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  • 1.
    Aras, Elizabet
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Early Opportunities for Quality Learning: A Comparative Study of Swedish Preschools' Language Practice2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish preschool is internationally known for its high quality. Children in Sweden are given early educational opportunities to learn and develop prior to their school start. The Swedish preschool activity should include an overall language developmental approach; however, studies show that the children's conditions for language instruction vary intra-nationally. While the Swedish preschool curriculum reflects on children's desire to learn, the preschool staff should be aware of their own practical theory in order to arrange for learning. Research show that early childhood education of high quality benefits children's future school results. Thus, this research aims at studying children's opportunities for quality learning and development in the Swedish preschool, by exploring the content of preschool teaching. The role of the preschool is to provide all children with an education of high quality. This study aims at investigating what quality can mean in terms of preschool language instruction. To generate an understanding of quality, the study focuses on the structure and process inputs in six public preschools and two municipalities. To provide insights about the preschools' practices, a qualitative approach has been used to conduct interviews with preschool heads and employees from education administrations, as well as questionnaires with preschool staff and observations of learning environments. As the quality inputs vary between the preschools and municipalities it affects the outputs of the children's language development. This research makes it evident that the outcomes are mainly dependent on the preschool staff's abilities and competences of implementing development.

  • 2.
    Bohm Fiederling, Inga-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English in Swedish product packages: An exploratory study of how English is used in product packages sold in the dairy section in Swedish retail2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the use of English in the texts of product packages sold in Swedish retail. This includes looking at the proportion of English of the packages of four brands God Morgon, Froosh, Oatly and Wellness, as well as exploring what moves are most likely to be in English and furthermore, what cultural values are conveyed by the texts. The most significant findings are that the proportion of English varies among both between and within the brands, depending on the specific niche the products have. Furthermore, in line with previous studies, English is mainly found in the attention-grabbing moves such as headlines and leads, whereas Swedish is more frequent in the copy which serves a more explanatory and detailing function. This is true except for the texts of the brand Oatly, with the main copy also in English. The cultural values conveyed by the texts, finally, both support previous findings, but it may be suggested that some of the values, such as nature and morality, have just recently begun to be associated to English.

  • 3.
    Brandström, Felicia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Intertextuality as a politeness strategy: A qualitative study of the use and function of intertextuality in the television series Suits2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the use and function of intertextuality in the television series Suits, and examines the interplay between intertextuality and politeness. Intertextuality allows a text to incorporate other texts and to draw upon connotations that belong to those texts. Politeness theory offers a tool to analyse the pragmatic use of language in social interaction. Analysing occurrences of intertextuality from the first episode of the television series, the paper explores in what ways the fictional characters use intertextuality and for what purposes. It explores if, and how, intertextuality can be used as a politeness strategy. Findings suggest that intertextuality is used for three main purposes, and functions as characterisation and as a means to establish and/or maintain social relations. Detailed analyses of instances of intertextuality propose that intertextuality can be used as a politeness theory, but only in certain ways. The paper discusses these findings and offers a possible explanation for why intertextuality is only used in this restricted way.

  • 4.
    Camps Navajas, Mercè
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Estudio cualitativo de actitudes lingü.sticas: comparación entre estudiantes de bachillerato en Suecia con el español como lengua de herencia o como lengua extranjera2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    Suecia ha sido, sobre todo a partir de la década de   los 70, un país receptor de inmigración hispanohablante. Actualmente, el español es la lengua moderna más estudiada en los colegios suecos.  Nos encontramos, pues, ante una situación en la que converge la herencia lingüística del español por parte de segundas y terceras generaciones de inmigrantes con el interés por una gran parte del

    colectivo estudiantil por aprender esta lengua extranjera. Este estudio se sitúa en esta tesitura social y busca localizar y analizar las actitudes respecto a la variación lingüística en español por parte de dos grupos que estudian ELE en un instituto de bachillerato (gymnasium) del área metropolitana de Estocolmo, uno de los cuales tiene, además, el español como lengua de herencia. Nos centraremos, por  lo tanto, en relacionar la interacción de diferentes factores —principalmente extralingüísticos— en el perfil de cada alumno con sus actitudes lingüísticas, teniendo también en cuenta la influencia que puede haber ejercido el contexto académico. En cuanto a este, queremos anunciar que los informantes

    son alumnos de los niveles Paso 5 (steg 5) o Paso 6 (steg 6) de español según el sistema educativo sueco, que equivalen, según el Marco Común de Refer

    encia para las Lenguas (MCER), a un nivel de proficiencia B1-B2 y B2, respectivamente. Para llevar a cabo el análisis y asegurarnos de que los

    resultados son representativos de las actitudes de cada informante, hemos decidido combinar tres metodologías: una directa (entrevista cualitativa)

    y dos indirectas (la técnica del matched-guise y los autoretratos lingüísticos). Los resultados han mostrado cómo la idiosincrasia de cada informante es

    determinante en cuanto a las actitudes que muestra; sin embargo, determinamos que la base de las actitudes por parte de informantes con ELH reside e

    n cuestiones de identidad y orgullo lingüístico, mientras que para los informantes con ELE lo es la motivación en el aprendizaje de la lengua.

