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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    But first, let's think again!2018In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Fonologiska aspekter på andraspråksinlärning och svenska som andraspråk2013In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Lindberg, Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 2. uppl., p. 85-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 3.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of onset and nativelikeness in a second language: listener perception versus linguistic scrutiny2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 249-306Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mognadsbegränsningar och den kritiska perioden för andraspråksinlärning2013In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Lindberg, Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, 2. uppl., p. 221-257Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age effects on language acquisition, retention and loss. Key hypotheses and findings2018In: High-Level Language Proficiency in Second Language and Multilingual Contexts / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inge Bartning, Lars Fant, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018, p. 16-49Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Aktürk Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language dominance as a factor in loanword phonology2017In: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 21, no 5, p. 584-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of language dominance in loanword phonology. It is investigated how onset clusters in loanwords are integrated into Turkish by two groups: English-Turkish bilinguals in Turkey and Swedish-Turkish bilinguals in Sweden. It is hypothesised that the bilinguals in Sweden will display significantly higher rates of cluster adoption because Turkish is not the dominant language there.

    The data were collected through an oral loanword elicitation task, a text recitation task in the second languages and a questionnaire on language proficiency and use.

    The study had 53 participants (24 in Turkey and 29 in Sweden). The material consisted of 29 loanwords from English and French, and of 50 structurally comparable words in the bilinguals’ second languages. The data were analysed auditively by the author and subjected to an interrater reliability test.

    The results confirmed the hypothesis as the bilinguals in Sweden displayed significantly higher cluster adoption rates. The difference between the groups’ medians was 36.5 percentage points. Furthermore, it was shown that in individual speakers the combination of accurate second-language pronunciation, and clearly higher proficiency in the second language (corresponding to the donor language) compared to the L1 (i.e. the recipient language) guaranteed very high cluster adoption rates.

    This paper provides the first rigorous quantitative proof for the theoretical assumption that accurate pronunciation is not sufficient for structural adoption in loanword phonology but needs to be complemented with sociolinguistic variables. Furthermore, it demonstrates in greater detail than before how societal and individual dominance are connected and through which channels they impact loanword integration.

    Self-reported relative proficiency in the donor language was shown to be a powerful predictor of the sociolinguistic incentive to adopt and could therefore be used as a quick and reliable alternative to elaborate and time-consuming attitude investigations in loanword phonology.

  • 7.
    Aktürk Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Turkish Maintenance and Bilingualism Among Second-Generation Turks in Multicultural Stockholm2017In: Migration from Turkey to Sweden: Integration, Belonging and Transnational Community / [ed] Bahar Başer, Paul T. Levin, London: I.B. Tauris, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Phonological Adoption through Bilingual Borrowing: Comparing Elite Bilinguals and Heritage Bilinguals2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the phonological integration of loanwords, the original structures of the donor language can either be adopted as innovations or adapted to the recipient language. This dissertation investigates how structural (i.e. phonetic, phonological, morpho-phonological) and non-structural (i.e. sociolinguistic and psycholinguistic) factors interact in determining which of these two integration strategies is preferred. Factors that affect the accuracy of the structure’s perception and production in the donor language as a result of its acquisition as a second language are given special consideration. The three studies in the dissertation examine how the same phonological structure from different donor languages is integrated into the same recipient language Turkish by two different types of initial borrowers: elite bilinguals in Turkey and heritage bilinguals in Sweden. The three investigated structures are word-final [l] after back vowels, long segments in word-final closed syllables, and word-initial onset clusters. The main hypothesis is that adoption will be more prevalent in heritage bilinguals than in elite bilinguals. Four necessary conditions for adoption are identified in the analysis. Firstly, the donor-language structure must have high perceptual salience. Secondly, the borrowers must have acquired the linguistic competence to produce a structure accurately. Thirdly, the borrowers must have sufficient sociolinguistic incentive to adopt a structure as an innovation. Fourthly, prosodic structures require higher incentive to be adopted than segments and clusters of segments. The main hypothesis is partially confirmed. The counterexamples involve either cases where the salience of the structure was high in the elite bilinguals’ borrowing but low in the heritage bilinguals’ borrowing, or cases where the structure’s degree of acquisition difficulty was low. Therefore, it is concluded that structural factors have the final say in the choice of integration strategy.

