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  • 1.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana, Ghana.
    The tense and aspect system of Sɛlɛɛ: A preliminary analysis2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 2. Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Ameka, Felix
    Atintono, Samuel
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature terms in the Ghanaian languages in a typological perspective2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This talk deals with the conceptualisation of temperature in some of the Ghanaian languages as reflected in their systems of central temperature terms, such as hot, cold, to freeze, etc. We will discuss these systems in the light of a large-scale cross-linguistic collaborative project, involving 35 researchers (including the present authors) and covering more than 50 genetically, areally and typologically diverse languages (Koptjevskaja-Tamm ed. 2015). The key questions addressed here are how the different languages carve up the temperature domain by means of their linguistic expressions, and how the temperature expressions are used outside of the temperature domain. Languages cut up the temperature domain among their expressions according to three main dimensions: TEMPERATURE VALUES (e.g., warming vs. cooling temperatures, or excessive heat vs. pleasant warmth), FRAMES OF TEMPERATURE EVALUATION (TACTILE, The stones are cold; AMBIENT, It is cold here; and PERSONAL-FEELING, I am cold), and ENTITIES whose “temperature” is evaluated.  Although the temperature systems are often internally heterogeneous, we may still talk about the main temperature value distinctions for the whole system. The Ghanaian languages favour the cross-linguistically preferred two-value systems, with water often described by a more elaborated system. An interesting issue concerns conventionalisation and frequency of expressions with a primary meaning outside of the temperature domain, for temperature uses. For instance, the conventionalised expressions for talking about ‘warm/hot’ in Ewe involve sources of heat (‘fire’) and bodily exuviae (‘sweat’). The Ghanaian languages often manifest numerous extended uses of their temperature terms. However, strikingly, none of them conforms to one of the most widely quoted conceptual metaphors, “affection is warmth” (Lakoff & Johnson 1999:50), which is also true for many other languages in (West) Africa and otherwise.

  • 3.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana, Ghana.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sɛlɛɛ2015In: Edinburgh handbook of evaluative morphology / [ed] Nicola Grandi, Livia Kortvelyessy, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2015, p. 487-495Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana, Ghana.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Unravelling temperature terms in Sɛlɛɛ2015In: The linguistics of temperature / [ed] Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 107-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the encoding of temperature in Sɛlɛɛ, a Niger-Congo language of the Kwa group, spoken in Ghana. The lexicon of temperature in Sɛlɛɛ consists of six central and two non-central temperature terms, distributed among the word classes of nouns, adjectives and verbs. The grammatical constructions associated with temperature evaluation vary according to the word-class status of each temperature term and its contexts of use. The distribution of the different grammatical constructions according to different types of temperature evaluation is discussed in the paper. Metaphorical uses of temperature-related terms are also discussed in the context of neighbouring and highly related languages. Finally, special patterns of temperature evaluation in connection with water are surveyed.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Repetitioner i barnriktat tal under det första levnadsåret2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A high proportion of repetitions is one of the distinctive features of child-directed speech (CDS). Research has shown that the percentage of repetitions in CDS varies over time depending on the age of the child. In addition, it is suggested that repetitions in CDS correlate with child language development. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible variations over time in the percentage of repetitions in CDS during the child’s first year, and to try to find a connection between repetitions and the child’s language development. Repetitions in parent speech in ten parent-child dyads as the children were 3, 6, 9 and 12 months old were investigated quantitatively. Exact and varying self-repetitions and exact and varying repetitions of the child’s utterances were investigated and compared to the same children’s linguistic level at 18 months of age. The results showed that the percentage of exact self-repetitions was more than 30 percent lower at the age of 12 months than at 3, 6 and 9 months of age. The total percentage of repetitions of the child’s utterances increased more than four times from 3 to 12 months of age. A connection was found between the repetitions during the child’s first year and the child’s language development, indicating that a low percentage of exact self-repetitions at 6 to 9 months of age correlated with a high vocabulary at 18 months of age. A link between the expressive language of the child and the repetitions in parents’ speech was suggested.

  • 6.
    Asplund, Leif
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Noun categorisation in North Halmahera2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The languages spoken on northern Halmahera and surrounding small islands constitute a group of related ‘Papuan’ languages called North Halmahera. They are also, together with other Papuan and Austronesian languages, included in a proposed sprachbund which is called East Nusantara. Neuter gender and numeral classifiers have both been proposed to characterize the sprachbund. Consequently,an investigation of the noun categorisation systems in the North Halmahera languages, which is the subject of this study, can be of interest for the characterization of the sprachbund. The method for the investigation is to search for information about seven languages in existing grammatical descriptions, complemented with information which can be culled from published texts in the languages. There are mainly two categorisation systems in all the investigated languages: genders and numeral classifiers. The numerals often contain fossilized prefixes. Among the numeral classifiers, the human classifiers are special because of their origin from pronominal undergoer prefixes and the limitations of its use in some languages. Except in West Makian, there is a default classifier and a classifier for trees, and secondarily for houses, in all languages. A classifier for two-dimensional objects is also quite common. The other classifiers are used with a very limited number of nouns.

  • 7. Berggren, Max
    et al.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Inferring the location of authors from words in their texts2015In: Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics: NODALIDA 2015 / [ed] Beáta Megyesi, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, ACL Anthology , 2015, p. 211-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the purposes of computational dialectology or other geographically bound text analysis tasks, texts must be annotated with their or their authors' location. Many texts are locatable but most have no ex- plicit annotation of place. This paper describes a series of experiments to determine how positionally annotated microblog posts can be used to learn location indicating words which then can be used to locate blog texts and their authors. A Gaussian distribution is used to model the locational qualities of words. We introduce the notion of placeness to describe how locational words are.

    We find that modelling word distributions to account for several locations and thus several Gaussian distributions per word, defining a filter which picks out words with high placeness based on their local distributional context, and aggregating locational information in a centroid for each text gives the most useful results. The results are applied to data in the Swedish language.

