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  • 1.
    Aare, Kätlin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory patterns and turn-taking in spontaneous Estonian: Inhalation amplitude in multiparty conversations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn-taking in spontaneous multiparty conversations held in Estonian. Respiratory activity is recorded with Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography. The main focus is on how inhalation amplitude varies between the inhalations produced directly before turn onset compared to the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results indicate a significant difference in amplitude, realised mainly by an increase in inhalation end lung volume values. One of the possible functions of this pattern is to signal an intention of taking the conversational turn. Another could be a phrasing or grouping function connected to lower inhalation amplitudes within turns.

  • 2.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Backchannels and breathing2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 47-52Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the timing of backchannel onsets within speaker’s own and dialogue partner’s breathing cycle in two spontaneous conversations in Estonian. Results indicate that backchannels are mainly produced near the beginning, but also in the second half of the speaker’s exhalation phase. A similar tendency was observed in short non-backchannel utterances, indicating that timing of backchannels might be determined by their duration rather than their pragmatic function. By contrast, longer non-backchannel utterances were initiated almost exclusively right at the beginning of the exhalation. As expected, backchannels in the conversation partner’s breathing cycle occurred predominantly towards the end of the exhalation or at the beginning of the inhalation. 

  • 3.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Inhalation amplitude and turn-taking in spontaneous Estonian conversations2015In: Proceedings from Fonetik 2015 Lund, June 8-10, 2015 / [ed] Malin Svensson Lundmark, Gilbert Ambrazaitis, Joost van de Weijer, Lund: Lund University , 2015, p. 1-5Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn management in four approximately 20 minute long spontaneous multiparty conversations in Estonian. The main focus of interest is whether inhalation amplitude is greater before turn onset than in the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results show that inhalations directly before turn onset are greater in amplitude than those later in the turn. The difference seems to be realized by ending the inhalation at a greater lung volume value, whereas the initial lung volume before inhalation onset remains roughly the same across a single turn. The findings suggest that the increased inhalation amplitude could function as a cue for claiming the conversational floor.

  • 4.
    Adler, Aleksandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Perifera kulturer i kontakt?: Indirekt översättning av hebreisk skönlitteratur till svenska2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following product–oriented study deals with translational norms operating in indirect translation of Hebrew literature into Swedish. The research was conducted as a contrastive study of Extra–linguistic Cultural References (ECR) based on Toury’s (1995/2012) coupled pairs and supplemented with Pedersen’s typology (2011). The material consisted of 3 x 136 coupled pairs excerpted from a collection of short stories written by an Israeli high–prestige writer Amos Oz and translated into Swedish through English. Both translations were carried out by high–prestige translators. The results suggest that indirect literary translation follows the adequacy norm in accordance with the hypothesis on high–prestige translation (Lindqvist 2002). The hypothesis on acceptancy norms operating in indirect translation is rejected. 

  • 5.
    af Sandeberg, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Engelskundervisningens betydelse för elever med dyslexi2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien belyser och diskuterar hur undervisning i engelska inom grundskola och gymnasium samt antagningsregler till högskola kan påverka möjligheten att utbilda sig i tekniska ämnen för personer med dyslexi. Studien belyser att det finns en hel del som tyder på att undervisningen i engelska i grundskola och gymnasium ofta inte är anpassad till de elever som har fonologiska svårigheter, och att detta kan få avgörande betydelse för deras framtid.

    I en första delstudie görs en enkätundersökning bland engelsklärare i grundskola och gymnasium för att se om de har goda möjligheter att undervisa elever med dyslexi. Undersökningen visar bland annat att det har funnits brister på lärarhögskolor när det gäller utbildningen om läs- och skrivsvårigheter/dyslexi.

    81 % av de 33 lärare som har engelska i sin utbildning svarar att de inte har fått kunskap om läs- och skrivsvårigheter/dyslexi som hjälper dem i undervisningen i engelska. Undersökningen visar också att flera kommuner inte ger lärarna den fortbildning de behöver och att många lärare upplever en vardag med tidsbrist, för få alternativa verktyg och för stora undervisningsgrupper.

    I en andra delstudie belyses framgångsfaktorer i engelska för elever med dyslexi. Fyra högskolestudenter som har dyslexi djupintervjuas, samtliga går fjärde året på utbildningen till civilingenjör. Två av studenterna har MVG i engelska B från gymnasiet och två har inte läst engelska B.

    I en tredje studie görs en jämförelse mellan gymnasiebetygen i engelska för 30 studenter med dyslexi på civilingenjörsprogrammet och en kontrollgrupp. Studien visar bland annat att det är 10 % av dyslektikerna som inte skulle ha kommit in på utbildningen på grundval av sina betyg om de hade sökt hösten 2010 när det är nya antagningsregler med högre språkkrav.

  • 6.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. University of Ghana.
    Aspects of the Grammar and Lexicon of Sεlεε2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a description of some aspects of the grammar of Sɛlɛɛ, a Ghana-Togo-Mountain (GTM) language, based on my own fieldwork. The thesis consists of an introduction and five papers.

    Paper (I), Noun classes in Sεlεε, describes the noun class system of Sɛlɛɛ. It consists of eight noun class prefixes, four marking singular and four plural. They are paired in irregular ways to form eight genders (singular-plural pairs). Nouns agree with determiners, numerals and interrogative qualifiers within the noun phrase and can be indexed on the predicate. Nouns are allocated to classes/genders based partly on semantic notions.

    Paper (II), Sεlεε (with Francesca Di Garbo), details the morphological encoding of diminution in Sɛlɛɛ either by the suffixes -bi, -bii, -mii, -e or -nyi alone or in combination with noun class shift. Augmentation is not expressed morphologically.

    Paper (III), The tense and aspect system of Sεlεε: A preliminary analysis, shows that Sɛlɛɛ, unlike most Kwa languages, has a rather elaborate tense system encompassing present, hodiernal, pre-hodiernal and future tenses. The aspectual categories are progressive, habitual and perfect. Both categories often amalgamate with first person singular subject clitics.

