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  • 1.
    Aare, Kätlin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Respiratory patterns and turn-taking in spontaneous Estonian: Inhalation amplitude in multiparty conversations2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn-taking in spontaneous multiparty conversations held in Estonian. Respiratory activity is recorded with Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography. The main focus is on how inhalation amplitude varies between the inhalations produced directly before turn onset compared to the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results indicate a significant difference in amplitude, realised mainly by an increase in inhalation end lung volume values. One of the possible functions of this pattern is to signal an intention of taking the conversational turn. Another could be a phrasing or grouping function connected to lower inhalation amplitudes within turns.

  • 2.
    Aktürk, Memet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Periphery Effects in Phonological Integration: Turkish suffixation of Swedish proper nouns by advanced bilinguals2008Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates how certain word-final Swedish rimes are integrated phonologically into Turkish by means of suffixation. Specific Swedish rimes have been selected for their unusual characteristics from the perspective of Turkish phonology such as vowel and consonant quantity as well as coda phonotactics. The data have been collected in an experiment, which involved the oral translation of a Swedish text including potential borrowings such as proper names and place names. The participants were advanced bilingual speakers of the standard varieties of Turkish and Swedish living in Stockholm. Two phonological properties of Turkish are relevant for this essay. Firstly, every word-final rime must have a vocalic, palatal and labial classification in order to be licensed for suffixation. Secondly, Turkish has a large and diverse periphery in its phonological lexicon due to faithful or partially faithful adaptation of a plethora of historical loanwords. The focus of the investigation is if the new borrowings are integrated into the core or into the periphery of the Turkish phonological lexicon or alternatively how faithful their integration is to the Swedish originals. In terms of resolving j-final coda cluster problems, the popular strategies are found to be palatalization, deletion and metathesis. The main body of data displays low faithfulness to the Swedish originals as well as an underutilization of the Turkish periphery. The participants are found to use the periphery of their phonological lexicon to a high degree for established words in Turkish but only to a limited extent when adapting new borrowings from Swedish into Turkish. This finding is explained by the fact that the structural and sociolinguistic conditions are not conducive to periphery maintenance in the present context in contrast to the historical context during the inflow of Arabic and Persian loanwords.

  • 3.
    Al Ansari-Imad, Ali
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A quantitative study on the application and comprehension of English connectors by Swedish L2 learners of English in upper secondary schools2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on L2 learners of English in Swedish upper secondary schools and their ability to comprehend and use connectors in a multiple-choice cloze procedure. Connectors are used in text to signal the text structure and make explicit the relation between text segments. A study by Geva (1992) suggests that with an increased proficiency, learners also improve their ability to comprehend text relations and the use of connectors. The present study applies the suggestions of Geva’s results in a Swedish context. English in Swedish upper secondary schools, is taught at three levels (designated English 5, 6, 7) with increasing difficulty and proficiency level requirements. This study tests the ability to comprehend the context and use the correct connector on pupils in the two mandatory courses (English 5 & 6). Similar to previous studies, the aim is to investigate the relationship between levels of English and the ability to use connectors. This empirical survey investigates the English 5 & 6 pupils’ success in applying the appropriate connector in relation to the level of English they are placed in, in order to analyze whether there is any perceived development, as is presupposed by the English curriculum. Furthermore, the study also aims to analyze what type of connectors the pupils excel at or struggle with and any factors that might affect pupils’ performance. The test consisted of three categories: adversative (6 questions), additive (5 questions), and causal connectors (4 questions), a total of 15 questions, with one point being awarded for each correct response. The results of the two groups were similar and a subsequent t-test revealed that there was no statistical significance between the two groups in any of the categories. This suggests that in the sample which was tested there is no proficiency increase in terms of connectors and comprehending inter-/intrasentential relationships. Furthermore, the results indicate that the pupils are more likely to correctly select the appropriate adversative and causal connectors, but struggled in selecting the additive connectors.

    Keywords: connectors, comprehension, intrasentential & intersentential relationships, teaching, coherence, cohesion

  • 4.
    Al Taai, Lamia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    A Comparison of Arabic Literature Translation into English and Swedish: Inverstigating Domestication in the Translation of Arabic Cultural Words - Imarat Yaqubyan as acase in point2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Imarat Yaqubyan är en modern arabisk roman som omfattar en intensiv och dynamisk arabisk kultur. Denna studie innehåller en undersökning, enligt Newmarks kategorier “materiell kultur”, “social kultur”, “uppkomst” och “gester och vanor”, strukturerad i översiktstabeller av kulturella ord förankrade i den arabiska kulturen, samt deras motsvarigheter på engelska och svenska i de översatta romanerna.  I denna trespråkiga studie – arabiska, engelska och svenska – åtar jag mig en kvalitativ jämförelse mellan översättningsstrategierna som används av respektive den svenska och engelska översättaren av romanen. För detta ändamål tillämpar jag Pedersens taxonomi, vilken har delats upp i översättningsstrategier gällande källkultur/text (SL-oriented), nämligen överföring (retention), specificering (specification) och direktöversättning (direct Translation), samt målkultur/text (TL-oriented), vilka inkluderar generalisering (generalization), ersättning (substitution) och utelämning (omission). Därutöver tillämpas strategin officiell motsvarighet (official equivalent). Genom min analys länkar jag samman Newmarks metafortyper, den gällande terminologin och de sju förfaranden Newmark nämner rörande översättningar av metaforer med Pedersens strategier. I denna studie motsvarar Pedersens SL och TL-översättningsstrategier Venutis begrepp domesticering (domestication) och exotisering (foreignization). Slutsatser dras sedermera angående de strategier som avser domesticeringen av vissa specifika kulturella ord i både den engelska och den svenska versionen. I studien lanseras även begreppet falsk domesticering “False Domestication”.