     

  • 5.
    Damberg, Victor
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Den magiska kritan: En kommenterad översättning från japanska till svenska av Abe Kōbōs novell 魔法のチョーク (Mahou no chooku).2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats består av en översättning av Abe Kōbōs korta novell Den magiska kritan (魔法のチョーク) från japanska till svenska och en översättningskommentar som främst fokuserar på tre olika kategorier ord eller uttryck som kan vara problematiska vid översättning från japanska. Dessa kategorier är kulturspecifika referenser, onomatopoetiska ord och västerländska lånord.

    Eftersom Abe Kōbō är en prisbelönt och internationellt erkänd författare och de rådande översättningsnormerna stipulerar att sådana författare bör översättas källtroget har jag valt att försöka arbeta utifrån en adekvansinriktad (källtrogen) översättningsstrategi. Detta innebär bland annat att jag i möjligaste mån försökt överföra författarens stil och hålla mig så nära källtextens betydelse som möjligt utan att måltextens språkbruk blir onaturligt. 

  • 6.
    Dankis, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Subtitling the Internet: An investigation into subtitles for dynamic media2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will examine interlingual subtitles for online media. The research takes place within the descriptive translation studies paradigm. The source material consists of subtitles for a selection of webcasts found on the video sharing platform YouTube. The analysis will examine how the original dialogue has been translated as well as the form that the subtitles are presented in. An analysis of norm governed subtitles for television programs that follow established subtitling norms will also be made for comparison. Online media and broadcast media are divided into a dynamic and static category respectively in order to treat webcasts as an individual form of media. Dynamic media is defined as digital media created for the Internet, and static media is defined as media created for televised broadcasts. The results do not include qualitative assessments but have shown that subtitles for webcasts do not follow subtitling norms and display a wide range of unconventional approaches. The determining factor that illustrates the nature of webcast subtitles is attributed the diverse group of people writing them. 

  • 7.
    David, Jonas Alexander
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Den komplexa språksituationen hos en flerspråkig talare: En fallstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka och kartlägga den komplexa språksituationen och - användningen hos en flerspråkig person. Den undersökta personen kallas för Frida. Hon hade redan i ung ålder lärt sig mer än två språk och har sedermera varit i kontakt med sju språk på en signifikant kunskapsnivå. Denna studie ville knyta an till de teorier och modeller som har presenterats i den modernare forskningen kring andra- och tredjespråksinlärning. Undersökningen baserades enbart på Fridas självredogörelser enligt tre kriterier; hennes språkbiografiska bakgrund, språkfärdigheten och hennes attityder gentemot sin egen språksituation och språk i allmänhet. Dessa kriterier undersöktes med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer och självbedömningsmallar. Resultaten bekräftade antaganden om att Fridas språkanvändning och –situation idag påverkas av ett komplext samspel mellan ett flertal multifaktorella komponenter som uppstår i en flerspråkig kontext. Kartläggningen av Fridas språkbiografiska bakgrund, hennes språkanvändning och hennes attityder gentemot språken samt medvetenhet har gett inblick i hur de underliggande mekanismerna inom flerspråkighet verkar.

  • 8.
    Engström, Paul
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    What does it mean to be 'manly'?: A corpus analysis of masculinity in the 19thcentury2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine how the word manly was used during the 19thcentury. Using the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA) it looks atcollocates, the spread across registers and semantic meaning, in order to gain a betterunderstanding of the word and its usage. Due to this term’s connotations with gender,the findings will finally be discussed in relation to Gender Performativity andMasculinity Theory.

  • 9.
    Frederiksen, Diana
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    BELF in the workplace: a linguistic ethnographic study: An observation of English as a lingua franca used by employees at a Swedish company2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper was aimed at researching the use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) in a business context by the use of linguistic ethnography (LE). Previous research has been primarily either survey- or interview-based or strictly qualitative in its investigation. Using shadowing observations of three employees at a Swedish multinational company and subsequently interviewing the participants about their use of Business English as a lingua franca (BELF), the present study set out to investigate for what kinds of functions and how often these employees use English on an everyday basis. English was shown to be the default language of the multinational company and the findings suggest that employees’ use of language is not only determined by the nature of their work and the business setting, but also by their personal backgrounds. Their education, upbringing, and social experiences since moving to Sweden have come to shape their language use at work and in everyday life. Moreover, there could be subsequent implications for them not only in work-related functions and activities at the company but also in their integration and immersion in Swedish society. Using LE to investigate language choice and use in a corporate setting allows for a more nuanced collection of data, providing a context to linguistic research.

  • 10.
    Fröderberg Shaiek, Christopher
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Distribution and Spread of English Loanwords: Some Indications from Written Bangla in Articles concerned with Science, Culture, Lifestyle, and Religion.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    English has served as a donor language of loanwords to many different languages in the world. One of these languages is Bangla. Despite the importance of the English influence on Bangla, few researchers have investigated English loanwords in Bangla and even fewer have looked at the distribution of them between different categories such as science, lifestyle, culture, and religion. The purpose of the present study was to establish whether the distribution of English loanwords varied between these categories, how these results would relate to findings in other languages, and what this would tell us about word-formation processes in relation to English loanwords in general. Articles related to these categories were found and analyzed to find English loanwords which were at the same time counted manually and compared with the overall amount of words in each article. The results showed a clear tendency for a higher number of English loanwords in texts concerned with the topic of science, followed by; lifestyle, culture; and lastly religion; the differences were statistically significant. These findings were also similar to what has been shown in other languages. Future research should aim to include a larger, more balanced sample, but also having a more reliable method of collecting and analyzing texts and words.