  • 8.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Epistemic marking and multiple perspective: an introduction2015In: Language Typology and Universals, ISSN 1867-8319, E-ISSN 2196-7148, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 123-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses forms of epistemic marking that instantiate multiple perspective constructions (see Evans 2005). Such forms express the speaker’s and the addressee’s simultaneous epistemic perspectives from the point of view of the speaker, crucially relying on the assumptions of the speaker with regard to the addressee’s knowledge. The analysis of forms considers established semanto-pragmatic concepts, such as semantic scope, mitigation strategies and communicative intention (as marked by sentence-type) in the exploration of forms. In addition, the notion of knowledge asymmetry is discussed alongside the concepts of epistemic status and stance as tools for a semantic analysis of investigated forms

  • 9.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Aspect and epistemic notions in the present tense system of Khalkha Mongolian2015In: Acta Linguistica Petropolitana: Transactions of the Institute for Linguistic Studies / [ed] N. N. Kazansky, St. Petersburg: Rossijskaja akademija nauk / Russian Academy of Sciences, 2015, Vol. XI, no 3, p. 46-127Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I will dicuss positive present tense forms in spoken Khalkha Mongolian. Khalkha is analyzed to have five non-finite aspect markers, the Progressive, Continuative, Habitual, Perfect, and Prospective. They mainly combine with the three suffixes ‑n, ‑aa and ‑dag. On its own, ‑n expresses an instantiated potential or neutral future and ‑aa combines epistemic possibility and resultativity. In combination with aspect markers, though, they express the evidential value of direct vs. indirect perception. As the resultant state of a perfect can be perceived directly, the division runs between direct sensual perception of the event and an event inferred from direct sensual perception vs. events that are concluded from assumptions, hearsay, and previous perception. The suffix ‑dag expresses habitual and generic semantics. It is most commonly used on its own, but can also take other aspect markers into its scope, e.g. expressing a habitually ongoing event. Next to its main use, it is even used to refer to mono-occasional events that diverge from what the speaker perceives as the normal course of events. In addition, absolute-final and other uses of the participle ‑h and final uses of the converb ‑aad are discussed.

  • 10.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Factual vs. evidential? The past tense forms of spoken Khalkha Mongolian 2015In: Empirical Approaches to Evidentiality / [ed] Ad Foolen, Helen de Hoop, Gijs Mulder, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The basic past tense suffixes in spoken Khalkha are ‑sɑ̆ŋ, -ɮɑ, -tʃe and the peripheral -w. The basic opposition is between established knowledge (‑sɑ̆ŋ) and non-established (mostly new) knowledge, which is then further differentiated into firsthand (-ɮɑ) and non-firsthand sources (‑tʃe). This adds the factor “time of acquisition” to “source of information.” However, vivid recollection and deferred realization allow for using ‑ɮɑ and -tʃe, respectively. Additionally, -ɮɑ is used to establish a fictive scenario in discourse. In the corpus, past ‑sɑ̆ŋ is thrice as frequent as past -ɮɑ and -tʃe combined and due to its opposition to the latter seems to acquire a connotation of factual, reliable information. In declaratives, ‑w accounts for just 0.7% of past tense uses. It is used for events that surprised the speaker in the past. In questions, -tʃe is used to ask the hearer to give an answer based on inference. In self-directed discourse, -ɮɑ is used by a speaker who tries to remember something she once knew, irrespective of whether this knowledge was acquired as firsthand knowledge or not.

    All past markers have future uses. For an event for which the speaker has sensory or internal evidence (including when the speaker refers to her own intentions), -ɮɑ is fairly common. Clues as to whether a future or past interpretation hold are mostly syntactical, but stative aktionsart or the presence of the boundary-actualizing marker -tʃʰ- restrict the interpretation to the past. ‑ɮɑ can be used in questions about the future in which case the speaker seems to motivate her question on the basis of a presumption based on firsthand evidence. The morphological form of -ɮɑ in such contexts is different from the form used in past questions. ‑tʃe can be used when a future event is inferred, and ‑sɑ̆ŋ marks it as inevitable. Both are exceedingly rare in future contexts, so that they presumably only work in a salient future context. Future ‑w expresses preventive warnings.

  • 11.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature terms in Khalkha Mongolian2015In: The Linguistics of Temperature / [ed] Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 570-593Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper provides an overview of the linguistic properties of temperature terms in Khalkha Mongolian. It begins with a general overview of the temperature vocabulary, which is most elaborated in relation to coldness. It then considers in closer detail the application of these terms to tactile, ambient and personal-feeling temperature domains, and the terms' metaphoric extensions. The paper continues by investigating different ways of expressing degrees of temperature adjectives within a morphological system of intensification and attenuation. Finally, the syntax of temperature terms is discussed.

  • 12.
    Carlberg, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att förstärka sinnelag och sinnesstämning: En korpusstudie av förstärkande förled hos svenska adjektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is no description in the Swedish grammar regarding how adjectives can be reinforced with prefixes, also known as intensifiers. Research shows that this phenomenon have recieved greater attention in other languages. The purpose of this study was to describe and map the use of prefix reinforcements, and see if any patterns or rules could be found. The quantitative research is based on statistical data collected from informal blog texts in two Swedish corpora. Adjectives on two types of mood, solid and temporary, as well as positive and negative, were investigated. The results showed that some types were more inclined to take reinforcements than others. Temporary adjectives took on more than solid ones, negative more than positive, as well as the short and frequent adjectives where more often reinforced than the longer and uncommon ones

  • 13.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerholm, ToveStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.Marklund, EllenStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.Marklund, UlrikaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.Molnar, MonikaNilsson Björkenstam, KristinaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.Schwarz, Iris-CorinnaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.Sjons, JohanStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    WILD 2015: Book of Abstracts2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    WILD 2015 is the second Workshop on Infant Language Development, held June 10-12 2015 in Stockholm, Sweden. WILD 2015 was organized by Stockholm Babylab and the Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University. About 150 delegates met over three conference days, convening on infant speech perception, social factors of language acquisition, bilingual language development in infancy, early language comprehension and lexical development, neurodevelopmental aspects of language acquisition, methodological issues in infant language research, modeling infant language development, early speech production, and infant-directed speech. Keynote speakers were Alejandrina Cristia, Linda Polka, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Angela D. Friederici and Paula Fikkert.

    Organizing this conference would of course not have been possible without our funding agencies Vetenskapsrådet and Riksbankens Jubiléumsfond. We would like to thank Francisco Lacerda, Head of the Department of Linguistics, and the Departmental Board for agreeing to host WILD this year. We would also like to thank the administrative staff for their help and support in this undertaking, especially Ann Lorentz-Baarman and Linda Habermann.

    The WILD 2015 Organizing Committee: Ellen Marklund, Iris-Corinna Schwarz, Elísabet Eir Cortes, Johan Sjons, Ulrika Marklund, Tove Gerholm, Kristina Nilsson Björkenstam and Monika Molnar.

  • 14.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammaticalization in the North: Noun phrase morphosyntax in Scandinavian vernaculars2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book looks at some phenomena within the grammar of the noun phrase in a group of traditional North Germanic varieties mainly spoken in Sweden and Finland, usually seen as Swedish dialects, although the differences between them and Standard Swedish are often larger than between the latter and the other standard Mainland Scandinavian languages. In addition to being conservative in many respects – e.g. in preserving nominal cases and subject-verb agreement – these varieties also display many innovative features. These include extended uses of definite articles, incorporation of attributive adjectives, and a variety of possessive constructions. Although considerable attention has been given to these phenomena in earlier literature, this book is the first to put them in the perspective of typology and grammaticalization processes. It also looks for a plausible account of the historical origin of the changes involved, arguing that many of them spread from central Sweden, where they were later reverted due to the influence from prestige varieties coming from southern Scandinavia.

