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  • 1.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Complex Epistemic Perspective in Kogi (Arwako)2016In: International Journal of American Linguistics, ISSN 0020-7071, E-ISSN 1545-7001, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 1-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes a form of epistemic marking in Kogi (Arwako-Chibchan) that positions information between the speech-participants from the perspective of the speaker. This form of epistemic marking is tentatively labeled “complex epistemic perspective” and is found with five prefixes that attach to the auxiliary verb. Relevant meaning contrasts are between speaker-perspective and addressee-perspective forms, which may in turn be separated into symmetric and asymmetric forms that signal shared and exclusive knowledge access. The meaning dimension of knowledge access is also subject to a private/public distinction that parallels the notion of “territory of information” (Kamio 1997; Heritage 2012) where information may belong more to one of the speech participants than the other. The analyzed forms thus share a core function in specifying two simultaneous perspectives as part of the referential ground (e.g. Hanks 1990; 2009). The paper builds on first-hand data collected in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta region of northern Colombia and offers the first comprehensive analysis of epistemic marking in the language.

  • 2.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Evidentiality as stance: Event types and Speaker roles2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper argues for a view of evidentials as a type of shifter and outlines a theory of reference for evidentials that separates the configuration of the ground from the relational axis, as well as the alignment between ground and figure. The paper also evaluates a proposal by Kockelman (2004) that draws on Jakobson’s notion of “event type” and Goffman’s “speaker roles” to suggest an existing analogy between “commitment events” for modals and “source events” for evidentials. The scope properties of ‘factual’ forms in both systems notably constitute a formal difference between (epistemic) modality and evidentiality that cannot be accounted for solely by the referential properties of evidentials.

  • 3.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Intersubjectification revisited: a cross-categorical perspective2016In: Epistemic modality, evidentiality, and beyond / [ed] Zlatka Guentcheva, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper offers three illustrations of how the process of “intersubjectification” (Traugott & Dasher 2002) can be observed in the development of time deictics, person markers and sentence-type markers to encode aspects of the speaker’s assumptions concerning the addressee’s epistemic access to an event. First-hand data from Lakandon Maya (Yukatekan, Mexico), Kogi, and Ika (Arwako-Chibchan, Colombia) is discussed in order to offer a potentially more nuanced view of intersubjectification in language. While suggested in previous accounts of intersubjectification, the paper argues that this process of language change only involves categories and expressions defineable as “shifters” (Jespersen 1922), i.e. expressions that at the same time refer to aspects of the speech situation and the proposition.

  • 4.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Distribution and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language2016In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 143-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate frequency and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) using the SSL Corpus. The duration of signs is correlated with frequency, with high-frequency items having shorter duration than low-frequency items. Similarly, function words (e.g. pronouns) have shorter duration than content words (e.g. nouns). In compounds, forms annotated as reduced display shorter duration. Fingerspelling duration correlates with word length of corresponding Swedish words, and frequency and word length play a role in the lexicalization of fingerspellings. The sign distribution in the SSL Corpus shows a great deal of cross-linguistic similarity with other sign languages in terms of which signs appear as high-frequency items, and which categories of signs are distributed across text types (e.g. conversation vs. narrative). We find a correlation between an increase in age and longer mean sign duration, but see no significant difference in sign duration between genders.

  • 5.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Thoughts on language-specific and crosslinguistic entities2016In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 427-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses questions arising in connection with Martin Haspelmath’s proposal to distinguish between “descriptive categories” at the language-specific level and “comparative concepts” at the crosslinguistic level, where the latter cannot be seen as either crosslinguistic categories or category types (Haspelmath 2010). It is argued that comparative concepts may be better subsumed under the notion of “generalizing concept”, which is not tied to any specific level of analysis, and that the distinction between what is language-specific and what is crosslinguistic is not absolute. Further, it is shown that crosslinguistic pattern clusters as identified in what is here called “bottom-up typology” meshes well with the homeostatic property cluster approach to biological species.