  • 11.
    Galantini, Nicolò
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Language policies and early bilingual education in Sweden: An ethnographic study of two bilingual preschools in Stockholm2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to shed light on language policies and early bilingual education in Sweden. It highlights the main language policies developed by Sweden while framing them within a European perspective, thus comparing the “national” language policies to the “international” language policies, stressing differences and similarities. More specifically, it analyzes the language policies and guidelines related to bilingual education created by the Council of Europe and afterwards applies the same procedure to the Swedish ones. Furthermore, this study investigates the language practices of children and teachers in two bilingual/multilingual settings. In order to do this, the research was framed as a sociolinguistic ethnography and was carried out using observations, interviews and audio-recordings in order to achieve triangulation wherever possible. Interview and observational data were analyzed thematically while interactional data was analyzed to establish the purposes for which different languages were used by participants. In conclusion, this study might give an idea of how appropriate the Swedish language policies are while stressing the need to revise and implement those policies that might affect the success of early bilingual/multilingual preschool education in Sweden. 

  • 12.
    Gijswijt, Katrijn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Processing Dutch: A study on the acquisition of Dutch as a second language using Processability Theory as a framework2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate within the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) discusses the possibility of universal developmental stages in the interlanguage of second language learners. Processability Theory (PT) is one of the theories that enhances this way of thinking about second language acquisition. The belief is that learners go through the same stages of development when learning a new language. An ongoing process in PT is the construction of these developmental stages for individual languages, but today there is still much work needed in this area. The purpose of this thesis is to construct the developmental stages for Dutch, based on an error analysis of second language learners’ interlanguage. The data was collected from Swedish students learning Dutch on a university level. The students were interviewed once per month, and three times in total, so that no developments in their interlanguage could be missed. The data is processed according to the emergence criterion, resulting in developmental tables of the learners’ progress. The result of these interviews provides for the outline on how one acquires Dutch, and together with a grammatical analysis of Dutch word order procedures and morphology, a developmental hierarchy for the acquisition of Dutch according to PT is constructed.

  • 13.
    Glaas, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Ett smärtsamt uppsatsvärk: Smärta, värk och ont på svenska2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Smärta kan uttryckas olika beroende på språk och smärtupplevare. Denna studie syftar till att närma sig det svenska språkets smärtuttryck, och baseras på tidigare studier utförda på både svenska och grekiska. Frågor skrivna av smärtupplevare till både läkare och allmänhet, samt bloggar av mer berättande natur fick bilda en korpus uppdelat i tre skilda genrer, där det fokuserades först och främst på de primära smärtorden smärta, värk och ont. Smärtuttrycken analyserades för att ge information om hur gemene man med olika smärtbakgrund tenderar att uttrycka fysisk smärta beroende på mottagare och situation; om det finns någon variation genrerna emellan. Resultaten visade bland annat att val av smärtord till viss del styrs av uppfattning om tidsaspekt, intensitet och även på smärtans lokalisering i kroppen. Hur smärtupplevarna sedan väljer att verbalt uttrycka smärtan skiljer något mellan genrerna, vilket kan bero på hur de ser på sin egen smärta; som en sak, process eller kvalitet.

  • 14.
    Gomes, Andrew
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Investigating the tonal contours of Sawi nouns: A contrastive analysis with established tonal features of Palula2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores whether or not tonal contours are a contrastive feature in Sawi nouns. It aims to provide evidence towards the claim that Sawi has lost contrastive tones and provide a basis from which further research into how the use of qualitative vowel differences may have replaced the pitch accent system still found in Sawi’s closest relative, Palula. This was done through the analysis of a corpus of Sawi nouns with a computer program that visually stylizes prosodic and tonal features in audio samples of the language. This corpus was then analyzed for trends within itself as well as compared to known trends in the Palula lexicon. The findings support the original hypothesis that Sawi nouns do not have contrastive pitch accents, as found in Palula; and that further research may reveal a regular or semi-regular tonal contour accentuating the final mora of each noun.

  • 15.
    Gustavsson, Alice
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Beröring i interaktion mellan föräldrar och deras barn2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Beröring är, efter att länge ha varit ganska förbisett, numera ett växande forskningsområde inom förälder-barn kommunikation. Detta har skett i takt med att man har insett vikten av social interaktion för utvecklingen av alla kognitiva förmågor, och kanske särskilt för språkutvecklingen. Denna studie undersöker hur beröring ser ut i förälder-barn interaktion, och anpassar en tidigare utarbetad mall (Agrawal, 2010) för annotering av beröring i interaktion av svenska förälder-barn dyader. Inspelningar av fyra förälder-barn-par i åtta filer, två filer per barn, annoterades och analyserades. Barnen, två flickor och två pojkar, var vid första inspelningstillfället 3 månader gamla och vid andra 6 månader.

