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  • 1.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Perfects and iamitives: two gram types in one grammatical space2016In: Letras de Hoje, ISSN 0101-3335, E-ISSN 1984-7726, Vol. 51, no 3, 325-348 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the grammatical space of the two gram types – perfects and iamitives. Iamitives (from Latin iam ‘already’) overlap in their use with perfects but differ in that they can combine with stative predicates to express a state that holds at reference time. Iamitives differ from ‘already’ in having a higher frequency and showing a strong tendency to be grammaticalized with natural development predicates. We argue that iamitives can grammaticalize from expressions for ‘already’. In this study, we extract perfect grams and iamitive grams iteratively starting with two groups of seed grams from a parallel text corpus (the New Testament) in 1107 languages. We then construct a grammatical space of the union of 370 extracted grams by means of Multidimensional Scaling. This grammatical space of perfects and iamitives turns out to be a continuum without sharp boundaries anywhere.

  • 2. Ender, Andrea
    et al.
    Leemann, Adrian
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Introduction2012In: Methods in Contemporary Linguistics / [ed] Andrea Ender, Adrian Leemann, Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2012, 1-17 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3. Ender, Andrea
    et al.
    Leemann, AdrianWälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Methods in Contemporary Linguistics2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present volume is a broad overview of methods and methodologies in linguistics, illustrated with examples from concrete research. It collects insights gained from a broad range of linguistic sub-disciplines, ranging from core-disciplines to topics in cross-linguistic and language-internal diversity or contributions towards language, space and society.

  • 4. Ender, Andrea
    et al.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The making of a festschrift, is it a ritual?2012In: Methods in Contemporary Linguistics / [ed] Ender, Andrea & Leemann, Adrian & Wälchli, Bernhard, De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, 143-167 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Circum-Baltic languages: an areal-typological approach2001In: The Circum-Baltic languages: typology and contact. Vol. 2 Grammar and typology / [ed] Östen Dahl, Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2001, 615-750 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6. Mayer, Thomas
    et al.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rohrdantz, Christian
    Hund, Michael
    From the extraction of continuous features in parallel texts to visual analytics of heterogeneous areal-typological datasets2014In: Language Processing and Grammars: The role of functionally oriented computational models / [ed] Brian Nolan & Carlos Periñán-Pascual, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, 13-38 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we show that functionally motivatedprocedural approaches may help to automatically extract typological featuresfrom texts. This idea is illustrated with measuring cross-linguistic variationin the domain of morphological typology based on parallel texts. Second, wedemonstrate that the methodology developed in the field of visual analyticsallows for detecting patterns or regularities in the automatically extractedfeatures. At the heart of our approach lies an extended sunburst visualization,which enables a cross-comparison of a large number of features within thecontext of language genealogy and areal information. We provide evidence of theusefulness of the present approach with case studies where the visualizations ofthe extracted features reveal interesting insights.

  • 7. Rohrdantz, Christian
    et al.
    Hund, Michael
    Mayer, Thomas
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Keim, Daniel A.
    The World's Languages Explorer: Visual Analysis of Language Features in Genealogical and Areal Contexts2012In: Computer graphics forum (Print), ISSN 0167-7055, E-ISSN 1467-8659, Vol. 31, no 3, 935-944 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel Visual Analytics approach that helps linguistic researchers to explore the world's languages with respect to several important tasks: (1) The comparison of manually and automatically extracted language features across languages and within the context of language genealogy, (2) the exploration of interrelations among several of such features as well as their homogeneity and heterogeneity within subtrees of the language genealogy, and (3) the exploration of genealogical and areal influences on the features. We introduce the World's Languages Explorer, which provides the required functionalities in one single Visual Analytics environment. Contributions are made for different parts of the system: We introduce an extended Sunburst visualization whose so-called feature-rings allow for a cross-comparison of a large number of features at once, within the hierarchical context of the language genealogy. We suggest a mapping of homogeneity measures to all levels of the hierarchy. In addition, we suggest an integration of information from the areal data space into the hierarchical data space. With our approach we bring Visual Analytics research to a new application field, namely Historical Comparative Linguistics, and Linguistic and Areal Typology. Finally, we provide evidence of the good performance of our system in this area through two application case studies conducted by domain experts.

