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  • 1.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana.
    Noun classes in Sɛlɛɛ2014In: Journal of West African Languages, ISSN 0022-5401, Vol. XLI, no 1, p. 95-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the noun class system of Sl, a Na-Togo, Kwa (Niger-Congo) language spoken in the Volta Region of Ghana. As shown in this paper, Sl hasa noun class system with an equal number of singular and plural classes that are paired inirregular ways. The singular-plural pairs are referred to as genders. Nouns normally agreewith certain modifiers within the noun phrase. The agreement targets are determiners,numerals, interrogative pronouns and some adjectives. Outside the noun phrase, nounclasses may be indexed on the verb to signal long distance anaphora, a strategy thatspeakers rarely use. The paper provides a detailed account of possible semantic andcultural motivations for the assignment of nouns to a particular gender and/or class.

  • 2.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The aspect-evidentiality system of Middle Mongol2014In: Ural-Altaic studies, ISSN 2079-1003, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 7-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains an analysis of aspect, tense and evidentiality in Middle Mongol. This language has a fairly complex aspectual system, consisting of mostly periphrastic constructions built up from converbal, participial and final suffixes, and two different stative copula verbs. These express progressivity, habituality, genericity, perfectivity, perfect and resultativity on the present and past tense level. Present progressivity and resultativity can both be expressed by two different constructions that differ by their aspectual scope and/or actional properties. The three past tense suffixes mark factual, firsthand and secondhand information. This evidential trichotomy is restricted to the perfective aspect, while all other aspectual past tense markers only receive firsthand or secondhand marking. No aspectual distinctions seem to be made in the future, though both the future participle and the resultative participle can form contrafactual constructions.

  • 3.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The tense-aspect system of Khorchin Mongolian2014In: On diversity and complexity of languages spoken in Europe and North and Central Asia / [ed] Pirkko Suihkonen, Lindsay J. Whaley, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 1-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Khorchin, a Mongolian dialect spoken in eastern Inner Mongolia, has a tense-aspect system slightly simpler than Middle Mongol and considerably simpler than Central Mongolian dialects (Khalkha, Chakhar). While it can express the time stability of ongoing events with many nuances, present habitual and generic events are not distinguished. The existence of a present perfect category is doubtful, but in any case it doesn’t extend to the past as participle-copula-combinations are impossible. Evidentiality was lost in the central verbal system, but a non-obligatory quotative/hearsay marker exists. This article is an attempt to fit these phenomena into a coherent system of tense, aspect and related notions and to explore some of its diachronic implications.

  • 4.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gregory Stump & Raphael A. Finkel, Morphological Typology: From Word to Paradigm, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 20132014In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 126-132Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sirionó2014In: Lenguas de Bolivia: Oriente / [ed] Mily Crevels, Pieter Muysken, La Paz: Plural Editores, 2014, p. 99-133Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Språkets uppkomst2014In: En samtidig världshistoria / [ed] Maria Sjöberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2014, 1, p. 111-123Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The perfect map: Investigating the cross-linguistic distribution of TAME categories in a parallel corpus2014In: Aggregating Dialectology, Typology, and Register Analysis: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Szmrecsanyi, B.; Walchli, B., Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 268-289Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The work presented in this paper can be seen as a continuation of my earlier attempts at using quantitative methods to compare tense-aspect categories across languages using translation questionnaire data using a different kind of data - a parallel corpus of Bible translations. Here I report on a comparison of the distribution of grams labeled perfect in traditional descriptions. The results confirm earlier claims that these grams do share a core of prototypical uses and also an anti-prototype, that is, a set of uses that are left untouched until the final end of the grammaticalization process by which perfects expand into general pasts. In the grey zone between the prototype and the anti-prototype, versions in one and the same language tend to show great variation. But it is also possible to identify specific areas of cross-linguistic variation even among the more conservative perfect grams.

