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  • 1.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The role of 'perspective' in epistemic marking2017In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 186, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on inter-personal aspects of the context in the analysis of evidential and related epistemic marking systems. While evidentiality is defined by its capacity to qualify the speaker's indexical point of view in terms of information source, it is argued that other aspects of the context are important to analyze evidentiality both conceptually and grammatically. These distinct, analytical components concern the illocutionary status of a given marker and its scope properties. The importance of the hearer's point of view in pragmatics and semantics is well attested and constitutes a convincing argument for an increased emphasis on the perspective of the hearer/addressee in analyses of epistemic marking, such as evidentiality. The paper discusses available accounts of evidentials that attend to the perspective of the addressee and also introduces lesser-known epistemic marking systems that share a functional space with evidentiality.

  • 2.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The role of sentence type in Ika (Arwako) egophoric marking2017In: Egophoricity / [ed] Simeon Floyd, Elisabeth Norcliffe, Lila San Roque, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 347-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter focuses on the role of sentence type and subject person in accounting for egophoric marking in Ika, an Arwako-Chibchan language spoken in northern Colombia. Egophoric marking in Ika is only found in declarative clauses for which the speaker either assumes the role of epistemic authority, or where the speaker shares this role with the addressee. Interrogatives are treated as non-egophoric with all subject persons, as they do not encode the speaker’s assumptions about possible answers. This restriction, together with ones that pertain to predicate type and temporal frame of reference, point to epistemic/observational access as an important parameter in a system where public acts and personal attributes involving the speaker and/or the addressee are the only ones available for egophoric marking. As a complement to models of dialogical stance-taking (e.g. Du Bois 2007), the notion of “complex epistemic perspective” (see Bergqvist 2016) is introduced to identify which perspective configurations allow for egophoric marking.

  • 3.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Knuchel, Dominique
    Complexity in Egophoric Marking: From Agents to Attitude Holders2017In: Open Linguistics, ISSN 2300-9969, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 359-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper considers attested variation found in egophoric marking systems in order to discuss the role of such variation for the defining features of egophoric marking viz. a speech-act participant's epistemic authority subject to his/her involvement in an event. Austin Hale's (1980) pioneering description of egophoric marking in Kathmandu Newar (called conjunct/disjunct by Hale) has largely shaped our conception of what such systems look like, but in recent years, research on comparable systems has revealed that egophoric marking systems vary with respect to every purportedly defining feature of such systems. The one remaining variable that appears constant is the epistemic authority of the speech-act participants. When attempting to analyze and compare egophoric marking, one should consider all relevant cross-linguistic variation in order to determine what features are defeasible, and which ones are not. In this paper we explore the range of participant-roles that can be associated with egophoric marking focusing on secondary egophoric markers that map onto undergoers, affected participants, and the attitudes of the speech-act participants. It will become clear that these less prototypical instances of egophoric marking bridge such systems to a seemingly unrelated grammatical constructions, known as ethical datives.

  • 4.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Polysynthesis and Complexity2017In: The Oxford Handbook of Polysynthesis / [ed] Michael Fortescue, Marianne Mithun, Nicholas Evans, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 19-29Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of polysynthesis has been linked up with that of complexity from the very start. A discussion of the relationship between these two concepts is thus highly motivated, also in view of the recent increased interest in questions relating to complexity among linguists. The chapter discusses different ways of understanding and measuring complexity and how these can be applied to polysynthetic languages. Other topics treated in the chapter are how complexity develops over time in polysynthetic languages, the question of to what extent the notions of maturation and non-linearity as defined in Dahl (2004) are relevant to the synchrony and diachrony of polysynthesis, and how the complexity of constructions in polysynthetic languages compares to functionally equivalent constructions elsewhere.

