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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of L2 acquisition and degree of nativelikeness – listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny.2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 2, 249-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The incidence of nativelikeness in adult second language acquisition is a controversial issue in SLA research. Although some researchers claim that any learner, regardless of age of acquisition, can attain nativelike levels of second language (L2) proficiency, others hold that attainment of nativelike proficiency is, in principle, impossible. The discussion has traditionally been framed within the paradigm of a critical period for language acquisition and guided by the question of whether SLA is constrained by the maturation of the brain. The work presented in this article can be positioned among those studies that have focused exclusively on the apparent counterexamples to the critical period. We report on a large-scale study of Spanish/Swedish bilinguals (n = 195) with differing ages of onset of acquisition (<1–47 years), all of whom identify themselves as potentially nativelike in their L2. Listening sessions with native-speaker judges showed that only a small minority of those bilinguals who had started their L2 acquisition after age 12, but a majority of those with an age of onset below this age, were actually perceived as native speakers of Swedish. However, when a subset (n = 41) of those participants who did pass for native speakers was scrutinized in linguistic detail with a battery of 10 highly complex, cognitively demanding tasks and detailed measurements of linguistic performance, representation, and processing, none of the late learners performed within the native-speaker range; in fact, the results revealed also that only a few of the early learners exhibited actual nativelike competence and behavior on all measures of L2 proficiency that were employed. Our primary interpretation of the results is that nativelike ultimate attainment of a second language is, in principle, never attained by adult learners and, furthermore, is much less common among child learners than has previously been assumed.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 2, 249-306 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Barndomen - en kritisk period för språkutveckling?2010In: Barn utvecklar sitt språk: (2:a reviderade upplagan) / [ed] Louise Bjar och Caroline Liberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 2, 29-56 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Barndomen – en kritisk period för språkutveck­ling?2003In: Barn utvecklar sitt språk / [ed] Louise Bjar, Caroline Liberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2003, 1. uppl., 29-56 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, KennethStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    High-Level L2 Acquisition, Learning, and Use: Special Issue2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Inlärningsålder och uppfattad inföddhet i andraspråket – lyssnarexperiment med avancerade L2-talare av svenska2006In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 1, no 1, 9-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mognadsbegränsningar och den kritiska perioden för andraspråksinlärning2013In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Lindberg, Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 2. uppl., 221-257 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mognadsbegränsningar och den kritiska perioden för andraspråks­inlärning2004In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inger Lindberg, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2004, 221-258 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition2008In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 30, no 4, 481-509 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Results from a number of recent studies suggest that nativelike adult second language (L2) learners possess a high degree of language learning aptitude, the positive effects of which may have compensated for the negative effects of a critical period in these learners. According to the same studies, child learners seem to attain a nativelike command of the L2 regardless of high or low aptitude, which has led researchers to conclude that this factor plays no role in early acquisition. The present study investigates the L2 proficiency and language aptitude of 42 near-native L2 speakers of Swedish (i.e., individuals whom actual mother-tongue speakers of Swedish believe are native speakers). The results confirm previous research suggesting that a high degree of language aptitude is required if adult learners are to reach a L2 proficiency that is indistinguishable from that of native speakers. However, in contrast to previous studies, the present results also identify small yet significant aptitude effects in child SLA. Our findings lead us to the conclusions that the rare nativelike adult learners sometimes observed would all turn out to be exceptionally talented language learners with an unusual ability to compensate for maturational effects and, consequently, that their nativelikeness per se does not constitute a reason to reject the critical period hypothesis.