    Förälderns beröring annoterades och analyserades med perspektiv på vilka kroppsdelar som berördes mest, vilken typ av beröring som var vanligast och hur mycket hudkontakt som förekom i den totala tiden av beröringen. Resultaten visar att föräldrarna vid båda inspelningstillfällena mest höll sina barn, samt att de mest förekommande kroppsdelar att beröra var händerna och överkroppen vid 3 respektive 6 månaders ålder. Det framkom även att den totala beröringen samt beröringen med hudkontakt minskade från första inspelningstillfället. Detta konfirmerar tidigare forskningsresultat som bland annat sett att hållande av barn är vanligast vid tidig ålder, samt att beröringen i stort minskar gradvis under det första levnadsåret.

  • 16.
    Jansson, Pernilla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Hard Muscle, Slim Body: A Systemic Functional Analysis of the Covers of Men’s and Women’s Fitness Magazines2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Magazine covers are multimodal texts designed to draw the attention of potential readers. Health and fitness magazines, in particular, make up a large portion of the publishing industry, and previous research has pointed to their influence on readers’ perceptions of health and fitness. In order to interpret the multimodality of magazine covers, a different approach other than the purely linguistic one needs to be employed. Following the theoretical frameworks of Systemic Functional Linguistics and Social Semiotics, this study set out to investigate the verbal and visual construction of health on eight covers of Men’s Health and Women’s Health. The findings indicate that there are significant differences in how health is constructed on the men’s and women’s edition of the magazines. These differences mainly concern the way in which health is achieved, and the relationship between the viewers and the magazine. This not only indicates that different strategies were used to attract viewers, but also reveals something about the relationship the viewer is supposed to have with their bodies as well as their perceptions of health.

  • 17.
    Järvinen Palme, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    "Nobody but you can do that to me, I don't know why": Covert Power in Representations of Casual Talk. A Case Study of Woody Allen's Hannah and Her sister(s)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is an exploratory qualitative analysis of conversations between two out of three leading characters in Woody Allen’s motion picture Hannah and Her Sisters (1986). Due to a perception of invisible power relations, it is hypothesized that what seems like a powerful position in discourse, in fact is an indication of the opposite, and that what seems like a powerless position, is an indication of power. Three features based on scholarship connected to Conversation Analysis (CA), Dyadic Power Theory (DPT) and power relations in verbal interaction are chosen to test the hypotheses: first and second positions in sequences as dicussed by Hutchby (1996), control attempts as elaborated by DPT, and mitigating strategies as argued for by Mullany (2004). Findings confirm the hypotheses, but also reveal ambiguities and contrasting results. Connecting the data to sources based on talk in the private sphere, in particular within family discourse, is mentioned as one way to further illuminate the subject in future research.

  • 18.
    Lilja, Sebastian
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Översättning enligt normer: En kommenterad översättning av en IT-text2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is comprised of an annotated translation of an English IT-text into Swedish. The source text is the installation manual for the software SDL Trados Studio 2014 and the thesis also contains a text analysis of the source text. The goal of the translation has been to use norms in the target culture and thus move the translation toward acceptability. The thesis therefore discusses norms based on Toury's (1995) framework.

    The thesis also contains an empirical study of the translation of three different IT-texts. The study shows that, when it comes to the specific norms investigated in the study, Swedish translations of IT-texts are guided by norms in both the source culture and the target culture.

  • 19.
    Marra, Anton
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Communicative strategies in BELF negotiations: A qualitative study on misunderstandings and communicative strategies in BELF telephone negotiations2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper focuses on exploring the usage of communicative strategies (CSs) by business professionals who use business English as a lingua franca (BELF) in telephone negotiations. The purpose of the study is also to analyze the occurrence of misunderstanding and non-understandings. The data consists of nine naturally-occurring spoken ‘buy-sell’ negotiations between business professionals from seven different countries around Europe and Asia.  The negotiations summed up to 1 hour and 30 minutes of recorded material. The transcripts of these negotiations were analyzed in detail by using the qualitative method ‘conversation analysis’ (CA). The results show that business professionals use CSs as pre-empting measures to prevent misunderstanding. In addition, CSs in the present data appear to be used to create cooperativeness and subsequently reach successful communication. The present study also found two scenarios where communicative breakdown occurred but were subsequently repaired through ‘clarity requests’, ‘confirmation checks’ and repetition. Lastly, the present paper recognizes that previous knowledge of the other party is an effective aspect in keeping upbeat negotiations and reaching mutual understanding.

  • 20.
    Melin, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Thanks! You look rather dashing yourself.: A contrastive pragmatics investigation of Singaporean and American compliment responses2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Set within the framework of the newly established field of variational pragmatics (Schneider and Barron, 2008), this study investigates pragmatic variation between two different regional varieties of English, namely American English and Singaporean English. Specifically, the speech act of compliment responses is compared. The data were collected through written discourse completion tasks (DCT) and responses were analysed and coded using an adapted version of Holmes’ (1988) categorization system for compliment responses (CRs). The CRs come from a total of 40 participants and a total of 320 compliment responses were analysed. The DCT was supplemented by an introspective-recall with six participants. The findings demonstrate that the preferred strategy for both groups is in the order of accept, evade and reject. Even so, the Singaporeans use more reject strategies and less accept strategies than the Americans do. Further, the Americans employ more combination strategies than the Singaporeans. The Singaporeans however, employ more non-verbal and paralinguistic cues than the Americans. The results also show differences in the two varieties’ attitudes to and perceptions of compliment responses. In addition, the study suggests that compliments in Singapore might be undergoing a change. The findings are particularly important for pedagogical purposes.