  • 9.
    Aktürk-Drake, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The role of perceptual salience in bilingual speakers' integration of illicit long segments in loanwords2014In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 143, p. 162-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how bilingual borrowers integrate originally long vowels and consonants in loanwords from Arabic and Swedish into Turkish in illicit positions. Both historical corpus data and data from an elicitation task are used. The main focus is on the role of perceptual salience and the choice between adaptation and adoption as different integration strategies. The results show that length is accurately perceived in both cases of borrowing due to the particular linguistic and extra-linguistic contexts of second language acquisition. Phonologically long Arabic vowels and consonants as well as not phonologically but phonetically long Swedish vowels with high salience are adopted as innovations by the bilingual borrowers. The latter adoption confirms that the input to loanword integration is not phonological but phonetic in nature, i.e. the surface form. Phonologically long Swedish consonants with low salience due to short duration are, instead, adapted through shortening. This adaptation is done in production through a process called filtering in with the help of feedback from perception. The paper proposes that perceptual salience plays an important role not only in monolingual but also in bilingual borrowing by concluding that high perceptual salience is necessary but not sufficient for adoption in bilingual borrowing.

  • 10.
    Alemán Bañón, José
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Miller, David
    Rothman, Jason
    Morphological variability in second language learners: An examination of electrophysiological and production data2017In: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory and Cognition, ISSN 0278-7393, E-ISSN 1939-1285, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1509-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined potential sources of morphological variability in adult L1‑English L2‑Spanish learners, with a focus on L1‑L2 similarity, morphological markedness, and knowledge type (receptive vs. expressive). Experiment 1 uses event‑related potentials to examine noun‑adjective number (present in L1) and gender agreement (absent in L1) in online sentence comprehension (receptive knowledge). For each feature, markedness was manipulated, such that half of the critical noun‑adjective combinations were feminine (marked) and the other half, masculine; half were used in the plural (marked) and the other half in the singular. With this set‑up, we examined learners’ potential overreliance on unmarked forms or “defaults” (singular/masculine). Experiment 2 examines similar dependencies in spoken sentence production (expressive knowledge). Results showed that learners (n=22) performed better with number than gender overall, but their brain responses to both features were qualitatively native‑like (i.e., P600), even though gender was probed with nouns that do not provide strong distributional cues to gender. In addition, variability with gender agreement was better accounted for by lexical (as opposed to syntactic) aspects. Learners showed no advantage for comprehension over production. They also showed no systematic evidence of reliance on morphological defaults, although their online processing was sensitive to markedness in a native‑like manner. Overall, these results suggest that there is facilitation for properties of the L2 that exist in the L1 and that markedness impacts L2 processing, but in a native‑like manner. These results also speak against proposals arguing that adult L2ers have deficits at the level of the morphology or the syntax.

  • 11.
    Arnberg, Lenore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Så blir barn tvåspråkiga2004 (ed. 2)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föräldrahandbok författad 1988 av Lenore Arnberg, uppdaterad enligt senaste forskningsrönen av Kamilla György Ullholm 2004.

  • 12. Athanasopoulos, Panos
    et al.
    Damjanovic, Ljubica
    Burnand, Julie
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Learning to Think in a Second Language: Effects of Proficiency and Length of Exposure in English Learners of German2015In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, p. 138-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the current study is to investigate motion event cognition in second language learners in a higher education context. Based on recent findings that speakers of grammatical aspect languages like English attend less to the endpoint (goal) of events than do speakers of nonaspect languages like Swedish in a nonverbal categorization task involving working memory (Athanasopoulos & Bylund, 2013; Bylund & Athanasopoulos, 2015), the current study asks whether native speakers of an aspect language start paying more attention to event endpoints when learning a nonaspect language. Native English and German (a nonaspect language) speakers, and English learners of L2 German, who were pursuing studies in German language and literature at an English university, were asked to match a target scene with intermediate degree of endpoint orientation with two alternate scenes with low and high degree of endpoint orientation, respectively. Results showed that, compared to the native English speakers, the learners of German were more prone to base their similarity judgements on endpoint saliency, rather than ongoingness, primarily as a function of increasing L2 proficiency and year of university study. Further analyses revealed a nonlinear relationship between length of L2 exposure and categorization patterns, subserved by a progressive strengthening of the relationship between L2 proficiency and categorization as length of exposure increased. These findings present evidence that cognitive restructuring may occur through increasing experience with an L2, but also suggest that this relationship may be complex and unfold over a long period of time.

  • 13. Athanasopoulos, Panos
    et al.
    Samuels, Steven
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The psychological reality of spatio-temporal metaphors2017In: Studies in Figurative Thought and Language / [ed] Angelikē Athanasiadu, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 296-321Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time provides essential structure to human experience. This chapter reviews the available empirical evidence for a fundamental metaphoric structure such astime is spacein figurative language and thought. The chapter is organized into three over-arching themes: Motion through time, temporal succession, and duration estimation. A large part of the experimental evidence lends support to the psychological reality of thetime is spacemetaphor, revealing the inextricable link between conceptual metaphor in language and time perception. The review also reveals that linguistic space-time mappings may be overridden by cultural conventions, calling for further empirical cross-linguistic and cross-cultural exploration within experimental cognitive linguistics.