  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The robustness of aptitude effects in near-native second language acquisition2008In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 30, no 4, 481-509 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Stölten, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Effects of age on voice onset time: The production of voiceless stops by near-native L2 speakers2008In: Processes and Outcomes: Explaining Achievement in Language Learning, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter , 2008Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 12.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Does first language maintenance hamper nativelikeness in a second language? A study of ultimate attainment in early bilinguals2012In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, no 2, 215-241 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of SLA, the incidence of nativelikeness in second language (L2) speakers has typically been explained as a function of age of acquisition. An alternative interpretation, however, is that L2 learners do not attain nativelike proficiency because of first language (L1) maintenance. This interpretation has nevertheless remained mostly theoretical due to the lack of empirical evidence. This study sets out to address the role of L1 proficiency in L2 ultimate attainment by examining L1 and L2 proficiency in 30 early L1 Spanish–L2 Swedish bilinguals. Language proficiency was assessed through grammaticality judgment tests and cloze tests, and additional data on language aptitude were collected through the Swansea Language Aptitude Test (v.2.0; Meara, Milton, & Lorenzo-Dus, 2002). The results showed positive correlations between nativelike L1 and L2 behavior. Additionally, it was found that language aptitude was positively correlated with nativelike L1 and L2 performance. In view of these findings, it is suggested that (a) L1 maintenance does not hamper L2 nativelikeness and (b) language aptitude is an important factor for bilingual ultimate attainment.

  • 13.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The role of language aptitude in first language attrition: The case of prepubescent attriters2010In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 31, no 3, 443-464 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While language aptitude has been investigated actively within second language research, there is a current dearth of research on the effects of aptitude in cases of attrition. The aim of the present investigation was to explore the role of language aptitude for L1 proficiency in speakers who experienced a break with their L1 setting prior to puberty. Twenty-five L1 SpanishL2 Swedish bilinguals residing in Sweden participated in the study, and 15 native speakers of Spanish living in Chile were recruited as controls. The L1 proficiency was measured by means of a grammaticality judgement test (GJT) and language aptitude data were obtained through the Swansea Language Aptitude Test (Meara et al. <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B36">2003</xref>). Results showed a positive correlation between GJT performance and language aptitude. More specifically, the bilinguals with above-average aptitude were more likely to score within the native range on the GJT than those with below-average aptitude. It was also seen that among the participants with below-average aptitude, GJT scores were related to daily L1 use. In view of these findings, we suggest that language aptitude has a compensatory function in language attrition, helping the attriter to retain a high level of L1 proficiency despite reduced L1 contact.

  • 14.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of acquisition effects or effects of bilingualism in second language ultimate attainment?2013In: Sensitive Periods, Language Aptitude, and Ultimate L2 Attainment / [ed] Granena, Gisela & Long, Michael, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, 69-101 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Lindberg, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Josefson, Ingela
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Studium av ett invandrarsvenskt språkmaterial1983Report (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Advanced Proficiency and Exceptional Ability in Second Languages2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Begreppen språk och dialekt och meänkielis status som eget språk2007In: Mer än ett språk: En antologi om flerspråkigheten i norra Sverige, Norstedts Akademiska Förlag , 2007, 237-282 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Critical period2012In: The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics / [ed] Chapelle, C. A., Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 2012Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Engelskan, skolans språkundervisning och svensk språkpolitik2004In: Engelskan i Sverige: Språkval i utbildning, arbete och kulturliv. Småskrift utgiven av Svenska språknämnden, Norstedts Akademiska Förlag/Svenska språknämnden, Stockholm , 2004, 36-110 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Halvhjärtat åtagande2006In: Invandrare och minoriteter, ISSN 1404-6857, no 2, 10-14 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Introduction: Perspectives on advanced second language proficiency2016In: Advanced Proficiency and Exceptional Ability in Second Languages / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Boston/Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, 1-14 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Linguistic minorities in Scandinavia II: Immigrant minorities2005In: The Nordic Languages: An International Handbook of the History of the North Germanic Languages, Volume 2, Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin , 2005, 2119-2127 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Läs- och skrivsvårigheter