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  • 1.
    Bartning, Inge
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The functions of a high-frequency collocation in native and learner discourse: the case of French c’est and Swedish det är2007In: International Review of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 1-43Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Glahn, Esther
    et al.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Holmen, Anne
    Hvenekilde, Anne
    Håkansson, Gisela
    Lund, Karen
    Pienemanns processabilitetsteori testet på dansk, norsk og svensk2002In: Forskning i nordiske sprog som andet- og fremmedsprog: Rapport fra konference i Reykjavik 23-25 maj 2001 / [ed] Audur Hauksdóttir et al., 2002, p. 31-47Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Grigonyte, Gintare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Pronunciation and Spelling: the Case of Misspellings in Swedish L2 Written Essays2014In: Human Language Technologies - The Baltic Perspective, Baltic HLT 2014 / [ed] Andrius Utka, Gintarė Grigonytė, Jurgita Kapočiūtė-Dzikienė, Jurgita Vaičenonienė, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2014, p. 95-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research presents an investigation performed on the ASU corpus. We analyse to what extent does the pronunciation of intended words reflects in spelling errors done by L2 Swedish learners. We also propose a method that helps to automatically discriminate the misspellings affected by pronunciation from other types of misspellings.

  • 4.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Acquisition of phonology1989In: Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0267-1905, E-ISSN 1471-6356, Vol. 9, p. 23-41Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Activation of L1 and L2 during production in L3: A comparison of two case studies2009In: Processes in third language acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, p. 101-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Aktuella teman i forskningen om andraspråksuttal1990In: Andra symposiet om svenska som andraspråk i Göteborg 1989 / [ed] Gunnar Tingbjörn, Stockholm: Skriptor Förlag , 1990, p. 297-315Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Andraspråksforskning med ASU-korpusen2013In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 7-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ASU is a longitudinal corpus of L2 production by adult learners of Swedish, which is now accessible on the web for searching and analysis. This is a presentation of its intentions and structure, how to work with it, and how to access it. Some examples are also given of the research on L2 Swedish which has been carried out based on data from ASU.

    After a brief introduction on different kinds of corpora and their degree of accessibility, the next section discusses the various requirements that should be met by a longitudinal corpus, and how these have been handled in ASU. An aim for ASU has been to follow individuals longitudinally from the start of their acquisition of the L2 to an elaborate stage of proficiency, and to be able to observe a clear and coherent development over time. ASU is also characterized by the parallel collection of oral and written material, and by a control material from native Swedes. Foreign students at Stockholm University were recorded individually during conversations with Swedes, and in addition to this they also wrote essays. Corresponding data were collected from native Swedish students. The material was then transcribed and tagged morphologically.

    The corpus, which was compiled in its early form in the 1990s, is now converted into a modern format and has been connected to the user interface ITG, which is handled by the Swedish Language Bank (Språkbanken) at Gothenburg University. This is a flexible instrument for searching, analysing and editing data from the corpus. The article describes briefly how to work with corpus data using ITG.

    The corpus has been used for research on several areas of L2 Swedish. Some examples which are presented briefly here concern reference to future, syllable structure, possessive constructions, the utterance process, and the role of background languages in third language use.

    A description of how to access the corpus terminates the article.

  • 8.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    ASU-korpusen, en longitudinell korpus av vuxna inlärares svenska1997In: Svenskans bekrivning 22: Förhandlingar vid tjugoandra sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning, Lund den 18-19 oktober 1996 / [ed] Gisela Håkansson, Lena Lötmarker, Lillemor Santesson, Jan Svensson, Åke Viberg, Lund: Lund University Press , 1997, p. 303-317Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bakgrundsspråkens interaktion vid tredjespråksinlärning1998In: Nordiske sprog som andetsprog / [ed] Möller, Janus & Quist, Pia & Holmen, Anne & Jörgensen, J.N., Köbenhavn: Danmarks Laererhöjskole , 1998, p. 41-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Becoming multilingual: The macro and the micro time perspective2017In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential multilingualism is a characteristic property of human language. This paper adopts a usage-based, complex-systems approach in discussing two different but interrelated perspectives on how multilingualism takes shape in individuals: the development of a linguistic repertoire over time (macro time perspective) and the processes of language use and acquisition in specific situations (micro time perspective). The concept of L3 has a role at the micro time level, in the situations of language use. A variable model of the situation of language use and acquisition in micro time is proposed. It adopts a factor approach which is inspired by Hufeisen's Factor Model, but extends that model so as to be applicable to more variable stages and forms of linguistic repertoires. The connection between dynamic processes in micro and macro time is illustrated by data from a longitudinal test of phonological production which exposes both specific usage events and an evolving pattern.

