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  • 1.
    Kolehmainen, Leena
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland .
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nordlund, Taru
    Johdanto: Kielten vertailu menetelmänä kieli- ja käännöstieteessä2013In: Kielten vertailun metodiikka / [ed] Kolehmainen, Leena; Miestamo, Matti; Nordlund, Taru, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2013, p. 7-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2. Kolehmainen, Leena
    et al.
    Miestamo, MattiStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.Nordlund, Taru
    Kielten vertailun metodiikka2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Antonyms and derivational negation: a pilot study of cross-linguistic variation2015In: ALT 2015: 11th Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology. August 1-3, 2015, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Abstract Booklet, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico , 2015, p. 85-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typological research on negation has mainly focused on clausal negation and on indefinite pronouns in the scope of negation (see Miestamo 2007 for an overview). Derivational affixes expressing negation (e.g., un- in unhappy or -less in powerless), have so far not figured in systematic typological studies. Zimmer's (1964) seminal study of affixal negation with adjectives is mainly restricted to a few well-known Indo-European languages; other families are given less attention. Semantically, derivational negation is closely connected to antonymy, which can be expressed by unrelated lexemes (lexical antonyms: small vs. big) or by means of overt derivational negation (morphological antonyms: happy vs. unhappy). Lexical and morphological antonymy do not necessarily exclude each other. E.g., Russian has regular triads of the kind bol’šoj ‘big’ – malen’kij ‘little’ – nebol’šoj ‘NEG.big’, and even tetrads, such as dobryj ‘kind’ – zloj ‘mean’ – nedobryj ‘NEG.kind’ – nezloj ‘NEG.mean’. Antonymy has been a popular topic in semantic theories and in logic (see Horn 2001). A central distinction is the one between contradictory vs. contrary opposites; the former are either–or (dead vs. alive), whereas the latter show a middle ground between the two poles (small vs. big). It has been suggested that languages have “canonical antonyms”, i.e. “a limited core of highly opposable couplings” (speed: slow/fast, luminosity: dark/light, strength: weak/strong, size small/large, width: narrow/wide, merit bad/good and thickness thin/thick) (Paradis & al. 2009). However, systematic typological studies of antonymy are lacking. This talk presents a cross-linguistic pilot study of antonymy and its expression by both lexical and overt morphological means. Our pilot sample includes 20 languages from different families and geographical areas. The data come from dictionaries and grammars as well as from a questionnaire sent to language experts. We focus on antonymy in property words (adjectives), more specifically in such forms that can be used as adnominal modifiers, with the goal to find correlations between semantic and formal properties of antonyms. From the formal point of view, we will pay attention to the type of marking (e.g., prefix vs. suffix), to the number of different derivational negators in a language, whether these markers can be used on other word classes than property words and how they are related to other negative markers in the language, primarily to clausal negation. Taking in semantics, we will observe what types of opposition (contrary vs. contradictory, scalar vs. non-scalar etc.) and which domains (evaluation, size, dimension, temperature etc.) are expressed by lexical antonyms vs. each attested type of overt morphological marking. Specific hypotheses to be tested against the cross-linguistic data include the following. Evaluatively positive members of an antonym pair are more likely to accept morphological negation (unclever vs. *unstupid). The existence of a lexical antonym may block the possibility of morphological marking and if triads (or tetrads) exist, there will be cross-linguistically recurring ways in which the meanings of the lexical vs. morphological antonyms are related to each other. Morphological antonyms built with elements similar to clausal negators in the language will tend to involve contradictory rather than contrary opposites.