  • 15.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kvantitativ språktypologi2015In: Kungl. Vetenskapssamhällets i Uppsala årsbok 40/2013-14 / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Larsson, Uppsala: Kungliga Vetenskapssamhället , 2015, p. 71-81Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Tense, aspect, mood, and evidentiality, linguistics of2015In: International encyclopedia of the social & behavioral sciences / [ed] James D. Wright, Oxford: Elsevier, 2015, 2 uppl., p. 210-213Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The “minor language” perspective2015In: Major versus Minor? Languages and Literatures in a Globalized World / [ed] Theo D’haen, Iannis Goerlandt, Roger D. Sell, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 15-24Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nods, headshakeas and the perception of multimodal constructions in child language2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within gesture studies, gesture and speech is often conceived of as a single communicative system. This means that human production of gestures are temporally and semantically synchronized with the concurrent verbal phrase, or vice versa. These multimodal clusters are described as constructions where the modalities add different but interrelated content to a common semantic whole, an Utterance (e.g. Goldin-Meadow, 2009, 2011; Kendon, 2004; Murillo & Belinchón, 2012). While this appears to be true for a large amount of gesture types – in particular those who fall under the heading Co-speech Gestures (i.e. gesture that by definition co-occur with a spoken utterance) – there are other gestures that are less explored as to their relation to speech and multimodal meaning. Among these other gestures we find emblems, a vaguely defined group of gestures that are often claimed to carry a semantic meaning on their own, regardless of (optional) concurrent verbalizations (McNeill, 1992). The present study investigated two emblematic gesture forms – nods and headshakes – and their appearance and use in a longitudinal, naturalistic material of child-child and child-adult interaction. The data consists of 11 Swedish children in the ages 0;9 to 5;10 years of age, recorded during a period of 2 ½ years as they interacted with siblings, parents, and friends in their home environment. In all, 22 hours of video recordings were transcribed and analyzed. From the data we could conclude two main factors: i) even emblems appear to be largely speech dependent for their interpretation; and ii) nods and headshakes appear to follow different developmental trajectories and behave rather differently throughout the ages studied. These findings will be discussed in relation to language development in general and to the perceptive system of humans in particular.

  • 19.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The Swedish MINT-project – or, the quest to pull apart and put together constituents of verbal and nonverbal interaction2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hammar, Tabea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Personliga pronomen i pidginspråk: En jämförande undersökning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pidgins are contact languages that emerge under strained sociolinguistic circumstances. They are seen as the most reduced linguistic system that can still enable successful communication in a specific social context. To this date there is a lack of research investigating how pidgins form their linguistic systems. The present study is intended to be a step towards extended knowledge within the field and aims to investigate how pidgins form their personal pronoun paradigms. The occurrence of nine different grammatical features in 18 pidgins, their lexifiers and most important substrates has been surveyed. The data was collected through literature search and compiled in tables in the computer program Excel. The results show that all surveyed features occur among the pidgins but the frequencies vary. The data indicates that the substrates have a prominent role in the process of pidgins forming their personal pronoun paradigms.

  • 21.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Incremental syntactic prediction in the comprehension of Swedish2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehenders need to incrementally integrate incoming input with previously processed material. Constraint-based and probabilistic theories of language understanding hold that comprehenders do this by drawing on implicit knowledge about the statistics of the language signal, as observed in their previous experience. I test this prediction against the processing of grammatical relations in Swedish transitive sentences, combining corpus-based modeling and a self-paced reading experiment.

    Grammatical relations are often assumed to express role-semantic (e.g., Actor and Undergoer) and discourse-related (such as topic and focus) functions that are encoded on the basis of a systematic interplay between morphosyntactic (e.g., case and word order), semantic / referential (e.g., animacy and definiteness) and verb semantic (e.g., volitionality and sentience) information. Constraint-based and probabilistic theories predict that these information types serve as cues in the process of assigning functions to the argument NPs during language comprehension. The weighting, interplay and availability of these cues vary across languages but do so in systematic ways. For example, languages with fixed word orders tend to have less morphological marking of grammatical relations than languages with less rigid word order restrictions. The morphological marking of grammatical relations is also in many languages restricted to NP arguments which are non-prototypical or marked in terms of semantic or referential properties, given their functions (overt case marking of objects is, e.g., restricted to personal pronouns in English and Swedish). I first assess how these factors affect constituent order (i.e. the order of grammatical relations) in a corpus of Swedish and then test whether comprehenders use the statistical information contained in these cues.

    Corpus study. The distribution of SVO and OVS orders conditional on semantic / referential (e.g., animacy and givenness), morphosyntactic (e.g., case) and verb semantic (e.g. volitionality) information was calculated on the basis of 16552 transitive sentences, extracted from a syntactically annotated corpus of Swedish. Three separate mixed logistic regression models were fit to derive the incremental predictions that a simulated comprehender with experience in Swedish would have after seeing the sentence up to and including the first NP (model 1), the verb (model 2), or the second NP (model 3). The regression models provide separate estimates of the objective probability of SVO vs. OVS word order at each point in the sentence. This information was used to design stimuli for a self-paced reading experiment to test whether comprehenders draw on this objectively present information in the input.

    Self-paced reading experiment. 45 participants read transitive sentences that varied with respect to word order (SVO vs. OVS), NP1 animacy (animate vs. inanimate) and verb class (volitional vs. experiencer).  By-region reading times were well-described by the region-by-region shifts in the probability of SVO vs. OVS word order, calculated as the relative entropy. For example, reading times in the NP2 region observed in locally ambiguous, object-initial sentences were mitigated when the animacy of NP1 and its interaction with the verb class bias towards an object-initial word order, as predicted by the constraint-based and probabilistic theories.