  • 11.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Brytningen tar form - om dynamiken i den tidiga andraspråksforskningen1990In: På väg mot ett nytt språk / [ed] Viveka Adelsvärd, Norman Davies, Uppsala: ASLA , 1990, p. 67-79Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Conditions on transfer in second language phonology acquisition1990In: New Sounds 90: Proceedings of the 1990 Amsterdam Symposium on the Acquisition of Second-Language Sopeech / [ed] Jonathan Leather, Allan James, Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam , 1990Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Conditions on transfer in second language phonology acquisition1990In: New Sounds 90: Proceedings of the 1990 Amsterdam Symposium on the Acquisition of Second-Language Speech / [ed] Jonathan Leather, Allan James, Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam , 1990, p. 198-215Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Constructions of comparison in Swedish: Quantitative dominance patterns in acquisition and use2014In: Constructions, ISSN 1860-2010, E-ISSN 1860-2010, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Examining the processability theory: The case of adjective agreement in L2 Swedish1996In: Eurosla 6: A selection of papers / [ed] Eric Kellerman, Bert Weltens, Theo Bongaerts, Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij / ANéLA & The European Second Language Association , 1996, p. 75-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Flerspråkighet och tredjespråksinlärning: Några grundbegrepp2016In: Tredjespråksinlärning / [ed] Camilla Bardel, Ylva Falk, Christina Lindqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 33-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tredjespråksinlärning har under 2000-talet snabbt vuxit fram som ett aktuellt forskningsområde i takt med att man har uppmärksammat hur vanlig flerspråkighet är och vilken betydelse en två- eller flerspråkig bakgrund har vid inlärning av ytterligare språk. En-, två- och flerspråkighet definieras här som kunskap i ett, två respektive tre eller flera språk på någon signifikant färdighetsnivå. Två- eller flerspråkiga personers inlärning av ytterligare språk betecknas som tredjespråksinlärning. Det här kapitlet ger en översikt av centrala begrepp och rön inom detta område. Till de aspekter som ska utvecklas i kapitlet hör följande.

    Människans naturliga flerspråkighet. Människan är av naturen potentiellt flerspråkig, och flera fakta talar för att flerspråkighet är den normala formen av språkkompetens hos vuxna.

    Flerspråkighet i dagens samhälle. Två- eller flerspråkighet anses vara vanligare i världen än ren enspråkighet. Det främjas av en kombination av faktorer och tilltar i det moderna globala kommunikationssamhället. Tredjespråksinlärning sker både spontant i vardagslivet och genom undervisning. Exempel på tredjespråksinlärare i skolan är elever som läser fler än ett främmande språk och tvåspråkiga elever ur språkliga minoriteter.

    Första-, andra- och tredjespråk (L1, L2, L3) som kognitiva begrepp. Begreppen L1 och L2 baseras på den grundläggande skillnaden mellan infött och icke-infött språk, där åldersfaktorn är central. Skilda kognitiva utgångslägen gäller för tillägnande av ett L1, ett första L2 och ytterligare språk, med konsekvenser för L3-inlärning. Definitionen av begreppet L3 är ett problem som genomlyses här.

    Den flerspråkiga kompetensen och talprocessen. En persons kompetens i olika språk bildar en samverkande helhet, inte separata språkkompetenser. I talsituationer kan även andra språk än det valda (s.k. bakgrundsspråk) aktiveras i olika grad, vilket styrs av flera faktorer. I modeller av talprocessen söker man förstå hur yttrandeförloppet sker hos flerspråkiga, hur talaren kontrollerar sitt språkval och hur associationer mellan element i olika språk uppstår. Faktorer i talsituationen kan också leda talaren att hantera sitt språkval genom att anamma olika språkmodus (language modes): en en-, två- eller flerspråkig samtalsstil.

    Tvärspråkligt inflytande. Vad är det som betingar att ett visst bakgrundsspråk, snarare än ett annat, aktiveras i den flerspråkiges talproduktion och orsakar transfer? Flera faktorer har undersökts, såsom färdighetsnivån i språket, aktualitet i användning, typologisk likhet samt L2-status, dvs egenskapen att vara ett L2 för talaren.