  • 8.
    David, Jonas Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Den komplexa språksituationen hos en flerspråkig talare: En fallstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore and analyse the complex language situation and use of a multilingual person. The examined person is called Frida. Already at a young age she had acquired more than two languages and today she has been in relevant contact with around seven languages. This study wanted to connect to the theories and models, which are presented in today’s research on Second and Third Language Acquisition. The study was entirely based on Frida’s self reports according to the following criteria: her background of language acquisition, her proficiency levels and her attitudes and perception towards her own language situation and languages in general. These criteria had been worked out with the help of guided qualitative interviews and a self-assessment grid for the language skills. The results approved that Frida’s language use and situation is affected by the interaction of an amount of multifactorial components, which occur in a multilingual context. This analysis of Frida’s language background, her language use, attitudes and awareness gave an insight into how the underlying mechanisms of multilingualism work.

  • 9.
    Glaas, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ett smärtsamt uppsatsvärk: Smärta, värk och ont på svenska2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pain may be expressed in different ways depending on language and experiencer. This study aims to get a close up of Swedish pain expressions, and is based on earlier studies executed on Swedish and Greek respectively. Questions written by experiencers of pain to both the general public and physicians, and blogs of more narrative nature formed a corpus, divided in three different genres, where it was focused on the primary pain words pain and ache. The pain expressions were analyzed to provide information on how ordinary people, with various pain histories, tend to express their pain depending on addressee; if differences are found in between the genres. The results suggested, among other things, that the choice of pain word is to some extent governed by the perception of time, intensity, and also where pain is located within the body. The way chosen to verbally express pain differs somewhat in terms of how pain is perceived; as thing, process or quality.

  • 10.
    Grigonyte, Gintare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Pronunciation and Spelling: the Case of Misspellings in Swedish L2 Written Essays2014In: Human Language Technologies - The Baltic Perspective, Baltic HLT 2014 / [ed] Andrius Utka, Gintarė Grigonytė, Jurgita Kapočiūtė-Dzikienė, Jurgita Vaičenonienė, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2014, p. 95-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research presents an investigation performed on the ASU corpus. We analyse to what extent does the pronunciation of intended words reflects in spelling errors done by L2 Swedish learners. We also propose a method that helps to automatically discriminate the misspellings affected by pronunciation from other types of misspellings.

  • 11.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Constructions of comparison in Swedish: Quantitative dominance patterns in acquisition and use2014In: Constructions, ISSN 1860-2010, E-ISSN 1860-2010, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Problems in defining the concepts of L1, L2 and L32014In: Teaching and learning in multilingual contexts: Sociolinguistic and educational perspectives / [ed] Agnieszka Otwinowska, Gessica De Angelis, Bristol: Multilingual Matters , 2014, p. 3-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grigonyté, Gintaré
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Non-Native Writers’ Errors – a Challenge to a Spell-Checker2014In: 1st Nordic workshop on evaluation of spellchecking and proofing tools (NorWEST2014), 2014, , p. 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spell checkers are widely used and if they do their job properly are also highly useful. Usually they are built on the assumption that the text to be corrected is written by a mature native speaker. However non-native speakers are in an even greater need of using spell checkers than native speakers. On the other hand current spell checkers do not take the linguistic problems of learners into account and thus they are poor in identifying errors and supplying the adequate corrections. There is a number of linguistic complexities specific to non-native learners that a spell-checker would need to handle in order to be successful.