  • 5.
    Hallonsten Halling, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Prototypical adverbs: from comparative concept to typological prototype2017In: Acta Linguistica Hafniensia. International Journal of Structural Linguistics, ISSN 0374-0364, E-ISSN 1949-0763, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 37-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While adjectives and their potential universality have been much debated, adverbs remain rather neglected in the typological and cognitive literature. From a typological perspective, adjectives can be dealt with using a comparative concept: rather than assuming from the outset the existence of a class of adjectives, a particular language-independent definition of adjectives is used as a heuristic for examining recurrent form-meaning combinations. In the present article, adverb is addressed as a comparative concept in the same vein: an adverb is a lexeme that denotes a descriptive property and can be used to narrow the predication of a verb. This comparative concept is applied to a sample of 41 languages from the whole world. The results show that although there are diverse structural possibilities in terms of different adverbial constructions of varying spread and productivity, simple adverbs are found in a considerable number of unrelated languages, even in some cases where adjectives cannot be found. Clear adverb subtypes reminiscent of semantic types of adjectives further emerge, leading to a discussion of whether the comparative concepts in this case allow us to uncover a substantial cross-linguistic prototype.

  • 6.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Becoming multilingual: The macro and the micro time perspective2017In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential multilingualism is a characteristic property of human language. This paper adopts a usage-based, complex-systems approach in discussing two different but interrelated perspectives on how multilingualism takes shape in individuals: the development of a linguistic repertoire over time (macro time perspective) and the processes of language use and acquisition in specific situations (micro time perspective). The concept of L3 has a role at the micro time level, in the situations of language use. A variable model of the situation of language use and acquisition in micro time is proposed. It adopts a factor approach which is inspired by Hufeisen's Factor Model, but extends that model so as to be applicable to more variable stages and forms of linguistic repertoires. The connection between dynamic processes in micro and macro time is illustrated by data from a longitudinal test of phonological production which exposes both specific usage events and an evolving pattern.

  • 7. Hyman, Larry M.
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, MariaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Linguistic Typology: The Unabashed Typologist: A Frans Plank Schubertiade: 21st Anniversary Issue in Honour of Frans Plank2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 8. Hyman, Larry M.
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Lahiri, Aditi
    Nichols, Johanna
    The unabashed typologist: A Frans Plank Schubertiade2017In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 21, p. 1-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Jaeger, T. Florian
    Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester.
    Deriving argument ordering biases from expectation-based processing2017In: Cognitive explanations in linguistic typology: Contemporary insights from language processing and language acquisition, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Keidel Fernández, Alejandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Qualitative differences in L3 learners’ neurophysiological response to L1versus L2 transfer2017In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017) / [ed] Włodarczak, Marcin, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 1789-1793Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Third language (L3) acquisition differs from first language (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition. There are different views on whether L1 or L2 is of primary influence on L3 acquisition in terms of transfer. This study examines differences in the event-related brain potentials (ERP) response to agreement incongruencies between L1 Spanish speakers and L3 Spanish learners, comparing response differences to incongruencies that are transferrable from the learners’ L1 (Swedish), or their L2 (English). Whereas verb incongruencies, available in L3 learners’ L2 but not their L1, engendered a similar response for L1 speakers and L3 learners, adjective incongruencies, available in L3 learners’ L1 but not their L2, elicited responses that differed between groups: Adjective incongruencies engendered a negativity in the 450-550 ms time window for L1 speakers only. Both congruent and incongruent adjectives also engendered an enhanced P3 wave in L3 learners compared to L1 speakers. Since the P300 correlates with task-related, strategic processing, this indicates that L3 learners process grammatical features that are transferrable from their L1 in a less automatic mode than features that are transferrable from their L2. L3 learners therefore seem to benefit more from their knowledge of their L2 than their knowledge of their L1.