  • 22.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A história das línguas: uma introduçâo2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att välja ur antiken2015In: Klassisk filologi i Sverige: Reflexioner, riktningar, översättningar, öden / [ed] Eric Cullhed, Bo Lindberg, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2015, p. 41-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerna och vi: Reflektioner över ett populärvetenskapligt projekt2015In: Kungl. Vetenskapssamhällets i Uppsala årsbok 40/2013-2014 / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Larsson, Uppsala: Kungl. Vetenskapssamhällets i Uppsala , 2015, p. 9-19Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Storia naturale del latino: La storia della lingua più famosa del mondo2015Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The History of Languages (på koreanska): An Introduction (på koreanska)2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Modeling the Evolution of Creoles2015In: Language Dynamics and Change, ISSN 2210-5824, E-ISSN 2210-5832, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various theories have been proposed regarding the origin of creole languages. Describing a process where only the end result is documented involves several methodological difficulties. In this paper we try to address some of the issues by using a novel mathematical model together with detailed empirical data on the origin and structure of Mauritian Creole. Our main focus is on whether Mauritian Creole may have originated only from a mutual desire to communicate, without a target language or prestige bias. Our conclusions are affirmative. With a confirmation bias towards learning from successful communication, the model predicts Mauritian Creole better than any of the input languages, including the lexifier French, thus providing a compelling and specific hypothetical model of how creoles emerge. The results also show that it may be possible for a creole to develop quickly after first contact, and that it was created mostly from material found in the input languages, but without inheriting their morphology.

  • 28.
    Knuchel, Dominique
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A comparative study of egophoric marking: Investigating its relation to person and epistemic marking in three language families2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Egophoric marking as a potentially categorical expression in language is conceived of as a binary semantic contrast that marks an event as either involving one of the speech act participants (egophoric), or as one that does not (non-egophoric). Prima facie, the egophoric marking pattern resembles person indexing and has been interpreted as such. However, it appears that what is marked does not simply correspond to indexing the speech act roles of speaker and addressee. Rather, egophoric marking appears to encode the speech participant’s respective access to events/information in terms of ‘involvement’ and is therefore more akin to epistemic categories, such as evidentiality.

    This thesis presents a comparative study of egophoric marking on the basis of data from descriptions of relevant languages from the Barbacoan (South America), Nakh-Daghestanian (Caucasus) and Tibeto-Burman (Himalaya) language families. The study covers grammatical and functional properties, as well as diachronic aspects of egophoric marking systems. The findings are discussed in relation to typological studies on person and evidentiality in order to determine similarities and differences between egophoric marking and these associated categories. 

  • 29.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Introducing the panel: what can be meant by areal semantics?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the panel is to initiate a discussion on which lexico-semantic phenomena show parallells across the (West-)African languages and how these similarities may be described and accounted for – by universal tendencies, genetic relations among the languages, their contacts and/or their common extra-linguistic surrounding. Areal semantics (Ameka & Wilkins 1996, Koptjevskaja-Tamm & Liljegren forthc.), in its concern with the diffusion of semantic features across language boundaries in a geographical area, is a potentially vast field, spanning the convergence of individual lexemes, through the structuring of entire semantic domains to the organization of complete lexicons. It has a great potential for historical and areal linguistics, but is still awaiting systematic research. Lexical phenomena have a long standing record in research on language contact and linguistic areas. However, the recent developments in areal linguistics and areal typology have, with a few exceptions, mainly concerned grammatical phenomena. This is not at all surprising given the central place of this research in modern linguistics of all denominations, including typology, where the rapidly developing field of areal typology has encouraged and facilitated serious research on the relative role of universal, genetic and areal factors for many grammatical and phonetic phenomena. The two traditionally distinguished groups of contact phenomena in the lexicon are loanwords and calques, or semantic loans – the distinction paralleled by contact phenomena at other levels (‘replication of matter’ vs. ‘pattern replication’ in Matras and Sakel 2007, also Croft's 2000 distinction between ‘substance linguemes’ and ‘schematic linguemes’ and Heine and Kuteva's 2005 ‘polysemy copying’). Loanwords have been studied from a more systematic cross-linguistic perspective, where the core issue has been the varying borrowability of various words, seen as belonging to different parts of speech and/or coming from different semantic domains (cf. Haspelmath and Tadmor eds. 2009, Wohlgemuth 2009). The interesting research angles here, as elsewhere in research on contact phenomena and in (areal-)typological research (cf. Koptjevskaja-Tamm 2011) are possible outcomes of language contact in the realm of the lexicon, on the one hand, and a possibility of using lexical phenomena for reconstructing contact, on the other. But a lexical-typological contribution to areal linguistics has an even greater potential when it comes to pattern replication rather than to replication of matter. To give one example, Hayward (1991, 2000, also Treis 2010) points out many shared lexicalization patterns in the three Ethiopian languages Amharic (Semitic), Oromo (Cushitic) and Gamo (Omotic), which add to the cumulative evidence in favour of the Ethio-Erithrean linguistic area and fall into four categories: (i) shared semantic specializations, e.g. ‘die without ritual slaughter (of cattle)’;  (ii) shared polysemy, e.g. ‘draw water’ – ‘copy’; (iii) shared derivational pathways, e.g. ‘need’ = causative of ‘want’: (iv) shared ideophones and idioms, e.g., ‘I caught a cold’ expressed via ‘a cold caught me’. Matisoff (2004), Vanhove (ed. 2008), Zalizniak et al. (2012) and Urban (2012) give numerous examples of cross-linguistically recurrent patterns of polysemy (e.g., ‘eat’ –> ‘suffer’), some of which are clearly areally restricted and witness of language contact, whereas others rather reflect universal tendencies.

  • 30.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Swedish proper-name compounds in blogs: creativity, productivity and frequency2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 9-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate creativity, productivity and frequency of Swedish proper-name compounds following in the steps of Dahl (2003, 2008) and Kajanus (2005). These studies described several examples of Swedish compounding patterns based on a particular proper name that have manifested a gradual diachronic rise in the frequency of both types (by spreading to further stems) and tokens, i.e. have been gradually entrenched. Dahl’s most striking example is the explosive development of Swedish PropN-compounding with Palme as the first component, following on the important and highly salient event in the modern Swedish history, the murder of the Swedish prime-minister in 1986. In fact, many Palme-compounds are related to the “murder script”, with Palme often metonymic for the Palme murder and also for further compounds derived from it (by means of metonymical chains), cf. Palme+kulorna — ’the Palme bullets, i.e. the bullets found at some distance from the place of the Palme murder’, Palme+misstänkta — ‘Palme suspects, i.e. persons suspected of having committed the Palme murder’, Palme+utredningen ’the Palme investigation, i.e. the investigation of the Palme murder’, etc. In all these previous studies the data come from the Swedish press and novel corpus (86 mln words). Our research uses the Swedish Blog Sentences corpus containing 6 mlrd tokens from 46 mln blog posts in the period of 2010-2014 (Östling and Wirén. We focus on creativity, productivity and frequency of compounds based on several proper names that have been particularly salient in the discourse during the relevant period . We consider how the fluctuations in the type and token frequencies of the proper-name compouns correlate with the rises and falls in the frequency of the relevant proper names. Interestingly, there are very few highly frequent compounds – in fact, 1-2 for each of the proper names considered (e.g., Putinregimen ‘the Putin regime’, Zlatanboken ‘the Zlatan book’, Obamaadministrationen ‘the Obama administration’). On the other hand, each of the proper names ”generates” a high number of unique compounds, i.e. compounds that have only one occurrence in the whole corpus. Finally, there are also proper name compounds that are in-between the unique and the highly frequent ones, but this group is quite restricted.