    Paper (IV), Standard negation in Sεlεε, deals with the negation of declarative verbal main clauses. This is primarily encoded by a high tone, sometimes combined with segmental morphemes, portmanteau negative tense-aspect morphemes and vowel lengthening. Each tense-aspect category has at least one particular negation strategy.

    Paper (V), Unravelling temperature terms in Sεlεε (with Francesca Di Garbo), investigates the grammatical constructions employed for temperature evaluations. Personal feeling is only encoded via subjects, while ambient and tactile evaluations are construed attributively and predicatively.

    A comparison of Selee and other GTM languages revealed similar noun morphologies but very different verbal morphologies.

  • 7.
    Ainiala, Terhi
    et al.
    Helsinki University.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Henkilönnimet viittomakielessä (Arv. teos: Henkilöviittomien synty ja kehitys suomalaisessa viittomakieliyhteisössä/ Päivi Rainò - Helsinki 2004)2005In: Virittäjä, ISSN 0042-6806-109, Vol. 109, no 141–144Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Aktürk, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Periphery Effects in Phonological Integration: Turkish suffixation of Swedish proper nouns by advanced bilinguals2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates how certain word-final Swedish rimes are integrated phonologically into Turkish by means of suffixation. Specific Swedish rimes have been selected for their unusual characteristics from the perspective of Turkish phonology such as vowel and consonant quantity as well as coda phonotactics. The data have been collected in an experiment, which involved the oral translation of a Swedish text including potential borrowings such as proper names and place names. The participants were advanced bilingual speakers of the standard varieties of Turkish and Swedish living in Stockholm. Two phonological properties of Turkish are relevant for this essay. Firstly, every word-final rime must have a vocalic, palatal and labial classification in order to be licensed for suffixation. Secondly, Turkish has a large and diverse periphery in its phonological lexicon due to faithful or partially faithful adaptation of a plethora of historical loanwords. The focus of the investigation is if the new borrowings are integrated into the core or into the periphery of the Turkish phonological lexicon or alternatively how faithful their integration is to the Swedish originals. In terms of resolving j-final coda cluster problems, the popular strategies are found to be palatalization, deletion and metathesis. The main body of data displays low faithfulness to the Swedish originals as well as an underutilization of the Turkish periphery. The participants are found to use the periphery of their phonological lexicon to a high degree for established words in Turkish but only to a limited extent when adapting new borrowings from Swedish into Turkish. This finding is explained by the fact that the structural and sociolinguistic conditions are not conducive to periphery maintenance in the present context in contrast to the historical context during the inflow of Arabic and Persian loanwords.

  • 9.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Phonological Adoption through Bilingual Borrowing: Comparing Elite Bilinguals and Heritage Bilinguals2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the phonological integration of loanwords, the original structures of the donor language can either be adopted as innovations or adapted to the recipient language. This dissertation investigates how structural (i.e. phonetic, phonological, morpho-phonological) and non-structural (i.e. sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic) factors interact in determining which of these two integration strategies is preferred. Factors that affect the accuracy of the structure’s perception and production in the donor language as a result of its acquisition as a second language are given special consideration. The three studies in the dissertation examine how the same phonological structure from different donor languages is integrated into the same recipient language Turkish by two different types of initial borrowers: elite bilinguals in Turkey and heritage bilinguals in Sweden. The three investigated structures are word-final [l] after back vowels, long segments in word-final closed syllables, and word-initial onset clusters. The main hypothesis is that adoption will be more prevalent in heritage bilinguals than in elite bilinguals. Four necessary conditions for adoption are identified in the analysis. Firstly, the donor-language structure must have high perceptual salience. Secondly, the borrowers must have acquired the linguistic competence to produce a structure accurately. Thirdly, the borrowers must have sufficient sociolinguistic incentive to adopt a structure as an innovation. Fourthly, prosodic structures require higher incentive to be adopted than segments and clusters of segments. The main hypothesis is partially confirmed. The counterexamples involve either cases where the salience of the structure was high in the elite bilinguals’ borrowing but low in the heritage bilinguals’ borrowing, or cases where the structure’s degree of acquisition difficulty was low. Therefore, it is concluded that structural factors have the final say in the choice of integration strategy.

  • 10.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the integration of /l/ in Turkish in borrowings from Arabic and Swedish2010In: Turkic languages, ISSN 1431-4983, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 153-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the phonological integration of the front coda /l/ after a back vowel in the final rime of words borrowed from Arabic and Swedish into Turkish. This original donor structure is interesting because it in conflict with the core rules of Turkish phonology. Several sub-disciplines of linguistics have dealt with the role of different phonological and sociolinguistic factors in the phonological integration of lexical borrowings but there is no consensus on their respective weights in borrowing and on how their interaction is to be conceptualised. The Arabic data in the study are based on historical loanwords while the Swedish data have been obtained through an experiment. The focus of the article is the choice between adoption and adaptation as integration strategies and how different factors interact in producing the attested integration patterns. The results show that adoption is predominantly preferred to adaptation in both cases due to the dominant status of the donor languages in the contexts of borrowing. Hence, it is argued that sociolinguistic factors play the main role in these two particular cases.

  • 11.
    Al Ansari-Imad, Ali
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A quantitative study on the application and comprehension of English connectors by Swedish L2 learners of English in upper secondary schools2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on L2 learners of English in Swedish upper secondary schools and their ability to comprehend and use connectors in a multiple-choice cloze procedure. Connectors are used in text to signal the text structure and make explicit the relation between text segments. A study by Geva (1992) suggests that with an increased proficiency, learners also improve their ability to comprehend text relations and the use of connectors. The present study applies the suggestions of Geva’s results in a Swedish context. English in Swedish upper secondary schools, is taught at three levels (designated English 5, 6, 7) with increasing difficulty and proficiency level requirements. This study tests the ability to comprehend the context and use the correct connector on pupils in the two mandatory courses (English 5 & 6). Similar to previous studies, the aim is to investigate the relationship between levels of English and the ability to use connectors. This empirical survey investigates the English 5 & 6 pupils’ success in applying the appropriate connector in relation to the level of English they are placed in, in order to analyze whether there is any perceived development, as is presupposed by the English curriculum. Furthermore, the study also aims to analyze what type of connectors the pupils excel at or struggle with and any factors that might affect pupils’ performance. The test consisted of three categories: adversative (6 questions), additive (5 questions), and causal connectors (4 questions), a total of 15 questions, with one point being awarded for each correct response. The results of the two groups were similar and a subsequent t-test revealed that there was no statistical significance between the two groups in any of the categories. This suggests that in the sample which was tested there is no proficiency increase in terms of connectors and comprehending inter-/intrasentential relationships. Furthermore, the results indicate that the pupils are more likely to correctly select the appropriate adversative and causal connectors, but struggled in selecting the additive connectors.