  • 4.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Antonyms and word-level negation2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 74-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typological research on negation has focused most prominently on standard negation, i.e. the basic negation strategies in declarative clauses, and some work has also been done on other aspects of clausal negation as well as on indefinite pronouns in the scope of negation. Negation at the level of words, i.e., derivational affixes expressing negation as well as case markers with negative semantics, has so far not figured in systematic typological studies, but it has received some attention in theoretical literature on semantics and morphology. Zimmer (1964) discusses “affixal” negation primarily in English and a couple of other Indo-European languages, but also comments on a few non-­Indo‐European languages and even suggests some cross‐linguistic generalizations. Subsequent work (e.g., Horn 1989) is similarly restricted in its cross‐linguistic scope. From the semantic point of view, the issue of word­‐level negation is closely connected to antonymy. Antonymy and types of opposition have been a popular topic in semantic theories (see Horn 1989), where the central distinction is between contrary and contradictory opposites. The two types differ as to whether they allow a third possibility in-­between: contradictory opposites are either–or (dead vs. alive), whereas in contrary opposites there is a middle ground between the two poles (small vs. big). Linguistically, antonyms can be expressed by unrelated lexemes (lexical antonyms) like the examples cited above, or by means of overt negation (happy vs. unhappy, possible vs. impossible). Lexical and morphological antonymy do not necessarily exclude each other. E.g., Russian has regular triads of the kind bol’šoj ‘big’ – malen’kij ‘little’ – nebol’šoj ‘NEG‐big’, and even tetrads, such as dobryj ‘kind’ – zloj ‘mean’ – nedobryj ‘NEG-­kind’ – nezloj ‘NEG-­mean’. Despite all the attention that antonymy has received from semanticists, work in a broader cross‐linguistic comparative perspective is lacking. This talk presents a pilot study of antonymy and its expression by both lexical and overt morphological means. We will focus on antonymy in property words (adjectives), more specifically in such forms that can be used as adnominal modifiers. Our main interest will be in finding correlations between semantic and formal properties of antonyms. From the formal point of view, we will pay attention to the type of marking (e.g., prefix vs. suffix), to the number of different word-­‐level negators in a language, whether these markers can be used on other word classes than property words and how they are related to other negative markers in the language. Taking in semantics, we will observe what types of opposition (contrary vs. contradictory, scalar vs. non-­‐scalar etc.)and which domains of property scales (evaluation, size, dimension, temperature etc.) are expressed by lexical antonyms vs. each attested type of overt morphological marking, i.e. whether the linguistic evidence allows us to classify antonyms into cross‐linguistically relevant types. Does the existence of a lexical antonym exclude the possibility of morphological marking? Do the markers exclude one another on the same lexical item? Are there semantic principles governing such blocking effects? Can triads and/or tetrads be found in addition to pairs? Our pilot sample includes 15 languages from different families and geographical areas. The data comes from dictionaries and grammars and, most importantly, from a questionnaire sent to language experts. As this is a pilot study of a domain previously unexplored in language typology, our main goal is to sketch different ways of approaching this intriguing domain from a broader cross-­linguistic perspective.

  • 5.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A typological perspective on negation in Finnish dialects2011In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 83-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at negation in Finnish dialects from a typological perspective. The focus is on standard negation, i.e. the negation of declarative verbal main clauses. The dialectal variation that Finnish shows in its negative construction is examined in the light of current typological knowledge of the expression of negation. Developmental trends connected to the micro-typological variation are also discussed, Finnish dialects are compared with related and neighbouring languages, and relevant theoretical and methodological issues relating to the meeting point of typology and dialectology are addressed.

  • 6.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Coding epistemic perspective in polar interrogatives: A typological perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Constructions and paradigms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kielten vertailu kielitypologisessa tutkimuksessa2013In: Kielten vertailun metodiikka / [ed] Kolehmainen, Leena; Miestamo, Matti; Nordlund, Taru, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2013, p. 27-55Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Maailman kielellinen diversiteetti ja sen tutkimus2015In: Virittäjä : Kotikielen Seuran aikakauslehti, ISSN 0042-6806, E-ISSN 2242-8828, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 104-108Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation2017In: The Cambridge handbook of linguistic typology / [ed] Akexandra Y. Aikhenvald, R. M. W. Dixon, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017, p. 405-439Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Partitives and negation: A cross-linguistic survey2014In: Partitive cases and related categories / [ed] Silvia Luraghi; Tuomas Huumo, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2014, p. 63-86Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Norbert Cyffer, Erwin Ebermann & Georg Ziegelmeyer (eds.), 2009, Negation patterns in West African languages and beyond (Typological Studies in Language 87), Amsterdam: John Benjamins.2011In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, ISSN 0942-2919, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 277-279Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Skolt Saami: A typological profile2011In: Suomalais-Ugrilaisen Seuran Aikakauskirja / Journal de la Société Finno-Ougrienne, ISSN 0355-0214, E-ISSN 1798-2987, Vol. 93, p. 111-145Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Skolt Saami Documentation Corpus (SSDC-2016)2017Other (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The marking of nominal participants under negation2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Miestamo, Matti
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Helsingfors Universitet.
    Koponen, Eino
    Helsingfors Universitet.
    Negation in Skolt Saami2015In: Negation in Uralic languages / [ed] Miestamo, Matti; Tamm, Anne, Wagner-Nagy, Beáta, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 353-376Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes negation in Skolt Saami in a typological perspective. In the standard negation construction, the negative marker is a negative auxiliary verb and the lexical verb appears in a non-finite form. Negative imperatives employ a special form for the negative auxiliary. The copula used with non-verbal predicates is negated with standard negation, but a special contracted form may also appear. In dependent clauses, negation is expressed either by standard negation or using the verbal abessive. With negative indefinite pronouns, the negative auxiliary is present in the clause. There is an abessive case for nominals to express absence, and a privative suffix can derive adjectives. Other aspects of negation, such as negative replies, the scope of negation, and reinforcing negation are also addressed.

  • 17.
    Miestamo, Matti
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koponen, Eino
    Negation in Skolt Saami2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Miestamo, Matti
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Helsingfors Universitet.
    Tamm, Anne
    Wagner-Nagy, Beáta
    Negation in Uralic Languages: Introduction2015In: Negation in Uralic Languages / [ed] Miestamo, Matti; Tamm, Anne, Wagner-Nagy, Beáta, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 1-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 18 of 18
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