  • 31.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature terms across languages: derivation, lexical stability and lexical universals2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 28-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this talk I will focus on the cross-linguistic regularities in the origin and development of temperature terms, such as ‘warm’ or ‘cold’, based on the data from about 40 languages in Koptjevskaja-Tamm (ed. 2015). The first question concerns motivational patterns typical for temperature terms, i.e., to what extent and by which word-formation strategies temperature terms are derived from expressions with other meanings. To give a few examples, some of the most frequent sources for ‘hot’ include, not surprisingly, such concepts as ‘burn’, ‘fire’, ‘boil’, ‘cook’, ‘sweat’, while those for ‘cold’ include ‘ice’, ‘shade’, ‘winter’, ‘brr’, ‘to become stiff’. In fact, the close relation between the conventionalised expressions for ‘warm/hot’ and those for ‘fire’ or ‘sweat’ in some languages raises the issue of whether the former do indeed belong to the basic or central temperature terms. In addition, there are many other sources for temperature terms. A fascinating group of questions related to the origin and development of temperature terms concerns their stability. For instance, do genetically related languages share temperature cognates? If they do, do the cognates have the same or similar meanings? What is the role of language contact in shaping the temperature term systems? It has been suggested in earlier research that central temperature terms are unusually stable, i.e. that they are typically «passed on essentially unchanged and with essentially no vocabulary turn-over across hundreds of generations of grammar&lexicon acquirers for thousands of years» (Plank 2010). However, the answers to the above listed questions differ for different languages, or for groups of languages. For instance, some of the central temperature terms across Indo-European turn out to be extremely stable, but these languages also testify to numerous instances of lexical replacement or addition of new temperature terms. The temperature terms in the two closely related Timor-Alor-Pantar languages Abui and Kamang and across the Nyulnyulan family are, on the contrary, strikingly dissimilar. Significantly, in all these cases, the meanings of cognates and their place in the overall temperature system of a language may be subject to significant variation.

  • 32.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    IJzerman, Hans
    How our biology predisposes us to an "AFFECTION IS WARMTH" "metaphor", and how our environment changes its anchor2015In: 48th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europea: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Alwin Kloekhorst, Martin Kohlberger, 2015, p. 83-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "AFFECTION IS WARMTH" is one of the most widely quoted "universal" conceptual metaphors. Cognitive linguists suggest these to be conceptual, based on frequently used English expressions as “warm words, feelings”. In this talk, we will reflect on their cross-disciplinary collaboration, using both the findings of a large-scale cross-linguistic study of the meanings and uses of the temperature terms in the world’s languages and the insights from (social) psychology. Our first question –inspired by Geeraerts and Grondelaers (1995) –was to explore whether these reflect universal patterns or whether they are based on specific cultural traditions. Their presence across languages indeed varies considerably: while some languages demonstrate elaborated systems of such uses, quite a few lack them altogether, and yet others vary as to which temperature term has predominantly positive associations in its extended uses (e.g. ‘cold’rather than ‘warm’). This disconfirms the idea that this conceptual metaphor is universal, and further confirms suspicions from social psychology, which has falsified another basic assumption from conceptual metaphor theory –unidirectionality (IJzerman & Semin 2010). In the remainder, we first explore these patterns, and then provide first explorations for why they are likely to differ across languages. Perhaps surprisingly, the edited volume by Koptjevskaja-Tamm (2015) clearly reveals a significant variance in using temperature metaphors. Australian languages, Hup (Nadahup), Mapudungun (Araucanian), and Ojibwe (Algonquian) basically lack any extended use of temperature terms, while the 84SLE 2015 Book of AbstractsOceanic languages in Vanuatu and Nganasan (Uralic) have very few. This is in contrast both to some European and other Asian languages, but also to the African languages Ewe, Gbaya, Gurenɛ, Likpe, Sɛlɛɛ, Abui and Kamang (Timor-Alor-Pantar), and Yucatec Maya. These latter reveal a rich inventory of extended uses pertaining to their temperature terms, ranging from the more common ones, to the idiosyncratic ones. The actual cross-linguistic variation is both striking, thought-provoking, and calling for more research. Insights from (social) psychology may provide us with further answers for why such cross-cultural variation exists among languages. The most important reason is likely that temperature metaphors reflect how people deal with the metabolic demands of the environment. Thermoregulation is one of the most metabolically expensive activities across the animal kingdom. Other animals (and thus also humans) help regulate the temperature environment when this gets too cold, making a comfortable warm touch seem to answer basic biological necessities in mammalian sociality (Harlow & Suomi 1970; IJzerman et al. 2015). The second part of this talk will discuss the biological mechanisms behind social thermoregulation, and point to how others keeping us warm can help us answer to basic metabolic needs (cf. Beckes & Coan 2011; Beckes et al. 2014). From that, humans have developed so-called "cultural complements" to deal with the demands of the environment, and we will speculate that different linguistic metaphors are reflective of different metabolic needs across cultures, which are implemented according to different cultural practices (e.g., differences in touch) and rely on different needsdepending on the environment (e.g., different climates). Together, we discuss how language can facilitate culturally coordinated metabolism regulation, and thus point to the role of different attention-driving functions of linguistic –not conceptual –metaphors in cultural coordination.