  • 11.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Moja kamchatskaja èkspedicija [My Kamchatka expedition]2017In: .), Zhizn’ kak èkspedicija: sbornik k 50-letiju shkoly polevoj lingvistiki A.E. Kibrika I S.V. Kodzasova [Life as expedition: a volume for the 50th anniversary of A.E. Kibrik’s and S.V. Kodzasov’s school of field linguistics] / [ed] Plungian, V.A. & O.V Fëdorova, Moscow: Buki Vedi , 2017, p. 651-672Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Possession and Partitives2017In: Handbook of Mereology / [ed] Hans Burkhardt, Johanna Seibt, Guido Imaguire, Stamatios Gerogiorgakis, Munich: Philosophia Verlag GmbH, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Semantic patterns from an areal perspective2017In: The Cambridge handbook of areal linguistics / [ed] Raymond Hickey, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 204-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Big Mamas, Little Papas and Milk Brothers: Kin classification and other semantic isoglosses in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram2017In: Book of Abstracts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hindu Kush-Karakoram, or the mountain region of northern Pakistan, north-eastern Afghanistan and the northern-most part of Indian Kashmir, is home to approximately 50 languages belonging to six different genera: Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman, Turkic and the isolate Burushaski. Areality research in this region is only in its early stages, and while its significance as a convergence area has been suggested by several scholars (Toporov 1970; Èdel’man 1980; 1983:16; Bashir 1996; 2003:823; Tikkanen 1999; 2008; Baart 2014), only a few, primarily phonological and grammatical, features have been studied in a more systematic fashion. Cross-linguistic research in the realms of semantics and lexical organization has been given considerably less attention, but preliminary findings (Liljegren 2017:143–148; Koptjevskaja-Tamm & Liljegren 2017) indicate that features are geographically bundled with one another, across genera, in significant ways, displaying semantic areality on multiple levels throughout the region or in one or more of its sub-regions. A number of semantic features are being investigated in an ongoing areal-linguistic study, in which first-hand data has been collected from speakers of most of the region’s many languages.

    A highly promising domain for research is kinship systems and the way in which their distributions reflect cross-community relationships. Taking kinship terms for one’s parents and their siblings as an example, a number of the region’s centrally located languages have a basic term covering both ‘father’ and ‘father’s brother’ (often lexically distinct from ‘mother’s brother’), with the latter meaning becoming lexicalized in combinations with qualifying adjectives ‘big’ and ‘small’, where big father is one’s father’s older brother and small father is one’s father’s younger brother. Similarly, there is a widespread polysemy pattern for ‘mother’ and ‘mother’s sister’, but again with ‘big’ and ‘small’ only used for ‘mother’s sister’. This pattern, found in a number of Indo-Aryan and Nuristani languages also reflects what has been posited as the ancestral kin terminology of Burushaski (Parkin 1987:165), the region’s only language isolate, while also being the terminology used in Balti, the nearest Tibeto-Burman neighbour. In contrast, languages in a southern belt instead uses a maximum differentiating terminology (F≠FB≠MB≠M≠MZ≠FZ), thus aligning itself with lowland Punjabi kin organization; and at the northwestern periphery, a cluster of languages, Indo-Aryan as well as Iranian, instead use an “aunt” (MZ=FZ≠M) and “uncle” (FB=MB≠F) terminology.

    Comparisons are made between the geographical distribution of kinship systems and those of a few other convergence features similarly related to the organization of entire semantic domains (particularly numerals, calendrical expressions, spatial reference and demonstratives), polysemy sharing, shared lexico-constructional patterns and area-specific lexicalizations. In a few cases, particular patterns or configurations cluster both with one another, with the presence of other linguistic features (for example rare phoneme sets, contrasting constructions and kinship suffixes) as well as with non-linguistic factors such as shared cultural values or religious (particularly pre-Muslim) identities and a long history of close cross-community interaction and intermarriage (Liljegren & Svärd 2017).

     

  • 15.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Competing forces and the emergence of areality: The Hindu Kush as a natural laboratory2017In: Book of abstracts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The under-researched Hindu Kush-Karakoram region (NE Afghanistan, N Pakistan and N Kashmir) with its 50 densely situated language communities, representing 6 genera, provides unique opportunities for studying the many, often competing, forces at work in the typological fine-tuning of a selected geographical area. By applying Koptjevskaja-Tamm’s (2010:584) guidelines for areal-linguistic research, 5 linguistic domains (retroflexion, gender, alignment, numerals and spatial reference) were investigated – for a tight sample and partly by novel field data – and their respective micro-typologies were evaluated against wider distributions, as well as against Nichol’s (2003) stability predictions, each of the domains illustrating a different profile in terms of diversity, family-internal stability, cross-linguistic diffusion, sub-areality or inclusion in region-external configurations.