    Keywords: connectors, comprehension, intrasentential & intersentential relationships, teaching, coherence, cohesion

  • 12.
    Al Taai, Lamia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    A Comparison of Arabic Literature Translation into English and Swedish: Inverstigating Domestication in the Translation of Arabic Cultural Words - Imarat Yaqubyan as acase in point2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Imarat Yaqubyan is a contemporary Arabic novel that encompasses an intensive and variable Arabic culture; this study contains a survey in tables of cultural words, according to Newmark’s categories, “material culture”, “social culture”, “originations”, and  “gestures and habits”, as well as their correspondences in the English and the Swedish translated novel versions. In this tripled language study, Arabic, English and Swedish, I undertake a qualitative comparison between the translation strategies used by each translator of the English and Swedish versions. For this purpose I apply the taxonomy of translation strategies established by Pedersen, which is divided first into SL-oriented strategies categorized into “Retention”, “Specification” and “Direct Translation”, and secondly the TL-oriented that includes “Generalization”, “Substitution” and “Omission”, as well as the “Official Equivalent”. Through my analyses process, I link Newmark’s metaphors types, terminology and the seven procedures of translating metaphors with Pedersen’s strategies.  In this study, Pedersen’s SL and TL-oriented translation strategies are considered to correspond to Venuti’s terminology of domestication and foreignization. Conclusions are drawn about the use of domesticating strategies in certain cultural words categories of both English and Swedish versions. The study devises the term “False Domestication”.

  • 13.
    Alemán Bañón, José
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Miller, David
    Rothman, Jason
    Morphological variability in second language learners: An examination of electrophysiological and production data2017In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1509-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined potential sources of morphological variability in adult L1‑English L2‑Spanish learners, with a focus on L1‑L2 similarity, morphological markedness, and knowledge type (receptive vs. expressive). Experiment 1 uses event‑related potentials to examine noun‑adjective number (present in L1) and gender agreement (absent in L1) in online sentence comprehension (receptive knowledge). For each feature, markedness was manipulated, such that half of the critical noun‑adjective combinations were feminine (marked) and the other half, masculine; half were used in the plural (marked) and the other half in the singular. With this set‑up, we examined learners’ potential overreliance on unmarked forms or “defaults” (singular/masculine). Experiment 2 examines similar dependencies in spoken sentence production (expressive knowledge). Results showed that learners (n=22) performed better with number than gender overall, but their brain responses to both features were qualitatively native‑like (i.e., P600), even though gender was probed with nouns that do not provide strong distributional cues to gender. In addition, variability with gender agreement was better accounted for by lexical (as opposed to syntactic) aspects. Learners showed no advantage for comprehension over production. They also showed no systematic evidence of reliance on morphological defaults, although their online processing was sensitive to markedness in a native‑like manner. Overall, these results suggest that there is facilitation for properties of the L2 that exist in the L1 and that markedness impacts L2 processing, but in a native‑like manner. These results also speak against proposals arguing that adult L2ers have deficits at the level of the morphology or the syntax.

  • 14.
    Allertz, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att motivera och/eller manipulera: En begreppsutredande litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to theoretically investigate the concepts of the interpersonal actions 'to motivate' and 'to manipulate' and also to examine possible differences and similarities between the two. The method used is a conceptual review based on the Self-Determination Theory, related to the concept of motivation, and Machiavellianism, related to the concept of manipu-lation. The results show that 'to motivate', according to Self-Determination Theory, concerns influencing the intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, where intrinsic motivation is related to the feeling of self-determination, inner locus of causality, being or feeling competent and exercise activities for the pleasure of it, whilst extrinsic motivation is related to external locus of cau-sality, external pressure and engaging in activities for the purpose of reaching a goal or re-ward. 'To manipulate' is according to Machiavellianism based on the manipulator doing whatever it takes to reach a certain goal and gain something for himself with no regard of what methods being used. The comparative analysis showed that the crucial difference in how an behaviour is interpreted as either, or both, motivating and manipulative is based on who is doing the interpretation, what information she has and which aspects that are focused on.

  • 15.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    A alternância /d/, /l/ e /r/ em variedades linguísticas afrolatinas2010In: Journal of Portuguese and Spanish lexically-based creoles, ISSN 1646-7000, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [pt]

    Este trabalho é uma análise da alternância entre /l/, /r/ e/d/ na linguagem de comunidades latino-americanas de forte presença africana ouafrodescendente. Os dados examinados provêm de uma série de estudos linguísticosanteriores e fontes literárias em espanhol e em português que incluemrepresentações da fala de africanos e seus descendentes. Duas perguntasnorteiam o presente estudo: Quais são os fonemas que se “confundem” e em queposições? Até que ponto a “confusão” é frequente nas variedades em questão? Apartir destas perguntas discutem-se explicações para esta mudança baseadas emdados que apontam seja para a deriva ou evolução natural das variedadesibéricas, seja para o contato entre línguas ibéricas e africanas. A análise dosdados revela que alguns destes fonemas são trocados de forma sistemática emposições específicas unicamente em variedades de espanhol e português queevoluíram em contato com línguas africanas.