  • 8. Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
    et al.
    Wälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Aggregating dialectology, typology, and register analysis: linguistic variation in text and speech2014Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume aims to overcome sub-disciplinary boundaries in the study of linguistic variation - be it language-internal or cross-linguistic. Even though dialectologists, register analysts, typologists, and quantitative linguists all deal with linguistic variation, there is astonishingly little interaction across these fields. But the fourteen contributions in this volume show that these subdisciplines actually share many interests and methodological concerns in common. The chapters specifically converge in the following ways: First, they all seek to explore linguistic variation, within or across languages. Second, they are based on usage data, that is, on corpora of (more or less) authentic text or speech of different languages or language varieties. Third, all chapters are concerned with the joint analysis (also sometimes known as “aggregation” or “data synthesis”) of multiple phenomena, features, or measurements of some sort. And lastly, the contributors all marshal quantitative analysis techniques to analyse the data. In short, the volume explores the text-feature-aggregation pipeline in variation studies, demonstrating that there is much mutual inspiration to be had by thinking outside the disciplinary box.

  • 9. Wiemer, Björn
    et al.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Contact-induced grammatical change: Diverse phenomena, diverse perspectives2012In: Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact / [ed] Wiemer, Björn & Wälchli, Bernhard & Hansen, Björn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, 3-64 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10. Wiemer, Björn
    et al.
    Wälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.Hansen, Björn
    Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume presents new insights into two basic theoretical issues hotly debated in recent work on grammaticalization and language contact: grammatical replication and grammatical borrowability. The key issues are: How can grammatical replication be distinguished from other, superficially similar processes of contact-induced linguistic change, and under what conditions does it take place? Are there grammatical morphemes or constructions that are more easily borrowed than others, and how can language contact account for areal biases in borrowing (vs. calquing) of grammatical formatives? The book is a major contribution to the ongoing theoretical discussion concerning the relationship between grammaticalization and language contact on a broad empirical basis.

  • 11.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknown categories within and across languages2014In: Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknowncategories within and across languages: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Benedikt Smrecsanyi & Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, 355-393 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces three algorithms for the extraction of lexical and grammatical markers in parallel texts. The starting point for all of them is that trigger distributions are used as semantic cues. Automatic processing chains apply the same procedures (so-called “procedural universals”) to directly comparable texts of all languages. The domain-internal distribution of markers is usually highly diverse cross-linguistically due to polymorphy (there are many markers instantiating the same domain, but which also expressother meanings at the same time). Polymorphy structures a domain into subdomains in cross-linguistically different ways, and this structure canbe used for the aggregation of markers into cross-linguistically recurrent marker types and for assessing the domain-specific similarity relationships between languages.

  • 12.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Co-compounds2015In: Word-formation: an international handbook of the languages of Europe / [ed] Müller, Peter O., Ohnheiser, Ingeborg, Olsen, Susan, Rainer, Franz, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, 707-727 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammaticalization clines in space: Zooming in on synchronic traces of diffusion processes2012In: Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact / [ed] Wiemer, Björn & Wälchli, Bernhard & Hansen, Björn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, 233-272 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Indirect measurement in morphological typology2012In: Methods in Contemporary Linguistics / [ed] Ender, Andrea & Leemann, Adrian & Wälchli, Bernhard, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, 69-92 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ištiktukai "eventives": the Baltic precursors of ideophones and why they remain unknown in typology2015In: Contemporary approaches to Baltic linguistics / [ed] Peter Arkadiev, Axel Holvoet, Björn Wiemer, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, 491-521 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Logophoricity in Eastern Vidzeme: The Literary Latvian idiolect of Andrievs Niedra and Leivu Estonian2015In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 6, 141-192 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eastern Vidzeme is an important, hitherto neglected, area for the study of logophoricity in the Circum-Baltic languages. This paper shows, on the one hand, that logophoricity in Latvian is not restricted to Latgalian dialects, but is almost fully consistent in the writings of the novelist Andrievs Niedra (1871–1942) originating from Tirza, and on the other hand, that Leivu Estonian, a moribund South Estonian language island in Northeastern Vidzeme between Gulbene and Alūksne, is the only Estonian variety having developed a logophoric pronoun.