hos tvåspråkiga2010In: Utredning av läs- och skrivsvårigheter / [ed] Ericson, B., Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2010, 4:e, 305-339 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Modersmål och svenska som andraspråk2007In: Att läsa och skriva: Forskning och beprövad erfarenhet, Stockholm: Liber Distribution/Myndigheten för skolutveckling , 2007, 45-71 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Modersmålsbaserade utbildningssystem, kunskapskapital och ekonomisk tillväxt2006In: Interkulturell pædagogik.: Flere sprog - problem eller resurce?, Kroghs Forlag, Köpenhamn , 2006, 25-42 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The exceptional ability of polyglots to achieve high-level proficiency in numerous languages2016In: Advanced Proficiency and Exceptional Ability in Second Languages / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Boston/Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, 241-272 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The polyglot – an initial characterization on the basis of multiple anecdotal accounts2016In: Advanced Proficiency and Exceptional Ability in Second Languages / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Boston/Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, 215-240 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Vilket undervisningsspråk favoriserar vilka elever?2008In: Sprogforum, Temanummer: Førstesproget som ressource, ISSN 0909-9328, no 43, 44-48 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Våra inhemska minoriteter2005In: Vandringar med böcker, litteraturvägledning från BTJ förlag., ISSN 0503-6968, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age and L2 learning: The hazards of matching practical “implications” with theoretical “facts”.: (Comments on Stefka H. Marinova-Todd, D. Bradford Marshall, and Catherine E. Snow’s “Three misconceptions about age and L2 learning”).2001In: TESOL quarterly (Print), ISSN 0039-8322, E-ISSN 1545-7249, Vol. 35, no 1, 151-170 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of onset and ultimate attain­ment in near-native speakers of Swedish2003In: Multilingualism in global and local perspectives: selected papers from the 8th Nordic Conference on Bilingualism, November 1-3, 2001, Stockholm - Rinkeby / [ed] Kari Fraurud, Kenneth Hyltenstam, Stockholm: Centre for Research on Bilingualism, Stockholm university , 2003, 319-340 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Introduction: High-Level L2 Acquisition, Learning, and Use2012In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, no 2, 177-186 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Maturational constraints in SLA2003In: The handbook of second language acquisition / [ed] Catherine J. Doughty, Michael H. Long, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2003, 539-588 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Málhafar sem tala sænsku sem annað mál nánast eins infæddir: Áhrif aldurs við upphaf máltileinkunar og endenlag færni.2007In: Mál málanna: um nám og kennslu erlendra tungumála / [ed] Birna Arnbjörnsdóttir, Auður Hauksdóttir, Reykjavík: Háskólaútgáfan, 2007, 49-73 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Startålder och slutlig behärsk­ning hos nästan infödda talare av svenska som andraspråk2002In: Forskning i nordiske sprog som andet- og fremmedsprog: rapport fra konference i Reykjavík 23.-25. maj 2001 / [ed] Auður Hauksdóttir, Birna Arnbjörnsdóttir, María Garðarsdóttir, Sigríður Þorvaldsdóttir, Reykjavík: Háskólaútgáfan , 2002, 84-110 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Who can become native-like in a second language? All, some, or none?: On the maturational constraints controversy in second language acquisition.2000In: Studia Linguistica, ISSN 0039-3193, E-ISSN 1467-9582, Vol. 54, no 2, 150-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Âge de l’exposition initiale et niveau terminal chez des locuteurs quasi-natifs du Suédois L2.2003In: Acquisition et Interaction en Langue Étrangère, Vol. 18, 99-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bartning, Inge
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Fant, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    High Level Proficiency in Second Language Use. Forskningsprogramsansökan hos Riksbankens Jubileumsfond, febr. 20052005Other (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Park, Hyeon-Sook
    Dominant-language replacement. The case of international adoptees2009In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 12, no 2, 121-140 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article challenges a recent proposal for the theoretical interpretation of L1 and L2 interaction that results from the abrupt change of language environment in internationally adopted children. According to this proposal (Pallier, Dehaene, Poline, LeBihan, Argenti, Depoux and Mehler, 2003; Ventureyra, Pallier and Yoo, 2004), such children experience a total loss of their L1, while, as adults, they exhibit a nativelike ultimate attainment of their L2. These authors suggest that what they see as a total loss of L1 allows a resetting of the neural network that normally subserves L1 retention and hence permits a complete acquisition of the L2. Data from two of our own research projects, one on L1 remnants in Korean adoptees in Sweden (see Park, forthcoming), and the other on age of acquisition and ultimate L2 attainment of Swedish (see Abrahamsson and Hyltenstam, in press), which included data from Latin American adoptees in Sweden among other participants, suggest (i) that L1 remnants are indeed maintained, (ii) that L2 attainment is not enhanced by severe L1 attrition, and (iii) that there is an age dimension to both the degree of L1 attrition and the level of L2 ultimate attainment in international adoptees. We therefore contend that a maturational interpretation of language replacement data is preferable.