  • 16.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Seiler Brylla, CharlottaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.Shaw, PhilipStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Computer mediated discourse across languages2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Stereotypes of English in Hollywood Movies: A Case Study of the Use of Different Varieties of English in Star Wars, The Lord of the Rings and Transformers.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with the use of linguistic stereotypes in Hollywood movies. It investigates whether attitudes towards English dialects found in studies on perceptual dialectology are reflected in the selected movies and discusses the notion of linguistic identity and how standard and nonstandard speech, respectively, are used symbolically to emphasize features of characters in eleven movies from three different movie series, namely The Lord of the Rings, Star Wars and Transformers, with a main focus on syntactic and phonological dimensions. The essay finds a correlation between standard speech and features of competence and wisdom, and nonstandard speech and features of solidarity, sociability and traits of stupidity and humor. Moreover, very specific perceptions of certain varieties of English are probably utilized as amplifiers of equally specific characteristics of some characters. The use of dialects and accents in these movies is probably intentional and not coincidental.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Language attitudes in the People’s Republic of China’s leading English-language newspaper, China Daily2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since time immemorial, various governments in China have attempted to promulgate writing reforms and speech reforms in order to unite the nation, mostly for political gain. The aim of this paper is to discover and analyze some language issues in the People’s Republic of China, specifically attitudes and comments on spoken usage of Putonghua (also called Modern Standard Chinese), Shanghai dialect, Cantonese and English by researching China Daily’s online newspaper article archive. A few valid articles could be retrieved and they uncovered that Putonghua, Shanghai dialect and Cantonese are all considered prestigious in different regions of the country; furthermore, English is gaining support rapidly, especially in corporate China.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Repetitioner i barnriktat tal under det första levnadsåret2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A high proportion of repetitions is one of the distinctive features of child-directed speech (CDS). Research has shown that the percentage of repetitions in CDS varies over time depending on the age of the child. In addition, it is suggested that repetitions in CDS correlate with child language development. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible variations over time in the percentage of repetitions in CDS during the child’s first year, and to try to find a connection between repetitions and the child’s language development. Repetitions in parent speech in ten parent-child dyads as the children were 3, 6, 9 and 12 months old were investigated quantitatively. Exact and varying self-repetitions and exact and varying repetitions of the child’s utterances were investigated and compared to the same children’s linguistic level at 18 months of age. The results showed that the percentage of exact self-repetitions was more than 30 percent lower at the age of 12 months than at 3, 6 and 9 months of age. The total percentage of repetitions of the child’s utterances increased more than four times from 3 to 12 months of age. A connection was found between the repetitions during the child’s first year and the child’s language development, indicating that a low percentage of exact self-repetitions at 6 to 9 months of age correlated with a high vocabulary at 18 months of age. A link between the expressive language of the child and the repetitions in parents’ speech was suggested.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Verbal contents of repetitions in Swedish child-directed speech2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Repetitions in child-directed speech (CDS) have been shown to vary over time, and are suggested to affect first language acquisition. Correlations between verbal contents of repetitions in CDS and children’s language development have been suggested. The verbal contents of repetitions in Swedish CDS have not yet been investigated.

    The aim of this study was to examine the verbal contents of repetitions in Swedish CDS during the child’s first 2 years and possible changes in proportions of repetitions during the same time span. Verbal contents of repetitions in parents’ speech in 10 parent-child dyads as the children were 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months old were investigated focusing on word classes, sentence types and whole-constituent change. The results were compared to the children’s productive vocabularies at the age of 30 months. Possible occurrences of item-based constructions and frequent frames in the repetitions were also examined.

    The overall results revealed patterns concerning change in verbal contents in repetitions over time and correlations between verbal contents in repetitions and child language development. Two proposals were made: parents adjust the complexity of their speech to linguistic developmental stages of their children, and linguistic variation in the input increases as the child grows older.

  • 21.
    Anufrieva, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    “I have measured out my life with coffee spoons” – T.S. Eliot: A semantic analysis of selected metaphors in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Metaphor is the most widely recognized and discussed type of trope. It has attracted the attention of analysts from various disciplines, e.g. philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, and literature. Research from these fields has shown that metaphors are ubiquitous and indispensable in our lives. It is not only literary discourse that is abundant with metaphors, but metaphors are also common in scientific discourse and even in our everyday language. Moreover, research from cognitive linguistics has shown that our thinking is metaphorical to a certain extent. Thus, if metaphors are so ubiquitous in our lives, how do we recognize them?

    In this paper selected metaphors from The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot have been analyzed. These are metaphors from literary discourse; hence, the analysis was partly influenced by the genre and the specific, poetic context. The focus is on linguistic metaphors that can be identified in this poetic text, not on underlying conceptual metaphors. The aim of this paper has been to see how the metaphors in the poem are constructed and how the metaphorical part of the strings they occur in interacts with a seemingly literal part.

    According to the results of the analysis, the metaphorical constructions in the poem show a variety of modes of interaction among their constituents. Typically the metaphorical part of the poetic construction evokes a complex and directly perceptible phenomenon which serves as the basis for the understanding of the poetic persona’s feelings. Also the metaphors that describe the setting of the poem seem to be projections of the protagonist’s mood. Thus, the affective aspect of the metaphors is essential in the poem since it connects the metaphors to a network of meanings related to a prominent theme of the poem, namely the speaker’s paralysis and insecurity of himself, adding to the expressive complexity of the poem’s structure.

  • 22.
    Aras, Elizabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Early Opportunities for Quality Learning: A Comparative Study of Swedish Preschools' Language Practice2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish preschool is internationally known for its high quality. Children in Sweden are given early educational opportunities to learn and develop prior to their school start. The Swedish preschool activity should include an overall language developmental approach; however, studies show that the children's conditions for language instruction vary intra-nationally. While the Swedish preschool curriculum reflects on children's desire to learn, the preschool staff should be aware of their own practical theory in order to arrange for learning. Research show that early childhood education of high quality benefits children's future school results. Thus, this research aims at studying children's opportunities for quality learning and development in the Swedish preschool, by exploring the content of preschool teaching. The role of the preschool is to provide all children with an education of high quality. This study aims at investigating what quality can mean in terms of preschool language instruction. To generate an understanding of quality, the study focuses on the structure and process inputs in six public preschools and two municipalities. To provide insights about the preschools' practices, a qualitative approach has been used to conduct interviews with preschool heads and employees from education administrations, as well as questionnaires with preschool staff and observations of learning environments. As the quality inputs vary between the preschools and municipalities it affects the outputs of the children's language development. This research makes it evident that the outcomes are mainly dependent on the preschool staff's abilities and competences of implementing development.