  • 14. Bijvoet, Ellen
    et al.
    Fraurud, Kari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    What's the target? A folk linguistic study of young Stockholmers' constructions of linguistic norm and variation2016In: Language Awareness, ISSN 0965-8416, E-ISSN 1747-7565, Vol. 25, no 1-2, p. 17-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To account for the full range of language use in contemporary multilingual urban contexts, the notion of target language (TL) needs to be reconsidered. In studies of second language acquisition and language variation, taking TL for granted implies that people agree on what constitutes 'good' language, or the standard norm. The TL of language learners and users is, however, more heterogeneous than is often assumed. To gain insight into what people are actually targeting in their language development and use, we need to study their perceptions of ambient sociolinguistic variation. In this folk linguistic listener study involving 343 upper secondary school students, a range of data types were analysed: attitude scales, variety labelling, and assessments of speakers' social and linguistic backgrounds. This article highlights some results pointing to a considerable divergence in the listeners' perceptions, in particular with regard to speech representing what is here characterised as migration-related social dialects. Several listeners labelled these samples as 'good' Swedish, possibly suggesting that they do not simply aim at or even relate to a TL identical with the dominating monolingual norm, but may instead have a less narrow view of the kind of Swedish they consider appropriate for use in more formal situations.

  • 15.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Sannholm, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Fasta regler för fri kommunikation2017In: Nio-fem: tidskrift om arbetsliv & profession, ISSN 2001-9688, no 2, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag jobbar många hemma eller på resande fot, och allt färre har ett fast skrivbord. Hur påverkar det förutsättningarna för kommunikationen? Hur ser kommunikationen ut jämfört med arbetsplatser där man fortfarande har eget skrivbord? I den här artikeln tar några språkvetenskapliga forskare från Stockholms universitet upp aktuella fynd från olika forskningsprojekt om kommunikation i arbetslivet.

  • 16.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Mångfald, möten och mejl: En forskningsöversikt och tre fallstudier om arbetslivskommunikation2018Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här antologin beskrivs människor, redskap och situationer som många känner igen från dagens komplexa och rörliga arbetsliv:

    • En mellanchef vars arbetsdagar i hög grad styrs av de många möten som andra lagt in i hennes kalender.
    • En whiteboardtavla som kopplar samman olika delar av en verksamhet, och även kopplar möten till andra aktiviteter.
    • Flera samverkande organisationer som gör det svårt att skilja internkommunikation från annan kommunikation, och som både ökar behovet av kommunikation och försvårar den.

    Dessa skildras i tre uppsatser av Angie Gravett, Emma Legaard och Sofia Johansson. I en forskningsöversikt sammanfattar forskarna Mona Blåsjö och Carla Jonsson sociolingvistisk forskning om arbetslivskommunikation, med fokus på skrivbordsyrken. Översikten visar ur ett individperspektiv hur enskilda anställda förhåller sig till språk i sin vardag på arbetsplatsen, och ur ett organisatoriskt perspektiv diskuteras hur flera språk kan användas på en och samma arbetsplats. De studier som presenteras bygger på olika metoder (kvalitativa, kvantitativa, etnografiska osv.) och ger därigenom en bild av hur man kan gå tillväga för att analysera arbetslivskommunikation. Översikten fokuserar på tre teman: mångfald, dvs. olika aspekter av flerspråkighet på arbetsplatser, möten och annan muntlig kommunikation samt mejl eller snarare mejlande: textprocesser och digitala redskap i arbetslivet.

    Antologin är lämplig för studenter på grundnivå och forskarnivå, men kan även läsas av alla som är intresserade av hur moderna organisationer arbetar med sin kommunikation.

  • 17.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Unomathotholo or i-radio? Factors predicting the use of English loanwords among L1 isiXhosa - L2 English bilinguals2014In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 105-120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the use of English loanwords in L1 isiXhosa-L2 English bilinguals living in Cape Town, South Africa. The specific aim of the study is to investigate which individual background factors may increase or reduce the presence of English loanwords in a L1 isiXhosa speaker's repertoire. Data on English loanword use and individual background were collected through a picture naming task and a background questionnaire, respectively. Results showed that those speakers who frequently used English for interactive purposes were more prone to using English loanwords when naming pictures in isiXhosa. Moreover, it was documented that those who arrived at an early age in Cape Town (from the isiXhosa-dominant Eastern Cape Province) were also less prone to using isiXhosa words in the naming task. Marginal, negative effects were found for non-interactive isiXhosa use (i.e. radio, books, etc.) and attitudes towards English, such that those speakers with high indices on these variables used more often English loanwords. A marginal, positive effect of the presence of isiXhosa in primary and secondary school on the use of isiXhosa words was also found.