  • 14.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wiklund, Anna-Lena
    Restrictions on RC Extraction: Knowing men who sell flowers and escaping them2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerna - vildar eller hjältar?2014In: Aktuellt om historia, ISSN 0348-503X, no 1, p. 19-30Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerna syns i varenda mening2014In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 1, p. 47-51Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerne: Mytene, historien, språket2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hur rödhåriga var germanerna?2014In: Latinet i tiden. En festskrift till Hans Aili / [ed] Andersson, Elin, Kihlman, Erika & Plaza, Maria, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2014, p. 167-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    När danska blev svenska2014In: Upplev litteraturen 3: Texter och tal / [ed] Carl-Johan Markstedt, Sven Eriksson, Stockholm: Sanoma utbildning , 2014, p. 244-251Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Rudolf Botha & Martin Everaert (eds.), The Evolutionary Emergence of Language: Evidence and Inference2014In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 451-457Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Recent advances in lexical typology2014In: Il lessico nella teoria e nella storia linguistica. Atti del XXXVII Convegno della Società Italiana di Glottologia. / [ed] M.P. Marchese, A. Nocentini, Roma: Il Calamo , 2014, p. 71-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature in the Word Space: Sense exploration of temperature expressions using word-space modeling.2014In: Linguistic variation in text and speech, within and across languages / [ed] Szmrecsanyi, B. & Wälchli, B., Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 231-267Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter deals with a statistical technique for sense exploration based on distributional semantics known as word space modelling. Word space models rely on feature aggregation, in this case aggregation of co-occurrence events, to build an aggregated view on the distributional behaviour of words. Such models calculate meaning similarity among words on the basis of the contexts in which they occur and represent it as proximity in high-dimensional vector spaces. The main purpose of this study is to test to what extent word-space modelling is in principle suitable for lexical-typological work by taking a first little step in this direction and applying the method for the exploration of the seven central English temperature adjectives in three corpora representing different genres. In order to better capture and account for the potentially different senses of one and the same word we have suggested and applied a new variant of this general method, “syntagmatically labelled partitioning”.

  • 23.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A survey of alignment features in the Greater Hindukush with special references to Indo-Aryan2014In: On Diversity and Complexity of Languages Spoken in Europe and North and Central Asia / [ed] Pirkko Suihkonen, Lindsay J. Whaley, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 133-174Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hindukush Indo-Aryan (‘Dardic’) languages (Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kashmir) display a great range of variation in alignment patterns. The diversity is primarily evidenced in the case marking of core argument noun phrases and verbal person marking properties. Along these parameters, six distinct alignment types emerge, each, in combination with language-specific developments, reflecting contact-induced changes that can be attributed to three significant areas or subareas that conflate in the region: first, a large Persian-dominated area overlapping with the Western part of the region, characterized by overt patient marking; second, an area in the East with e.g. ancient Tibetan influences, characterized by overt agent marking; and third, an area in the South bordering on the influential Hindi-Urdu belt, stretching over large parts of the Indian Subcontinent, characterized by patient agreement in the perfective.

  • 24.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    From left-branching to right-branching: Syntactic changes in the Hindukush under pressure from languages of wider communication2014In: Book of abstracts, 2014, p. 251-252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Hindukush languages spoken in the north-western regions of the Indian Subcontinent (particularly Indo-Aryan, sometimes referred to as “Dardic”), a variety of means are available within a complex construction to mark one clause as dependent on another. A subordinate clause may precede the main clause, whereby a complementizer is placed at the end of the subordinate clause: tu kíi baáanu thaní, khooǰóolu. ‘Where are you going? (he) asked‘ (Indo-Aryan Palula), or tu xató hatoɣoót doós reé, buhtuií astám,‘I was afraid that you might give him the letter’ (Indo-Aryan Khowar). A preposed subordinate clause can also be formed with a verbal noun, with or without case marker/postposition: nu ba asaám mhaar-anií the ukháatu de. ‘He had come up to kill us’ (Palula). Pre-nominal participials is another strategy, semantically corresponding to relative clauses in languages such as English: phaí, teeṇíi háa-tam čooṇṭéeli, rumiaál díti híni. ‘The girl gave him a handkerchief which she herself had embroidered’ (Palula). Alternatively, the subordinate clause can be placed after the main clause, in this case often making use of a complementizer ki (or something similar) preceding the subordinate clause: mhéeli i khooǰóolu, ki míi báabu koó. ‘(He) asked: Who is my father?’ (Palula), or, awá buhtaí astám, ki hatoɣóot doós reé. ‘I was afraid that you might give him the letter‘ (Khowar). In a survey covering an area from southern India through parts of southern Pakistan, Hook (1987) observed a significant pattern, whereby the order subordinate – main clause was gradually replaced by the order main clause—subordinate as one moves from the Dravidian South to the Iranian Northwest. While the survey did not include the Hindukush, Bashir (2003: 823), points out that left-branching (i.e. the order subordinate—main clause), like in Dravidian and in the Indo-Aryan languages spoken in their vicinity, is also characteristic of the extreme North of the Subcontinent. Bashir (1996: 177) proposes that left-branching in this northern region has come about as the result of ancient areal influences related to Central Asia, whereas right-branching (i.e. main clause—subordinate) and the use of ki is a feature more recently imported from influential languages spoken in South and West Asia. She further notes that the two constructions are used parallel in Khowar, and that the more recent construction may include the imported marker ki as well as the indigenous (a grammaticalization of ‘say’).In the present study, we investigated interlinear texts in a few Hindukush Indo-Aryan languages (Palula, Kalasha, Pashai, Gilgiti Shina, Kalam Kohistani), empirically testing Bashir‘s suggestion, and found that these, like Khowar, to a varying degree allow both constructions, with the left-branching alternative representing what seems like an older stratum of the languages, whereas the right-branching alternative most likely stems from massive Persian and, more recently, Urdu pressure as influential languages of literacy and wider communication. The distribution across different types of subordination within each language (Noonan 2007; Andrews 2007; Thompson et al. 2007), as well as quantitative differences between the languages in this regard, is presented and discussed.