    Nyttan av tidigare språkkunskap. Forskning utvisar att tidigare språkkunskap utgör en tillgång vid inlärning av ett nytt språk. Positiva effekter har konstaterats på den språkfärdighet som uppnås, på språklig medvetenhet och på användningen av strategier i språkinlärningen. Pedagogiska aspekter av detta handlar om hur man i språkundervisning kan ta tillvara L3-inlärares tidigare språkliga erfarenheter och ta hänsyn till L3-inlärningens särskilda möjligheter.

  • 17.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Forskning kring svenska som målspråk: fonologi1984In: Nordens språk som målspråk: Forskning och undervisning / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Katrin Maandi, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik , 1984, p. 40-60Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Forskning om svenska som andraspråk i Sverige1992In: Första forskarsymposiet om Nordens språk som andraspråk i Stockholm 1991 / [ed] Monica Axelsson, Åke Viberg, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet , 1992, p. 49-81Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Inlärningsstrategier i främmandespråksfonologi1992In: Nordens språk i Baltikum: Konferanse for lærere og sendelektorer ved baltiske universiteter Riga 26.-30. november 1991 = Pohjoismaiden kielet Baltiassa : Baltian maiden yliopistojen pohjoismaisten kieltenopettajien kokous Riika 26.-30.11.1991, Oslo: Nordisk språksekretariat , 1992, p. 82-94Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Interference in American English speakers' pronunciation of Swedish1967In: Studia linguistica, ISSN 00393193, Vol. 21, p. 15-36Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Introduction to the ASU Corpus: a longitudinal oral and written text corpus of adult learner Swedish with a corresponding part from native Swedes. Version 2010-11-16.2010Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Introduktion till ASU-korpusen: En longitudinell muntlig och skriftlig textkorpus av vuxna inlärares svenska med en motsvarande del från infödda svenskar. Version 2010-11-16.2010Report (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Is it possible to predict phonetic difficulty in a second language?1989In: Language learning and learner language: Papers from a conference held in Stockholm and Åbo, 17-18 October, 1988 / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning , 1989, p. 11-19Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Jämförelsekonstruktioner i svenskan och grammatikaliseringen av jämfört med1995In: Språk & Stil, ISSN 1101-1165, Vol. 5 NF, p. 21-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Komparativa uttryck i inlärarspråket - en skiss1993In: Rapport fra det andre forskersymposiet om Nordens språk som andrespråk i Oslo den 19.-20. mars 1993 / [ed] Anne Golden, Anne Hvenekilde, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, Institutt for lingvistiske fag, Avdeling for norsk som andrespråk , 1993, p. 209-221Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kontrastiv lingvistik och sekundärspråksforskning: Föredrag vid en konferens i Åbo och Stockholm 13-14 februari 19791979Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language learning and learner language: Papers from a conference held in Stockholm and Åbo, 17-18 October, 19881989Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Learnability and learner strategies in second language syntax and phonology1985In: Modelling and assessing second language acquisition / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Manfred Pienemann, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1985, p. 153-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Maskinell generering av böjningsformer och identifikation av ordklass1966In: Förhandlingar vid Sammankomst för att dryfta frågor rörande svenskans beskrivning 3, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk , 1966, p. 59-70Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Några grunddrag i uttalsutvecklingen i andrapråket1988In: Första symposiet i svenska som andraspråk. Vol. I. Föredrag om språk, språkinlärning och interaktion / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inger Lindberg, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning , 1988, p. 178-190Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    On intralingual, interlingual and developmental solutions in interlanguage1979In: Interlanguage: Workshop at the Fifth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, Frostavallen, April 27-29 1979 / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Moira Linnarud, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International , 1979, p. 7-24Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Problem, process, product in language learning: Papers from the Stockholm-Åbo Conference, 21-22 October 19921993Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Problems in defining the concepts of L1, L2 and L32014In: Teaching and learning in multilingual contexts: Sociolinguistic and educational perspectives / [ed] Agnieszka Otwinowska, Gessica De Angelis, Bristol: Multilingual Matters , 2014, p. 3-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Processes in third language acquisition2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume brings together six case studies of an adult multilingual speaker who acquires a new language through social interaction. The book deals especially with the multilingual situation, the learner’s acquisitional activities, and the involvement of her background languages in the process of speaking. It offers a coherent study of various linguistic phenomena in one individual, including patterns and functions of language switching, word search in interaction, hypothetical construction of words, and articulatory settings in speaking. The main languages involved are English (L1), German (L2) and Swedish (L3). The activation of these languages in the learner’s speech is examined in a cognitive perspective in relation to current models of the speaking process. A longitudinal corpus of NNS–NS conversations covering 21 months from the beginner stage provides the main data for these studies.