    Given the high diversity of logophoricity in Latvian, it is important to study idiolects with large corpora, and written language deserves more study. Like Finnish dialects and Leivu Estonian, Niedra’s idiolect uses logophoric pronouns even for marking the report addressee in questions. Unlike in the Latgalian tales discussed by Nau (2006), logophoricity can be extended beyond the domain of report to thought. A distinction between allophoric (frame and report speaker are different) and autophoric reports (frame and report speaker are the same) is introduced. It is argued that logophoric pronouns are a non-deictic and non-coreference-based strategy to mark reports, that their function is not primarily reference tracking, and that logophoric pronouns in Latvian are constructionalized rather than grammaticalized.

  • 17.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Morphosemantics, constructions, algorithmic typology and parallel texts2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike morphology (the internal formal structure of words) and semantics (the study of the meaning of words and sentences), morphosemantics is concerned with the link between marker and meaning. Traditional approaches to morphosemantics such as semiotics and construction grammar argue that the relationship between image acoustique and concept is symbolic. This works well if the links are known (in the “proficiency mode”). In this talk I argue that there is a statistical alternative which is particularly useful if the links are not known (in the “discovery mode”). Meanings and markers form collocations in texts which can be measured by means of collocation measures. However, there is a considerable non-isomorphism between marker and meaning. As is well known a marker can have many different meanings (polysemy). Somewhat less well known is that a meaning is often expressed by many different markers, both paradigmatically and syntagmatically (polymorphy).

            To make meanings and markers commensurable, they must be converted into units of the same kind. This same kind is the set of contexts in a text or corpus where a marker or meaning occurs. If the distribution of a meaning in a corpus is known, its corresponding marker complex can be determined which consists of a paradigmatically and syntagmatically ordered set of simple markers. The markers considered here are surface markers of two types: word forms and morphs (continuous character strings within word forms). More abstract marker types such as lexemes, grammatical categories and word classes might often be better markers than surface markers, but they are not available in the discovery mode.

            Marker complexes are a simple construction type. A procedural approach to construction grammar is adopted where marker complexes are viewed as an intermediate stage in a processing chain of increasingly more complex construction types from simple markers via marker complexes to syntactic constructions. Marker complexes have the advantage that they can be extracted automatically from massively parallel texts, i.e. translations of the same text into many languages, such as the New Testament used here. In parallel texts the same meanings (with certain restrictions) are expressed across different languages. This means that a functional domain can be defined as a set of contexts where a certain meaning occurs.

            The same procedure is applied to cross-linguistically similar material and the procedure applied to cross-linguistic data is fully explicit and therefore replicable. It can be implemented in a computer program and run without the intervention of a typologist (algorithmic typology). The underlying idea is that the procedure of extraction is invariant (procedural universal) whereas the extracted structures can be highly variable depending on the texts and languages to which they are applied.

            The talk considers to what extent surface markers are sufficient as input for the identification of constructions in a range of grammatical and lexical domains in a world-wide convenience sample of somewhat more than 50 languages. One of the domains considered in more detail is comparison of inequality. Comparison of inequality is expressed in most languages of the sample by an at least bipartite marker complex consisting of the parts standard marker (‘than’) and predicate intensifier (‘more’, ‘-er’). It will be argued here that both of them are intrinsic parts of the comparative construction. These findings are not fully in accordance with Leon Stassen’s typology of comparison – a classical study in functional domain typology – which is based exclusively on the encoding of the standard NP. Other domains considered in the talk include negation, ‘want’, future, and predicative possession.

  • 18.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Non-specific, specific and obscured perception verbs in Baltic languages2016In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 7, 53-135 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunistic perception verbs (‘see’, ‘hear’, as opposed to explorative perception verbs, ‘look’, ‘listen’) express the opportunity for perception and are condition-oriented (exposure, i.e. the perceiver’s exposure to a percept), not participant-oriented, in their aspectual structure. The Baltic languages, as other languages in Central, East, and Northern Europe, have specific perception verbs, which are a subtype of opportunistic perception verbs, for the expression of restricted exposure. The lexical character of specificity in Baltic—unlike Russian where it is integrated into a rigid grammatical aspect system—is more favorable for uncovering the underlying semantic factors of specificity, which differ across perceptual systems. Restrictedness of exposure is a scale rather than a dichotomy, and cross-linguistic comparison in parallel texts reveals that specificity is a scale with much variation as to where the borderline between specific and non-specific perception verbs is drawn in the languages of the area. Obscured perception verbs, which emphasize difficulty in discrimination, are another set of condition-oriented perception verbs in Baltic and Russian and are closely related to specific verbs synchronically and diachronically.

