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  • 1.
    Fernando, Rashmi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Digitala och sociala medier som stöd för andraspråksinlärning: Lärare och elevers attityder till användningen  av sociala medier i SFI- undervisning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Digitala och sociala medier är dagens sätt att kommunicera. Genom att använda sociala medier diskuterar folk kring allt som pågår i samhället. Andraspråks- undervisningen kan också dra nytta av digitala och sociala medier för att hjälpa eleverna att lära in nya ord, att förstå olika nyanser av ord som de redan kan och för att använda det språk man lär sig under undervisningstiden. Genom att använda språket i autentiska och verkliga situationer uppmuntras elever att tillägna sig språket. Denna studie undersöker till både lärare och elevers attityder till användningen av digitala och sociala medier som ett redskap i språkinlärningen. Det utforskas vidare i vilken utsträckning digitala och sociala medier som Facebook används av andraspråkslärare och elever som en del av andraspråksundervisning. Jag har intervjuat 8 lärare och 15 elever för att förstå hur de tänker kring språkinlärning och vilka strategier som används i undervisningen för att lära sig språket. Lärare och elevers attityder till digitala medier och hur digitala och sociala medier används i undervisningen i Svenska För Invandrare (SFI) är huvudfrågan i detta arbete. Kan sociala medier (t.ex. Facebook) bli ett fungerande redskap i andraspråksundervisningen?

    Resultatet visar att det finns en del digitala medier som används i SFI-undervisning, men hur det används och i vilken utsträckning digitala medier används kan variera mycket bland olika skolor. Dessutom visar resultatet att många lärare och elever är skeptiska mot användningen av sociala medier i klassrummet. Samtidigt visar resultatet att det finns en mindre procentandel elever bland de intervjuade som har erfarenhet av att använda sociala medier i andraspråksundervisningen. De har upplevt användningen av digitala medier och sociala medier som ett positivt, autentiskt och användbart redskap som borde användas i klassrummet.

  • 2.
    Galantini, Nicolò
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Language policies and early bilingual education in Sweden: An ethnographic study of two bilingual preschools in Stockholm2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to shed light on language policies and early bilingual education in Sweden. It highlights the main language policies developed by Sweden while framing them within a European perspective, thus comparing the “national” language policies to the “international” language policies, stressing differences and similarities. More specifically, it analyzes the language policies and guidelines related to bilingual education created by the Council of Europe and afterwards applies the same procedure to the Swedish ones. Furthermore, this study investigates the language practices of children and teachers in two bilingual/multilingual settings. In order to do this, the research was framed as a sociolinguistic ethnography and was carried out using observations, interviews and audio-recordings in order to achieve triangulation wherever possible. Interview and observational data were analyzed thematically while interactional data was analyzed to establish the purposes for which different languages were used by participants. In conclusion, this study might give an idea of how appropriate the Swedish language policies are while stressing the need to revise and implement those policies that might affect the success of early bilingual/multilingual preschool education in Sweden. 

  • 3.
    Gijswijt, Katrijn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Processing Dutch: A study on the acquisition of Dutch as a second language using Processability Theory as a framework2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate within the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) discusses the possibility of universal developmental stages in the interlanguage of second language learners. Processability Theory (PT) is one of the theories that enhances this way of thinking about second language acquisition. The belief is that learners go through the same stages of development when learning a new language. An ongoing process in PT is the construction of these developmental stages for individual languages, but today there is still much work needed in this area. The purpose of this thesis is to construct the developmental stages for Dutch, based on an error analysis of second language learners’ interlanguage. The data was collected from Swedish students learning Dutch on a university level. The students were interviewed once per month, and three times in total, so that no developments in their interlanguage could be missed. The data is processed according to the emergence criterion, resulting in developmental tables of the learners’ progress. The result of these interviews provides for the outline on how one acquires Dutch, and together with a grammatical analysis of Dutch word order procedures and morphology, a developmental hierarchy for the acquisition of Dutch according to PT is constructed.

  • 4.
    Hayakawa Thor, Masako
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Thinking and seeing for speaking: The viewpoint preference in Swedish/Japanese monolinguals and bilinguals2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    “Linguistic relativity” has been studied for a long time. Many empirical studies have been conducted on cross-linguistic differences to find support for the influence of language on thought. This study proposes viewpoint (defined as the point from which the conceptualizer sees and construes the event) as a cross-linguistic difference, and explores whether the linguistic constraint and preference of subjective/objective construal can affect one’s cognitive activity as viewpoint. As Japanese is a subjectivity-prominent language whereas Swedish is not, data elicited from monolingual adolescences (aged 12-16) in Japan and Sweden were compared. A set of tasks which consisted of non-verbal tasks (scene-visualisation) and verbal tasks (narrative of comic strips) was performed in order to elicit the participants’ viewpoints. The same set of tasks was assigned to simultaneous Swedish-Japanese bilingual adolescences in Sweden. The bilinguals took the set of non-verbal and verbal tasks twice, once in Swedish and once in Japanese. The results demonstrated a clear difference between the monolingual groups both in the non-verbal and verbal tasks. The Japanese monolinguals showed a higher preference for subjective viewpoint. The bilinguals’ viewpoint preference had a tendency to fall between that of monolinguals of both languages. This finding indicates that the bilinguals’ viewpoint preference may be influenced by both languages. This study demonstrates for the first time that the speaker’s viewpoint can be affected not only in verbal tasks but also in non-verbal tasks. The findings suggest that a language may influence the speaker’s way of construing events. It is also implied that the influences from different languages in bilinguals can be bidirectional. However, the influence does not seem to be all or nothing. Regardless of the language, one’s event construal is more or less the same. Nevertheless, the findings indicate that the linguistic subjectivity in a language tends to counteract the universal construal.