  • 5.
    Alp, Efrim Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Swedish Upper-secondary school students’ exposure to and acquisition of the English language2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this sociolinguistic essay was to investigate differences and similarities between how the English language is encountered and used in a suburban school compared to an inner-city school. Moreover, the primary material was collected with the use of a questionnaire, answered by 22 and 26 students between the ages of 16-19 years old from two upper-secondary schools. The results obtained from this study highlight that the students irrespective of their social backgrounds encountered and used the English language in similar ways. However, in relation to the acquisition of the language, the results highlighted that the students who came from a high socio-economic background had an advantage compared to their peers who shared an immigrant or migrant background in the sense that they to a higher extent came from an academic household which can be beneficial regarding language exposure and acquisition. Nevertheless, the differentiating factors behind that advantage were reduced to some extent by the role of social media.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Stereotypes of English in Hollywood Movies: A Case Study of the Use of Different Varieties of English in Star Wars, The Lord of the Rings and Transformers.2010Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with the use of linguistic stereotypes in Hollywood movies. It investigates whether attitudes towards English dialects found in studies on perceptual dialectology are reflected in the selected movies and discusses the notion of linguistic identity and how standard and nonstandard speech, respectively, are used symbolically to emphasize features of characters in eleven movies from three different movie series, namely The Lord of the Rings, Star Wars and Transformers, with a main focus on syntactic and phonological dimensions. The essay finds a correlation between standard speech and features of competence and wisdom, and nonstandard speech and features of solidarity, sociability and traits of stupidity and humor. Moreover, very specific perceptions of certain varieties of English are probably utilized as amplifiers of equally specific characteristics of some characters. The use of dialects and accents in these movies is probably intentional and not coincidental.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Petter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Language attitudes in the People’s Republic of China’s leading English-language newspaper, China Daily2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Since time immemorial, various governments in China have attempted to promulgate writing reforms and speech reforms in order to unite the nation, mostly for political gain. The aim of this paper is to discover and analyze some language issues in the People’s Republic of China, specifically attitudes and comments on spoken usage of Putonghua (also called Modern Standard Chinese), Shanghai dialect, Cantonese and English by researching China Daily’s online newspaper article archive. A few valid articles could be retrieved and they uncovered that Putonghua, Shanghai dialect and Cantonese are all considered prestigious in different regions of the country; furthermore, English is gaining support rapidly, especially in corporate China.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Swedish toddlers’ use of turn-final gaze in dyadic child-parent interaction2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Turfinal blick på motparten i ett samtal har föreslagits fylla olika funktioner: övervakande, styrande eller responssökande. 16 svenska småbarns användning av turfinal blick i dyadisk interaktion med sina föräldrar studerades vid åldrarna 1;0, 1;6, 2;0, 2;6 och 3;0. Turfinalt blickbeteende undersöktes angående potentiella korrelationer till barnens ålder och språknivå. Dessutom granskades barnens turfinala blickanvändning i turfinala frågor, i turer längre än 5 sekunder och i olika sorters interaktionskontext.Resultaten visade att användandet av turfinal blick ökade mellan åldrarna 1;0 och 2;0. Inga korrelationer mellan barnens användning av turfinal blick och deras språkliga nivå kunde hittas. I turfinala frågor var 93% av den turfinala blicken aktiv, dvs inte närvarande vid turens start. Turfinal blick förekom både i konversation och objektsorienterad interaktion vid alla åldrar.En övervakande/responssökande funktion hos turfinal blick föreslogs användas av småbarn som ett sätt att få förälderns uppmuntran och bekräftelse på barnets interaktiva språkanvändning. Dessutom poängterades vikten av att välja ett relevant sätt att mäta turfinal blick vid studier av små barns blickbeteende.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Stina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Verbal contents of repetitions in Swedish child-directed speech2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Repetitioner i barnriktat tal (BRT) har visat sig variera över tid, och har föreslagits påverka förstaspåksinlärning. Även ett samband mellan det verbala innehållet i repetitioner i BRT och barns språkutveckling har föreslagits. Det verbala innehållet i repetitioner i svenskt BRT har inte undersökts tidigare.

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka det verbala innehållet i repetitioner i svenskt BRT under barnets två första år och möjliga förändringar gällande andelen repetitioner under samma tidsperiod. Det verbala innehållet i repetitioner i föräldrars tal hos tio förälder-barn-dyader då barnen var 3, 6, 9, 12 och 24 månader gamla undersöktes med fokus på ordklasser, satstyper och förändringar gällande konstituenter. Resultaten jämfördes med barnens produktiva ordförråd vid 30 månaders ålder. Även den möjliga förekomsten av typbaserade konstruktioner (item-based constructions) och frekventa ramar (frequent frames) undersöktes.

    De övergripande resultaten uppvisade mönster gällande förändringar inom det verbala innehållet i repetitioner över tid samt ett samband mellan det verbala innehållet i repetitioner och barns språkutveckling. Två antaganden gjordes: föräldrar justerar komplexiteten i sitt tal efter språkliga utvecklingsfaser hos sina barn, och den språkliga variationen i inputen ökar med barnets ålder.

  • 10.
    Andrea, Mogren
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    “It’s kinda intriguing”: A study of assertiveness and non-assertiveness in relation to gender stereotypes at a Swedish university2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The following study investigates if there are any differences in formulating questions and answers in an assertive or non-assertive way between the sexes that could be related to gender stereotypes. The material consists of audio-visual recordings, field notes and a transcription of the recordings, which were recorded and collected at a Swedish university. Four classes with a total of 71 students and four teachers where observed and recorded. The material was analysed and then sorted into categories of answers, questions, sex of the participant, participant role (i.e. student or teacher), assertiveness and non-assertiveness. The results show that although there are some differences between the sexes and different classes, these differences are not great enough to be related to gender stereotypes and are usually due to some circumstance related to the context of the present study instead.

  • 11.
    Anufrieva, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    “I have measured out my life with coffee spoons” – T.S. Eliot: A semantic analysis of selected metaphors in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Metaphor is the most widely recognized and discussed type of trope. It has attracted the attention of analysts from various disciplines, e.g. philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, and literature. Research from these fields has shown that metaphors are ubiquitous and indispensable in our lives. It is not only literary discourse that is abundant with metaphors, but metaphors are also common in scientific discourse and even in our everyday language. Moreover, research from cognitive linguistics has shown that our thinking is metaphorical to a certain extent. Thus, if metaphors are so ubiquitous in our lives, how do we recognize them?

    In this paper selected metaphors from The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot have been analyzed. These are metaphors from literary discourse; hence, the analysis was partly influenced by the genre and the specific, poetic context. The focus is on linguistic metaphors that can be identified in this poetic text, not on underlying conceptual metaphors. The aim of this paper has been to see how the metaphors in the poem are constructed and how the metaphorical part of the strings they occur in interacts with a seemingly literal part.

    According to the results of the analysis, the metaphorical constructions in the poem show a variety of modes of interaction among their constituents. Typically the metaphorical part of the poetic construction evokes a complex and directly perceptible phenomenon which serves as the basis for the understanding of the poetic persona’s feelings. Also the metaphors that describe the setting of the poem seem to be projections of the protagonist’s mood. Thus, the affective aspect of the metaphors is essential in the poem since it connects the metaphors to a network of meanings related to a prominent theme of the poem, namely the speaker’s paralysis and insecurity of himself, adding to the expressive complexity of the poem’s structure.

  • 12.
    Aras, Elizabet
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för pedagogik och didaktik.
    Early Opportunities for Quality Learning: A Comparative Study of Swedish Preschools' Language Practice2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska förskolan är internationellt känd för sin höga kvalitet. Barn i Sverige ges tidiga utbildningsmöjligheter för lärande och utveckling inför deras skolstart. Den svenska förskoleverksamheten bör omfatta ett övergripande språkutvecklande arbetssätt, men däremot visar studier att barnens förutsättningar för språkinlärning varierar inom landet. Medan den svenska förskolans läroplan reflekterar barns lust att lära, bör förskolepersonalen ändå vara medveten om sin egen praktiska teori för att arrangera för lärande. Forskning visar att förskoleverksamheter av hög kvalitet gynnar barns framtida skolresultat. Därmed syftar denna studie på att undersöka barns möjligheter för kvalitet i lärande och utvecklande inom den svenska förskolan, genom att utforska innehållet av förskolans pedagogiska arbete. Förskolans roll är att erbjuda alla barn en utbildning av hög kvalitet. Denna studie syftar på att undersöka vad kvalitet kan innebära i relation till språkinlärning. För att få en förståelse för kvalitet fokuserar denna studie på de struktur- och processinriktade insatserna inom sex kommunala förskolor och två kommuner. För att ge insikt om förskolornas praktik har ett kvalitativt förhållningssätt använts för att genomföra intervjuer med förskolechefer och tjänstemän från utbildningsförvaltningar, samt enkäter med förskolepersonal och observationer av läromiljöer. Eftersom kvalitetsinsatserna varierar mellan förskolorna och kommunerna påverkar detta resultaten av barnens språkutveckling. Denna studie tydliggör att resultaten beror framför allt på förskolepersonalens förmågor och kompetenser att utveckla verksamheten.