  • 33.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Antonyms and derivational negation: a pilot study of cross-linguistic variation2015In: ALT 2015: 11th Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology. August 1-3, 2015, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Abstract Booklet, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico , 2015, p. 85-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typological research on negation has mainly focused on clausal negation and on indefinite pronouns in the scope of negation (see Miestamo 2007 for an overview). Derivational affixes expressing negation (e.g., un- in unhappy or -less in powerless), have so far not figured in systematic typological studies. Zimmer's (1964) seminal study of affixal negation with adjectives is mainly restricted to a few well-known Indo-European languages; other families are given less attention. Semantically, derivational negation is closely connected to antonymy, which can be expressed by unrelated lexemes (lexical antonyms: small vs. big) or by means of overt derivational negation (morphological antonyms: happy vs. unhappy). Lexical and morphological antonymy do not necessarily exclude each other. E.g., Russian has regular triads of the kind bol’šoj ‘big’ – malen’kij ‘little’ – nebol’šoj ‘NEG.big’, and even tetrads, such as dobryj ‘kind’ – zloj ‘mean’ – nedobryj ‘NEG.kind’ – nezloj ‘NEG.mean’. Antonymy has been a popular topic in semantic theories and in logic (see Horn 2001). A central distinction is the one between contradictory vs. contrary opposites; the former are either–or (dead vs. alive), whereas the latter show a middle ground between the two poles (small vs. big). It has been suggested that languages have “canonical antonyms”, i.e. “a limited core of highly opposable couplings” (speed: slow/fast, luminosity: dark/light, strength: weak/strong, size small/large, width: narrow/wide, merit bad/good and thickness thin/thick) (Paradis & al. 2009). However, systematic typological studies of antonymy are lacking. This talk presents a cross-linguistic pilot study of antonymy and its expression by both lexical and overt morphological means. Our pilot sample includes 20 languages from different families and geographical areas. The data come from dictionaries and grammars as well as from a questionnaire sent to language experts. We focus on antonymy in property words (adjectives), more specifically in such forms that can be used as adnominal modifiers, with the goal to find correlations between semantic and formal properties of antonyms. From the formal point of view, we will pay attention to the type of marking (e.g., prefix vs. suffix), to the number of different derivational negators in a language, whether these markers can be used on other word classes than property words and how they are related to other negative markers in the language, primarily to clausal negation. Taking in semantics, we will observe what types of opposition (contrary vs. contradictory, scalar vs. non-scalar etc.) and which domains (evaluation, size, dimension, temperature etc.) are expressed by lexical antonyms vs. each attested type of overt morphological marking. Specific hypotheses to be tested against the cross-linguistic data include the following. Evaluatively positive members of an antonym pair are more likely to accept morphological negation (unclever vs. *unstupid). The existence of a lexical antonym may block the possibility of morphological marking and if triads (or tetrads) exist, there will be cross-linguistically recurring ways in which the meanings of the lexical vs. morphological antonyms are related to each other. Morphological antonyms built with elements similar to clausal negators in the language will tend to involve contradictory rather than contrary opposites.

  • 34.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Antonyms and word-level negation2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 74-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typological research on negation has focused most prominently on standard negation, i.e. the basic negation strategies in declarative clauses, and some work has also been done on other aspects of clausal negation as well as on indefinite pronouns in the scope of negation. Negation at the level of words, i.e., derivational affixes expressing negation as well as case markers with negative semantics, has so far not figured in systematic typological studies, but it has received some attention in theoretical literature on semantics and morphology. Zimmer (1964) discusses “affixal” negation primarily in English and a couple of other Indo-European languages, but also comments on a few non-­Indo‐European languages and even suggests some cross‐linguistic generalizations. Subsequent work (e.g., Horn 1989) is similarly restricted in its cross‐linguistic scope. From the semantic point of view, the issue of word­‐level negation is closely connected to antonymy. Antonymy and types of opposition have been a popular topic in semantic theories (see Horn 1989), where the central distinction is between contrary and contradictory opposites. The two types differ as to whether they allow a third possibility in-­between: contradictory opposites are either–or (dead vs. alive), whereas in contrary opposites there is a middle ground between the two poles (small vs. big). Linguistically, antonyms can be expressed by unrelated lexemes (lexical antonyms) like the examples cited above, or by means of overt negation (happy vs. unhappy, possible vs. impossible). Lexical and morphological antonymy do not necessarily exclude each other. E.g., Russian has regular triads of the kind bol’šoj ‘big’ – malen’kij ‘little’ – nebol’šoj ‘NEG‐big’, and even tetrads, such as dobryj ‘kind’ – zloj ‘mean’ – nedobryj ‘NEG-­kind’ – nezloj ‘NEG-­mean’. Despite all the attention that antonymy has received from semanticists, work in a broader cross‐linguistic comparative perspective is lacking. This talk presents a pilot study of antonymy and its expression by both lexical and overt morphological means. We will focus on antonymy in property words (adjectives), more specifically in such forms that can be used as adnominal modifiers. Our main interest will be in finding correlations between semantic and formal properties of antonyms. From the formal point of view, we will pay attention to the type of marking (e.g., prefix vs. suffix), to the number of different word-­‐level negators in a language, whether these markers can be used on other word classes than property words and how they are related to other negative markers in the language. Taking in semantics, we will observe what types of opposition (contrary vs. contradictory, scalar vs. non-­‐scalar etc.)and which domains of property scales (evaluation, size, dimension, temperature etc.) are expressed by lexical antonyms vs. each attested type of overt morphological marking, i.e. whether the linguistic evidence allows us to classify antonyms into cross‐linguistically relevant types. Does the existence of a lexical antonym exclude the possibility of morphological marking? Do the markers exclude one another on the same lexical item? Are there semantic principles governing such blocking effects? Can triads and/or tetrads be found in addition to pairs? Our pilot sample includes 15 languages from different families and geographical areas. The data comes from dictionaries and grammars and, most importantly, from a questionnaire sent to language experts. As this is a pilot study of a domain previously unexplored in language typology, our main goal is to sketch different ways of approaching this intriguing domain from a broader cross-­linguistic perspective.

  • 35.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Action nouns2015In: Word formation: an international handbook of the Languages of Europe / [ed] Peter O. Müller, ingeborg Ohnheiser, Susan Olsen, Franz Rainer, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 1195-2009Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Action nominals consitute a cross-linguistically robustly attested phenomenon. The present article provides an overview of the central problems related to their status as mixed category, situated in-between prototypical verbs and prototypical nouns, such as the verbal and nominal properties of action nominals and internal syntax of action nominal constructions, the status of action nominals as inflected, derived or transposed words and the different theoretical approaches to their formation. It combines a large-scale typological perspective on action nominals in the languages of Europe with a closer look at some particular phenomena in particular languages. 