  • 18.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Norrman, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Revisiting the bilingual lexical deficit: The impact of age of acquisition2019In: Cognition, ISSN 0010-0277, E-ISSN 1873-7838, no 182, p. 45-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas the cognitive advantages brought about by bilingualism have recently been called into question, the socalled‘lexical deficit’ in bilinguals is still largely taken for granted. Here, we argue that, in analogy with cognitiveadvantages, the lexical deficit does not apply across the board of bilinguals, but varies as a function ofacquisition trajectory. To test this, we implement a novel methodological design, where the variables of bilingualismand first/second language status have been fully crossed in four different groups. While the resultsconfirm effects of bilingualism on lexical proficiency and processing, they show more robust effects of age ofacquisition. We conclude that the traditional view of the linguistic costs of bilingualism need to give way to anew understanding of lexical development in which age of acquisition is seen as a major determinant.

  • 19.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Introduction: Cognition, Motion Events, and SLA2015In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, p. 1-13Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This opening article introduces the reader to current topics in research on language and thought in monolingual speakers and second language (L2) learners, with particular attention to the domain of motion. The article also delineates the rationale that underlies the special issue at hand, and provides a contextualisation of the individual contributions. It is argued that the centrality of motion in everyday human life, in combination with the vast cross-linguistic variation in motion construal, makes motion events a suitable topic for SLA research, both in terms of ecological validity and learnability challenge. The pedagogical aspects of this line of research are discussed in terms of, first, whether it is desirable to include the acquisition of language-specific thought patterns in curricular goals, and second, whether the knowledge about language specificity in thought can be used in teaching as a means to facilitate learning.

  • 20.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Language and thought in a multilingual context: The case of isiXhosa2014In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 431-441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situated within the grammatical aspect approach to motion event cognition, this study takes a first step in investigating language and thought in functional multilinguals by studying L1 isiXhosa speakers living in South Africa. IsiXhosa being a non-aspect language, the study investigates how the knowledge and use of additional languages with grammatical aspect influence cognition of endpoint-oriented motion events among L1 isiXhosa speakers. Results from a triads-matching task show that participants who often used aspect languages and had greater exposure to English in primary education were less prone to rely on endpoints when categorising motion events.

  • 21.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Televised Whorf: Cognitive Restructuring in Advanced Foreign Language Learners as a Function of Audiovisual Media Exposure2015In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, p. 123-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The encoding of goal-oriented motion events varies across different languages. Speakers of languages without grammatical aspect (e.g., Swedish) tend to mention motion endpoints when describing events (e.g., two nuns walk <styled-content style=text-decoration:underline>to a house</styled-content>) and attach importance to event endpoints when matching scenes from memory. Speakers of aspect languages (e.g., English), on the other hand, are more prone to direct attention to the ongoingness of motion events, which is reflected both in their event descriptions (e.g., two nuns <styled-content style=text-decoration:underline>are walking</styled-content>) and in their nonverbal similarity judgements. This study examines to what extent native speakers (L1) of Swedish (n=82) with English as a foreign language (FL) restructure their categorisation of goal-oriented motion as a function of their proficiency and experience with the English language (e.g., exposure, learning history, etc.). Seventeen monolingual native English speakers from the United Kingdom (UK) were recruited for comparison purposes. Data on motion event cognition were collected through a memory-based triads matching task in which a target scene with an intermediate degree of endpoint orientation was matched with two alternative scenes with low and high degrees of endpoint orientation. Results showed that the preference among the Swedish speakers of FL English to base their similarity judgements on ongoingness rather than event endpoints was correlated with exposure to English in everyday life, such that those who often watched television in English approximated the ongoingness preference of the English native speakers. These findings suggest that event cognition patterns may be restructured through exposure to FL audiovisual media. The results add to the emerging picture that learning a new language entails learning new ways of observing and reasoning about reality.