  • 21.
    Nerelius, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Plain Language in the EU: Impact of Plain Language in Drafting and Translation of Different Types of EU Legislation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay assesses the impact of plain language campaigns in EU legislation. Different types of legislation as well as legislation with different intended recipients are analysed. The analysis includes calculating a LIX index score and complementing the index data with data from the texts. The data derives from textual parameters associated with plain language. The distinction between the recipient and the actual reader of legislation in the EU will also be discussed as the general public is asserted by the EU to be the reader of legislative acts. It is, however, shown in this essay that the general public is not the reader of legislative acts directed to them.

    The hypothesis in this essay is that there has been an impact of plain language in legislative acts in the EU over time, as a result of plain language campaigns in the EU. We may also see a difference in the impact of plain language between specific types of legislation and between legislation directed to different intended recipients. A specialist audience may be considered to have a higher competence of the register of law compared to the general public. However, as the results from the analysis are inconclusive we cannot see any coherent impact of plain language in the texts analysed in this essay. The analysis also suggests that using textual features associated with plain language is not an effective tool to use to assess improvement in terms of readability and impact of plain language over time. The different textual parameters do not cohere.

    In addition to the above, the impact of plain language in relation to translation in the EU is discussed. Plain language could perhaps enable more accurate and efficient translation to multiple languages, which is important in the EU’s multilingual environment. Consequently, by making an original language version of legislation less complex, the quality of translations may be improved. The qualitative analysis regarding plain language in translation suggests that a short, non-complex sentence in combination with the use of high frequency words enables a more natural translation in the Swedish language versions. The analysis also suggests some changes seen over time in relation to plain language in the translation process.

  • 22.
    Ocampo Sepulveda, Marta
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    El aprendizaje del español L2 en los estudios universitarios: Un estudio sobre la relación existente entre contexto de aprendizaje, motivación, actitudes y resultados obtenidos2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    Hoy en día, el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera (LE) es esencial para poder trabajar, viajar o para comunicarse con otras personas. Pero, puede también ser interesante por la satisfacción que significan nuevos conocimientos en otra lengua. El éxito en el aprendizaje de una lengua varía mucho según los motivos, las actitudes y los intereses de los aprendices. Por eso, el objetivo de este estudio es investigar estos factores, y ver de qué manera influyen en el aprendizaje de la lengua española. Por un lado, se espera que los estudiantes que no tienen el español como lengua materna (Español I y Español III), presenten una motivación de tipo intrínseca. Por otro lado, se espera que los estudiantes hispanohablantes (Español I y Español III), a diferencia de los que tienen español como L2, tengan una motivación extrínseca que justifique la elección de estudiar español.

    Este estudio consta de 25 cuestionarios que fueron respondidos por estudiantes de dos niveles distintos de español LE en una universidad sueca (Español I y Español III). Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de los alumnos estudian el español porque puede ser útil para los estudios, la carrera profesional o para vivir en un país hispano (motivos extrínsecos). Sin embargo, existen diferencias notables según la lengua materna del estudiante y su nivel de estudio. Así, algunos de los estudiantes de Español III, motivan su deseo de aprender el español porque les gusta el idioma y es un placer estudiarlo (motivación intrínseca). En cuanto a las actitudes hacia la lengua, la gente hispana y sus países, la mayoría de los estudiantes los valora de manera muy positiva. Sin embargo, valoran de manera positiva al grupo de español y el curso, pero no tienen una opinión muy positiva de los profesores y del entorno en el que ocurre el aprendizaje. Además, los resultados muestran que los estudiantes están más interesados en la cultura de España que en la latinoamericana. Por último, los resultados indican que la mayoría de los alumnos que obtienen altos resultados en el curso tienen motivos extrínsecos. Sin embargo, la motivación extrínseca acompaña también resultados bajos en el rendimiento académico, mientras que la motivación intrínseca se relaciona únicamente con resultados altos.

  • 23.
    Olsson, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Spädbarns anticipatoriska ögonrörelser som svar på ljud: Inlärning i ett eye-tracker-baserat hörseltest2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA) är en metod för att bedöma små barns hörtrösklar. Ett hörseltest med eye-tracking som bygger på VRA är under utveckling, och syftet med denna studie är att vidareutveckla inlärningsfasen i ett sådant hörseltest. Barn i åldern 6,5 till 7,5 månader fick lyssna på ljudstimuli från högtalare på vänster och höger sida om sig och samtidigt se visuella stimuli på motsvarande sida av en bildskärm. Barnens inlärning av det audio-visuella sambandet testades sedan genom att mäta deras ögonrörelser till platsen för visuella stimuli under tiden då ljudet presenterades. Resultaten kan inte tydligt visa att barnen lärt sig associationen, varför testets utformning bör utvecklas vidare för att tillgodose det behov som finns av ett fullt automatiskt och objektivt hörseltest för att utreda spädbarns hörtrösklar.