    A number of languages, particularly in the central–northern parts of the region, are characterized by large retroflex inventories. While retroflex plosives have a wide distribution in South Asia, regional languages in 5 of the 6 genera include an additional set of fricative/affricate retroflex consonants. Grammatical gender is present in four of the six genera. In Indo-Aryan, the region’s largest phylogenetic component, an inherited sex-based system persists but is more pervasive in the East, i.e. contiguous with the main Indo-Aryan belt of the Subcontinent, whereas it overlaps with an animacy-based system in the SW and has been entirely “replaced” by such a system in the NW adjacent to similarly gender-deprived or gender-less languages. A combination of sex and animacy as a basis for gender characterizes Burushaski’s 4-gender system, the region’s only language isolate, thus hinting at possible substratal influences. Ergative alignment is evidenced in 5 of the 6 genera. The distribution of particular alignment patterns, however, illustrates how sub-areas participate in a few wide-spread configurations that conflate in the region, see Liljegren (2014). Overt case-marking of patients characterizes the West, which extends to a large, Persian-dominated, area. Overt, tense-aspect-independent, case-marking of agents characterizes an area in the East, linking it to Tibetan-dominated regions of the Himalayas. Patient agreement in the perfective is a strong feature of the South, i.e. contiguous with the influential Hindi-Urdu belt. As for numerals, there is a dominance of vigesimal systems across the region, including 5 of the 6 genera, but in addition there is a distinct sub-areal distribution of numeral composition, with a consistent 10+n/20+n structure along the northern fringe, continuing into the Pamirs, a consistent n+10/n+20 structure in the southeastern parts (thus contiguous with the dominant languages of the Subcontinent which, although decimal, share this compositional structure), while languages distributed in a central west-to-east belt display a mixed (n+10/20+n) structure, see Liljegren (2017:143–145). Finally, the study reveals the presence of a common geomorphic system of spatial reference in a subarea in the West, whereas it seems absent in other parts of the region. These languages encode the inclination of the mountain slope as well as the flow of the river. While this system reflects the topography of the surrounding landscape, the emergence and pervasiveness of it seems linked to language contact, clustering significantly with a few other features (Liljegren & Svärd 2017) and coincides with the boundaries of an area that only recently came under the influence of Islam (Klimburg 2008; Jettmar, Jones & Klimburg 1975:394).     

    Finally, an attempt is made at characterizing the Hindu Kush in its entirety along a scale of diversity—homogeneity.   

  • 16.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Northwestern Indo-Aryan and the rise of diversity in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram2017In: Book of abstracts: SALA-33, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on Nichols (2003), this is an attempt at characterizing the multilingual Hindu Kush-Karakoram region (northeastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan and northernmost Kashmir) in terms of genetic stability and structural diversity, and a further development of the micro-typology suggested in Liljegren (2017). It also addresses the issue of areality or sub-areality. The structural features surveyed include grammatical gender, alignment, kinship and geomorphic systems. As the dominant phylogenetic component of the Hindukush-Karakoram is Indo-Aryan, regional representatives of that particular group (of which the majority were collectively referred to as “Dardic” in the past) are the main focus of the study, but naturally references will be made throughout to languages belonging to other genera in the region (Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman, Turkic and Burushaski) as well as to Indo-Aryan in general. The features have been selected in order to represent (relatively) independent variables, each of them illustrating a unique (areal and sub-genetic) distribution, shaped by a variety of factors and competing forces at work.

    The inherited sex-based gender system largely prevails in Hindu Kush Indo-Aryan (henceforth HKIA), with most of the languages making a two-way masculine vs. feminine distinction in their noun lexicons. However, at closer inspection, these languages – in spite of their relatedness – display a few signs of significant diversification: 1. The pervasiveness of such sex-based gender is stronger (and perhaps further strengthened) in the Southeast than elsewhere, i.e. among languages spoken adjacent to the main Indo-Aryan belt. 2. It is missing altogether in two languages spoken in the opposite geographic extreme, i.e. the Northwest (as earlier pointed out by Emeneau (1965:68–71) and Bashir (2003:823)), and is on the retreat in yet another neighbouring language (all three characterized by an animacy-contrast of low complexity). 3. The Southwest stands out with a few languages that instead combine their inherited sex-based gender with animacy-related distinctions and thereby form highly complex agreement patterns.

    As for alignment patterns, the HKIA languages display a great range of variation (as laid out in further detail in (Liljegren 2014)). The diversity is primarily evidenced in the case marking of core argument noun phrases and verbal person marking properties. As many as six distinct alignment types have been identified, each reflecting contact-induced changes that can be attributed to three significant areas that conflate in the region: 1. A large Persian-dominated area overlaps with the Western part of the region, characterized by overt patient marking. 2 An area in the East, with e.g. ancient Tibetan influences, is characterized by overt agent marking. 3 An area in the South, bordering on the influential Hindi-Urdu belt, is characterized by patient agreement in the perfective.