  • 22.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Oostendorp, Marcelyn
    Motion event cognition and grammatical aspect: Evidence from Afrikaans2013In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 929-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the relationship between grammatical aspect and motion event construal has posited that speakers of non-aspect languages are more prone to encoding event endpoints than are speakers of aspect languages (e. g., von Stutterheim and Carroll 2011). In the present study, we test this hypothesis by extending this line of inquiry to Afrikaans, a non-aspect language which is previously unexplored in this regard. Motion endpoint behavior among Afrikaans speakers was measured by means of a linguistic retelling task and a non-linguistic similarity judgment task, and then compared with the behavior of speakers of a non-aspect language (Swedish) and speakers of an aspect language (English). Results showed the Afrikaans speakers' endpoint patterns aligned with Swedish patterns, but were significantly different from English patterns. It was also found that the variation among the Afrikaans speakers could be partially explained by taking into account their frequency of use of English, such that those who used English more frequently exhibited an endpoint behavior that was more similar to English speakers. The current study thus lends further support to the hypothesis that speakers of different languages attend differently to event endpoints as a function of the grammatical category of aspect.

  • 23.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of acquisition effects or effects of bilingualism in second language ultimate attainment?2013In: Sensitive Periods, Language Aptitude, and Ultimate L2 Attainment / [ed] Granena, Gisela & Long, Michael, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 69-101Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24. Creese, Angela
    et al.
    Blackledge, Adrian
    Bhatt, Arvind
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Juffermans, Kasper
    Li, Jinling
    Martin, Peter
    Muhonen, Anu
    Takhi, Jaspreet Kaur
    Researching bilingual and multilingual education multilingually: A linguistic ethnography2015In: The Handbook of Bilingual and Multilingual Education / [ed] Wayne E. Wright, Sovicheth Boun, Ofelia García, Wiley-Blackwell, 2015, p. 127-144Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Ekberg, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Flerspråkigheten och den nordiska språkgemenskapen2015In: Språk i Norden, E-ISSN 2246-1701, p. 9-22Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I artikeln diskuteras vilken roll flerspråkigheten har i nordisk språkpolitik, med utgångspunkt i Deklaration om nordisk språkpolitik. Vidare diskuteras ideologin bakom några av de centrala begreppen i den språkpolitiska diskursen, däribland den nordiska språkgemenskapen. Trots att flerspråkighet är en av fyra arbetsfrågor som pekas ut i deklarationen, är andraspråksperspektivet näst intill osynligt. Målet att alla nordbor i första hand ska kunna kommunicera med varandra på ett skandinaviskt språk ignorerar att runt en fjärdedel inte har ett skandinaviskt språk som modersmål. Slutsatsen är att en översyn av deklarationen är motiverad med hänsyn till de nya immigrationsmönster och språkkontaktsituationer som globaliseringen för med sig.

  • 26.
    Ekberg, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Opsahl, Toril
    Wiese, Heike
    Functional gains: a cross-linguistic case study on three particles in Swedish, Norwegian and German2015In: Language, Youth and Identity in the 21st Century: Linguistic practices across urban spaces / [ed] Jacomine Nortier, Bente A. Svendsen, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015, p. 93-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Ekberg, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Östman, Jan-Ola
    Medlare – eller dubbelt marginaliserad? Identitetskonstruktion hos immigranter i Österbotten2017In: Svenskans beskrivning 35: Förhandlingar vid trettiofemte sammankomsten : Göteborg 11–13 maj 2016 / [ed] Emma Sköldberg, Maia Andréasson, Henrietta Adamsson Eryd, Filippa Lindahl, Sven Lindström, Julia Prentice, Malin Sandberg, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, 2017, p. 81-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Eliaso Magnusson, Josefina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    "Självklart känns det mer tryggt att vara där inne i huset" - om den sociokulturella kontextens betydelse för språkliga repertoarer och identiteter2015In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, no 1, p. 7-28Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Fernando, Rashmi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Digitala och sociala medier som stöd för andraspråksinlärning: Lärare och elevers attityder till användningen  av sociala medier i SFI- undervisning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitala och sociala medier är dagens sätt att kommunicera. Genom att använda sociala medier diskuterar folk kring allt som pågår i samhället. Andraspråks- undervisningen kan också dra nytta av digitala och sociala medier för att hjälpa eleverna att lära in nya ord, att förstå olika nyanser av ord som de redan kan och för att använda det språk man lär sig under undervisningstiden. Genom att använda språket i autentiska och verkliga situationer uppmuntras elever att tillägna sig språket. Denna studie undersöker till både lärare och elevers attityder till användningen av digitala och sociala medier som ett redskap i språkinlärningen. Det utforskas vidare i vilken utsträckning digitala och sociala medier som Facebook används av andraspråkslärare och elever som en del av andraspråksundervisning. Jag har intervjuat 8 lärare och 15 elever för att förstå hur de tänker kring språkinlärning och vilka strategier som används i undervisningen för att lära sig språket. Lärare och elevers attityder till digitala medier och hur digitala och sociala medier används i undervisningen i Svenska För Invandrare (SFI) är huvudfrågan i detta arbete. Kan sociala medier (t.ex. Facebook) bli ett fungerande redskap i andraspråksundervisningen?

