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  • 1.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The role of 'perspective' in epistemic marking2017In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 186, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on inter-personal aspects of the context in the analysis of evidential and related epistemic marking systems. While evidentiality is defined by its capacity to qualify the speaker's indexical point of view in terms of information source, it is argued that other aspects of the context are important to analyze evidentiality both conceptually and grammatically. These distinct, analytical components concern the illocutionary status of a given marker and its scope properties. The importance of the hearer's point of view in pragmatics and semantics is well attested and constitutes a convincing argument for an increased emphasis on the perspective of the hearer/addressee in analyses of epistemic marking, such as evidentiality. The paper discusses available accounts of evidentials that attend to the perspective of the addressee and also introduces lesser-known epistemic marking systems that share a functional space with evidentiality.

  • 2.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The role of sentence type in Ika (Arwako) egophoric marking2017In: Egophoricity / [ed] Simeon Floyd, Elisabeth Norcliffe, Lila San Roque, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 347-374Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The chapter focuses on the role of sentence type and subject person in accounting for egophoric marking in Ika, an Arwako-Chibchan language spoken in northern Colombia. Egophoric marking in Ika is only found in declarative clauses for which the speaker either assumes the role of epistemic authority, or where the speaker shares this role with the addressee. Interrogatives are treated as non-egophoric with all subject persons, as they do not encode the speaker’s assumptions about possible answers. This restriction, together with ones that pertain to predicate type and temporal frame of reference, point to epistemic/observational access as an important parameter in a system where public acts and personal attributes involving the speaker and/or the addressee are the only ones available for egophoric marking. As a complement to models of dialogical stance-taking (e.g. Du Bois 2007), the notion of “complex epistemic perspective” (see Bergqvist 2016) is introduced to identify which perspective configurations allow for egophoric marking.

  • 3.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Knuchel, Dominique
    Complexity in Egophoric Marking: From Agents to Attitude Holders2017In: Open Linguistics, ISSN 2300-9969, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 359-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper considers attested variation found in egophoric marking systems in order to discuss the role of such variation for the defining features of egophoric marking viz. a speech-act participant's epistemic authority subject to his/her involvement in an event. Austin Hale's (1980) pioneering description of egophoric marking in Kathmandu Newar (called conjunct/disjunct by Hale) has largely shaped our conception of what such systems look like, but in recent years, research on comparable systems has revealed that egophoric marking systems vary with respect to every purportedly defining feature of such systems. The one remaining variable that appears constant is the epistemic authority of the speech-act participants. When attempting to analyze and compare egophoric marking, one should consider all relevant cross-linguistic variation in order to determine what features are defeasible, and which ones are not. In this paper we explore the range of participant-roles that can be associated with egophoric marking focusing on secondary egophoric markers that map onto undergoers, affected participants, and the attitudes of the speech-act participants. It will become clear that these less prototypical instances of egophoric marking bridge such systems to a seemingly unrelated grammatical constructions, known as ethical datives.

  • 4.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Polysynthesis and Complexity2017In: The Oxford Handbook of Polysynthesis / [ed] Michael Fortescue, Marianne Mithun, Nicholas Evans, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017, p. 19-29Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of polysynthesis has been linked up with that of complexity from the very start. A discussion of the relationship between these two concepts is thus highly motivated, also in view of the recent increased interest in questions relating to complexity among linguists. The chapter discusses different ways of understanding and measuring complexity and how these can be applied to polysynthetic languages. Other topics treated in the chapter are how complexity develops over time in polysynthetic languages, the question of to what extent the notions of maturation and non-linearity as defined in Dahl (2004) are relevant to the synchrony and diachrony of polysynthesis, and how the complexity of constructions in polysynthetic languages compares to functionally equivalent constructions elsewhere.