  • 24.
    Ottersten, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Andraspråksinlärares användning av olika verbtyper i det svenska teckenspråket2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Andraspråksinlärare använder speciella regler vid inlärningen av ett nytt språk. Det finns många teorier som beskriver hur. Interimspråkshypotesen och performansanalysen ligger till grund för denna undersökning. Verb är en av ordklasserna i svenska språket och specifikt för verb är att man kan uttrycka tempus. I teckenspråket kan verb ha formen fasta och polysyntetiska tecken, i både icke modifierad och modifierad form. Tidigare undersökningar (bl.a. Stenberg 2009) har fokuserat på de fel andraspråksanvändarna gör och har hittat att förenkling är den vanligast förekommande kategorin. Denna uppsats studerar hur informanterna använder verb. De använder främst fasta tecken för verb men efter mer undervisningstid använder de mer polysyntetiska tecken. Komplexiteten hos verb verkar öka från fasta till modifierade tecken och de polysyntetiska tecknen är de svåraste, i likhet med tyska studier. Man kan se generella likheter med interimspråkets teorier.

  • 25.
    Plaza, Cajsa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The environments differ, and therefore, the language differs.: A case study of how pragmatic competence in English is taught in a Swedish secondary and upper secondary school.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Pragmatic competence has become an essential component of L2 (second language) proficiency. The purpose of this case study is to investigate how pragmatic competence in English is taught in a public Swedish secondary and upper secondary school. The aim with this study is to reach an in-depth understanding of how the teachers in this specific school view, value and teach pragmatic competence. The study has a qualitative approach and was conducted through semi-structured interviews with two teachers. In addition to the interviews, an analysis of the pedagogic material used in the classroom was made. The most significant findings of the study show that pragmatic competence and cultural knowledge are teachable and are indeed being taught in the studied school. Different types of oral activities are the mostly used pedagogical practices to teach different aspects of pragmatic competence. The aspects of pragmatic competence that are in focus, in both secondary and upper secondary school, are formal and informal language, adaptation of the language and politeness. 

  • 26.
    Quevedo, Marta
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The influence of semantic context on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in extemporaneous foreign accented Swedish speech2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Bilingualism is nowadays a worldwide phenomenon due to different factors such as migration, education or political and geographical reasons. These factors have led to both individual and social bilingualism, which favor an increase of communicative encounters between native and non-native speakers of a certain language.

    The above situation has contributed to a growth of studies on second language acquisition. Some of these studies have focused on native speakers’ perception and understanding of the non-native speech. More specifically, perception and effectiveness of communication through the analysis of three dimensions; accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility. Although these three constructs have been intensively studied, little is known about the effect of semantic context on them. To our knowledge, just two studies have analyzed the effect of semantic context on native speakers’ judgments of the three dimensions by using read material. Therefore, this thesis extends the research on the influence of semantic context over these three dimension when the auditory stimulus corresponds to spontaneous non-native speech.

    In this thesis, the results on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility tasks of 40 native Swedish speakers are presented. The findings showed that listeners’ perceived comprehensibility of the non-native speech is affected by the use of additional contextual information. That is, the listeners who were provided with additional visual information perceived the non-native speech as significantly easier to understand than those listeners who did not receive the extra contextual support. Furthermore, the results showed that accentedness and comprehensibility perception of the listeners is influenced by their actual understanding of the non-native speech.

    Finally, this thesis proves the difficulty of studying the effect of semantic context on listeners’ response to accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility when using spontaneous non-native speech. The results indicate that more research on how semantic context influences the perception of extemporaneous non-native speech is needed.

  • 27.
    Rönnlöf, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Language practices in the workplace: Ethnographic insights from two multilingual companies in Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s globalised world calls for a multilingual workplace, with employees who can communicate effectively and efficiently with colleagues and clients around the world. Communication, both in the sense of actual language use and of language management, is an important but often forgotten part of productivity and performance in multinational corporations. This exploratory study aims to investigate how language is used and managed in two Swedish companies with English as at least one of the official languages. By using in-depth ethnographical interviews and a short analysis of the companies’ language policies from the view of centricity, present study is focused on the employees’ perceptions of the day-to-day language use and the company’s language management. It can be concluded that English is the main language used for written communication while both Swedish and English are used in spoken interactions. Language is negotiated through a set of variables and is thus determined by the people involved in the interaction, the function of the interaction and the medium of communication. Although some strains and difficulties did emerge in the interviews, both informants are positive towards the use of English. It is hoped that this small study will contribute to a better understanding of language use and language management in multinational companies in Sweden. 

  • 28.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    From left to right and back again: The distribution of dependent clauses in the Hindukush2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In complex clause constructions, the dependent clause can either precede or succeed the main clause. In a study on a selection of Indo-Aryan languages spoken on the Indian subcontinent (Hook 1987), a gradual transition between pre- and postposing languages was found, when moving from the southeast to the northwest in the area. In their relative vicinity in the Hindukush area, a sub-group of Indo-Aryan languages are spoken, commonly known by the tentative term “Dardic”. These languages are said to mainly have the dependent clause preceding the main clause (left-branching), and that this feature is shared by the neighbouring languages. This would mean a breach with the continuum described by Hook. In the present comparative study on the Dardic languages spoken in northern Pakistan, complex clauses of adverbial and complement types were studied in an attempt to confirm this proposition. The languages were found to have two competing branching structures where the indigenous, dominating left-branching structure possibly is being challenged by an imported right branching pattern, especially in complement clauses, possibly due to Persian or Urdu influence. A similar transition between more left-branching languages towards languages with a higher degree of right branching structures were found when moving from east to west in the geographical area studied.