  • 6.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Perfects and iamitives: two gram types in one grammatical space2016In: Letras de Hoje, ISSN 0101-3335, E-ISSN 1984-7726, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 325-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the grammatical space of the two gram types – perfects and iamitives. Iamitives (from Latin iam ‘already’) overlap in their use with perfects but differ in that they can combine with stative predicates to express a state that holds at reference time. Iamitives differ from ‘already’ in having a higher frequency and showing a strong tendency to be grammaticalized with natural development predicates. We argue that iamitives can grammaticalize from expressions for ‘already’. In this study, we extract perfect grams and iamitive grams iteratively starting with two groups of seed grams from a parallel text corpus (the New Testament) in 1107 languages. We then construct a grammatical space of the union of 370 extracted grams by means of Multidimensional Scaling. This grammatical space of perfects and iamitives turns out to be a continuum without sharp boundaries anywhere.

  • 7.
    Gerholm, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The MINT-project: Modeling infant language acquisition from parent-child interction2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Flerspråkighet och tredjespråksinlärning: Några grundbegrepp2016In: Tredjespråksinlärning / [ed] Camilla Bardel, Ylva Falk, Christina Lindqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 33-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tredjespråksinlärning har under 2000-talet snabbt vuxit fram som ett aktuellt forskningsområde i takt med att man har uppmärksammat hur vanlig flerspråkighet är och vilken betydelse en två- eller flerspråkig bakgrund har vid inlärning av ytterligare språk. En-, två- och flerspråkighet definieras här som kunskap i ett, två respektive tre eller flera språk på någon signifikant färdighetsnivå. Två- eller flerspråkiga personers inlärning av ytterligare språk betecknas som tredjespråksinlärning. Det här kapitlet ger en översikt av centrala begrepp och rön inom detta område. Till de aspekter som ska utvecklas i kapitlet hör följande.

    Människans naturliga flerspråkighet. Människan är av naturen potentiellt flerspråkig, och flera fakta talar för att flerspråkighet är den normala formen av språkkompetens hos vuxna.

    Flerspråkighet i dagens samhälle. Två- eller flerspråkighet anses vara vanligare i världen än ren enspråkighet. Det främjas av en kombination av faktorer och tilltar i det moderna globala kommunikationssamhället. Tredjespråksinlärning sker både spontant i vardagslivet och genom undervisning. Exempel på tredjespråksinlärare i skolan är elever som läser fler än ett främmande språk och tvåspråkiga elever ur språkliga minoriteter.

    Första-, andra- och tredjespråk (L1, L2, L3) som kognitiva begrepp. Begreppen L1 och L2 baseras på den grundläggande skillnaden mellan infött och icke-infött språk, där åldersfaktorn är central. Skilda kognitiva utgångslägen gäller för tillägnande av ett L1, ett första L2 och ytterligare språk, med konsekvenser för L3-inlärning. Definitionen av begreppet L3 är ett problem som genomlyses här.

    Den flerspråkiga kompetensen och talprocessen. En persons kompetens i olika språk bildar en samverkande helhet, inte separata språkkompetenser. I talsituationer kan även andra språk än det valda (s.k. bakgrundsspråk) aktiveras i olika grad, vilket styrs av flera faktorer. I modeller av talprocessen söker man förstå hur yttrandeförloppet sker hos flerspråkiga, hur talaren kontrollerar sitt språkval och hur associationer mellan element i olika språk uppstår. Faktorer i talsituationen kan också leda talaren att hantera sitt språkval genom att anamma olika språkmodus (language modes): en en-, två- eller flerspråkig samtalsstil.

    Tvärspråkligt inflytande. Vad är det som betingar att ett visst bakgrundsspråk, snarare än ett annat, aktiveras i den flerspråkiges talproduktion och orsakar transfer? Flera faktorer har undersökts, såsom färdighetsnivån i språket, aktualitet i användning, typologisk likhet samt L2-status, dvs egenskapen att vara ett L2 för talaren.