  • 23.
    Aronsson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    I dialog med tid och rum: Anföring, interpunktion och interjektioner i en kommenterad översättning av Yasutaka Tsutsuis ungdomsroman 時をかける少女 (Toki wo kakeru shoujo)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis consists of a translation from Japanese to Swedish of Yasutaka Tsutsui’s Toki wo kakeru shoujo (The girl who leapt through time), and a commentary of the translation process. The purpose is to examine which problems may arise when translating reported discourse, punctuation and interjections, and what strategies can be used to solve these problems. The translation is performed with an orientation towards acceptability and the target culture, to try and conform the text to the norms and expectations of the target culture.

  • 24.
    Asfawwesen, Desalegn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The inceptive construction and associated topics in Amharic and related languages2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the syntactic features, functions, and diachrony of a complex predicate called ‘the inceptive construction’ which is based on a grammaticalised use of the converbs ‘get up’, ‘pick up’, ‘grasp’, and ‘take’. The languages under investigation are Amharic, Argobba, Harari, Zay, and Selt’i. The data collection that was analized consists of elicitations, audio recordings, and written texts. The analysis shows that the converbs identify the initial phase of the event encoded by a following verb. The converbs are further associated with nuances like volition, surprise, and emphasis. The rise of such interpretations as surprise and emphasis appears to depend mainly on context, while volition is inherent to the construction. The languages generally do not show much variation. However, there is a notable difference in some co-occurrence restrictions. Moreover, there is a difference in the presence/absence of certain converbs mainly in Harari and Zay, which is clearly a matter of preference between individual consultants. Regarding the origin of the inceptive construction, collocation, frequency, and speakers’ conception of the action of the converbs are possible factors that lead the verbs to grammaticalize into markers of the inception phase. Only some traces of the construction are found in an old Amharic text from the 15th century.

    The converb is the main verb form used in the inceptive construction, although other verb forms are allowed which may take a coordinating conjunction (in the cases of Amharic and Argobba) and an iterative/simultaneity marker (‘while’). The Amharic conjunction =nna ‘and’ links the light verb with the reference verb in the inceptive construction, but is also used in causal(purposive) and conditional coordination. The criteria of tense iconicity and variable positions indicate that =nna is a coordinating conjunction in the former, but a subordinator in the latter. Lastly, the converb in Amharic is shown to become insubordinated, i.e. the main verb or auxiliary it depends on gets ellipsed over time and it comes to function as a main verb. An insubordinated converb is used in the expression of surprise/exclamation, interrogation, rhetorical questioning, wishing, and the resultative/perfective. The point is it is still possible to use the notion of ‘converb’ in the inceptive construction as this is a separate historical process. 

  • 25.
    Axelsson, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    En kat ved navn pluskvamperfektum: En jämförande studie av de skandinaviska översättningarna av L'élégance du hérisson2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates to what extent the Scandinavian translators use the same methods when translating. The Danish, Norwegian and Swedish translations of the French novel L’élégance du hérisson are analyzed using Vinay and Darbelnet’s (1958/1977) methodology. In the present study the translators are also questioned about so called situational factors that might have influenced the translation process and its outcome. There is a major focus on the methods that are characterized by indirect translation, since these in a clear way indicate differences. Results show that the translators use the same methods in 42 % of the cases in the analyzed material. Results also show that the indirect translation methods are widely used in the Danish target text and it hence also distances itself the farthest from the source text, whereas the Norwegian target text is rich in litteral translation and closest to the source text.

  • 26.
    Axelsson, Monica
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Inledning: Nyanlända barn och ungdomar i de nordiska länderna2016In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 5-12Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27. Barddal, Johanna
    et al.
    Smitherman, Thomas
    Bjarnadottir, Valgerdur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Danesi, Serena
    Jenset, Gard B.
    McGillivray, Barbara
    Reconstructing constructional semantics: The dative subject construction in Old Norse-Icelandic, Latin, Ancient Greek, Old Russian and Old Lithuanian2012In: Studies in Language, ISSN 0378-4177, E-ISSN 1569-9978, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 511-547Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the historical linguistic community is well aware, reconstructing semantics is a notoriously difficult undertaking. Such reconstruction has so far mostly been carried out on lexical items, like words and morphemes, and has not been conducted for larger and more complex linguistic units, which intuitively seems to be a more intricate task, especially given the lack of methodological criteria and guidelines within the field. This follows directly from the fact that most current theoretical frameworks are not construction-based, that is, they do not assume that constructions are form-meaning correspondences. In order to meet this challenge, we present an attempt at reconstructing constructional semantics, and more precisely the semantics of the Dative Subject Construction for an earlier stage of Indo-European. For this purpose we employ lexical semantic verb classes in combination with the semantic map model (Bar partial derivative dal 2007, Bar partial derivative dal, Kristoffersen & Sveen 2011), showing how incredibly stable semantic fields may remain across long time spans, and how reconstructing such semantic fields may be accomplished

  • 28.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Falk, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    The L2 status factor and the declarative/procedural distinction2012In: Third language acquisition in adulthood / [ed] Cabrelli Amaro, Jennifer, Flynn, Suzanne & Rothman, Jason, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, p. 61-78Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Lindqvist, ChristinaUppsala University.Laufer, BatiaUniversity of Haifa.
    L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use: New perspectives on assessment and corpus analysis.2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is intended for researchers and students in the field of second language (L2) acquisition. As its title suggests, the book discusses L2 vocabulary acquisition, knowledge and use, and examines them from the perspectives of assessment and corpus analysis. The chapters also address some additional central research issues: the role of word frequency in the input, the difference between single words and multi-word units, and the distinction between vocabulary of oral and written language. The first three chapters of the book present critical reviews of different aspects of vocabulary acquisition. The other four chapters contain empirical studies that relate to the central themes of the book. The data in the studies draw on a variety of source and target languages: English, French, Italian, Swedish, Hebrew and Japanese. The book offers some new insights into the field of vocabulary and suggests avenues of research.