    For kinship as a feature, the present study is restricted to the lexical items used for one’s parents and their siblings. Here, too a great deal of variation is displayed, with a total of six verified configurations. In essence, however, the distribution is the result of three competing systems (the remaining three constituting hybrids), each with a clear geographical distribution: 1. A maximum differentiating terminology, with six different terms (F≠FB≠MB/M≠MZ≠FZ) dominates in a southern belt, thus aligning itself with Punjabi kinship systems. 2. A pattern F=FB≠MB/M=MZ≠FZ is an eastern or northeastern feature, possibly reflecting the ancestral terminology of Burushaski (Parkin 1987:165) and the one used in Balti, the nearest Tibeto-Burman neighbour; if looking at the distribution of F=FB only, it appears typical of the languages spoken in an uninterrupted central belt, stretching all the way from the extreme Southwest to the extreme Northeast. 3. An “aunt” and “uncle” terminology (F≠FB=MB/M≠MZ=FZ) is found in the Northwest (consistently so in a single HKIA language), with obvious reflexes in adjacent non-Indo-Aryan communities in the Pamir.     

    Although deserving a more careful cross-linguistic study, a preliminary survey reveals the presence of a geomorphic system of spatial reference in a few of the HKIA languages spoken in a subarea in the West, whereas it seems virtually absent in other parts of the larger region. Languages in this subarea (along with neighbouring Nuristani languages) linguistically encode the inclination of the mountain slope, the flow of the river as well as boundary-crossing. This partly confirms Palmer’s (2015) so-called Topographic Correspondence Hypothesis, predicting that a language’s system of spatial reference will reflect the topography of the surrounding landscape. However, that the emergence and pervasiveness of such a system is further conditioned by language contact, is evidenced by the subareal clustering of a few other structural features –retroflex vowels, pronominal kinship suffixes and bisyndetic contrast marking (Liljegren & Svärd Forthcoming) – coinciding with the boundaries of “Peristan”, an area that until relatively recently constituted a pre-Islamic cultural sphere with Nuristan (previously referred to as Kafiristan) as its most prominent local centre of influence (Cacopardo & Cacopardo 2001: 249–250; Klimburg 2008; Jettmar, Jones & Klimburg 1975: 394).

     

  • 17.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Profiling Indo-Aryan in the Hindukush-Karakoram: A preliminary study of micro-typological patterns2017In: Journal of South Asian languages and linguistics, ISSN 2196-0771, E-ISSN 2196-078X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 107-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is a typological profile of 31 Indo-Aryan (IA) languages in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Western Himalayan region (covering NE Afghanistan, N Pakistan, and parts of Kashmir). Native speakers were recruited to provide comparative data. This data, supplemented by reputable descriptions or field notes, was evaluated against a number of WALS- or WALS-like features, enabling a fine-tuned characterization of each language, taking different lin-guistic domains into account (phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon). The emerging patterns were compared with global distributions as well as with characteristic IA features and well-known areal patterns. Some features, mainly syntactic, turned out to be shared with IA in general, whereas others do have scattered reflexes in IA outside of the region but are especially prevalent in the region: large consonant inventories, tripartite pronominal case alignment, a high frequency of left-branching constructions, and multi-degree deictic sys-tems. Yet other features display a high degree of diversity, often bundling subareally. Finally, there was a significant clustering of features that are not characterizing IA in general: tripartite affricate differentiation, retroflexion across several subsets, aspiration contrasts involving voiceless consonants only, tonal contrasts and 20-based numerals. This clustering forms a “hard core” at the centre of the region, gradually fading out toward its peripheries.

  • 18.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Akhunzada, Fakhruddin
    Linguistic diversity, vitality and maintenance: A case study on the language situation in northern Pakistan2017In: Multiethnica. Meddelande från Centrum för multietnisk forskning, Uppsala universitet, ISSN 0284-396X, no 36-37, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multilingual and multicultural region of northern Pakistan, which has approximately 30 distinct languages, is described and evaluated from the perspective of language vitality, revealing the diverse and complex interplay of language policies, community attitudes and generational transmission. Based on the experience of conscious language maintenance efforts carried out in the area, some conclusions are offered concerning the particular effectiveness of regional networking and non-governmental institution support to promote local languages and sustain their vitality in times of great change.