  • 35.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Roles of L1 and L2 in L3 production and acquisition2001In: Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: Psycholinguistic Perspectives, Multilingual Matters, Clevedon , 2001, p. 21-41Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svenska som målspråk1975In: Språkvård, ISSN 0038-8440, Vol. 1975, no 2, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svenskan i ljuset av invandrares språkfel1977In: Nysvenska studier, ISSN 0345-8768, Vol. 57, p. 60-73Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Teoretiska ramar för andraspråksforskning2013In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Lindberg, Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2013, 2, p. 27-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Teoretiska ramar för andraspråksforskning2004In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2004, p. 25-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The course of development in second language phonology acquisition: A natural path or strategic choice?1993In: Progression & regression in language: Sociocultural, neuropsychological & linguistic perspectives / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Åke Viberg, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 439-462Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The factor 'perceived crosslinguistic similarity' in third language production: How does it work?2009In: Processes in Third Language Acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 127-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The insufficiency of error analysis1973In: Errata: Papers in error analysis, Lund: Gleerup , 1973, p. 29-35Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The insufficiency of error analysis1974In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 12, p. 185-192Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The languages of the multilingual: Some conceptual and terminological issues2010In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 48, no 2-3, p. 91-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on individual multilingualism and third language acquisition has expanded greatly in recent years. A theoretical correlate of this is the recognition of the fact that humans are potentially multilingual by nature, that multilingualism is the default state of language competence, and that this in turns has implications for an adequate theory of language competence, use and acquisition. Traditional SLA research usually treats all non-first language learners as L2 learners. The recent focus on L3 acquisition means that one has begun taking the complexity of multilingual learners’ language background into account. This gives raise to reflection about some of the currently used basic terminology in the field, in particular how the concepts first, second and third language are understood.

    These terms are used variably in the literature. One approach, the common practice of labelling a multilingual’s languages along a linear chronological scale as L1, L2, L3, L4 etc., is shown here to be untenable, being based on an inadequate conception of multilingualism. A different and arguably more satisfactory approach is based on the conventional dichotomy of L1 (established during infancy) versus L2 (added after infancy) and relates the notion of L3 to the presence of a more complex language background.

    The limitation to a three-order hierarchy involving the distinction between the concepts of L1, L2 and L3 is discussed and adopted as a working hypothesis, awaiting further research on this issue.

    Finally, the problems with the expressions first, second and third language have become more apparent with the emergence of research on L3 acquisition. Maybe the time is ripe to work for a change of these established terms? As possible replacements, primary, secondary and tertiary language are put forward for discussion.

    The paper stresses the need for reconsideration and clarification of the concepts L1, L2 and L3 from the point of view of multilingual language users and learners.

  • 45.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The learner's word acquisition attempts in conversation1998In: Perspectives on foreign and second language pedagogy: Esays presented to Kirsten Haastrup on the occasion of her sixtieth birthday / [ed] Albrechtsen, Dorte & Henriksen, Birgit & Mees, Inger M. & Poulsen, Erik, Odense: Odense Universitetsforlag, 1998, p. 177-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The learner's word acquisition attempts in conversation2009In: Processes in third language acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 86-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Third language acquisition2013In: The Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 644-648Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Utbildning av lärare i svenska som främmande språk1981In: Språkmöte: Svenska som främmande språk, Hemspråk, Tolkning / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Lund: LiberLäromedel , 1981, p. 96-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Über die deutsche Deutung des schwedischen Gravis-Akzents1972In: Germanistische Beiträge: Gert Mellbourn zum 60. Geburtstag am 21.5.1972 dargebracht von Kollegen und Schülern des Deutschen Instituts der Universität Stockholm / [ed] Lillebill Grähs, Anders Marell, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Tyska institutionen , 1972, p. 87-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grigonyté, Gintaré
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Non-Native Writers’ Errors – a Challenge to a Spell-Checker2014In: 1st Nordic workshop on evaluation of spellchecking and proofing tools (NorWEST2014), 2014, , p. 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spell checkers are widely used and if they do their job properly are also highly useful. Usually they are built on the assumption that the text to be corrected is written by a mature native speaker. However non-native speakers are in an even greater need of using spell checkers than native speakers. On the other hand current spell checkers do not take the linguistic problems of learners into account and thus they are poor in identifying errors and supplying the adequate corrections. There is a number of linguistic complexities specific to non-native learners that a spell-checker would need to handle in order to be successful.

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