  • 30.
    Bardel, Camilla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Nystedt, JaneStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Progetto Dizionario Italiano-Svedese: Atti del Primo Colloquio,Stoccolma 10-12 febbraio 20052006Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    How much vocabulary does a second language learner need? How many words do native speakers know? How many words are needed to do the things that a language user needs to do? And – the question that justifies the text of this presentation – What is a dictionary? Che cos’è un vocabolario?, to echo the title used by Bruno Migliorini in 1951, and which is one of the main questions of the 1st Colloquium on the ”Progetto dizionario italiano-svedese”, held at Stockholm University on February 10-12, 2005. The colloquium was sponsored by the Henrik Granholm Foundation and by the Italian Foreign Ministry through the Italian Institute of Culture in Stockholm, and we are deeply grateful for their support. The opening ceremony was presided over by the Vice Chancellor of our University, the Rettore Magnifico Kåre Bremer, the Italian Ambassador Giulio Vinci Gigliucci and the Director of the Italian Institute, Cultural Counsellor Giuseppe Manica.

    The program included the main themes we outlined for this colloquium issues concerning vocabularies, dictionaries and the acquisition of Italian as an L2. We thank our speakers for providing us with their texts, which have been published in a two-fold format, as a printed version and on the web-site of the project: www.fraita.su.se/lexikonprojektet.

  • 31.
    Barra Oliveros, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    La oferta en la correspondencia comercial : Actos y actividades de cortesía en español y en sueco2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En esta monografía se analiza contractivamente el uso de la cortesía en una selección de Cartas Comerciales de Oferta (CCO) en español y sueco. Se trata de identificar las similitudes y diferencias en el modo de realizar Actos de Cortesía (AC) y en cómo éstos se distribuyen y aplican en el proceso de redacción de un texto de oferta. Partimos del concepto de acto de habla y de actividades de imagen para clasificar la producción de cortesía lingüística. Se ha incorporado un breve marco teórico que nos entrega datos básicos sobre los estudios y teorías en el ámbito de la cortesía desde el punto de vista pragmático. Basados en un número específico de cartas comerciales de oferta (diez en español y diez en sueco)  hemos analizado, en encabezamientos, cuerpos centrales y cierres, los procedimientos o estrategias empleados y a partir de allí hemos clasificado los actos de cortesía lingüística que se han producido. Defendemos la hipótesis de que los actos de cortesía son expresiones centrales en la composición de este tipo de texto y que su presencia posibilita la presentación y venta del producto. Las diferencias entre las cartas suecas y las españolas dan indicios de estilos comunicativos propios, donde lo más característico sería la orientación relativa hacia lo temático en el caso sueco y hacia lo personal, en el español. Los resultados muestran también que al comparar las cartas hispanas con las suecas se ponen de manifiestos similitudes y diferencias tanto en la cantidad como en la frecuencia, en lo referente a las fórmulas de tratamiento y también  en cuanto a la estrategia general de oferta. Por otra parte nuestro trabajo nos ha permitido distinguir entre distintos tipos de cortesía que se agrupan dependiendo de los objetivos de quien produce el texto.

  • 32.
    Bartkowiak, Paulina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finish, Dutch and German.
    Język polonijny w Szwecji: Przeskok kodowy w rozmowach na temat pracy2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 33.
    Benediktsdottir, Ásdis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Analysing a Harvest Moon: On the translation of role language in Bokujō Monogatari: Hajimari no Daichi for the Nintendo 3DS2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to introduce the concept of role language in translation in the context of video game localisation. There is very little written on the subject of role language in translation from Japanese to English, and none which pertains to role language in video games. There is also a seeming deficiency of reliable literature regarding the product of translation in video game localisation, analysing what was done and what effects it may have had on the finished product. By analysing the particular role language profiles of selected characters from Bokujō Monogatari: Hajimari no Daichi for the Nintendo 3DS, this thesis hopes to serve as a stepping stone towards a new area of video game localisation.

    Eight non-playable characters, four male and four female, were analysed to create their respective role language profiles. Four scenarios were chosen for each character: the first and last heart event, the love confession and the married life sequence. The translations of each of these scenarios were analysed, along with how the respective characters were linguistically portrayed.

    The study found that although many characters were found to retain most of their original linguistic profiling in translation, there were instances where misconception of the source text could have been a factor. The translations where this rather than a different linguistic profile altered the character’s perception, the translations were often ST-oriented. In translations where the characterisation had been unaltered, predominantly it seemed the result of a critical distance from the ST and willingness on the translator’s part to take creative liberties.

    Role language is an integral feature of Japanese popular fiction, and it would seem that the fictional realms of video games are no exception. Although this thesis has studied only a limited sample, it would not be entirely out of line to draw the initial conclusion that to take a step back from the source material and instead focus on conveying a perception of a character rather than follow the written script, seems to result in a character portrayal in the target text similar to that in the source text.

  • 34.
    Berger, Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hedström Lindenhäll, Rosanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Karlsson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nyberg Pergament, Sarah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vojnovic, Ivan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Voices after midnight: How a night out affects voice quality2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate how different parameters of the voice (jitter, shimmer, LTAS and mean pitch) are affected by a late night out. Three recordings were made: one early evening before the night out, one after midnight, and one on the next day. Each recording consisted of a one minute reading and prolonged vowels. Five students took part in the experiment. Results varied among the participants, but some patterns were noticeable in all parameters. A trend towards increased mean pitch during the second recording was observed among four of the subjects. Somewhat unexpectedly, jitter and shimmer decreased between the first and second recordings and increased in the third one. Due to the lack of ethical testing, only a small number of participants were included. A larger sample is suggested for future research in order to generalize results.