  • 29.
    Seidel, Thorsten
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Language Teachers’ Perception of the Influence of Bilingualism on the Acquisition of English as a Third Language2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of studies indicate that bilingualism has a positive influence on third language acquisition (TLA) (Brohy, 2001; Sagasta, 2003; Stafford et al., 2010). The purpose of this study is firstly, to confirm the view that bilingualism has a positive influence on TLA and secondly, to identify those features that have the strongest impact on it. The holistic approach Focus on Multilingualism has been applied to the study to meet its variety of influencing factors. The study is based on a qualitative research methodology using semi-structured interviews with three teachers of English. The language teachers are chosen from three different schools in the region of Stockholm, Sweden. The findings of the study indicate that bilingualism per se does not automatically give advantages in the acquisition of a third language but rather has a supportive role. It seems that the contextual factor, extramural English (English outside the school context), and the individual factor, motivation, has the most influential impact on TLA.

  • 30.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Discourse Markers in Dardic Languages: Palula ba and ta in a comparative perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates discourse markers in Dardic languages (Indo-Aryan; Pakistan), focusing on the discourse markers ba and ta in Palula in comparison with other languages of the region, particularly Dameli in which two markers with the same form and similar functions have been observed. The results showed that Palula ba functions as a topic-marker, in addition to other functions, whereas ta only signals subsequence, except in an adversative construction ta... ba. In Dameli, both ba and ta function as topic-markers, in addition to other functions such as ta marking subsequence, and the ta... ba construction functions similarly to Palula. Interestingly, Kalasha and Gawri showed some similarities, as both have a topic-marker surfacing as ta and tä respectively, which can be used in the adversative constructions ta... o and tä... i respectively, both of which have another marker as the second element. No other language in the sample was found to have a construction similar to the ta... ba construction nor a marker similar in form and function to ba, but all have a subsequence marker resembling ta. These results indicated that the Palula markers ba and ta are part of an areal phenomenon encompassing at least the Chitral, Panjkora and Swat valleys, where Palula originally only had the Shina subsequence marker and later adapted the Dameli system into the language.

  • 31.
    Söderholm, Joen
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Standardiserad diskurs: En undersökning av kontextuella faktorers effekt på diskursen i en standard från SIS2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks kontextuella faktorers inverkan på diskursen i en standard, SS 624070, framtagen av det svenska standardiseringsorganet SIS, Swedish Standards Institute. Undersökningen går igenom vilka premisser och faktorer som gör att diskursen i standarden ser ut som den gör. Undersökningen omfattar även hur aktörerna ser på denna diskurs, och hur användandet av standarden ser ut. Materialet består av intervjuer och texter som har analyserats utifrån diskursanalytiska begrepp. Med hjälp av intertextualitet och tematisering försöker undersökningen ge svar på hur kontextuella faktorer påverkar både hur denna diskurs skapas och hur den förstås. Analysen sker främst på makronivå för att ge en övergripande bild av hur kommunikationssituationen ser ut, vilka problem som uppstår och vad man kan göra åt dessa problem.

    Resultaten visar att SS 624070, och standarder överlag, förmedlar en specifik standardiseringsdiskurs. Denna diskurs ser i stort sett likadan ut oavsett vilken standard det handlar om. Diskursen styrs väldigt kraftigt av bland annat tradition och skrivregler som bestämmer både på mikro- och makronivå hur standarder ska skrivas. Detta görs för att uppfylla flera olika syften. Syften som stämmer överens med hur standarder överlag fungerar . De ska vara likformiga och kompatibla med varandra, och behöver därför ha samma diskurs för att leva upp till det syftet. Samtidigt blir standardernas diskurs en del av SIS ansikte utåt. Den enhetliga diskursen visar på hur SIS arbetar med att göra världen mindre splittrad. Inte bara för externa parter utan även för sig själva. Diskursen har en funktion i sig, samtidigt som den visar mer övergripande på SIS egna funktion.

  • 32.
    von Rettig, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Translating Expressive Prose using CAT Tools: An investigation into discerning the effects of segmentation in student translations2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Computer Assisted Translation tools continue to become more ubiquitous, but translation students do not necessarily receive much training in using them, and may therefore find translating when using them very different to translating freehand. An experiment was conducted where a three Master’s students were each asked to translate two texts; one in a CAT tool and the other freehand, and the resulting target texts were inspected to determine whether they may have been affected by the segmentation performed by the CAT tool compared to freehand translations of the same text, and if so, how. There were indications that in certain cases, such as very long sentences, the CAT tool may act as a visual aid, and also indications that certain students may be more prone to follow the segmentation provided by the CAT tool than others. However, the influence of personal translator style and translator’s habitus cannot be disregarded and as such the differences that are apparent cannot be entirely attributed to the CAT tool.