    Resultatet visar att det finns en del digitala medier som används i SFI-undervisning, men hur det används och i vilken utsträckning digitala medier används kan variera mycket bland olika skolor. Dessutom visar resultatet att många lärare och elever är skeptiska mot användningen av sociala medier i klassrummet. Samtidigt visar resultatet att det finns en mindre procentandel elever bland de intervjuade som har erfarenhet av att använda sociala medier i andraspråksundervisningen. De har upplevt användningen av digitala medier och sociala medier som ett positivt, autentiskt och användbart redskap som borde användas i klassrummet.

  • 30. Freywald, Ulrike
    et al.
    Cornips, Leonie
    Ganuza, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Nistov, Ingvild
    Opsahl, Toril
    Beyond verb second – a matter of novel informationstructural effects? Evidence from Norwegian, Swedish, German and Dutch2015In: Language, Youth and Identity in the 21st Century: Linguistic Practices Across Urban Spaces / [ed] Jacomine Nortier, Bente A. Svendsen, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015, p. 73-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Galantini, Nicolò
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language policies and early bilingual education in Sweden: An ethnographic study of two bilingual preschools in Stockholm2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to shed light on language policies and early bilingual education in Sweden. It highlights the main language policies developed by Sweden while framing them within a European perspective, thus comparing the “national” language policies to the “international” language policies, stressing differences and similarities. More specifically, it analyzes the language policies and guidelines related to bilingual education created by the Council of Europe and afterwards applies the same procedure to the Swedish ones. Furthermore, this study investigates the language practices of children and teachers in two bilingual/multilingual settings. In order to do this, the research was framed as a sociolinguistic ethnography and was carried out using observations, interviews and audio-recordings in order to achieve triangulation wherever possible. Interview and observational data were analyzed thematically while interactional data was analyzed to establish the purposes for which different languages were used by participants. In conclusion, this study might give an idea of how appropriate the Swedish language policies are while stressing the need to revise and implement those policies that might affect the success of early bilingual/multilingual preschool education in Sweden. 

  • 32.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Ideology vs. practice: Is there a space for pedagogical translanguaging in mother tongue instruction?2017In: New Perspectives on Translanguaging and Education / [ed] BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, p. 208-226Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Modersmålsundervisning, läsförståelse och betyg – modersmålsundervisningens roll för elevers skolresultat2018In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 4-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study explores the relationship between participation in mother tongue instruction (MTI), students’ reading comprehension, and their overall school results. The study expands on the results of an earlier study, which found that Somali–Swedish speaking students who had attended Somali MTI for several years, performed better on reading comprehension in Somali, than Somali–Swedish speaking students of the same ages, who had not taken Somali MTI (Ganuza & Hedman 2017a). The present study revisits the results of 36 participants in the earlier study, and explores the relationship between their scores on reading comprehension and their grades at the end of 6th or 7th grade; in MTI, Swedish as a second language, Mathematics, and overall grade points. Most importantly, the results show consistent positive correlations between participants’ reading comprehension in Somali and their school results. This correlation is also stronger and more comprehensive than the one found between their reading comprehension in Swedish and their school results. In the paper, we argue that these results indirectly point to a positive relationship between MTI and students’ school results, which, if confirmed by future studies, is quite remarkable considering the limited teaching time allotted to MTI and its’ marginalized position in the Swedish school system.

  • 34.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Modersmålsundervisning: möjligheter och utmaningar2018In: En god fortsättning: nyanländas fortsatta väg i skola och samhälle / [ed] Tore Otterup, Gilda Kästen-Ebeling, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 163-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hedman, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    The Impact of Mother Tongue Instruction on the Development of Biliteracy: Evidence from Somali-Swedish Bilinguals2017In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates if participation in mother tongue instruction (henceforth MTI) impacts the biliteracy proficiency of young bilinguals, drawing on examples from Somali–Swedish bilinguals and Somali MTI in a Swedish school context. In the study, biliteracy was operationalized as reading proficiency and vocabulary knowledge in two languages, which was tested with measures of word decoding, reading comprehension, and vocabulary breadth and depth. The study was designed to allow for cross-sectional, longitudinal, and cross-linguistic analyses of data. Overall, the results showed that participation in MTI contributed positively to participants’ results on Somali reading comprehension, beyond the influence of chronological age, age of arrival, and reported home language and literacy use. Furthermore, higher results in Somali were associated with higher results on the same measures in Swedish, in particular for the reading measures. In sum, the results indicate that MTI has an impact on some aspects of literacy proficiency in the mother tongue, despite the restricted time allocated for it (<1 h/week). They also indicate that MTI, albeit indirectly, may benefit the stated proficiencies in the language of schooling.