  • 35.
    Berglund, Jonny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Construction Grammar Approach to the Phrase2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay adopts a construction grammar approach to the linguistic pattern why don’t you. It argues that the pattern can have two different senses: an interrogative sense and a suggestive sense. Further it argues that the suggestive sense is a construction similar to the definition of a construction described by construction grammar theory.

    In other words, the linguistic pattern why don’t you can have a specific underlying semantics that cannot be reached by an examination of its formal pattern.

  • 36.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Barns tidiga teckenspråksutveckling: med illustrationer av Lena Johansmide2012Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Signed Swedish1979Book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Bergman, Brita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckentranskription2015Report (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Bergman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    La distinción entre préstamo y cambio de código en un discurso electrónico2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En el presente estudio se pretende investigar la posibilidad de distinguir los préstamos de los elementos de cambio de código en un discurso electrónico entre jovenes bilingües de sueco-español, a través de un modelo de frecuencia elaborado por Myers-Scotton. También la posible co-existencia de las palabras analizadas en ambas lenguas será averiguada. El material bajo estudio consiste en conversaciones entre bilingües jóvenes de sueco/español en el foro facebook. En dichas conversaciones la alternancia entre las dos lenguas es muy frecuente, con el uso de cambio de código y préstamos. La hipotesis consiste en la convicción de que sí será posible encontrar préstamos a través de la aplicación del modelo, dado que el discurso electrónico probablemente no se distinguirá tanto de un discurso oral o escrito. Además, creemos que los préstamos encontrados con alta probabilidad serán co-existentes con las palabras en la lengua original. El análisis muestra que existe una cantidad de préstamos en el discurso investigado, y además que son co-existentes en todos los casos estudiados menos uno. El estudio también da indicios de que el modelo no es completamente fiable; el límite mínimo de frecuencia debería ser aumentado.

  • 40.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Epistemic marking and multiple perspective: an introduction2015In: Language Typology and Universals, ISSN 1867-8319, E-ISSN 2196-7148, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 123-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses forms of epistemic marking that instantiate multiple perspective constructions (see Evans 2005). Such forms express the speaker’s and the addressee’s simultaneous epistemic perspectives from the point of view of the speaker, crucially relying on the assumptions of the speaker with regard to the addressee’s knowledge. The analysis of forms considers established semanto-pragmatic concepts, such as semantic scope, mitigation strategies and communicative intention (as marked by sentence-type) in the exploration of forms. In addition, the notion of knowledge asymmetry is discussed alongside the concepts of epistemic status and stance as tools for a semantic analysis of investigated forms

  • 41.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Epistemic marking in Ika (Arwako)2012In: Studies in Language, ISSN 0378-4177, E-ISSN 1569-9978, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 154-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes epistemic marking in Ika (Arwako-Chibchan, Colombia) and proposes an analysis in terms of a typologically unusual pattern called conjunct/disjunct, which has been attested for a small number of Asian and South American languages. Canonically, conjunct occurs with first person subjects in statements and with second person in questions, as opposed to any other combination of subject and sentence-type, which is disjunct. The pattern found in Ika both conforms to expectations and, at the same time, contributes to a more nuanced analysis of the functional motivations of the conjunct/disjunct pattern. In Ika, conjunct marking encodes the speaker's direct access to an event that involves either (or both) of the speech participants. In addition, conjunct/disjunct marking interacts predictably with a second set of epistemic markers that encode asymmetries in the epistemic authority of the speaker and the addressee. The analysis builds on first-hand data but remains tentative, awaiting further investigation.

  • 42.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The role of 'perspective' in epistemic marking2017In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 186, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on inter-personal aspects of the context in the analysis of evidential and related epistemic marking systems. While evidentiality is defined by its capacity to qualify the speaker's indexical point of view in terms of information source, it is argued that other aspects of the context are important to analyze evidentiality both conceptually and grammatically. These distinct, analytical components concern the illocutionary status of a given marker and its scope properties. The importance of the hearer's point of view in pragmatics and semantics is well attested and constitutes a convincing argument for an increased emphasis on the perspective of the hearer/addressee in analyses of epistemic marking, such as evidentiality. The paper discusses available accounts of evidentials that attend to the perspective of the addressee and also introduces lesser-known epistemic marking systems that share a functional space with evidentiality.

  • 43.
    Bergström, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    L'influence des méthodes didactiques sur la production orale en FLE: Comment les enseignants de français font parler les élèves2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     

    Abstract

    The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of didactic methods on oral production in French as a foreign language. This is done by studying how three French teachers in Sweden use different didactic methods to encourage secondary school students to speak French. COLT observations and audio recordings were made at six occasions in three classes of sixth graders and three classes of ninth graders. The results show that the main didactic methods used to encourage students to speak were to ask questions, let students read aloud from textbooks and prepared presentations, let students repeat, and engage students in educational games. Asking questions is the most frequent method but produces a varied amount of oral production. Educational games engage most students and produces the most oral production. No pronounced difference was found between the use of didactic methods in sixth grade and ninth grade. The conclusion is that the choice of didactic method has an impact on oral production. Not only the method itself, but even more so in the way it is applied and adjusted to student’s level of knowledge. This might explain why the same didactic methods are used at different educational levels.

  • 44.
    Bjarnadóttir, Valgerdur
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    de Smit, Merlijn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Primary Argument Case-marking in Baltic and Finnic2013In: Baltu filologija, ISSN 1691-0036, Vol. XXII, no 1, p. 31-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Genetic Algorithms in the Brill Tagger: Moving towards language independence2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The viability of using rule-based systems for part-of-speech tagging was revitalised when a simple rule-based tagger was presented by Brill (1992). This tagger is based on an algorithm which automatically derives transformation rules from a corpus, using an error-driven approach. In addition to performing on par with state of the art stochastic systems for part-of-speech tagging, it has the advantage that the automatically derived rules can be presented in a human-readable format.

    In spite of its strengths, the Brill tagger is quite language dependent, and performs much better on languages similar to English than on languages with richer morphology. This issue is addressed in this paper through defining rule templates automatically with a search that is optimised using Genetic Algorithms. This allows the Brill GA-tagger to search a large search space for templates which in turn generate rules which are appropriate for various target languages, which has the added advantage of removing the need for researchers to define rule templates manually.