  • 5.
    Hallonsten Halling, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Prototypical adverbs: from comparative concept to typological prototype2017In: Acta Linguistica Hafniensia. International Journal of Structural Linguistics, ISSN 0374-0364, E-ISSN 1949-0763, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 37-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While adjectives and their potential universality have been much debated, adverbs remain rather neglected in the typological and cognitive literature. From a typological perspective, adjectives can be dealt with using a comparative concept: rather than assuming from the outset the existence of a class of adjectives, a particular language-independent definition of adjectives is used as a heuristic for examining recurrent form-meaning combinations. In the present article, adverb is addressed as a comparative concept in the same vein: an adverb is a lexeme that denotes a descriptive property and can be used to narrow the predication of a verb. This comparative concept is applied to a sample of 41 languages from the whole world. The results show that although there are diverse structural possibilities in terms of different adverbial constructions of varying spread and productivity, simple adverbs are found in a considerable number of unrelated languages, even in some cases where adjectives cannot be found. Clear adverb subtypes reminiscent of semantic types of adjectives further emerge, leading to a discussion of whether the comparative concepts in this case allow us to uncover a substantial cross-linguistic prototype.

  • 6.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Becoming multilingual: The macro and the micro time perspective2017In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential multilingualism is a characteristic property of human language. This paper adopts a usage-based, complex-systems approach in discussing two different but interrelated perspectives on how multilingualism takes shape in individuals: the development of a linguistic repertoire over time (macro time perspective) and the processes of language use and acquisition in specific situations (micro time perspective). The concept of L3 has a role at the micro time level, in the situations of language use. A variable model of the situation of language use and acquisition in micro time is proposed. It adopts a factor approach which is inspired by Hufeisen's Factor Model, but extends that model so as to be applicable to more variable stages and forms of linguistic repertoires. The connection between dynamic processes in micro and macro time is illustrated by data from a longitudinal test of phonological production which exposes both specific usage events and an evolving pattern.

  • 7. Hyman, Larry M.
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, MariaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Linguistic Typology: The Unabashed Typologist: A Frans Plank Schubertiade: 21st Anniversary Issue in Honour of Frans Plank2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 8. Hyman, Larry M.
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Lahiri, Aditi
    Nichols, Johanna
    The unabashed typologist: A Frans Plank Schubertiade2017In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 21, p. 1-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Jaeger, T. Florian
    Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester.
    Deriving argument ordering biases from expectation-based processing2017In: Cognitive explanations in linguistic typology: Contemporary insights from language processing and language acquisition. 12th Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology, Australian National University, Canberra, December 12-15, 201., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research suggests that principles of language processing and communication to some extent affect how grammars evolve over time (e.g., Futrell et al. 2015; Hawkins 2007). However, there are different views on how these principles operate. Some have proposed specific linguistic biases—such a preference for interpreting the initial NP as the subject (e.g., Bickel et al. 2015; Demiral et al. 2008). Others have proposed that language processing is expectation-based, drawing on statistical patterns in the input (e.g., MacDonald 2013; Trueswell et al. 1994), and that these expectation-based preferences shape language over time (Gildea & Jaeger 2015; Levy 2005). This includes the possibility that specific biases—such as the preference for a subject-initial interpretation—are reducible to the general principle of expectation-based processing (but see Bickel et al. 2015; Demiral et al. 2008; Wang et al. 2012). We test this possibility for the case of Swedish. We first conducted a large-scale corpus-based study to assess the relevant distributional patterns in the input. We then developed a predictive model based on those patterns, and compared these predictions against human processing preferences in a self-paced reading experiment.

    Background: Many languages, including Swedish, provide speakers with multiple ways of encoding arguments syntactically (word order) and morphologically (e.g., case). Speakers’ encoding preferences depend on, for example, semantic / referential (e.g., animacy and definiteness) and verb semantic information (e.g., volitionality and sentience; Bresnan et al. 2007; Hörberg 2016; for a cross-linguistic review, see Jaeger & Norcliffe 2009). This creates complex statistical patterns in the input to comprehenders: whether a given noun phrase should be interpreted as the subject or object depends on, for example, the referential and morphosyntactic properties of both the argument and the preceding context. Expectation-based accounts of language comprehension predict that language processing implicitly draws on these cues to assign grammatical functions to argument NPs (e.g., MacWhinney 2005). We test this prediction for the case of transitive sentences with two overt arguments in Swedish, which allows both SVO and OVS orders.