  • 13.
    Asgharirad, Saeideh
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Applying Cognitive Linguistics to L2 Acquisiton: the Case of Over: An Experimental Approach to L2 Acquisition2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Many researchers have recently shown interest to Cognitive Linguistics and its potential intuitions for second language acquisition. There are several discussions and analysis (e.g., Tyler & Evans, 2003) regarding the complexity of interpreting the semantics of English prepositions and whether the distinct meanings associated with a single preposition are systematically related or not. Cognitive linguistics offers a promising analysis to L2 acquisition of prepositions, since it argues that the extended meanings associated with a single preposition are systematically related, and L2 speakers can learn them incrementally. Therefore, this study aims to explore the utility of using a cognitive linguistic based approach to evaluate the accessibility of Persian speakers of English to associated senses with the spatial preposition over. We offer an experimental approach in this study in which we use a cognitive linguistic based methodology to find out if the Persian speakers of English will make significant progresses in identifying the multiple senses of prepositions. Then, we discuss the reason why this approach can account the findings.

     

  • 14.
    Awaiko Westin, Carina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Perceptions of English accents in Sweden: L1 Swedish university students' attitudes towards the Nigerian Standard English and the General American English accents2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Language attitude studies have shown that different accents carry different status and peoples’ way of speaking gives rise to judgments of their character. However, there is little known about the effects different Standard English varieties have in Sweden. This study will investigate how L1 speakers of Swedish perceive and judge the speakers of the Nigerian Standard English and General American English accents in terms of credibility and how familiarity contributes to the listener’s judgment of these accents. A modified verbal-guise technique comprising stimulus recordings and questionnaires was used. 91 participants responded to a questionnaire containing 6 questions soliciting their perceptions of the target accents and their speakers. It was hypothesized that the participants’ familiarity to the GenAm accent as well as the high status of the accent in relation to the NSE accent would make the GenAm accent to be judged favorably compared to the NSE accent. The findings indicated that the GenAm accent was favored compared to the NSE accent. However, the findings did not support familiarity as a determining factor for the favorable judgments of the GenAm accent.

  • 15.
    Benediktsdottir, Ásdis
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Analysing a Harvest Moon: On the translation of role language in Bokujō Monogatari: Hajimari no Daichi for the Nintendo 3DS2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats ämnar introducera översättning av rollspråk som en del av spellokalisering. Det finns inte mycket skrivet om rollspråk i översättning från japanska till engelska, och inget som åsyftar rollspråk i spel. Det finns även en märkbar brist på studier som behandlar översättning som slutprodukt inom sammanhanget spellokalisering. Genom att analysera utvalda karaktärer från Bokujō Monogatari: Hajimari no Daichi till Nintendo 3DS och hur deras respektive rollspråksprofiler ter sig i översättning, är förhoppningen att denna uppsats ska tjäna som ett första steg mot ett nytt område inom spellokalisering.

    Åtta karaktärer, fyra manliga och fyra kvinnliga, valdes ut och analyserades för att bygga deras respektive rollspråksprofiler. Fyra videoklipp valdes ut per karaktär, första och sista hjärte-händelsen, kärleksbekännelsen, och livet som gifta. Översättningarna av dessa analyserades, tillsammans med hur de respektive karaktärerna framställdes språkligt.

    Studien fann att trots att flera av karaktärerna i stort behöll sina ursprungliga språkprofiler i översättning, fanns det tillfällen då källtexten kan ha missuppfattats. Översättningar där detta snarare än en annorlunda framställning av karaktären var skillnaden, visade sig ofta vara mer källtextsorienterade. I översättningar där karaktäriseringen tedde sig likartad, verkar det vara resultatet av ett kritiskt omdöme och avstånd från källtexten tillsammans med översättarens villighet att ta sig friheter med källan.

    Rollspråk är en väsentlig del i japansk populärlitteratur och populärkultur, och det verkar inte som att spel i sammanhanget skulle vara något undantag. Trots att denna uppsats endast har analyserat ett begränsat urval verkar det inte helt omöjligt att kunna dra en första slutsats där att ta ett steg tillbaka från källtexten och istället lägga fokus på att förmedla en uppfattning av en karaktär, snarare än det skrivna manuset, mycket väl kan leda till en karaktärisering i måltexten som är mer lik samma i källtexten.

  • 16.
    Berglund, Jonny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A Construction Grammar Approach to the Phrase2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    This essay adopts a construction grammar approach to the linguistic pattern why don’t you. It argues that the pattern can have two different senses: an interrogative sense and a suggestive sense. Further it argues that the suggestive sense is a construction similar to the definition of a construction described by construction grammar theory.

    In other words, the linguistic pattern why don’t you can have a specific underlying semantics that cannot be reached by an examination of its formal pattern.

  • 17.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Genetic Algorithms in the Brill Tagger: Moving towards language independence2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    När Brill (1992) presenterade sin enkla regelbaserade ordklasstaggare blev det återigen aktuellt att använda regelbaserade system för taggning av ordklasser. Taggaren är baserad på en algoritm som automatiskt lär sig transformationsregler från en korpus. Bortsett från att taggaren fungerar lika bra som moderna stokastiska metoder för ordklasstaggning har den också fördelen att reglerna som den lär sig kan presenteras i ett format som lätt kan läsas av människor.

    Trots sina styrkor är Brill-taggeren relativt språkberoende i och med att den fungerar mycket bättre för språk som liknar engelska än för språk med rikare morfologi. Den här uppsatsen försöker att lösa detta problem genom att definiera regelmallar automatiskt med en sökning som är optimerad med Genetiska Algoritmer. Detta gör att Brill GA-taggaren kan söka genom ett mycket större område än den annars skulle ha kunnat göra efter mallar som i sin tur genererar regler som är anpassade för målspråket. Detta har också fördelen att forskare inte behöver definiera regelmallar manuellt.

    Brill GA-taggeren får signifikant bättre träffsäkerhet (p<0.001) än Brill-taggeren på alla 9 målspråken (Kinesiska, Japanska, Turkiska, Slovenska, Portugisiska, Engelska, Nederländska, Svenska och Isländska), med en felprocent som är mellan 2% och 15% lägre för alla språk.

  • 18.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Predicting the N400 Component in Manipulated and Unchanged Texts with a Semantic Probability Model2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom datalingvistiken har tidigare forskning visat lovande resultat vid kombinering av ordrumsmodeller och n-gramsmodeller. Detta är av speciellt intresse när det är önskvärt att ha en modell som fångar både semantisk och syntaktisk information. Ett potensielt användningsområde för en sådan modell finns inom psykolingvistiken, där en neural respons kallad N400 visat sig uppstå i situationer med semantisk inkongruens. Tidigare forskning har upptäckt en stark korrelation mellan cloze probabilities och N400, medan en nyare studie har upptäckt en korrelation mellan cloze probabilities och sannolikhetsmodeller från datalingvistiken.

    Denna uppsats har som mål att undersöka huruvida en mer direkt koppling mellan sådana kombinerade modeller och N400 finns, med hypotesen att låga sannolikheter leder till stora N400-responser och vice versa. Ett antal försökspersoner läste en text manipulerad med hjälp av en probabilistisk modell, och en naturlig text, i ett EEG-experiment. Resultatsanalysen visar att manipuleringen till viss grad gav resultat som stödjer hypotesen. Motsvarande resultat hittades under resultatanalysen av responserna till den naturliga texten. Inga signifikanta korrelationer blev upptäckta mellan N400 och den kombinerade modellen. Förbättringar för vidare forskning involverar bland annat att förbättra experimentparadigmet så att en storskalig EEG-inspelning kan genomföras för att konstruera en EEG-korpus.