  • 19.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Khan, Afsar Ali
    Khowar: Illustrations of the IPA2017In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Khowar (ISO 639-3: khw) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 200,000–300,000 (Decker 1992: 31–32; Bashir 2003: 843) people in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (formerly North-West Frontier Province). The majority of the speakers are found in Chitral (a district and erstwhile princely state bordering Afghanistan, see Figure 1), where the language is used as a lingua franca, but there are also important pockets of speaker groups in adjacent areas of Gilgit-Baltistan and Swat District as well as a considerable number of recent migrants to larger cities such as Peshawar and Rawalpindi (Decker 1992: 25–26). Its closest linguistic relative is Kalasha, a much smaller language spoken in a few villages in southern Chitral (Morgenstierne 1961: 138; Strand 1973: 302, 2001: 252). While Khowar has preserved a number of features (phonological, morphological as well as lexical) now lost in other Indo-Aryan languages of the surrounding Hindukush-Karakoram mountain region, it has, over time, incorporated a massive amount of lexical material from neighbouring or influential Iranian languages (Morgenstierne 1936) – and with it, new phonological distinctions. Certain features might also be attributable to formerly dominant languages (e.g. Turkic), or to linguistic substrates, either in the form of, or related to, the language isolate Burushaski, or other, now extinct, languages previously spoken in the area (Morgenstierne 1932: 48, 1947: 6; Bashir 2007: 208–214). There is relatively little dialectal variation among the speakers in Chitral itself, probably attributable to the relative recency of the present expansion of the language (Morgenstierne 1932: 50).

  • 20.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bisyndetic Contrast Marking in the Hindukush: Additional Evidence of a Historical Contact Zone2017In: Journal of Language Contact : Evolution of Languages, ISSN 1877-4091, E-ISSN 1955-2629, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 450-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contrastive (or antithetical) construction which makes simultaneous use of two separate particles is identified through a mainly corpus-based study as a typical feature of a number of lesser-described languages spoken in the Afghanistan-Pakistan borderland in the high Hindukush. The feature encompasses Nuristani languages (Waigali, Kati) as well as the Indo-Aryan languages found in their close vicinity (Palula, Kalasha, Dameli, Gawri), while it is not shared by more closely related Indo-Aryan languages spoken outside of this geographically delimited area. Due to a striking (although not complete) overlap with at least two other (unrelated) structural features, pronominal kinship suffixes and retroflex vowels, we suggest that a linguistic and cultural diffusion zone of considerable age is centred in the mountainous Nuristan-Kunar-Panjkora area.

  • 21.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Computational simulations of temporal vocalization behavior in adult-child interaction2017In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2017, 2017, p. 2208-2212Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to introduce a computational simulation of timing in child-adult interaction. The simulation uses temporal information from real adult-child interactions as default temporal behavior of two simulated agents. Dependencies between the agents’ behavior are added, and how the simulated interactions compare to real interaction data as a result is investigated. In the present study, the real data consisted of transcriptions of a mother interacting with her 12- month-old child, and the data simulated was vocalizations. The first experiment shows that although the two agents generate vocalizations according to the temporal characteristics of the interlocutors in the real data, simulated interaction with no contingencies between the two agents’ behavior differs from real interaction data. In the second experiment, a contingency was introduced to the simulation: the likelihood that the adult agent initiated a vocalization if the child agent was already vocalizing. Overall, the simulated data is more similar to the real interaction data when the adult agent is less likely to start speaking while the child agent vocalizes. The results are in line with previous studies on turn-taking in parent-child interaction at comparable ages. This illustrates that computational simulations are useful tools when investigating parent-child interactions.