    Nyttan av tidigare språkkunskap. Forskning utvisar att tidigare språkkunskap utgör en tillgång vid inlärning av ett nytt språk. Positiva effekter har konstaterats på den språkfärdighet som uppnås, på språklig medvetenhet och på användningen av strategier i språkinlärningen. Pedagogiska aspekter av detta handlar om hur man i språkundervisning kan ta tillvara L3-inlärares tidigare språkliga erfarenheter och ta hänsyn till L3-inlärningens särskilda möjligheter.

  • 9.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Dillerin Tarihi2016Book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gotiskt klotter skriver historia2016In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 4, p. 60-62Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11. Klein, Raymond M.
    et al.
    Christie, John
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Does multilingualism affect the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease?: A worldwide analysis by country2016In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 2, p. 463-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the cognitive requirements associated with bi- and multilingual processing provide a form of mental exercise that, through increases in cognitive reserve and brain fitness, may delay the symptoms of cognitive failure associated with Alzheimer′s disease and other forms of dementia. We collected data on a country-by-country basis that might shed light on this suggestion. Using the best available evidence we could find, the somewhat mixed results we obtained provide tentative support for the protective benefits of multilingualism against cognitive decline. But more importantly, this study exposes a critical issue, which is the need for more comprehensive and more appropriate data on the subject.

  • 12.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    "The lexical typology of semantic shifts": An introduction2016In: The lexical typology of semantic shifts: An introduction / [ed] Päivi Juvonen, Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, p. 1-20Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A grammar of Palula2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This grammar provides a grammatical description of Palula, an Indo-Aryan language of the Shina group. The language is spoken by about 10,000 people in the Chitral district in Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. This is the first extensive description of the formerly little-documented Palula language, and is one of only a few in-depth studies available for languages in the extremely multilingual Hindukush-Karakoram region. The grammar is based on original fieldwork data, collected over the course of about ten years, commencing in 1998. It is primarily in the form of recorded, mainly narrative, texts, but supplemented by targeted elicitation as well as notes of observed language use. All fieldwork was conducted in close collaboration with the Palula-speaking community, and a number of native speakers took active part in the process of data gathering, annotation and data management. The main areas covered are phonology, morphology and syntax, illustrated with a large number of example items and utterances, but also a few selected lexical topics of some prominence have received a more detailed treatment as part of the morphosyntactic structure. Suggestions for further research that should be undertaken are given throughout the grammar. The approach is theory-informed rather than theory-driven, but an underlying functional-typological framework is assumed. Diachronic development is taken into account, particularly in the area of morphology, and comparisons with other languages and references to areal phenomena are included insofar as they are motivated and available. The description also provides a brief introduction to the speaker community and their immediate environment.

  • 14. Melin, Lars
    et al.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Laddade ord: en bok om tankens makt över språket2016Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 15.
    Nordén, Anton Harry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Epistemic modality in Ghanaian Pidgin English2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the expression of epistemic modality in a corpus of Ghanaian Pidgin English (GhaPE). The epistemic expressions are manually identified and thereafter distinguished from each other in terms of grammatical status and their indication of different epistemic and evidential notions. 7 different elements are found, ranging from 1 pre-verbal marker, 1 adverb, 2 particles and 3 complement-taking predicates. The results indicate, in line with existing research, that to differentiate between usage properties of individual modal expressions it may be necessary to subdivide them in terms of not only epistemic but also evidential meanings. Moreover, a functional parallel between the GhaPE particle abi, the Swedish modal particle väl and the Spanish adverbs a lo mejor and igual is demonstrated, with respect to their simultaneous function of expressing epistemic probability and asking the hearer for confirmation. Finally, the results suggest, contrary to previous accounts, that the pre-verbal marker fit may indicate epistemic possibility without the addition of a preceding irrealis marker go. It is proposed that future researchers should make use of bigger corpora in order to arrive at a more ample conception of both individual modal categories and their interrelations.