  • 19.
    Bogren, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Swedish Students’ Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Stereotypical Gender Images in Speech2015Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The research conducted within the linguistic subdiscipline of language and gender was carried out as early as in the 1970’s, when Lakoff (1975) identified nine main traits for female language. Based on Lakoff’s research, this project investigates Swedish students’ attitudes to and perceptions of gender stereotypes in speech. The aim of this study is to examine the attitudes and perceptions of the participants and to investigate if there has been a change in the way a speaker interprets a speech act in comparison to the 1970’s. A survey was carried out in order to be able to identify and elicit the attitudes and perceptions of stereotypical gender speech of the participants. The survey was based on the traits that Lakoff (1975) found to be typical for female speech. The survey consisted of a first part where the participant had to identify the gender of the speaker and a second part where the participants were asked about typical gender stereotypes in speech acts. The main finding was that Swedish students have a negative attitude toward filing individuals in categories based on their gender. In addition, it was found that the participants have unconscious prejudices toward both men and women based on learnt gender patterns. In conclusion, this study has shown the pattern that there has been an attitude change toward gender stereotypes since the 1970’s. However, it revealed that the students in Sweden participating in the study have a tendency to unconsciously apply gender stereotypes when interpreting a speech act. 

  • 20.
    Bohm Fiederling, Inga-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English in Swedish product packages: An exploratory study of how English is used in product packages sold in the dairy section in Swedish retail2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the use of English in the texts of product packages sold in Swedish retail. This includes looking at the proportion of English of the packages of four brands God Morgon, Froosh, Oatly and Wellness, as well as exploring what moves are most likely to be in English and furthermore, what cultural values are conveyed by the texts. The most significant findings are that the proportion of English varies among both between and within the brands, depending on the specific niche the products have. Furthermore, in line with previous studies, English is mainly found in the attention-grabbing moves such as headlines and leads, whereas Swedish is more frequent in the copy which serves a more explanatory and detailing function. This is true except for the texts of the brand Oatly, with the main copy also in English. The cultural values conveyed by the texts, finally, both support previous findings, but it may be suggested that some of the values, such as nature and morality, have just recently begun to be associated to English.

  • 21.
    Bouveng, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Awareness of English varieties among Swedish secondary school pupils2012Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This essay reports on a study concerning awareness of English varieties among Swedish secondary school pupils. The aim is to find out whether Swedish secondary school pupils are aware of the differences between English varieties as regards pronunciation, spelling and vocabulary. In addition, the study aims at finding out whether pupils believe in preferences in their environment for any particular variety and what might be influencing their own preferences of English varieties.

     

    The study is questionnaire-based and the respondents are all pupils in two 8th grade classes in Stockholm. The pupils seem to believe that they are aware of the differences between varieties, although only a little more than half of the respondents claim that this includes differences in vocabulary. High recognition is claimed for Indian, Scottish and Australian English.

     

    As to preferences, British and American English dominate. Possible influences may be English textbooks claimed by the pupils to prefer mainly British English. Even English teachers are believed to have preferences mainly for British English but also American English. To the extent that friends are believed to have a preference, it is for American English. Less strong influences seem to come from the Internet, parents and school. The pupils seem to be exposed to English varieties to some extent, but apparently receive little explicit teaching which could increase awareness of English varieties.

  • 22.
    Bovin, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Occupational titles and supposed gender-neutrality: A corpus-based diachronic study on gender-neutral occupational titles in American English2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, some occupational titles have been explicitly marked for the gender of the group dominating the occupation. For example, in male-dominated occupations, titles often end with -man. However, since the second-wave feminist movement, several of the previously gender-biased titles have been supplemented by new, gender-neutral titles. Previous research has shown a discrepancy between researchers regarding the implications of these new titles. Some argue that the gender-neutral titles are only used for female referents, whereas others claim that gender-neutral titles, especially for male- dominated occupations, tend to still presuppose maleness. In the present paper, a corpus-based study is conducted on a few selected occupational titles. The aim is to investigate whether the gender-neutral alternatives have increased in usage over time, and whether the gender-biased ones have decreased. In addition, the study aims at examining whether the gender-neutral forms tend to be used primarily for women or men. The present study is corpus-based, examining the particular terms in the TIME Magazine Corpus. The results of the study show that there has been an increase of the gender-neutral forms since their introduction to English, and that they are primarily used when there is no explicit gender referencing. Proposed explanations for these results are that it may depend on the type of work involved in the selected occupations, as well as them being male-dominated. Furthermore, the results indicate that the gender- neutral terms are opted for when gender is either unknown or irrelevant for the context. 

  • 23.
    Brandström, Felicia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Intertextuality as a politeness strategy: A qualitative study of the use and function of intertextuality in the television series Suits2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the use and function of intertextuality in the television series Suits, and examines the interplay between intertextuality and politeness. Intertextuality allows a text to incorporate other texts and to draw upon connotations that belong to those texts. Politeness theory offers a tool to analyse the pragmatic use of language in social interaction. Analysing occurrences of intertextuality from the first episode of the television series, the paper explores in what ways the fictional characters use intertextuality and for what purposes. It explores if, and how, intertextuality can be used as a politeness strategy. Findings suggest that intertextuality is used for three main purposes, and functions as characterisation and as a means to establish and/or maintain social relations. Detailed analyses of instances of intertextuality propose that intertextuality can be used as a politeness theory, but only in certain ways. The paper discusses these findings and offers a possible explanation for why intertextuality is only used in this restricted way.

  • 24.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Revisiting Reduplication: Toward a description of reduplication in predicative signs in Swedish Sign Language2011Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the use of reduplication with predicative signs in Swedish Sign Language (SSL), and also the related phenomena doubling and displacement.

    Reduplication in SSL typically expresses plurality of events and/or referents, but may also express intensification, ongoing event or generic activity. There is a distinction between external and internal events with reduplication: external reduplication expresses some event happening over and over at different points in time and/or with different referents, and is associated with a frequentative/habitual reading; internal reduplication expresses some event consisting of several e.g. movements/actions and is associated with an ongoing reading. Only external expression seems to be applicable to stative constructions, as one would expect. The study also found a phenomenon not previously described: oral reduplication without manual reduplication. This process is found to have the ongoing functions with telic predicates, such that it focuses on the telic predicate as a single event in progress, and thus replaces the function of manual reduplication, which, with telic predicates, would instead express several events. The reading of reduplicated signs is associated with the semantics of the sign reduplicated, and it is also associated with the phonological citation form of the sign—monosyllabic signs tend to get pluractional reading; bisyllabic signs tend to get an ongoing reading. Also, the reading expressed by reduplication is connected to the presence/absence of oral reduplication.

    Reduplication generally does not occur in negative constructions. This study shows that inherently negative signs may be reduplicated, but reduplicated predicates are negated according to other strategies than for non-reduplicated predicates, thus reduplication has the largest scope.

    Doubling and displacement are both associated mainly with plural referents, and it is in this respect that they are related to reduplication, and they both occur frequently with reduplication.