  • 22.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation2017In: The Cambridge handbook of linguistic typology / [ed] Akexandra Y. Aikhenvald, R. M. W. Dixon, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 405-439Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Skolt Saami Documentation Corpus (SSDC-2016)2017Other (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Norden, Anton Harry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Selected topics in the grammar of Français Tirailleur: A corpus study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This corpus-based study describes some grammatical and lexical features of Français Tirailleur (FT), a pidgin spoken in the French colonial army from the mid-1800’s to the 1950’s. By examining the largest corpus available of the language, this study aims to (1) discern hitherto undescribed or strengthen previous claims about grammatical and lexical features of FT, (2) compare these features with its lexifier language and (3) identify changes over time. The corpus has been manually part-of-speech tagged and all noun phrases have been marked up. The results include a description of the form and function of the FT noun phrase, covering (pro)nouns and their modifiers as well as noun phrases with an embedded prepositional phrase. Furthermore, the apparent diachronic development of the expression même chose is analyzed, along with examples of circumlocution. FT is shown to differ from French in several respects, e.g. in substituting the demonstrative determiners ce(t)/cette with ça, but no signs of substrate influence are found. Contrary to intution about the simplex nature of pidgins, FT appears to follow French in placing certain adjectives before the noun, while postposing others. There remain several interesting aspects to explore in the grammar of FT, among them the elusive, multi-functional items ya and yena. Our further understanding of pidgins would benefit from more data and cross-linguistic comparison.

  • 25.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gör den stora språkdöden världen fattigare eller rikare?2017In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kan ord få oss att gilla terrorister?2017In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nordisk och finländsk språkpolitik i ett globalt perspektiv2017In: Språk i Norden, E-ISSN 2246-1701, p. 82-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an attempt to on the one hand offer a brief survey of national langauges policies of the world, and on the other hand to situate those of the Nordic countries in general, and Finland in particular, in this global context. The impressive (albeit not always sucessful) measures of Finnish authori-ties to uphold bilingualism are highlighted, and argued to have few parallels world-wide.

  • 28.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    När två (eller flera) språk blir ett2017In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 4, p. 51-61Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Romerskt fälttåg bakom ”felet” i våra kalendrar2017In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Språkluckan (artikelserie i 24 delar)2017In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 31.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Är en spanjor i Barcelona katalan?2017In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Sjons, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Articulation rate in Swedish child-directed speech increases as a function of the age of the child even when surprisal is controlled for2017In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017) / [ed] Marcin Włodarczak, Stockholm: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 1794-1798Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33. van der Auwera, Johan
    et al.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Dočekal, Mojmír
    Typologie negace2017In: Nový encyklopedický slovník češtiny online / [ed] Petr Karlík, Marek Nekula, Jana Pleskalová, Prague: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The incomplete story of feminine gender loss in Northwestern Latvian dialects2017In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 8, p. 143-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to show that Northwestern Latvian dialects (also called Tamian) are insufficiently characterized by placing them on a simple linear hierarchy of feminine gender loss, which is how they are traditionally approached in Latvian dialectology. While Lithuanian and Central and High Latvian dialects all have very similar and fairly canonical gender systems, various Northwestern Latvian dialects display a wealth of underexplored non-canonical gender properties, such as the reactivated topic marker gender relic, honorific feminine gender, pronominal adjectives behaving differently from attributive adjectives, the noun ‘boy’ turning into a hybrid feminine noun, and a third controller gender restricted to some diminutives. Feminine gender loss is traditionally explained by Livonian (Finnic) substrate. It is shown in this paper that the developments in NW Latvian have multiple causes, one of them being apocope (loss of short vowels infinal syllables), a common feature of NW Latvian dialects which prompted many developments making NW Latvian different from Central Latvian dialects and which is also ultimately due to language contact. Apocope and other developments made the system more complex. The non-canonical gender properties described in this paper are the effect of subsequent developments reducing system complexity again.

  • 35.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Universal Dependencies for Swedish Sign Language2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 303-308Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the first effort to annotate a signed language with syntactic dependency structure: the Swedish Sign Language portion of the Universal Dependencies treebanks. The visual modality presents some unique challenges in analysis and annotation, such as the possibility of both hands articulating separate signs simultaneously, which has implications for the concept of projectivity in dependency grammars. Our data is sourced from the Swedish Sign Language Corpus, and if used in conjunction these resources contain very richly annotated data: dependency structure and parts of speech, video recordings, signer metadata, and since the whole material is also translated into Swedish the corpus is also a parallel text.

1 - 35 of 35
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