  • 33.
    Wahlström, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Gender and indirectness: A corpus study investigating imperatives and tag questions2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There has been some controversy concerning the subject of gender and indirectness in discourse over the years. The goal of this essay is to investigate four major approaches to gender and indirectness for the purpose of distinguishing the most relevant one. The first three ways of approaching gender and indirectness, the theory of deficit, the theory of dominance and the theory of difference claim that there is a measurable difference between genders but they cannot concur on why such a difference exists. The theory of deficit and the theory dominance claim that the difference is socially structured, while the theory of difference claims it is because of inherent nature. The fourth approach, the dynamic/social constructionist approach, does not agree with previous approaches and claims instead that other factors are more important when analyzing why some people are more indirect than others, for example age, class and ethnicity. This essay investigates the topic of indirectness by studying tag questions and imperatives and the data used in this essay was collected from the British National Corpus. The search queries used in the British National Corpus were please and come for imperatives and hasn’t and wasn’t for tag questions. The result of this essay is consistent with the results from the fourth approach, the theory of dynamic/social constructionist as no measurable difference could be found between the genders.

  • 34.
    Wallin Bååth, Sarah
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Who is Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?: A corpus-based study on the representation of wolves in metaphors in the English language2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As described by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), conceptual metaphors play a large part in how we understand and perceive the world we live in. Very often human traits are described using animal metaphors (Lawrence, 1993). To gain a better understanding, previous research on animal metaphors was examined and summarised. Few animals have been subject to such fierce public opinion as the wolf. Thus, the main focus of this essay has been to investigate whether such opinions are mirrored in the way that wolves are represented in metaphors.To get a proper overview of the occurrences and representations of wolves in metaphors in the English language of modern times, a corpus search was conducted in the COCA corpus (Davies, 2008-). The results from that search were then classified using the MIPVU-method (Steen et al., 2010) and further analysed to determine normative bias. The results were unanimous with previous research on the subject and in agreement with other studies. The wolf is exclusively used as a representative for less flattering human traits, both regarding physique and personality. It is plausible to conclude that the perception of the wolf as expressed in metaphors are similar to those in legends, fairy tales and stories from times long ago. The continuous usage of negative images associated with wolves maintains the image of the animal as danger and something to be feared.

  • 35.
    Wojtysiak, Zofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Bara ett nagellack eller en iögonfallande kristallyta med djupa, klassiska färger?: Om översättning från svenska till polska av reklamtexter för Oriflame kosmetikaprodukter.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att utröna huruvida Oriflames svenska reklamtexter skiljer sig från sina polska översättningar samt om eventuella skillnader beror på kulturell anpassning till målkulturen. Vidare har en bildanalys genomförts med syfte att undersöka samspelet mellan text och bild samt hur detta samspel eventuellt kan påverka konsumenterna. Trots att den kvantitativa analysen visar att käll- och måltexterna inte skiljer sig åt särskilt mycket, avviker texterna dels innehållsmässigt, dels när det gäller de könsroller som konstrueras i de undersökta texterna.

  • 36.
    Yilmaz, Demet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Communicator-in-Chief: A study of the rhetorical strategies President Clinton (1993) and President Kennedy (1961) used in their inaugural addresses.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study has two main research goals. One goal consists in studying the patterns of

    the rhetorical figures of anaphora, chiasmus, antithesis and alliteration in President

    Kennedy and President Clinton‟s (1991) inaugural speeches. The uses of these

    rhetorical figures are reviewed and compared. The second goal of this study is

    reviewing, analysing and comparing the keywords and key phrases in both speeches.

    This was possible with transcripts of the speeches. Both presidents used all the

    aforementioned rhetorical figures in their speeches to convey their purpose of their

    speeches. They had different approaches to their use of the devices; however,

    similarities were found. The data collected concerning the keywords and key phrases

    were retrieved with the software program AntCon. The 50 most frequent words in both

    speeches were analyzed. There were some similarities in the frequent words used in the

    speeches; however, there were more differences in the choice of words since the two

    speeches conveyed different themes. Both presidents used similar rhetorical strategies to

    convey different messages. However, they did differ in their choices of words that

    seemed to act as themes for their speeches.

  • 37.
    Young, Nathan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Suburban Swedish maturing: Examining variation and perceptions among adult speakers of Swedish contemporary urban vernacular2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Up to now, adolescent speakers have been the primary focus when researching contemporary variation in the language of Sweden’s urban areas. This study contributes to the growing body of research on the topic by examining and reporting on adult speakers of what is here referred to as förortssvenska (English: Suburban Swedish). This study focuses specifically on formal speech registers of eight young working-class men from Stockholm along with the perception and reception of their speech by two independent native-listener groups.

    The paper is the first to present quantifiable data on what has been previously referred to as a “staccato” rhythm in Suburban Swedish. Strong correlations are shown between prosodic rhythm as measured by the normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) and speech speed to mean listener attitudes (R2=0.9). A strong correlation is also shown for nPVI’s influence on mean listener-projected ethnicity (R2=0.8). Alongside variation in rhythm, we also see phonemic variation that trends toward specific indexes of social identity as revealed by speaker interviews and native-listener assessments. Alongside linguistic variation among speakers, there is also significant variation within speaker peer groups.

    In addition to identifying specific linguistic features, the study examines social mechanisms revealed in interviews with and qualitative observations of speaker and listener participants. In exploratory fashion, ideas on variation, register ranges, meta-pragmatic stereotyping, and ethnic boundary-making are presented to make a case for treating contemporary urban variation in Swedish as a habitual semiotic extension of speaker identity. Indicators that contemporary urban variation in Swedish may be heading in the direction of sociolectal entrenchment are also discussed.

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