  • 25.
    Cabraja, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The effects of video games on the receptive vocabulary proficiency of Swedish ESL students2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Playing video games is an activity that takes up an increasing amount of children’s and adolescent’s spare time. While some previous studies have highlighted the negative aspects of video games, little research has been carried out on the linguistic learning opportunities that video games present. This study primarily investigates if Swedish second language learners of English can increase their vocabulary proficiency in English with the use of video games. In order to answer the research questions, two quantitative data elicitation methods are used: a questionnaire which aims to gather attitudinal and behavioral data, and a Vocabulary Levels Test which elicits data about the participants’ receptive vocabulary proficiency. The participants consist of 25 students at an upper secondary school in Stockholm. The results show that participants who played video games scored higher on the Vocabulary Levels Test, indicating a higher receptive vocabulary proficiency. Furthermore, the results show that participants who played moderate to frequent amounts of time performed better in the Vocabulary Levels Test than infrequent players. The results also show that video games emphasizing co-operation and communication are preferable to use for vocabulary acquisition. Additionally, the study discusses if video games could be integrated into the Swedish upper secondary school system.

  • 26.
    Collantes, Sebastian
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Scrutinizing the use of online data: A critical study of the use of online forum texts in research2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has given researchers a convenient and accessible tool for collecting data. It enables researchers to find natural occurring language that gives them the opportunity to save time and partake of various advantages the Internet has to offer. Web forums are deep and complex message boards occupied by online communities. These web forums are a rich source for collecting naturally occurring language that can be used for various sorts of research. Several researchers have shown that these web forums have a generous amount of advantages when used as data (Yates, 1996; Hsiung, 2000; Joinson, 2001; Im & Chee, 2006; Newhagen & Rafaeli, 2006; Misoch, 2015). However, it is equally important to understand the nature of the flaws that web forum texts as data may have. The notion of anonymity and the overrepresentation of a certain demographic groups may mislead incautious researchers collecting data from web forums.

    This paper aims to analyse several research articles which uses web forum texts as data within two different disciplines, health and social care and linguistics, in addition to classifying them as either high-stakes or low-stakes research. The goal is to investigate how researchers handle possible limitations and risks of such data. Initial results showed that high-stakes are more thorough when discussing and reporting concerns regarding their data. Evidently, health and social care high-stakes research articles reported more concerns than linguistics research articles. Several recommendations based on these results were made in the end of the paper for researchers to use when conducting research based on web forum texts.

  • 27.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Mapping articulatory parameters on formant patterns: From articulations to acoustics non-stop2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional way of estimating the formant frequencies from articulatory data presupposes knowledge of how the vocal tract cross-sectional area varies for a given articulatory shape (Fant 1960/1970). Accordingly, in order to derive the formant pattern of a given articulation, the three-dimensional shape of the vocal tract (VT) needs to be known. In the past cross-sectional areas have typically been derived by means of ‘d-to-A rules’ that use the mid-sagittal cross-distance d at each point along the VT to produce a corresponding cross-sectional area A. X-ray and MRI data have been used to calibrate such rules (Heinz & Stevens 1964, Sundberg et al. 1987, Ericsdotter 2005). Although this procedure has produced many useful results it is time consuming and laborious. It is speaker-specific. It presupposes access to information on the three-dimensional shape of the VT, which is not experimentally readily accessible. Such observations raise the question whether sufficiently accurate alternative approaches can be developed. Is it possible to go straight from articulatory data to formant frequencies without having to construct a cross-sectional area function? If such methods could be developed it would have many uses both in phonetics and practical applications.

    This paper reports an attempt to map the time variations of selected articulatory parameters from X-ray profiles directly on the formant tracks using multiple regression analysis. Preliminary results for F1 indicate that multiple regression analysis can indeed be useful for making such predictions. The prospects of extending the present analyses to other formants are discussed.

  • 28.
    Couturier Kaijser, Vilma
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Metaphorical uses of verbs of animal sounds in Swedish2017Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Djur förekommer ofta som källdomän i metaforer. I europeiska språk finns det ofta många lexikaliserade verb för specifika typer av läten med ett prototypiskt djur som subjekt. Typologiska studier har gjorts på dessa verb för djurläten, och deras metaforiska användningar. Detta har lett till en klassifikationsmodell över mänskliga situationer som ofta uttrycks med metaforisk användning av verb för djurläten. I svenska finns det många sådana verb, men deras metaforiska användningar har inte undersökts. Syftet med den här studien var att undersöka den metaforiska användningen av verb för djurläten i svenska. 13 verb som beskriver ett specifikt läte hos ett visst djur valdes ut. Studiens data var definitioner av verben, hämtade från lexikon, och konkordansrader med verben, hämtade från korpusar av språk från bloggar och nyhetstext. Studien undersöker vilka situationer som kan uttryckas med metaforisk användning av dessa verb, vilka olika användningar ett och samma verb kan uttrycka, samt hur väl den föreslagna klassifikationsmodellen fungerar på svenska. Resultatet visar att verben främst har mänskliga subjekt och att verben varierar i hur många och vilka situationer de kan uttrycka metaforiskt. Ett par ändringar gjordes på klassifikationsmodellen, till exempel lades typen ’talverb’ till, och subtypen ’röstkvalitet’ frigjordes från typen ’fysiologiska ljud’.

  • 29.
    Damberg, Victor
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Returning Loanwords: Translation of Western Loanwords in Japanese to English2015Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Även om japanska och engelska är två vitt skilda språk har de ändå påverkat varandra i stor utsträckning i modern tid. Den kategori av ord som på japanska kallas gairaigo består av lånord som främst lånats in från västerländska språk – framförallt engelska. Men vad händer när ord inlånade till japanska från engelska översätts tillbaka till engelska igen? Den här uppsatsen hade som syfte att undersöka vilka lokala strategier översättare använder när de översätter gairaigo. Skiljer sig strategierna beroende på vilken typ av text som översättaren arbetar med? Finns det en korrelation mellan vilken typ av lokal strategi som används och det inlånade ordets ordklass? Tre olika typer av texter undersöktes: en roman, ett antal nyhetsartiklar och en manual för en bärbar spelkonsol. Genom att jämföra källtexterna med de motsvarande måltexterna kunde sex olika lokala strategier identifieras: utelämning, återlämning, transposition, modulation, ekvivalens och parafras.

  • 30.
    Dandache, Rayan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English borrowings on South Korean TV: A study of how English borrowings are utilized in South Korean television programs2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    English has been utilized as a donor language for lexical borrowing of loanwords for a long time, by many different languages. One of those languages is Korean: and despite the importance of the English influence on the Korean language, few have researched what word class the loanwords within the language belong to and if the lexical borrowing goes through any changes. The purpose of the present study was to establish what type of lexical borrowings occur in Korean television programs and what processes the lexical borrowings go through before settling within the borrowing language and how these results would relate to studies in other languages. The results showed a strong tendency for English nouns to be borrowed regardless of the genres of the different programs analysed for this study. Loanwords was the most common borrowing type with 493 followed by loanshifts with 31. Loanblends were very uncommon with only 3 found, suggesting further research or a different approach. The results were also compatible with findings in other languages.

  • 31.
    Dankis, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Subtitling the Internet: An investigation into subtitles for dynamic media2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will examine interlingual subtitles for online media. The research takes place within the descriptive translation studies paradigm. The source material consists of subtitles for a selection of webcasts found on the video sharing platform YouTube. The analysis will examine how the original dialogue has been translated as well as the form that the subtitles are presented in. An analysis of norm governed subtitles for television programs that follow established subtitling norms will also be made for comparison. Online media and broadcast media are divided into a dynamic and static category respectively in order to treat webcasts as an individual form of media. Dynamic media is defined as digital media created for the Internet, and static media is defined as media created for televised broadcasts. The results do not include qualitative assessments but have shown that subtitles for webcasts do not follow subtitling norms and display a wide range of unconventional approaches. The determining factor that illustrates the nature of webcast subtitles is attributed the diverse group of people writing them. 

