a result of the fact that agents in a Double Passive construction are suppressed twice. The results of a corpus study showed a frequency of 3.57 % of overt agents within constructions containing Double Passives. The complementizer att ‘to’ in the subordinated infinitive clause of a Double Passive is overtly expressed, partly depending on the degree of modality of the matrix verb (cf. Sundman 1983; Teleman 1999; Lagerwall 1999), and the degree of semantic bonding between the matrix verb and the complement (Givón 2001b). The data (matrix verbs) collected in the corpus study were analysed according to a categorising-system in SAG (Teleman et al. 1999) and in Givón (2001a) and Givón (2001b). The matrix verbs with strong nominal (lexical) properties, e.g. planera ‘plan’, showed a high frequency of co-occurrence with full infinitives, as compared to matrix verbs with largely grammatical meaning, e.g. avse ‘intend’.

  • 30.
    Zetterström, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Battlefield of the Human Body Revisited – Metaphors and Cancer: A Comparison between Genres2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine metaphors in cancer contexts, and in particular war and military metaphors. A four step approach was performed for the examination. The use over time has been studied for metaphorical linguistic expressions including the words fight and battle in the Corpus of Contemporary American English in the categories Academic Journals, Magazines and Newspapers. A general corpus search for the word cancer in the same categories has been made to investigate what kinds of metaphorical linguistic expressions could be found. The goal was to examine possible development of the use of other expressions than the dominant martial ones for the period 2005 - 2011. The findings were also investigated to see which thematic role for the word cancer was the most frequent in the categories. To complement the corpus findings, an inquiry was sent out to explore how writers of research articles reason when they use expressions such as fight against cancer or battle with cancer in their texts.

    The corpus findings show that the martial metaphorical linguistic expressions are more often used within the categories Newspapers and Magazines. In the category Academic journals the occurrences are fewer. The most common metaphor alternatives were within the area of sports. The study of semantic roles shows that the word cancer appears most often in the role of patient. The agent role occurred slightly more often in the newspaper category than in the other text categories investigated. The result of the inquiry suggests that some researchers use martial metaphors out of routine.

    The four step approach of the study reveals a complex image of the use of metaphors in cancer contexts. Detection of trends for the use of metaphorical linguistic expressions possibly demands a longer time interval than the studied period.

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