    Corpus study: 16552 transitive sentences were extracted from a syntactically annotated corpus of written Swedish. These were annotated for word order (SVO vs. OVS), NP animacy, definiteness, givenness, and case, as well as for the semantic class of the verb (such as volitionality and sentience). Mixed logistic regression models confirmed the predicted ordering preferences (e.g., animate before inanimate; word order freezing for otherwise ambiguous verb-argument combinations).

    Model: We then calculated the incremental predictions that a simulated comprehender with experience in Swedish would have after seeing the sentence up to and including the first NP (model 1), the verb (model 2), or the second NP (model 3). Each model provides estimates of the objective probability of SVO vs. OVS grammatical function assignment at each sentence region. Based on this estimate, we calculate the Bayesian surprise at each sentence region as the predicted processing cost experienced at that region (i.e., the relative entropy over the two possible grammatical function assignments before and after seeing the argument, cf. Kuperberg & Jaeger 2016). Bayesian surprise (over syntactic trees) is also the measure that has been argued to underlie (Levy 2008) the well-documented correlation between word surprisal and both processing times (Smith & Levy 2013) and certain neural responses (e.g., the N400 effect, Frank et al. 2015).

    Self-paced reading experiment (45 participants, 64 items): Participants read transitive sentences that varied with respect to word order (SVO vs. OVS), NP1 animacy (animate vs. inanimate) and verb class (volitional vs. experiencer). By-region reading times on NP1, the verb, and NP2 were well-described by the region-specific Bayesian surprise calculated from our model. For example, reading times in the NP2 region observed in locally ambiguous, object-initial sentences were mitigated when the animacy of NP1 and its interaction with the verb class bias towards an object-initial word order.

    Conclusions: Taken together, these findings indicate that comprehenders take advantage of statistical regularities in their previous language input during on-line grammatical function assignment, as predicted by expectation-based accounts. The model correctly predicts a subject-firstbias for Swedish, as well as incremental changes in the strength of this bias over the course of the sentence, dependent on the verb and argument properties.

    Bickel, B., Witzlack-Makarevich, A., Choudhary, K. K., Schlesewsky, M., & Bornkessel-

    Schlesewsky, I. (2015). The Neurophysiology of Language Processing Shapes the Evolution of Grammar: Evidence from Case Marking. PLOS ONE, 10(8), e0132819.

    Bresnan, J., Cueni, A., Nikitina, T., Baayen, R. H., & others. (2007). Predicting the dative alternation. Cognitive Foundations of Interpretation, 69–94.Demiral, Ş. B.,

    Schlesewsky, M., & Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, I. (2008). On the universality of language comprehension strategies: Evidence from Turkish. Cognition, 106(1), 484–500.

    Frank, S. L., Otten, L. J., Galli, G., & Vigliocco, G. (2015). The ERP response to the amount of information conveyed by words in sentences. Brain and Language, 140, 1–11.

    Futrell, R., Mahowald, K., & Gibson, E. (2015). Large-scale evidence of dependency length minimization in 37 languages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 33(112), 10336–10341.

    Gildea, D., & Jaeger, F. T. (2015, October). Human languages order information efficiently.

    Hawkins, J. A. (2007). Processing typology and why psychologists need to know about it. New Ideas in Psychology, 25(2), 87–107.

    Hörberg, T. (2016). Probabilistic and Prominence-driven Incremental Argument Interpretation in Swedish (PhD thesis). Stockholm University, Stockholm.Jaeger, T. F., &

    Norcliffe, E. J. (2009). The Cross-linguistic Study of Sentence Production. Language and Linguistics Compass, 3(4), 866–887.

    Kuperberg, G. R., & Jaeger, T. F. (2016). What do we mean by prediction in language comprehension? Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 31(1), 32–59.

    Levy, R. (2005). Probabilistic Models of Word Order and Syntactic Discontinuity (PhD thesis). Stanford University, Stanford.Levy, R. (2008). Expectation-based syntactic comprehension. Cognition, 106(3), 1126–1177.

    MacDonald, M. C. (2013). How language production shapes language form and comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology, 4.MacWhinney, B. (2005). Extending the Competition Model. International Journal of Bilingualism, 9(7), 69–84.

    Smith, N. J., & Levy, R. (2013). The effect of word predictability on reading time is logarithmic. Cognition, 128(3), 302–319.