  • 25.
    Lindblom, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Dravidian languages: A descriptive typological study on verbal and non-verbal negation in simple declarative sentences2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years the typology of negation has been much described and discussed. However, focus has mainly been on standard negation. Studies on non-verbal negation in general and comparative studies covering the complete domain of non-verbal negation in particular are less common. The strategies to express non-verbal negation vary among languages. In some languages the negation strategy employed in standard negation is also used in non-verbal negation. Several researchers have argued that languages express negation of non-verbal predications using special constructions. This study examines and describes negation strategies in simple declarative sentences in 18 Dravidian languages. The results suggest that the majority of the Dravidian languages included in this study express standard negation by the use of a negative suffix while non-verbal negation is expressed by a negative verb. Further distinctions are made in the negation of non-verbal predications in that different negation markers are used for attributive and existential/possessive predications respectively.

  • 26. Mayer, Thomas
    et al.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rohrdantz, Christian
    Hund, Michael
    From the extraction of continuous features in parallel texts to visual analytics of heterogeneous areal-typological datasets2014In: Language Processing and Grammars: The role of functionally oriented computational models / [ed] Brian Nolan & Carlos Periñán-Pascual, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 13-38Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we show that functionally motivatedprocedural approaches may help to automatically extract typological featuresfrom texts. This idea is illustrated with measuring cross-linguistic variationin the domain of morphological typology based on parallel texts. Second, wedemonstrate that the methodology developed in the field of visual analyticsallows for detecting patterns or regularities in the automatically extractedfeatures. At the heart of our approach lies an extended sunburst visualization,which enables a cross-comparison of a large number of features within thecontext of language genealogy and areal information. We provide evidence of theusefulness of the present approach with case studies where the visualizations ofthe extracted features reveal interesting insights.

  • 27.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Partitives and negation: A cross-linguistic survey2014In: Partitive cases and related categories / [ed] Silvia Luraghi; Tuomas Huumo, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2014, p. 63-86Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Agency in the Emergence of Creole Languages ed. by Nicholas Faraclas2014In: Journal of Historical Linguistics, ISSN 2210-2116, E-ISSN 2210-2124, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 293-300Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Tvingade av grammatiken2014In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no juniArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Perkova, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    С собой in Russian:comitative constructions of caused motion and their properties [С собой в русском языке:комитативные конструкции каузации перемещения и их свойства]2014In: Acta Linguistica Petropolitana, ISSN 2306-5737, Vol. X, no 2, p. 157-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with Russian constructions characterised by the use of the prepositional phrase с собой. The analysis of corpus data shows that several subtypes of the construction V + с собой can be singled out according to the predicate semantics. All the construction subtypes have a common semantic component, namely, joint motion of two participants. Causative semantics of predicates implies that one of the participants initiates this motion. The possessive subtype of the construction focuses on the resultant state of a causative event. Such properties of the construction as semantics of participants, compatibility with locative expressions and colloquial modification of the structure are also analysed.