  • 32.
    Dervisevic, Melisa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A Comparative Study of Possible Early Bilingual Advantages in EFL Writing2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This project involved a quantitative study of written proficiency in the English Language of early balanced bilingual Bosnian/Swedish learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). 15 early bilingual Bosnian/Swedish EFL learners were recruited for the study and matched with their respective control groups of intermediate-advanced EFL learners (15 speakers of Bosnian as their first language (L1) and 15 speakers of Swedish as their L1). Prior to the experimental task, the participants and their respective controls were asked to self-assess their linguistic skills on a 6-point Likert scale, then they were instructed to write a reflective text in English without prior preparation about the most significant invention of the 20th century. The written data were analyzed in L2 Syntactic Complexity Analyzer and TL software programs respectively. Data analysis involved measures of syntactical and lexical complexity, specifically t-units and type token ratio. It was found that the participants’ written data were characterized by superior type token ratio values as well as by superior T-units scores.

  • 33.
    Dicle, Ramazan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Location events in bilingual Danish and Turkish language contact: A comparative analysis of location events in Danish, Turkish and bilingual use of the two languages2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Location events can be mainly described as the relationship setting up the location of a particular object(s) in relation to the other object(s). Location events are akin to motion events whose typology is well studied in the literature especially in the work of Talmy (1991, 2000), but differ from them in that ‘motion events’ focuses on the motion, while location events focuses on the spatial relationships between the Figure, object that is being located, and the Ground, object(s) that conform to the location of the Figure. Languages express these locative relationships differently. This study analyzes how two typologically different languages, Turkish and Danish, express the location events and how bilingual speakers of these two languages express location events in both Danish and Turkish. The study utilizes quantitative and qualitative tools to analyze the data gathered from the picture based elicitation from the monolingual and bilingual speakers. The study suggests that language contact in bilingual Turkish and Danish has a major role in the operating typology of the two languages and in the encoding of the spatial relationships in location events.

  • 34.
    Duff, Shawn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Relative clause formation in King Alfred's translation of Gregory's Pastoral Care2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, relative clauses in King Alfred’s Old English translation of Gregory the Great’s Pastoral Care were examined using relative frequency as a tool to determine whether or not certain factors influenced the choice of relativization strategy. These factors include antecedent case, antecedent gender, antecedent number, distance, animacy, noun phrase type, case of relativized NP, and syntactic function.

    The method involved gathering together all the occurrences of relative clauses using the Old English corpus and a Modern English translation. This process was not unproblematic as the correct translation from Old English to modern English sometimes was left to the discretion of the translator. Some clauses that were initially thought to be relative clauses were, in fact, not relative clauses. The components of each of the clauses were then examined and categorized after any problematic examples were discarded. Relative frequencies for each of the categories were calculated and chi-square tests were performed to check the reliability of the results.

    The results of this paper were compared to another paper which did somewhat similar research to determine if the findings were consistent although that paper did not look at as many factors as this paper.

  • 35.
    Engström, Paul
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    What does it mean to be 'manly'?: A corpus analysis of masculinity in the 19thcentury2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine how the word manly was used during the 19thcentury. Using the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA) it looks atcollocates, the spread across registers and semantic meaning, in order to gain a betterunderstanding of the word and its usage. Due to this term’s connotations with gender,the findings will finally be discussed in relation to Gender Performativity andMasculinity Theory.

  • 36.
    Ericsson, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    "It is certain that it can be argued a million times over" - expressions of epistemic modality in L1 and L2 writing2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    This corpus-based study analyzes different types of epistemic markers used in argumentative essays by University students. More specifically it compares Swedish L2 writers and English L1 writers. The scope of the analysis covers epistemic modal verbs, lexical verbs and adverbs. A number of markers are counted to see which expressions are preferred by L1 and L2 writers respectively and if the frequency rates differ between the two groups. Further, it discusses whether the non-native writers use epistemic markers appropriate to an academic register, and an attempt is made to see whether the L1 and L2 writers show similar patterns of ‘committing’ to and ‘distancing’ themselves to their arguments. The results reveal a few notable differences between the Swedish and English writers. A tendency is seen among the L2 writers to ‘overuse’ certain expressions, particularly in the category of lexical verbs. Compared to the native writers, the L2 writers display higher frequency rates when it comes to markers that are most commonly found in spoken conversation. Further the L2 writers seem to display more ‘writer visibility’ than the L1 writers do, which could perhaps be due to differences in writing culture. The findings also suggest that Swedish L2 writers, even on a relatively advanced level, may have difficulties in mastering modal expressions in English.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Freya
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Gesture-speech combinations in child language: Form, function, and how they relate to language acquisition2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker barns produktion av gest-ordkombinationer och hur dessa är relaterade till språkutveckling. 16 barns produktion undersöktes vid sju ålderspunkter (0;9, 1;0, 1;3, 1;6, 1;9, 2;0 och 3;0), och deras gest-ordkombinationer klassificerades i kategorierna komplementära, supplementära och diskursiva kombinationer. Resultaten visar att produktionen av gest-ordkombinationer följer olika mönster hos barn med högt, medel och lågt produktivt ordförråd. Mängden gest-ordkombinationer som producerades vid fyra ålderspunkter predicerade produktivt ordförråd vid 2;6, och mängden gest-ordkombinationer som producerades vid 1;6 predicerade meningskomplexitet vid 3;0. Användningen av komplementära gest-ordkombinationer vid tre ålderpunkter uppvisade ett samband med produktivt ordförråd vid 2;6. Tillägnandeåldern för supplementära gest-ordkombinationer predicerade meningskomplexitet vid 3;0, medan tillägnandeåldern för diskursiva gest-ordkombinationer predicerade produktivt ordförråd vid 2;6. Resultaten i den här studien ger stöd åt tidigare forskning, som har visat att komplementära och supplementära gest-ordkombinationer spelar en viktig roll i barns språkutveckling. Därutöver visar resultaten i den här studien att diskursiva gest-ordkombinationer också har ett samband med språkutveckling.

  • 38.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Effects of conventionality and proficiency in metaphor processing: A response time study2013Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Some researchers that work with metaphor theory claim that metaphors and figurative language are understood and processed just as easily as literal language. However, as this thesis will explore in detail, other research indicates that such is not always the case. That is, if the category of metaphor is further subcategorized into conventional and non-conventional metaphor, the scope will change because of the fact that it is possible to argue that non-conventionalized metaphors require a more conscious path of processing. In order to explain this alternative path, there are two primary approaches to language processing worth introducing: implicit and explicit. These approaches vary in required attention and speed of processing. With regards to conscious effort, these approaches are rather similar to the way in which we process conventionalized and non-conventionalized metaphors. Conventional metaphors are processed more quickly and easily than non-conventional ones. Hence, the claim that all metaphors are similarly processed may not always be true. Furthermore, an individual’s level of proficiency presumably correlates with speed in language processing. However, if non-conventional metaphor requires a more deliberate path of processing, this thesis assumes that the processing of this type of metaphor will be relatively unaffected by proficiency level, thus causing informants to process them in similar manners. In this thesis, 24 non-native speakers (NNS), categorized into intermediate proficient and advanced proficient, and seven native speakers (NS) were tested with an RT-test on subjective metaphor comprehension. Results were compared using mean response times and standard deviations, as well as looking at correlations and coefficient of variation. The results showed a distinct difference in processing speed with conventional metaphors being processed significantly faster. Moreover, the findings indicate that conventional metaphor processing speed seems to be predicted by proficiency, whilst non-conventional processing speed is not. The RT differences remained relatively consistent in both conventional and non-conventional metaphor processing, but when taking correlations, variance and coefficient of variation into consideration, the findings indicate that these other factors help level out the differences in non-conventional metaphor processing in more subtle ways than simply by RT’s.