    Trueswell, J. C., Tanenhaus, M. K., & Garnsey, S. M. (1994). Semantic Influences on Parsing: Use of Thematic Role Information in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution. Journal of Memory and Language, 1994(33), 285–318.

    Wang, L., Schlesewsky, M., Philipp, M., & Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, I. (2012). The Role of Animacy in Online Argument Interpretation in Mandarin Chinese. In M. Lamers & P. de Swart (Eds.), Case, Word Order and Prominence (Vol. 40, pp. 91–119). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands

  • 10.
    Keidel Fernández, Alejandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Qualitative differences in L3 learners’ neurophysiological response to L1versus L2 transfer2017In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017) / [ed] Włodarczak, Marcin, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 1789-1793Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Third language (L3) acquisition differs from first language (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition. There are different views on whether L1 or L2 is of primary influence on L3 acquisition in terms of transfer. This study examines differences in the event-related brain potentials (ERP) response to agreement incongruencies between L1 Spanish speakers and L3 Spanish learners, comparing response differences to incongruencies that are transferrable from the learners’ L1 (Swedish), or their L2 (English). Whereas verb incongruencies, available in L3 learners’ L2 but not their L1, engendered a similar response for L1 speakers and L3 learners, adjective incongruencies, available in L3 learners’ L1 but not their L2, elicited responses that differed between groups: Adjective incongruencies engendered a negativity in the 450-550 ms time window for L1 speakers only. Both congruent and incongruent adjectives also engendered an enhanced P3 wave in L3 learners compared to L1 speakers. Since the P300 correlates with task-related, strategic processing, this indicates that L3 learners process grammatical features that are transferrable from their L1 in a less automatic mode than features that are transferrable from their L2. L3 learners therefore seem to benefit more from their knowledge of their L2 than their knowledge of their L1.

  • 11.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Moja kamchatskaja èkspedicija [My Kamchatka expedition]2017In: .), Zhizn’ kak èkspedicija: sbornik k 50-letiju shkoly polevoj lingvistiki A.E. Kibrika I S.V. Kodzasova [Life as expedition: a volume for the 50th anniversary of A.E. Kibrik’s and S.V. Kodzasov’s school of field linguistics] / [ed] Plungian, V.A. & O.V Fëdorova, Moscow: Buki Vedi , 2017, p. 651-672Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Possession and Partitives2017In: Handbook of Mereology / [ed] Hans Burkhardt, Johanna Seibt, Guido Imaguire, Stamatios Gerogiorgakis, Munich: Philosophia Verlag GmbH, 2017Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Semantic patterns from an areal perspective2017In: The Cambridge handbook of areal linguistics / [ed] Raymond Hickey, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 204-236Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Profiling Indo-Aryan in the Hindukush-Karakoram: A preliminary study of micro-typological patterns2017In: Journal of South Asian languages and linguistics, ISSN 2196-0771, E-ISSN 2196-078X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 107-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is a typological profile of 31 Indo-Aryan (IA) languages in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Western Himalayan region (covering NE Afghanistan, N Pakistan, and parts of Kashmir). Native speakers were recruited to provide comparative data. This data, supplemented by reputable descriptions or field notes, was evaluated against a number of WALS- or WALS-like features, enabling a fine-tuned characterization of each language, taking different lin-guistic domains into account (phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon). The emerging patterns were compared with global distributions as well as with characteristic IA features and well-known areal patterns. Some features, mainly syntactic, turned out to be shared with IA in general, whereas others do have scattered reflexes in IA outside of the region but are especially prevalent in the region: large consonant inventories, tripartite pronominal case alignment, a high frequency of left-branching constructions, and multi-degree deictic sys-tems. Yet other features display a high degree of diversity, often bundling subareally. Finally, there was a significant clustering of features that are not characterizing IA in general: tripartite affricate differentiation, retroflexion across several subsets, aspiration contrasts involving voiceless consonants only, tonal contrasts and 20-based numerals. This clustering forms a “hard core” at the centre of the region, gradually fading out toward its peripheries.