  • 31.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    From left to right and back again: The distribution of dependent clauses in the Hindukush2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In complex clause constructions, the dependent clause can either precede or succeed the main clause. In a study on a selection of Indo-Aryan languages spoken on the Indian subcontinent (Hook 1987), a gradual transition between pre- and postposing languages was found, when moving from the southeast to the northwest in the area. In their relative vicinity in the Hindukush area, a sub-group of Indo-Aryan languages are spoken, commonly known by the tentative term “Dardic”. These languages are said to mainly have the dependent clause preceding the main clause (left-branching), and that this feature is shared by the neighbouring languages. This would mean a breach with the continuum described by Hook. In the present comparative study on the Dardic languages spoken in northern Pakistan, complex clauses of adverbial and complement types were studied in an attempt to confirm this proposition. The languages were found to have two competing branching structures where the indigenous, dominating left-branching structure possibly is being challenged by an imported right branching pattern, especially in complement clauses, possibly due to Persian or Urdu influence. A similar transition between more left-branching languages towards languages with a higher degree of right branching structures were found when moving from east to west in the geographical area studied.

  • 32.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Discourse Markers in Dardic Languages: Palula ba and ta in a comparative perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates discourse markers in Dardic languages (Indo-Aryan; Pakistan), focusing on the discourse markers ba and ta in Palula in comparison with other languages of the region, particularly Dameli in which two markers with the same form and similar functions have been observed. The results showed that Palula ba functions as a topic-marker, in addition to other functions, whereas ta only signals subsequence, except in an adversative construction ta... ba. In Dameli, both ba and ta function as topic-markers, in addition to other functions such as ta marking subsequence, and the ta... ba construction functions similarly to Palula. Interestingly, Kalasha and Gawri showed some similarities, as both have a topic-marker surfacing as ta and tä respectively, which can be used in the adversative constructions ta... o and tä... i respectively, both of which have another marker as the second element. No other language in the sample was found to have a construction similar to the ta... ba construction nor a marker similar in form and function to ba, but all have a subsequence marker resembling ta. These results indicated that the Palula markers ba and ta are part of an areal phenomenon encompassing at least the Chitral, Panjkora and Swat valleys, where Palula originally only had the Shina subsequence marker and later adapted the Dameli system into the language.

  • 33. Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
    et al.
    Wälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Aggregating dialectology, typology, and register analysis: linguistic variation in text and speech2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume aims to overcome sub-disciplinary boundaries in the study of linguistic variation - be it language-internal or cross-linguistic. Even though dialectologists, register analysts, typologists, and quantitative linguists all deal with linguistic variation, there is astonishingly little interaction across these fields. But the fourteen contributions in this volume show that these subdisciplines actually share many interests and methodological concerns in common. The chapters specifically converge in the following ways: First, they all seek to explore linguistic variation, within or across languages. Second, they are based on usage data, that is, on corpora of (more or less) authentic text or speech of different languages or language varieties. Third, all chapters are concerned with the joint analysis (also sometimes known as “aggregation” or “data synthesis”) of multiple phenomena, features, or measurements of some sort. And lastly, the contributors all marshal quantitative analysis techniques to analyse the data. In short, the volume explores the text-feature-aggregation pipeline in variation studies, demonstrating that there is much mutual inspiration to be had by thinking outside the disciplinary box.

  • 34. Vejdemo-Johansson, Mikael
    et al.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ek, Carl-Henrik
    Comparing Distributions of Color Words: Pitfalls and Metric Choices2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 2, p. e89184-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational methods have started playing a significant role in semantic analysis. One particularly accessible area for developing good computational methods for linguistic semantics is in color naming, where perceptual dissimilarity measures provide a geometric setting for the analyses. This setting has been studied first by Berlin & Kay in 1969, and then later on by a large data collection effort: the World Color Survey (WCS). From the WCS, a dataset on color naming by 2 616 speakers of 110 different languages is made available for further research. In the analysis of color naming from WCS, however, the choice of analysis method is an important factor of the analysis. We demonstrate concrete problems with the choice of metrics made in recent analyses of WCS data, and offer approaches for dealing with the problems we can identify. Picking a metric for the space of color naming distributions that ignores perceptual distances between colors assumes a decorrelated system, where strong spatial correlations in fact exist. We can demonstrate that the corresponding issues are significantly improved when using Earth Mover's Distance, or Quadratic x-square Distance, and we can approximate these solutions with a kernel-based analysis method.