  • 36.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Introducing "The linguistics of temperature"2015In: The linguistics of temperature / [ed] Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 1-40Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Semantic typology2015In: Handbook of cognitive linguistics / [ed] Ewa Dąbrowska, Dagmar Divjak, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 453-472Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperaturord: lexikal typologi och lexikografi2015In: 13. Konference om Leksikografi i Norden: Abstracts til foredrag, 2015, p. 7-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Temperatur tillhör våra mest självklara dagliga upplevelser, som vi gärna pratar om. Tänk på alla kalla, svala, kyliga, ljumma, varma och heta dagar som vi avhandlar i samband med det ofarligaste och vanligaste nordiska samtalsämnet, vädret. Ljummet kaffe och ljummen champagne väcker negativa känslor, kalla fötter kan leda till en förkylning, medan en alltför varm panna vittnar om att man redan är sjuk. Vi använder också temperaturbeskrivningar för annat – man förväntar sig inte någon empati av en kall människa; heta kyssar är knappast avsedda för ens barn; vissa klär bättre i varma än i kalla färger. Språk varierar dock kraftigt i fråga om antal temperaturord, vad de betyder och hur de används. Vissa språk skiljer endast på ’varm’ och ’kall’; andra tycks tvärtom ha alldeles för många temperaturord där svenskan klarar sig med ett. Språk varierar också i fråga om temperaturordens grammatik. Många språk har exempelvis inte några temperaturadjektiv alls, utom använder temperaturverb, ungefär som frysa, fast för allting. Slutligen är också språk väldigt olika när det gäller varifrån temperaturorden kommer och i vilka överförda betydelser de används. ’Varm’ och ’het’ kommer ofta från ord som betyder ’eld’ eller ’att brinna’, men ’varm’ på estniska, soe, är besläktad med sauna och kommer ursprungligen från ett ord med betydelsen ’(be)skydd’. Flera afrikanska språk har samma ord för ’varm’ och ’snabb’, ’en kall plånbok’ på japanska syftar på någon som är pank, medan aboriginspråk i Australien brukar sakna överförda användningar av temperaturord.Men kan språksystem variera helt fritt i fråga om hur många temperaturuttryck de har och vad de betyder, vilket grammatiskt beteende de uppvisar, varifrån de kommer och vilka överförda betydelser de har, eller finns det begränsningar? Liknande frågeställningar utgjorde grunden för det lexikaltypologiska projektet “Varmt och kallt – universellt eller språkspecifikt?” (Vetenskapsrådet) och volymen “The linguistics of temperature” (https://benjamins.com/#catalog/books/tsl.107/main), som studerat temperaturord i ca 50 språk från olika språkfamiljer och geografiska områden. I föredraget kommer jag att presentera de viktigaste resultaten av den tvärspråkliga jämförelsen och använda dem för att diskutera beröringspunkter mellan lexikografi och lexikal typologi.

  • 39.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The linguistics of temperature2015Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume is the first comprehensive typological study of the conceptualisation of temperature in languages as reflected in their systems of central temperature terms (hot, cold, to freeze, etc). The key questions addressed here include such as how languages categorize the temperature domain and what other uses the temperature expressions may have, e.g., when metaphorically referring to emotions (‘warm words’). The volume contains studies of more than 50 genetically, areally and typologically diverse languages and is unique in considering cross-linguistic patterns defined both by lexical and grammatical information. The detailed descriptions of the linguistic and extra-linguistic facts will serve as an important step in teasing apart the role of the different factors in how we speak about temperature – neurophysiology, cognition, environment, social-cultural practices, genetic relations among languages, and linguistic contact. The book is a significant contribution to semantic typology, and will be of interest for linguists, psychologists, anthropologists and philosophers.

  • 40.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rakhilina, Ekaterina
    Vanhove, Martine
    The semantics of lexical typology2015In: The Routledge Handbook of Semantics / [ed] Nick Riemer, Oxford: Routledge, 2015, p. 434-454Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter mainly focuses on lexical typology understood as cross-linguistic research on domain categorization. It introduces some of the critical theoretical and methodological issues inherent in it where lexical typology has to find its own way in balancing between the ambitions of theoretical semantics, lexicography and general typology. After that four different approaches are presented and discussed: componential analysis; Natural Semantic Metalanguage; denotation-based (or etic-grid) semantics, and combinatorial lexical typology. The two final sections are devoted to implicational vs. probabilistic semantic maps as representations of meanings and generalizations in lexical typology, and to future prospects in lexico-typological research.

  • 41.
    Kowalik, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Case and case alignment in the Greater Hindukush: An areal-typological survey2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns languages in the Greater Hindukush, the area in northern Afghanistan and Pakistan, where a total of about 50 languages are spoken. The thesis’ topic is case systems and case alignment systems of nouns in an areal-typological perspective. This is investigated by using a representative sample. The grammatical relations of S, A and P, and the cases marking these, are investigated. The three attested alignment systems are accusative, ergative and split, and are clearly geogra-phically distributed, which indicates that their status is areal-typological. Based on the sample, there seems to be a tendency for the languages in the Greater Hindukush to exhibit split align-ment systems built on tense-aspect. Most languages employ accusative alignment in imperfect-tive, and ergative alignment in perfective tense-aspects. A compa­rison with a worldwide sample (WALS) is only partly possible, as this sample uses more categories than accusative, ergative and split, but the present sample supports the results in those categories which can be compared. A predominant pattern in core case syncretism is observed, with an opposition of the nomi­native singular versus the nominative plural and the oblique in both numbers.

  • 42.
    Lange, Noa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nominal plurality in languages of the Greater Hindukush2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Greater Hindukush is an area that stretches from northwestern–central Afghanistan, through Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit–Baltistan of Pakistan and to Kashmir in northwestern India. It is home to some fifty languages of various genera including Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto- Burman, Turkic and the isolate Burushaski. It has long been of interest in areal typology, and there has been some discussion of phonological and lexical features shared between the languages, presumed to have evolved due to language contiguity and contact. The purpose of the present study is to research a grammatical feature, namely the plural marking of common nouns, in a selection of languages spoken in the Greater Hindukush area, and to discuss its salience as an areal or sub-areal feature. Several grammars have been consulted in the extraction and analysis of all relevant information on nominal plurality in the languages. The results indicate a correlation between stem modification as a means of marking nouns for plural, as well as optionality in the overt plural marking, and the contiguity of some languages. Conclusively, stem change as a method of expression displays some moderate degree of areality, while optionality of nominal plural marking in particular is suggested as a sub-areal feature of the area.

  • 43.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hindukush-Karakoram as a Linguistic Area: Problems and Prospects2015In: Abstract Book: The 2nd Kashmir International Conference on Linguistics, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hindukush, Karakoram, and Western-most Himalayan mountain region – comprising northern Pakistan, northeastern Afghanistan and the territories of Kashmir on both sides of the LOC – is characterized by great linguistic and cultural diversity. The 40-50 distinct language varieties spoken in the region belong to various genera (Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman, Turkic and the isolate Burushaski) and a number of different languages serve as lingua franca. It is also a transit zone between the cultural spheres of South Asia, Central Asia, and  the Himalayas.