    This paper describes non-specific, specific, and obscured perception verbs in the Baltic languages and attempts to capture their variability within six dimensions (morphology, area, diachrony, specificity, modality, obscured verbs). A precondition for this endeavor is a critique of earlier approaches to the semantics of perception verbs. Nine major biases are identified (nominalism, physiology, discrete features, vision, paradigmatic modelling, aspectual event types, dual nature models, participant orientation, and viewing activity as control). In developing an alternative, the approach greatly profits from Gibson’s ecological psychology and Rock’s theory of indirect perception. 

  • 19.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The dynamicity of stative resultatives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The incomplete story of feminine gender loss in Northwestern Latvian dialects2017In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 8, 143-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to show that Northwestern Latvian dialects (also called Tamian) are insufficiently characterized by placing them on a simple linear hierarchy of feminine gender loss, which is how they are traditionally approached in Latvian dialectology. While Lithuanian and Central and High Latvian dialects all have very similar and fairly canonical gender systems, various Northwestern Latvian dialects display a wealth of underexplored non-canonical gender properties, such as the reactivated topic marker gender relic, honorific feminine gender, pronominal adjectives behaving differently from attributive adjectives, the noun ‘boy’ turning into a hybrid feminine noun, and a third controller gender restricted to some diminutives. Feminine gender loss is traditionally explained by Livonian (Finnic) substrate. It is shown in this paper that the developments in NW Latvian have multiple causes, one of them being apocope (loss of short vowels infinal syllables), a common feature of NW Latvian dialects which prompted many developments making NW Latvian different from Central Latvian dialects and which is also ultimately due to language contact. Apocope and other developments made the system more complex. The non-canonical gender properties described in this paper are the effect of subsequent developments reducing system complexity again.

  • 21.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Cysouw, Michael
    Lexical typology through similarity semantics: Toward a semantic map of motion verbs2012In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 50, no 3, 671-710 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses a multidimensional probabilistic semantic map of lexical motion verb stems based on data collected from parallel texts (viz. translations of the Gospel according to Mark) for 100 languages from all continents. The crosslinguistic diversity of lexical semantics in motion verbs is illustrated in detail for the domain of 'go', 'come', and 'arrive' type contexts. It is argued that the theoretical bases underlying probabilistic semantic maps from exemplar data are the isomorphism hypothesis (given any two meanings and their corresponding forms in any particular language, more similar meanings are more likely to be expressed by the same form in any language), similarity semantics (similarity is more basic than identity), and exemplar semantics (exemplar meaning is more fundamental than abstract concepts).

  • 22.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ender, Andrea
    Wörter2013In: Sprachwissenschaft: Grammatik – Interaktion – Kognition / [ed] Peter Auer, Stuttgart: Verlag J. B. Metzler, 2013, 91-135 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Exploring the cross-linguistic relationship between resultative constructions and participles2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
    Introduction: The text-feature-aggregation pipeline in variation studies2014In: Aggregating Dialectology, Typology, and Register Analysis: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Benedikt Szmrecsanyi & Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, 1-25 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sölling, Arnd
    The encoding of motion events: Building typology bottom-up from text data in many languages2013In: Variation and Change in the Encoding of Motion Events / [ed] Juliana Goschler & Anatol Stefanowitsch, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, 77-113 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates eleven fundamental questions of motion event encoding from a massively cross-linguistic (i.e. typological) perspective in a bottom-up approach in parallel and original texts making use of quantitative and qualitative methods and various visualization methods. It is found that motion events can be encoded by lexical and grammatical means, by words and morphemes and tend to be expressed by constructions rather than simple markers (distributional spatial semantics). It is argued that local decomposition is more appropriate to address the semantics of motion events than global decomposition and that motion event typology consists of continuous rather than discrete variables. In motion event typology there are many features with only weak correlations (high heterogeneity). Both universal and culture-dependent aspects of motion event encoding are identified and areal trends in motion event typology are addressed (notably the deviant behavior of the North American continent).

  • 26.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    von Waldenfels, Ruprecht
    University of Bern.
    Measuring morphosemantic language distance in parallel texts2013In: Approaches to Measuring Linguistic Differences / [ed] Lars Borin & Anju Saxena, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013, 475-506 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
1 - 26 of 26
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