  • 35.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Negative Existential Cycle Revisited2014In: Linguistics, ISSN 2072-8379, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 1327-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on crosslinguistic data and the postulation of six language types, the Negative Existential Cycle was proposed by Croft (1991) as a way of modeling the evolution of standard negation markers from existential negators. The current investigation tests this model by applying it to two language families, Slavonic and Polynesian, checking which cycle types are instantiated in these families and outlining pathways of transition between different types. In Slavonic, we observe one type without variation and two types with internal variation. All cycle types are instantiated in Polynesian, which is correlated with characteristics specific to this family. Three pathways are outlined for the partial or complete transfer of negative existentials into the verbal domain. The first is contingent on negative existentials being used in specific constructions and the direct inheritance or expansion of use of these constructions; the second involves negative existentials being used as emphatic negators external to the proposition and their subsequent reanalysis as clause internal negators without any additional pragmatic content. The third pathway, observed in Polynesian only, is through subordination processes leading to the re-interpretation of negative existentials as general markers of negation. Additionally, a time dimension needs to be added when modeling this cycle, as its completion, i.e., the negative existential turning into a full-fledged marker of standard negation, appears to take longer than 2,000 years.

  • 36.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknown categories within and across languages2014In: Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknowncategories within and across languages: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Benedikt Smrecsanyi & Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 355-393Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces three algorithms for the extraction of lexical and grammatical markers in parallel texts. The starting point for all of them is that trigger distributions are used as semantic cues. Automatic processing chains apply the same procedures (so-called “procedural universals”) to directly comparable texts of all languages. The domain-internal distribution of markers is usually highly diverse cross-linguistically due to polymorphy (there are many markers instantiating the same domain, but which also expressother meanings at the same time). Polymorphy structures a domain into subdomains in cross-linguistically different ways, and this structure canbe used for the aggregation of markers into cross-linguistically recurrent marker types and for assessing the domain-specific similarity relationships between languages.

  • 37.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
    Introduction: The text-feature-aggregation pipeline in variation studies2014In: Aggregating Dialectology, Typology, and Register Analysis: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Benedikt Szmrecsanyi & Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 1-25Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Young, Nathan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Suburban Swedish maturing: Examining variation and perceptions among adult speakers of Swedish contemporary urban vernacular2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Up to now, adolescent speakers have been the primary focus when researching contemporary variation in the language of Sweden’s urban areas. This study contributes to the growing body of research on the topic by examining and reporting on adult speakers of what is here referred to as förortssvenska (English: Suburban Swedish). This study focuses specifically on formal speech registers of eight young working-class men from Stockholm along with the perception and reception of their speech by two independent native-listener groups.

    The paper is the first to present quantifiable data on what has been previously referred to as a “staccato” rhythm in Suburban Swedish. Strong correlations are shown between prosodic rhythm as measured by the normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) and speech speed to mean listener attitudes (R2=0.9). A strong correlation is also shown for nPVI’s influence on mean listener-projected ethnicity (R2=0.8). Alongside variation in rhythm, we also see phonemic variation that trends toward specific indexes of social identity as revealed by speaker interviews and native-listener assessments. Alongside linguistic variation among speakers, there is also significant variation within speaker peer groups.

    In addition to identifying specific linguistic features, the study examines social mechanisms revealed in interviews with and qualitative observations of speaker and listener participants. In exploratory fashion, ideas on variation, register ranges, meta-pragmatic stereotyping, and ethnic boundary-making are presented to make a case for treating contemporary urban variation in Swedish as a habitual semiotic extension of speaker identity. Indicators that contemporary urban variation in Swedish may be heading in the direction of sociolectal entrenchment are also discussed.

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