    On the one hand, there are linguistic features shared by a large number of the region’s languages (Bashir 2003, 821–823; Tikkanen 1999; 2008), in some cases as the result of prolonged language contact, in others – such as in the so-called “Dardic” group of Indo-Aryan – due to shared retention (Morgenstierne 1961, 139; Strand 2001). On the other, there is also a good deal of structural diversity. Instead of trying to simplify the picture by proposing another Linguistic Area (or Sprachbund), this presentation aims at outlining a more nuanced, fine-tuned, and typologically-enlightened, profile of this region, a region that I henceforth will refer to as the Greater Hindukush Region. Certain features are identified as macroareal (i.e. as characteristic of a much larger area which this region forms only a small part of), other features as linking features (i.e. linking a part of the region with a geographically adjacent area), yet others as essentially regional (i.e. Hindukush-specific), or features with a significant sub-regional scope. The framework and the terms used are largely the ones proposed by Masica (2001).

    Arriving at the present, yet tentative, “profile”, an empirical study was undertaken, whereby a substantial number of traits (phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical—many of them overlapping with those of WALS (Haspelmath 2005), the World Atlas of Language Structure) were taken into account, drawing from the author’s own fieldwork in the region, collaboration with several native-speaker consultants, as well as from studies undertaken in the past by other scholars. Among the features discussed are: a tripartite differentiation within the affricate and fricative subsets (Tikkanen 2008, 255), the emergence of tonal contrasts (Baart 2003; Liljegren 2013), the display and degree of ergativity (Liljegren 2014), the presence vs. absence of gender distinctions, vigesimal numeral systems, multi-dimensional deictic contrasts, shared derivational pathways in kinship differentiation, double-marked contrastive constructions, and the prevalence of complex predicates (Liljegren 2010).

    While the treatment is primarily a synchronic one, we will also have to assume several layers of settlement and highly complex patterns of language contact even in a distant past. In addition, there are strong indications that several ancient substrata (the proto-language of Burushaski most likely one of them) have made important contributions to shaping the present-day typologies (Tikkanen 1988, 304; Zoller 2005, 16–18; Bashir 1996, 203).

  • 44.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Facts, feelings and temperature expressions in the Hindukush2015In: The Linguistics of Temperature / [ed] Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 440-470Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indo-Aryan Palula (Pakistan) is spoken in a part of the mountainous Hindukush region characterised by sharp climatic and altitude contrasts. In this study, five central temperature terms are investigated and related to tactile temperature, ambient temperature and experiencer-based (i.e. personal-feeling) temperature: táatu ‘hot/warm’, šidáalu ‘cold’, húluk ‘heat’, šidaloó ‘coolness’, and šid ‘coldness’. A few salient correlations between particular expressions and the type of experience involved are identified: First, temperature adjectives are restricted to the domain of rational experience, whereas temperature nouns typically are associated with expressions that refer to thermal (and subjective) comfort or ambient temperature. Second, while temperature evaluated or measured directly by touching an entity tends to be grammatically encoded as noun modification, the subjective experience is expressed with the temperature noun as a stimulus acting upon a non-nominative experiencer. Finally we discuss a few semantic extensions into the human temperament/propensity domain, such as ‘affection is warmth’ and ‘anger is heat’.

  • 45.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Palula texts2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to "Towards a grammatical description of Palula" (Liljegren 2008) and "Palula vocabulary" (Liljegren & Haider 2011). A collection of texts representing various genres (historical narratives, ethnographic accounts, personal experiences, proverbs, etc.) have been transcribed and annotated, including morphological analysis, a free translation into English and an orthographic representation (Perso-Arabic based) of the transcribed text. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). Henrik Liljegren is a field linguist at Stockholm University, Sweden, and Naseem Haider, himself a native speaker of Palula, is a local researcher with the Forum for Language Initiatives in Islamabad.

  • 46.
    Lindmark, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hungrig som en gnu och snäll som en karamell: En korpusstudie över nutida liknelser i svenska bloggtexter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien kartlägger vanliga adjektivliknelser i svenska bloggtexter ur två aspekter, vilka adjektiv och substantiv som förekommer tillsammans i konstruktionen ADJEKTIV som en/ett SUBSTANTIV samt deras grad av konventionalisering. Tidigare forskning visar att liknelser är svårdefinierade, vilket tas upp i bakgrunden. Materialet är hämtat från fem korpusar med svensk bloggtext. Resultaten visar att de vanligaste adjektivliknelserna föredrar att knyta an till ett eller några substantiv. Däremot finns det visst utrymme för produktivitet. Studien är en preliminär kartläggning över hur pass konventionaliserade liknelserna är. Möjliga källor för uppkomst av liknelserna diskuteras i diskussionen. Resultaten belyser även att det finns en ytterligare dimension i definitionen av liknelser utöver kontinuumet mellan bokstavlighet och figurativitet, nämligen en distinktion mellan exaktare måttangivelse och figurativitet.

  • 47.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gender in Kuot, an East Papuan Isolate2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Luzhkova, Elena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ongoing Semantic Change in Seven Swedish Words: A questionnaire-based study2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The lexical semantics of a language is an area of linguistics that has many important implications for the life of modern society. It is important to understand how language change works and why this change occurs. Thus the aim of the work described in the thesis was to examine how six Swedish words, fett, fräsch, fräck, grym, häftig, and tajt are used by five different age groups of Swedish people in Uppsala region. To accomplish the aim of the study an appropriate questionnaire was compiled and used by the author. The questionnaire asked for information about the respondents as well as about the usage of each studied word. Analogous previous studies of the ongoing semantic change are reported in literature, frequently in regard to the words from English language. My results show that most of the chosen words are used differently by different age groups. Some words change their usage only slightly while other words experience larger metamorphose. The investigated words do not change their meaning completely, however some meanings do become more or less frequent. The results also show that the usage of the words does not always correlate to their dictionary definitions. Overall it can be concluded that semantic change for the considered words is a gradual ongoing process.

  • 49.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Maailman kielellinen diversiteetti ja sen tutkimus2015In: Virittäjä : Kotikielen Seuran aikakauslehti, ISSN 0042-6806, E-ISSN 2242-8828, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 104-108Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Miestamo, Matti
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Helsingfors Universitet.
    Koponen, Eino
    Helsingfors Universitet.
    Negation in Skolt Saami2015In: Negation in Uralic languages / [ed] Miestamo, Matti; Tamm, Anne, Wagner-Nagy, Beáta, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 353-376Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes negation in Skolt Saami in a typological perspective. In the standard negation construction, the negative marker is a negative auxiliary verb and the lexical verb appears in a non-finite form. Negative imperatives employ a special form for the negative auxiliary. The copula used with non-verbal predicates is negated with standard negation, but a special contracted form may also appear. In dependent clauses, negation is expressed either by standard negation or using the verbal abessive. With negative indefinite pronouns, the negative auxiliary is present in the clause. There is an abessive case for nominals to express absence, and a privative suffix can derive adjectives. Other aspects of negation, such as negative replies, the scope of negation, and reinforcing negation are also addressed.

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