  • 15.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Akhunzada, Fakhruddin
    Linguistic diversity, vitality and maintenance: A case study on the language situation in northern Pakistan2017In: Multiethnica. Meddelande från Centrum för multietnisk forskning, Uppsala universitet, ISSN 0284-396X, no 36-37, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multilingual and multicultural region of northern Pakistan, which has approximately 30 distinct languages, is described and evaluated from the perspective of language vitality, revealing the diverse and complex interplay of language policies, community attitudes and generational transmission. Based on the experience of conscious language maintenance efforts carried out in the area, some conclusions are offered concerning the particular effectiveness of regional networking and non-governmental institution support to promote local languages and sustain their vitality in times of great change.

  • 16.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Khan, Afsar Ali
    Khowar: Illustrations of the IPA2017In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Khowar (ISO 639-3: khw) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 200,000–300,000 (Decker 1992: 31–32; Bashir 2003: 843) people in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (formerly North-West Frontier Province). The majority of the speakers are found in Chitral (a district and erstwhile princely state bordering Afghanistan, see Figure 1), where the language is used as a lingua franca, but there are also important pockets of speaker groups in adjacent areas of Gilgit-Baltistan and Swat District as well as a considerable number of recent migrants to larger cities such as Peshawar and Rawalpindi (Decker 1992: 25–26). Its closest linguistic relative is Kalasha, a much smaller language spoken in a few villages in southern Chitral (Morgenstierne 1961: 138; Strand 1973: 302, 2001: 252). While Khowar has preserved a number of features (phonological, morphological as well as lexical) now lost in other Indo-Aryan languages of the surrounding Hindukush-Karakoram mountain region, it has, over time, incorporated a massive amount of lexical material from neighbouring or influential Iranian languages (Morgenstierne 1936) – and with it, new phonological distinctions. Certain features might also be attributable to formerly dominant languages (e.g. Turkic), or to linguistic substrates, either in the form of, or related to, the language isolate Burushaski, or other, now extinct, languages previously spoken in the area (Morgenstierne 1932: 48, 1947: 6; Bashir 2007: 208–214). There is relatively little dialectal variation among the speakers in Chitral itself, probably attributable to the relative recency of the present expansion of the language (Morgenstierne 1932: 50).

  • 17.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bisyndetic Contrast Marking in the Hindukush: Additional Evidence of a Historical Contact Zone2017In: Journal of Language Contact : Evolution of Languages, ISSN 1877-4091, E-ISSN 1955-2629, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 450-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contrastive (or antithetical) construction which makes simultaneous use of two separate particles is identified through a mainly corpus-based study as a typical feature of a number of lesser-described languages spoken in the Afghanistan-Pakistan borderland in the high Hindukush. The feature encompasses Nuristani languages (Waigali, Kati) as well as the Indo-Aryan languages found in their close vicinity (Palula, Kalasha, Dameli, Gawri), while it is not shared by more closely related Indo-Aryan languages spoken outside of this geographically delimited area. Due to a striking (although not complete) overlap with at least two other (unrelated) structural features, pronominal kinship suffixes and retroflex vowels, we suggest that a linguistic and cultural diffusion zone of considerable age is centred in the mountainous Nuristan-Kunar-Panjkora area.

  • 18.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Computational simulations of temporal vocalization behavior in adult-child interaction2017In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2017, 2017, p. 2208-2212Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to introduce a computational simulation of timing in child-adult interaction. The simulation uses temporal information from real adult-child interactions as default temporal behavior of two simulated agents. Dependencies between the agents’ behavior are added, and how the simulated interactions compare to real interaction data as a result is investigated. In the present study, the real data consisted of transcriptions of a mother interacting with her 12- month-old child, and the data simulated was vocalizations. The first experiment shows that although the two agents generate vocalizations according to the temporal characteristics of the interlocutors in the real data, simulated interaction with no contingencies between the two agents’ behavior differs from real interaction data. In the second experiment, a contingency was introduced to the simulation: the likelihood that the adult agent initiated a vocalization if the child agent was already vocalizing. Overall, the simulated data is more similar to the real interaction data when the adult agent is less likely to start speaking while the child agent vocalizes. The results are in line with previous studies on turn-taking in parent-child interaction at comparable ages. This illustrates that computational simulations are useful tools when investigating parent-child interactions.