  • 16.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Handel och krig gynnar pidginisering2016In: Språkbruk, ISSN 0358-9293, no 3, p. 26-30Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Här var det mångfald!2016In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 3, p. 56-63Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 18.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Så uppstår ett pidginspråk2016In: Språkbruk, ISSN 0358-9293, no 4, p. 35-39Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Perkova, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sitchinava, Dmitri
    On the Development of a Latvian-Russian Parallel Corpus2016In: Human Language Technologies - The Baltic Perspective: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference Baltic HLT 2016 / [ed] Inguna Skadiņa, Roberts Rozis, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2016, p. 130-135Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the current status of the Latvian-Russian parallel corpus, which is an ongoing project within the Russian National Corpus. It discusses the existing parallel corpora including Latvian texts, availability of sources and the main principles and tools of alignment and morphological annotation, as well as further plans for developing the corpus.

  • 20.
    Sjons, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Articulation rate in child-directed speech increases as a function of child age2016In: Fonetik 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been shown that articulation rate (AR), the number of produced linguistic units per time unit with pauses excluded, is lower in child-directed speech (CDS) than in adult-directed speech (ADS). The present study is the first corpus-based longitudinal study to investigate AR in Swedish CDS as a function of child age while also control-ling for utterance length in terms of number of syllables and for individual differences between speakers. AR in transcribed utterances of 7 parents directed at their respective child during different ages was analyzed with mixed effects modeling. Results show a signif-icantly higher AR in longer than in shorter utterances and a significant increase in AR as a function of infant age. Future studies include comparison with entropy-based measures.

  • 21.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Semantic Factors Predict the Rate of Lexical Replacement of Content Words2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, article id e0147924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rate of lexical replacement estimates the diachronic stability of word forms on the basis of how frequently a proto-language word is replaced or retained in its daughter languages. Lexical replacement rate has been shown to be highly related to word class and word frequency. In this paper, we argue that content words and function words behave differently with respect to lexical replacement rate, and we show that semantic factors predict the lexical replacement rate of content words. For the 167 content items in the Swadesh list, data was gathered on the features of lexical replacement rate, word class, frequency, age of acquisition, synonyms, arousal, imageability and average mutual information, either from published databases or gathered from corpora and lexica. A linear regression model shows that, in addition to frequency, synonyms, senses and imageability are significantly related to the lexical replacement rate of content words–in particular the number of synonyms that a word has. The model shows no differences in lexical replacement rate between word classes, and outperforms a model with word class and word frequency predictors only.

  • 22.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Negative Existential Cycle through the lens of comparative data2016In: The Linguistic Cycle Continued, Amsterdam/New York: John Benjamins Publishing Co. , 2016, p. 139-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Non-specific, specific and obscured perception verbs in Baltic languages2016In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 7, p. 53-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunistic perception verbs (‘see’, ‘hear’, as opposed to explorative perception verbs, ‘look’, ‘listen’) express the opportunity for perception and are condition-oriented (exposure, i.e. the perceiver’s exposure to a percept), not participant-oriented, in their aspectual structure. The Baltic languages, as other languages in Central, East, and Northern Europe, have specific perception verbs, which are a subtype of opportunistic perception verbs, for the expression of restricted exposure. The lexical character of specificity in Baltic—unlike Russian where it is integrated into a rigid grammatical aspect system—is more favorable for uncovering the underlying semantic factors of specificity, which differ across perceptual systems. Restrictedness of exposure is a scale rather than a dichotomy, and cross-linguistic comparison in parallel texts reveals that specificity is a scale with much variation as to where the borderline between specific and non-specific perception verbs is drawn in the languages of the area. Obscured perception verbs, which emphasize difficulty in discrimination, are another set of condition-oriented perception verbs in Baltic and Russian and are closely related to specific verbs synchronically and diachronically.

    This paper describes non-specific, specific, and obscured perception verbs in the Baltic languages and attempts to capture their variability within six dimensions (morphology, area, diachrony, specificity, modality, obscured verbs). A precondition for this endeavor is a critique of earlier approaches to the semantics of perception verbs. Nine major biases are identified (nominalism, physiology, discrete features, vision, paradigmatic modelling, aspectual event types, dual nature models, participant orientation, and viewing activity as control). In developing an alternative, the approach greatly profits from Gibson’s ecological psychology and Rock’s theory of indirect perception. 

1 - 23 of 23
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