  • 36.
    Gijswijt, Katrijn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Processing Dutch: A study on the acquisition of Dutch as a second language using Processability Theory as a framework2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate within the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) discusses the possibility of universal developmental stages in the interlanguage of second language learners. Processability Theory (PT) is one of the theories that enhances this way of thinking about second language acquisition. The belief is that learners go through the same stages of development when learning a new language. An ongoing process in PT is the construction of these developmental stages for individual languages, but today there is still much work needed in this area. The purpose of this thesis is to construct the developmental stages for Dutch, based on an error analysis of second language learners’ interlanguage. The data was collected from Swedish students learning Dutch on a university level. The students were interviewed once per month, and three times in total, so that no developments in their interlanguage could be missed. The data is processed according to the emergence criterion, resulting in developmental tables of the learners’ progress. The result of these interviews provides for the outline on how one acquires Dutch, and together with a grammatical analysis of Dutch word order procedures and morphology, a developmental hierarchy for the acquisition of Dutch according to PT is constructed.

  • 37.
    Guissemo, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Orders of (in)visibility: Colonial and postcolonial chronotopes in linguistic landscapes of memorization in Maputo2018In: Making Sense of People, Place and Linguistic Landscapes / [ed] Amiena Peck, Christopher Stroud, Quentin Williams, London: Bloomsbury Academic, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Guissemo, Manuel Armando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hip Hop Activism: Dynamic Tension between the Global and Local in Mozambique2018In: Journal of World Popular Music, ISSN 2052-4900, E-ISSN 2052-4919, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 50-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    From its inception in the late 1980s to the present day, hip hop culture in Mozambique underwent several stages in which the process of “keeping it real” was in constant negotiation with the association of the Global Hip Hop Nation (GHHN), and its local cultural and linguistic elements. This article, using tropes of temporality as the main framework, discusses how relocalization of the GHHN is constructed in Mozambican hip hop. There is a progressive connection between the past, present and future which is highlighted by local rappers. The article argues that Mozambican hip hop activism is built through acts of engagement in political tropes, in which local rappers are acting as spokesmen of the marginalized population through lyrics that claim citizenship. The political discourses produced during the Frelimo’s socialist governance era are rescued to challenge the liberal politics developed in the present democratic period, which, in large part, is contested by the population at the margin of the development. Therefore, local rappers’ lyrics address popular complaints related to some political decisions that negatively affect the population at the margins and lead to general societal malfunction. The local African languages that were ideologically marginalized since the colonial regime are now being rescued by local rappers as a way to contextualize them into contemporary, metropolitan and transnational languages. This linguistic relocalization indexes a new present and an aspiration for a different future, where these languages will be inserted together with Portuguese to allow communication in urban spaces. This engagement by rappers can be perceived as acts of linguistic citizenship.

  • 39.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Lindberg, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Josefson, Ingela
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Studium av ett invandrarsvenskt språkmaterial1983Report (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Forskning kring svenska som målspråk: Två forskningsöversikter: 1. Grammatik och ordförråd (Åke Viberg)2. Fonologi (Björn Hammarberg)1984Report (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Platshållartvånget, ett syntaktiskt problem i svenskan för invandrare1979Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Williams, Sarah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    A study of third language acquisition1993In: Problem, process, product in language learning: Papers from the Stockholm-Åbo Conference, 21-22 October 1992 / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Stockholm: Stockholm University, Department of Linguistics , 1993, p. 60-70Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Hayakawa Thor, Masako
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Thinking and seeing for speaking: The viewpoint preference in Swedish/Japanese monolinguals and bilinguals2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Linguistic relativity” has been studied for a long time. Many empirical studies have been conducted on cross-linguistic differences to find support for the influence of language on thought. This study proposes viewpoint (defined as the point from which the conceptualizer sees and construes the event) as a cross-linguistic difference, and explores whether the linguistic constraint and preference of subjective/objective construal can affect one’s cognitive activity as viewpoint. As Japanese is a subjectivity-prominent language whereas Swedish is not, data elicited from monolingual adolescences (aged 12-16) in Japan and Sweden were compared. A set of tasks which consisted of non-verbal tasks (scene-visualisation) and verbal tasks (narrative of comic strips) was performed in order to elicit the participants’ viewpoints. The same set of tasks was assigned to simultaneous Swedish-Japanese bilingual adolescences in Sweden. The bilinguals took the set of non-verbal and verbal tasks twice, once in Swedish and once in Japanese. The results demonstrated a clear difference between the monolingual groups both in the non-verbal and verbal tasks. The Japanese monolinguals showed a higher preference for subjective viewpoint. The bilinguals’ viewpoint preference had a tendency to fall between that of monolinguals of both languages. This finding indicates that the bilinguals’ viewpoint preference may be influenced by both languages. This study demonstrates for the first time that the speaker’s viewpoint can be affected not only in verbal tasks but also in non-verbal tasks. The findings suggest that a language may influence the speaker’s way of construing events. It is also implied that the influences from different languages in bilinguals can be bidirectional. However, the influence does not seem to be all or nothing. Regardless of the language, one’s event construal is more or less the same. Nevertheless, the findings indicate that the linguistic subjectivity in a language tends to counteract the universal construal.