  • 40.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Lindberg, IngerStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle2004Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Milani, Tommaso
    University of the Witwatersrand, Sydafrika.
    Flerspråkighetens sociopolitiska och sociokulturella ramar2012In: Flerspråkighet: En forskningsöversikt / [ed] Hyltenstam Kenneth , Axelsson Monica och Lindberg Inger, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2012, 17-152 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Milani, Tommaso M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Nationella minoriteter och minoritetsspråk: Uppföljning av Sveriges efterlevnad av Europarådets konventioner på nationell nivå: ett minoritetsspråksperspektiv. Rapport för konstitutionsutskottet2005In: Nationella minoriteter och minoritetsspråk., Sveriges Riksdag, Stockholm , 2005, 23-74 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    At the nexus of vulnerability: Multilingualism in development2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of the world’s nations are multilingual, although many of the languages spoken have little or no official recognition in the conduct of everyday affairs of State, nor do they figure in any major way in development discourses. For example, although UNESCO and other World and regional organizations frequently underscore the desirability and importance of multilingualism, it is often in the context of education and cultural heritage rather than development more generally. Lack of recognition, however, does not mean that multilingualism does not play an essential role in the public and private lives of citizens. In this short text, we hope to drive home the point that local linguistic resources also directly bear upon democracy, economy, and health. And this is not just by proxy through the known beneficial effects of educating in local languages. We will suggest that more attention be paid to the various ways in which development can benefit from the use of local multilingualisms. Language is important in development precisely because it is at the nexus of vulnerability. Poverty stricken groups in developing contexts are not only the least resourced. They • are also the least visible • lack political and cultural recognition on official arenas • frequently suffer stigma and ambivalence with respect to their cultural heritage • have a paucity of educational capital • experience poor health. One major factor contributing to this cycle of vulnerability – and for which solutions are within easy reach – is that the linguistic and cultural systems these groups have ready access to are not officially recognized. Non-recognition of the languages in which groups organize their everyday life and socialize their children means that they are denied the tools to make their voices heard or to find empowerment through political agency. They also have few opportunities to influence their day-to-day material conditions. The ultimate consequence of this situation is extreme vulnerability to political, economic and ecological (including health) developments. In this document, we shall argue, by way of illustration, that issues of language in general and multilingualism specifically need to be seen as core facets of such diverse areas as democracy, economy, health, and education.

  • 44.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Österberg, Rakel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Foreign language provision at secondary level in Sweden2010In: Sociolinguistica: Internationales Jahrbuch fuer Europaeische Soziolinguistik, ISSN 0933-1883, E-ISSN 1865-939X, Vol. 24, 85-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Norrman, Gunnar
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Long-term language development in international adoptees2016In: Starting Over – The Language Development in Internationally-Adopted Children / [ed] Fred Genesee, Audrey Delcenserie, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2016, 125-146 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The linguistic development of internationally adopted children has been studied extensively for several decades. Whereas this research has mainly concerned toddlers and pre-school children during their first years after adoption, school-age children, and adolescents, there is currently scarce empirical evidence on the long-term linguistic development in adults with adoption background. While studies of infants and pre-school children generally show fast and positive short-term progress in linguistic development, medium-term studies (4–10 years after adoption) describe adoptees as still “lagging behind” their non-adopted peers. This chapter reviews the studies to date on long-term outcomes in the linguistic development of adoptees. What happens after more than ten years of exposure and into adulthood? From the review, we conclude that slight differences between adopted and non-adopted L1 speakers of a language often remain into adulthood. In addition, the limited evidence that exists to date suggests that adults who at a young age emigrated with their families to the L2 environment, and therefore continued to develop their L1, exhibit similar levels of L2 proficiency as internationally adopted adults. However, more research is required to further substantiate and generalize the conclusions that are made on the basis of our review.

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