  • 19.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation2017In: The Cambridge handbook of linguistic typology / [ed] Akexandra Y. Aikhenvald, R. M. W. Dixon, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 405-439Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Skolt Saami Documentation Corpus (SSDC-2016)2017Other (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Norden, Anton Harry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Selected topics in the grammar of Français Tirailleur: A corpus study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This corpus-based study describes some grammatical and lexical features of Français Tirailleur (FT), a pidgin spoken in the French colonial army from the mid-1800’s to the 1950’s. By examining the largest corpus available of the language, this study aims to (1) discern hitherto undescribed or strengthen previous claims about grammatical and lexical features of FT, (2) compare these features with its lexifier language and (3) identify changes over time. The corpus has been manually part-of-speech tagged and all noun phrases have been marked up. The results include a description of the form and function of the FT noun phrase, covering (pro)nouns and their modifiers as well as noun phrases with an embedded prepositional phrase. Furthermore, the apparent diachronic development of the expression même chose is analyzed, along with examples of circumlocution. FT is shown to differ from French in several respects, e.g. in substituting the demonstrative determiners ce(t)/cette with ça, but no signs of substrate influence are found. Contrary to intution about the simplex nature of pidgins, FT appears to follow French in placing certain adjectives before the noun, while postposing others. There remain several interesting aspects to explore in the grammar of FT, among them the elusive, multi-functional items ya and yena. Our further understanding of pidgins would benefit from more data and cross-linguistic comparison.

  • 22.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nordisk och finländsk språkpolitik i ett globalt perspektiv2017In: Språk i Norden, E-ISSN 2246-1701, p. 82-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an attempt to on the one hand offer a brief survey of national langauges policies of the world, and on the other hand to situate those of the Nordic countries in general, and Finland in particular, in this global context. The impressive (albeit not always sucessful) measures of Finnish authori-ties to uphold bilingualism are highlighted, and argued to have few parallels world-wide.

  • 23.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    När två (eller flera) språk blir ett2017In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 4, p. 51-61Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 24.
    Sjons, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Articulation rate in Swedish child-directed speech increases as a function of the age of the child even when surprisal is controlled for2017In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017) / [ed] Marcin Włodarczak, Stockholm: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 1794-1798Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 25. van der Auwera, Johan
    et al.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Dočekal, Mojmír
    Typologie negace2017In: Nový encyklopedický slovník češtiny online / [ed] Petr Karlík, Marek Nekula, Jana Pleskalová, Prague: Nakladatelství Lidové noviny , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The incomplete story of feminine gender loss in Northwestern Latvian dialects2017In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 8, p. 143-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to show that Northwestern Latvian dialects (also called Tamian) are insufficiently characterized by placing them on a simple linear hierarchy of feminine gender loss, which is how they are traditionally approached in Latvian dialectology. While Lithuanian and Central and High Latvian dialects all have very similar and fairly canonical gender systems, various Northwestern Latvian dialects display a wealth of underexplored non-canonical gender properties, such as the reactivated topic marker gender relic, honorific feminine gender, pronominal adjectives behaving differently from attributive adjectives, the noun ‘boy’ turning into a hybrid feminine noun, and a third controller gender restricted to some diminutives. Feminine gender loss is traditionally explained by Livonian (Finnic) substrate. It is shown in this paper that the developments in NW Latvian have multiple causes, one of them being apocope (loss of short vowels infinal syllables), a common feature of NW Latvian dialects which prompted many developments making NW Latvian different from Central Latvian dialects and which is also ultimately due to language contact. Apocope and other developments made the system more complex. The non-canonical gender properties described in this paper are the effect of subsequent developments reducing system complexity again.

  • 27.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Universal Dependencies for Swedish Sign Language2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 303-308Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the first effort to annotate a signed language with syntactic dependency structure: the Swedish Sign Language portion of the Universal Dependencies treebanks. The visual modality presents some unique challenges in analysis and annotation, such as the possibility of both hands articulating separate signs simultaneously, which has implications for the concept of projectivity in dependency grammars. Our data is sourced from the Swedish Sign Language Corpus, and if used in conjunction these resources contain very richly annotated data: dependency structure and parts of speech, video recordings, signer metadata, and since the whole material is also translated into Swedish the corpus is also a parallel text.

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