  • 39.
    Espar, Sinaya
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    'You Never Truly Feel at Home': Students' Perceptions of their Multilingualism and its Role in their Identity Construction: - A Study Performed in a Suburb Located in a Socially Vulnerable Area2016Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    A relevant subject in our globalized world concerns the relationship between language and identity, specifically amongst migrant youngsters’ experience of group belonging. This study therefore focused on how adolescents born to foreign parents in Sweden, perceived their multilingualism as part of their identity formation. I also aimed to include how socio-economic aspects could affect the process of identity construction. Thus, the investigation was performed with seventh grade students at a primary school located in the Stockholm suburb Bredäng. The methods consisted of a questionnaire, which was completed by the entire class and a group interview where six students participated. The results revealed that students adapted their language use based on the context, but Swedish was used most habitually. The informants viewed their multilingualism as beneficial but yet fully aware of the linguistic ideologies functioning in society. By combining their minority and majority language, the students were left with different ethnic identities and had diverse interpretations of what it meant to be Swedish. Even though all of them perceived themselves to have multiple ethnic identities, this was not solely seen positively. The issue of belonging was raised and the students claimed to be outcasts everywhere. However, the results differed depending on whether the students were born in Sweden or not. Also, most of them struggled with the process of assumed and ascribed identities, since they perceived themselves to be Swedish but experienced that society valued them as immigrants. Lastly, the study revealed that there were connections between their multilingualism and social mobility as the relationship towards the motherland was highly prioritized even with low levels of economic capital. 

  • 40.
    Fernandez Almlöf, Sebastian
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Peloton versus Pack & Bunch: A study of French lexical borrowing in live English cycling commentary2017Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The sport of cycling is an ever expanding global phenomenon, drawing crowds in their thousands to watch the races unfold. Its community has a distinct vocabulary, with many terms borrowed from several other languages, principally French. This study investigates the presence of French loanwords in the language of English cycling commentators, and to what extent these loanwords are used in comparison to their English equivalents. It also examines extra-linguistic factors that could affect the commentator’s choice of vocabulary, mainly the location of the race. The study investigated the language of English commentators from live broadcast of 6 different races: 2 located in English speaking countries, 2 in France, and 2 countries where neither French nor English was the native language. All utterances of French loanwords and their English counterparts were noted and collected for analysis. The findings demonstrated a clear presence of French loanwords in the language of the commentators, with a varying degree of frequency. Some loanwords were preferred over their English equivalents, whilst others were not. The location did not seem to have a significant impact on the choice of vocabulary, with the exception of the only race held outside of Europe, where the commentators demonstrated a clear preference for English terminology over French loanwords. The analysis concluded that many different extra-linguistic factors may play a role in the commentator’s choice of vocabulary.

  • 41.
    Frederiksen, Diana
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    BELF in the workplace: a linguistic ethnographic study: An observation of English as a lingua franca used by employees at a Swedish company2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper was aimed at researching the use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) in a business context by the use of linguistic ethnography (LE). Previous research has been primarily either survey- or interview-based or strictly qualitative in its investigation. Using shadowing observations of three employees at a Swedish multinational company and subsequently interviewing the participants about their use of Business English as a lingua franca (BELF), the present study set out to investigate for what kinds of functions and how often these employees use English on an everyday basis. English was shown to be the default language of the multinational company and the findings suggest that employees’ use of language is not only determined by the nature of their work and the business setting, but also by their personal backgrounds. Their education, upbringing, and social experiences since moving to Sweden have come to shape their language use at work and in everyday life. Moreover, there could be subsequent implications for them not only in work-related functions and activities at the company but also in their integration and immersion in Swedish society. Using LE to investigate language choice and use in a corporate setting allows for a more nuanced collection of data, providing a context to linguistic research.

  • 42.
    Frey, Vanessa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Outer Circle Englishes in the Expanding Circle Classroom: A Qualitative Study on Swedish Teachers’ Attitudes towards Singapore English Accents2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The English language has become more globalised, with different varieties and accents being used around the world. English is no longer merely Received Pronunciation (RP); it is equally as central in countries that belong to what is known as the ‘Outer Circle’ in the context of World Englishes and the Three Circles model (Kachru, 1992a). Citizens of these countries often speak multiple languages and some use English as their first language, although it does not always completely resemble the English used within the ‘Inner Circle’ (the United Kingdom, for example). One of these countries is Singapore, where English has become the official language and is also used as a lingua franca (ELF). While Standard Singapore English is used in formal settings, the local Singlish is more common in everyday situations and most Singaporeans can switch between the two depending on their surroundings (Melchers & Shaw, 2011). These accents are, however, not commonly recognised in Sweden, and less so in a teaching context. In the core content of the subject English 5 in Swedish upper secondary schools it is stated that teaching should incorporate “the spread of English and its position in the world” (Skolverket, 2011, p. 3). Nevertheless, the instructional focus tends to be on the culture and traditions of English-speaking countries instead of language use. Therefore, the present study will investigate teachers’ attitudes towards Outer Circle Englishes and, more specifically, Singapore English. The aim is to answer research questions regarding what attitudes English teachers in Swedish upper secondary schools have towards Outer Circle Englishes, attitude differences regarding teaching experience, and what these teachers can do to incorporate these Englishes in their teaching. The respondents include three experienced and three newly graduated English teachers who all teach in Swedish upper secondary schools. The study has a qualitative approach where the data was collected through semi-structured interviews. To examine Singapore English, the respondents also listened to two audio clips of Singapore English speakers and discussed these accents as well as their attitudes towards them. The results show that teachers from both groups need more knowledge regarding Outer Circle Englishes to acquire a more positive attitude towards these to, in turn, portray this positivity onto their students when discussing the English varieties that exist in the world. The study concludes by suggesting that Outer Circle Englishes need to be explicitly incorporated in the teacher education programme at university for these to be more accepted in the English classroom.

  • 43.
    Fröderberg Shaiek, Christopher
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Distribution and Spread of English Loanwords: Some Indications from Written Bangla in Articles concerned with Science, Culture, Lifestyle, and Religion.2014Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    English has served as a donor language of loanwords to many different languages in the world. One of these languages is Bangla. Despite the importance of the English influence on Bangla, few researchers have investigated English loanwords in Bangla and even fewer have looked at the distribution of them between different categories such as science, lifestyle, culture, and religion. The purpose of the present study was to establish whether the distribution of English loanwords varied between these categories, how these results would relate to findings in other languages, and what this would tell us about word-formation processes in relation to English loanwords in general. Articles related to these categories were found and analyzed to find English loanwords which were at the same time counted manually and compared with the overall amount of words in each article. The results showed a clear tendency for a higher number of English loanwords in texts concerned with the topic of science, followed by; lifestyle, culture; and lastly religion; the differences were statistically significant. These findings were also similar to what has been shown in other languages. Future research should aim to include a larger, more balanced sample, but also having a more reliable method of collecting and analyzing texts and words.