  • 44.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Advanced Proficiency and Exceptional Ability in Second Languages2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Introduction: Perspectives on advanced second language proficiency2016In: Advanced Proficiency and Exceptional Ability in Second Languages / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Boston/Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The exceptional ability of polyglots to achieve high-level proficiency in numerous languages2016In: Advanced Proficiency and Exceptional Ability in Second Languages / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Boston/Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, p. 241-272Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The polyglot – an initial characterization on the basis of multiple anecdotal accounts2016In: Advanced Proficiency and Exceptional Ability in Second Languages / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Boston/Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, p. 215-240Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    At the nexus of vulnerability: Multilingualism in development2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The majority of the world’s nations are multilingual, although many of the languages spoken have little or no official recognition in the conduct of everyday affairs of State, nor do they figure in any major way in development discourses. For example, although UNESCO and other World and regional organizations frequently underscore the desirability and importance of multilingualism, it is often in the context of education and cultural heritage rather than development more generally. Lack of recognition, however, does not mean that multilingualism does not play an essential role in the public and private lives of citizens. In this short text, we hope to drive home the point that local linguistic resources also directly bear upon democracy, economy, and health. And this is not just by proxy through the known beneficial effects of educating in local languages. We will suggest that more attention be paid to the various ways in which development can benefit from the use of local multilingualisms. Language is important in development precisely because it is at the nexus of vulnerability. Poverty stricken groups in developing contexts are not only the least resourced. They • are also the least visible • lack political and cultural recognition on official arenas • frequently suffer stigma and ambivalence with respect to their cultural heritage • have a paucity of educational capital • experience poor health. One major factor contributing to this cycle of vulnerability – and for which solutions are within easy reach – is that the linguistic and cultural systems these groups have ready access to are not officially recognized. Non-recognition of the languages in which groups organize their everyday life and socialize their children means that they are denied the tools to make their voices heard or to find empowerment through political agency. They also have few opportunities to influence their day-to-day material conditions. The ultimate consequence of this situation is extreme vulnerability to political, economic and ecological (including health) developments. In this document, we shall argue, by way of illustration, that issues of language in general and multilingualism specifically need to be seen as core facets of such diverse areas as democracy, economy, health, and education.

  • 49.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Power and resistance: Language mixing in three Chicano plays2014In: International Journal of Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0069, E-ISSN 1756-6878, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 118-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article offers insights into how multilingual resources such as language mixing can be used in theater to address power relations such as, for instance, domination, resistance and empowerment. Three plays by Chicana playwright Cherrie Moraga (Giving up the ghost, Heroes and saints, and Shadow of a man) will be used to illustrate language mixing in Chicano theater. Moraga's work has been selected since she is regarded as a representative of Chicano theater both by people within and by people outside the Chicano community. Chicano theater arose in the United States during the 1960s as an act of resistance. The aim was to empower Chicanos/Mexican Americans by informing them about their rights in the society in which they resided. Chicano theater has thus since its inception been linked to issues of power. Theoretically, this article builds upon philosopher Michel Foucault's view of power, which fits well with the study of Chicano theater since it acknowledges that power exists in all social relations and is negotiated in each relation and context. Foucault's view of power also asserts that power and resistance go hand in hand. This, then, can be translated to the Chicano context, where struggles take place on different levels in order to resist power. Chicano theater, also referred to by Moraga as theater of resistance is one such form of resistance. However, power is not merely resisted. It is also reproduced in a new form. Foucault's view of power and resistance and his emphasis on the productive functions of power allow for a possibility of empowerment.

  • 50.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Translanguaging and ideology: Moving away from a monolingual norm2017In: New Perspectives on Translanguaging and Education / [ed] by BethAnne Paulsrud, Jenny Rosén, Boglárka Straszer, Åsa Wedin, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2017, p. 20-37Chapter in book (Other academic)
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