    The Brill GA-tagger performs significantly better (p<0.001) than the standard Brill tagger on all 9 target languages (Chinese, Japanese, Turkish, Slovene, Portuguese, English, Dutch, Swedish and Icelandic), with an error rate reduction of between 2% -- 15% for each language.

  • 46.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Predicting the N400 Component in Manipulated and Unchanged Texts with a Semantic Probability Model2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of computational linguistics, recent research has made successful advances in integrating word space models with n-gram models. This is of particular interest when a model that encapsulates both semantic and syntactic information is desirable. A potential application for this can be found in the field of psycholinguistics, where the neural response N400 has been found to occur in contexts with semantic incongruities. Previous research has found correlations between cloze probabilities and N400, while more recent research has found correlations between cloze probabilities and language models.

    This essay attempts to uncover whether or not a more direct connection between integrated models and N400 can be found, hypothesizing that low probabilities elicit strong N400 responses and vice versa. In an EEG experiment, participants read a text manipulated using a language model, and a text left unchanged. Analysis of the results shows that the manipulations to some extent yielded results supporting the hypothesis. Further results are found when analysing responses to the unchanged text. However, no significant correlations between N400 and the computational model are found. Future research should improve the experimental paradigm, so that a larger scale EEG recording can be used to construct a large EEG corpus.

  • 47.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Engdahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Anticipatory Looking in Infants and Adults2011In: Proceedings of EyeTrackBehavior 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Infant language acquisition research faces the challenge of dealing with subjects who are unable to provide spoken answers to research questions. To obtain comprehensible data from such subjects eye tracking is a suitable research tool, as the infants’ gaze can be interpreted as behavioural responses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the amount of training necessary for participants to learn an audio-visual contingency and present anticipatory looking behaviour in response to an auditory stimulus. Infants (n=22) and adults (n=16) were presented with training sequences, every fourth of which was followed by a test sequence. Training sequences contained implicit audio-visual contingencies consisting of a syllable (/da/ or /ga/) followed by an image appearing on the left/right side of the screen. Test sequences were identical to training sequences except that no image appeared. The latency in time to first fixation towards the non-target area during test sequences was used as a measurement of whether the participants had grasped the contingency. Infants were found to present anticipatory looking behaviour after 24 training trials. Adults were found to present anticipatory looking behaviour after 28-36 training trials. In future research a more interactive experiment design will be employed in order to individualise the amount of training, which will increase the time span available for testing.

  • 48.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Training in Anticipatory Looking Experiments with Adult Participants2011In: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Wai-Sum Lee & Eric Zee, 2011, p. 316-319Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of training necessary to trigger anticipatory looking was investigated in adults (n=16) using a simple testing paradigm, in order to create a baseline for studies on infants’ language acquisition. Participants were presented with training containing implicit associations between two syllables (/da/ and /ga/) and visual events displayed on different areas on the screen. The training series were periodically interrupted by test trials where a syllable was presented but no visual event was displayed. Significantly altered looking behaviour, as measured by participants’ first gaze fixation latency towards the Non-target area (where the visual event should not be expected), was found after 28-36 training trials.

  • 49.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    A Study of Simultaneous-masking and Pulsation-threshold Patterns of a Steady-state Synthetic Vowel: A Preliminary Report2006In: Working Papers 52 (2006): Proceedings from FONETIK 2006, Lund, June 7-9, 2006 / [ed] Ambrazaitis, G. & Schötz, S., Lund: Lund University, Centre for Languages and Literature , 2006, p. 13-16Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study will be a remake in part of Tyler & Lindblom "Preliminary study of simultaneous masking and pulsation-threshold patterns of vowels" (1982), with the use of today's technology. A steady-state vowel as masker and pure tones as signals will be presented using simultaneous-masking (SM) and pulsation-threshold (PT) procedures in an adjustment method to collect the vowel masking pattern. Vowel intensity is changed in three steps of 15 dB. For SM, each 15 dB change is expected to result in about a 10-13-dB change in signal thresholds. For PT, the change in signal thresholds with vowel intensity is expected to be about 3-4 dB. These results would correspond with the results from the Tyler & Lindblom study. Depending on technology outcome, further experiments can be made, involving representations of dynamic stimuli like CV-transitions and diphthongs.

  • 50.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lingvistiska och interaktiva aspekter på barn-vuxen kommunikation ur ett patologiskt perspektiv2005In: Konferensrapport från Tionde Nordiska Barnspråkssymposiet, Gävle 2005, Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle , 2005, p. 32-38Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en del av pågående forskning vid fonetiklaboratoriet, SU, utförs månatligen inspelningar med syfte att studera interaktionen i en mor-barndyad, där barnet har ett medfött produktions- och perceptionshandikapp. En pojke, född med Hemifacial Mikrosomia, vilket innebär partiellt försämrad hörsel, undersöks under åldrarna 8-30 månader. Syndromet inbegriper bl a avsaknad av vänster ytteröra, kind- och okben. Barnet har sondmatats via näsan upp till ca 8 månaders ålder. Studien är inriktad på pojkens språkliga och kommunikativa utveckling och på föräldrarnas samspel med honom. För att undersöka hur representationer av barnets tidiga ord kan utvecklas hos ett handikappat barn görs dels analyser av barnets vokalisationer, joller och tal och dels analyser av moderns lingvistiska struktur, timing och turtagning, repetitioner och strategi att anpassa sig till barnets uppmärksamhetsfokus. Audio- och videoinspelningar används för att samla in data på förälder-barn interaktionen och barnets vokalisationer. Eyetracking mäter barnets ögonrörelser vid presentation av audiovisuella stimuli. SECDI formulär används regelbundet för att undersöka utvecklingen av barnets lexikala produktion. Preliminära analyser tyder på generella ökade interaktiva åtgärder från föräldrarna. För att underlätta kommunikation och språklig utveckling har föräldrarna bl a introducerat tecken som stöd (TSS).

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