  • 44.
    Fuster Sansalvador, Carles
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Negation in Germanic languages: A micro-typological study on negation2013Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Typologiska klassifikationer har traditionellt gjorts från ett makrotypologiskt perspektiv; vilketinnebär att de har baserats på utvalda språksampel där närbesläktade språk ofta exkluderas, eftersomdessa antas uppvisa liknande typologiska särdrag och strukturer. Nyligen har det dock påpekats attnärbesläktade språk, och även dess dialekter, kan uppvisa signifikant variation med avseende på derastypologiska särdrag. Syftet med den här studien är att ge en översikt över och studera hur degermanska språken skiljer sig åt vad avser deras ordföljd i negativa satser samt derasnegationsstrategier. Det negativa adverbet (motsvarande svenskans inte) står i fokus men ävennegativa indefinita pronomen analyseras, i huvud- och bisatser samt i (negativa) imperativakonstruktioner. Fokus ligger på standardspråkvarianterna, men några icke-standardvarianter till dessainkluderas, för att kunna ge en mer detaljerad beskrivning över variationen inom språkfamiljen.Hypotesen att det traditionellt homogent beskrivna germanska området är mer komplext vad gällernegationsaspekter bekräftas. Resultaten visar att de standardspråkvarieteterna uppvisar olika mönsterjämfört med de icke-standardspråkvarieteterna, som är mindre "ovanliga" i världens språk. Dessutomvisar de nordgermanska icke-standard språkvarieteterna att dubbelnegation förekommer i dennordgermanska språkgrenen, vilket traditionellt har antagits inte förekomma alls.

  • 45.
    Galantini, Nicolò
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Language policies and early bilingual education in Sweden: An ethnographic study of two bilingual preschools in Stockholm2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie ämnar belysa språkpolitik och tidig tvåspråkig utbildning i Sverige. Ett av målen är att titta närmare på rådande språkpolitik i Sverige ur ett Europeiskt perspektiv, genom at jämföra ”nationell” och ”internationell” språkpolitik och belysa likheter och skillnader. Detta innebär, mer specifikt, att analysera språkpolitik och riktlinjer för tvåspråkig utbildning som är utarbetad av Europarådet och sedan ställa dem mot de riktlinjer som är utarbetade i Sverige. Dessutom är målet att undersöka olika lingvistiska praktiker hos elever och lärare i en tvåspråkig kontext. Studien har utförts med sociolingvistisk, etnografisk metod och metodologisk triangulering som inkluderat olika tillvägagångssätt såsom observationer, intervjuer och inspelade ljudupptagningar. Insamlad data har undersökts med syfte att klassificera olika språkliga beteenden för att söka förstå de olika strategier och vanor som utgör själva kärnan i interaktionen mellan tvåspråkiga elever och lärare. Slutligen är syftet med studien att ge en inblick i hur lämplig svensk språkpolitik är i fråga om tvåspråkig utbildning och samtidigt belysa vad som kan behövas reviderasoch införas för att påverka framtida tvåspråkig/flerspråkig utbildning i Sverige.

  • 46.
    Ghebre, Adi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Negation in Tigrinya: An Afro-Semitic language2009Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Tigrinya is one of the Afro Semitic languages, traditionally classified as North Ethiopic, and spoken in Eritrean and Northern Ethiopia. In this work Tigrinya negation particles were investigated and analyzed. with the main aim to emphasise distribution of negation particles in different word classes in the language. It is designed to provide some analysis of how the North Afro Semitic languages are related, with some descriptions about how they have different distribution of negation forms. Some linguistic ideas in using Tigrinya negation by comparing it with its sister languages are also given.

  • 47.
    Gijswijt, Katrijn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Processing Dutch: A study on the acquisition of Dutch as a second language using Processability Theory as a framework2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien undersökas den nederländska språkinlärningsprocessen inom ramen av Processbarhetsteorin (PT). PT antar att inlärningsprocessen sker genom universella stadier. Dessa har skapats och forskats för flera olika sprak, men inte för nederländska. I den här uppsatsen kommer den nederländska morfologin och ordföljden att analyseras enligt PT’s stadier, och skapas en hierarki för nederländska. Samtidigt blir hierarkin testad genom en longitudenell studie av inlärningsprocessen av svenska studenter som lär sig nederländska. Dessutom diskuteras frågan om möjlig transfer från både det första och andra språket. Sen debatteras frågan om emergence criterion och procentsatser, och därmed skillnaden mellan språkinlärning och språkbehärskning. Resultatet är en granskning av den egna skapade hierarkin, och möjliga förklarningar för deras inlärningsprocess. 

  • 48.
    Golmann, Stella
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    General L2 Proficiency and Spoken Word Recognition2008Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This essay concerns the ability of advanced L2 users of English to recognise spoken words in a noisy environment. Its main objective is to see whether there exists any correlation between the proficiency level of an advanced user of L2 English and his/her ability to recognise spoken words. Twenty students in the English Department at Stockholm University were given several proficiency tests as well as a test of spoken word recognition. The spoken words were embedded in a “cocktail party” background noise. The central research question is whether proficiency levels (as reflected in the tests) are related to levels of ability to recognise words in a noisy input situation.

    A secondary goal of this essay is to identify the phonemes that seemed most difficult for the informants to recognise in a noisy environment.

    The results indicate that general L2 proficiency, as measured by three types of tests (vocabulary knowledge, written word recognition, reading comprehension) has no impact on a subjects’ ability to recognise spoken words in a noisy environment. The results also indicate that some phonemes were more difficult to recognise than others. Furthermore, the analysis of mishearings indicate that in doublets (words where both the noun forms and the verb forms were given), the words with first syllable stress (nouns) were correctly recognised considerably more often than words with second syllable stress (verbs). For words with only a single form the stress pattern did not seem to influence recognition. Several lines of future research are discussed.

  • 49.
    Gomes, Andrew
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Investigating the tonal contours of Sawi nouns: A contrastive analysis with established tonal features of Palula2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores whether or not tonal contours are a contrastive feature in Sawi nouns. It aims to provide evidence towards the claim that Sawi has lost contrastive tones and provide a basis from which further research into how the use of qualitative vowel differences may have replaced the pitch accent system still found in Sawi’s closest relative, Palula. This was done through the analysis of a corpus of Sawi nouns with a computer program that visually stylizes prosodic and tonal features in audio samples of the language. This corpus was then analyzed for trends within itself as well as compared to known trends in the Palula lexicon. The findings support the original hypothesis that Sawi nouns do not have contrastive pitch accents, as found in Palula; and that further research may reveal a regular or semi-regular tonal contour accentuating the final mora of each noun.

  • 50.
    Graham, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Codeswitching from L1 to L2 in group work by teenagers: An investigation of codeswitching from Swedish to English in student group-work discussions by learners of English in 9th grade at a upper primary school in Sweden2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to perform an investigation into instances of codeswitching by Swedish teenagers from L1 Swedish to L2 English in student group-work discussions. The specific focus of the investigation were the instances of codeswitching which were performed as a demonstration of personal expression on the part of the speaker. It was the goal of this research to analyse such examples of codeswitching and attempt to create an understanding of the underlying mechanisms that drive this type of communication.  The study took place at an upper primary school in Sweden.  Data was collected through the recording of two group discussions. The group discussions were framed and recorded as part of an English language lesson in grade 9. Four student interviews were also performed. The results of the data analysis indicated that Swedish teenagers codeswitch from Swedish to English in group discussions quite frequently. The students expressed that they codeswitch to English in this manner as way of communicating with each other in a way that is generally agreed to be “cool” and “fun”. They also do this to display their own proficiency in the language. Proficiency in English is perceived to be a desirable attribute. The conclusion of the study is that codeswitching of this type is an important part of this group’s language use in terms of how the social relationships are expressed and maintained. A secondary result of this behaviour is that it appears to be a positive driver of oral English language skills.

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