  • 5.
    Järnefelt, Pia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Examining transfer and prototypes in L1 Swedish learners of Spanish: The case of aspect: The simple present and the present progressive2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study is focused on the transfer accounts and the prototype accounts, and examines aspect through looking at L1 Swedish learners of Spanish who are at early stages of acquisition. The prototype accounts postulate that adult learners will acquire the most prototypical forms of a grammatical feature first, and then, as proficiency increases, less prototypical features, called extended meanings, will be acquired incrementally (Shirai & Andersen, 1995, Geeslin & Fafulas, 2012). The transfer accounts claim that all grammatical features of the L1 will transfer at initial stages, and that this will either facilitate or impede acquisition, depending on if there are structures that are realized differently or similarly in the L1 and in the L2 (Kellerman, 1979, Gass & Ard, 1984, Schwartz & Sprouse, 1996, Gabriele et al., 2015). The study uses the stimuli and experiment used in Gabriele et al. (2015), a study that tested L1 English learners of Spanish and found evidence that support the transfer accounts. Results from the present study shows positive evidence of L1 transfer, which is taken as support for the transfer account. The results are not compatible with the prototype accounts. A finding of a marginal difference might be indicative of L2 transfer, which is also taken as evidence for the transfer accounts. 

  • 6.
    Kurnik, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Bilingual Lexical Access in Reading: Analyzing the Effect of Semantic Context on Non-Selective Access in Bilingual Memory2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Recent empirical studies about the neurological executive nature of reading in bilinguals differ in their evaluations of the degree of selective manifestation in lexical access as implicated by data from early and late reading measures in the eye-tracking paradigm. Currently two scenarios are plausible: (1) Lexical access in reading is fundamentally language non-selective and top-down effects from semantic context can influence the degree of selectivity in lexical access; (2) Cross-lingual lexical activation is actuated via bottom-up processes without being affected by top-down effects from sentence context. In an attempt to test these hypotheses empirically, this study analyzed reader-text events arising when cognate facilitation and semantic constraint interact in a 22 factorially designed experiment tracking the eye movements of 26 Swedish-English bilinguals reading in their L2. Stimulus conditions consisted of high- and low-constraint sentences embedded with either a cognate or a non-cognate control word. The results showed clear signs of cognate facilitation in both early and late reading measures and in either sentence conditions. This evidence in favour of the non-selective hypothesis indicates that the manifestation of non-selective lexical access in reading is not constrained by top-down effects from semantic context.

  • 7.
    Per, Lindberg
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Ungdomars attityder till svordomar ur ett andraspråksperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks ett urval gymnasielevers attityder till i synnerhet svenska svordomar. Tonvikten ligger vid attityderna till svordomar hos dem som har svenska som ett andraspråk och huruvida dessa skiljer sig i förhållande till attityderna hos dem som har svenska som sitt modersmål.

    Grunden i undersökningen utgörs av en enkät som sedan kompletteras med ett antal intervjuer. Resultaten vilar alltså till störst del på kvantitativa data vilka i sin tur diskuteras utifrån Bourdieus (1991) begreppsapparat om kulturellt kapital, marknader och habitus, samt teorier kring språkets kopplingar till känslor.

    Undersökningen visar att det finns skillnader i attityder till svordomar mellan modersmålstalande och andraspråkstalande av svenska inom det föreliggande urvalet. Sammanfattningsvis tenderar de som har svenska som andraspråk att svära mindre och reagera kraftigare vid förekomster av svordomar än vad modersmålstalarna gör. Resultaten visar också att andraspråkstalarna har en tendens att bejaka svordomarnas kränkande funktioner, medan modersmålstalarna i högre utsträckning än andraspråkstalarna bejakar svordomar i syften som att förstärka yttranden eller avreagera sig vid smärta. Dessa skillnader antas kunna härledas ur de värderingar som återfinns inom den kultur respektive deltagare vuxit upp i.

  • 8.
    Quevedo, Marta
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The influence of semantic context on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in extemporaneous foreign accented Swedish speech2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Bilingualism is nowadays a worldwide phenomenon due to different factors such as migration, education or political and geographical reasons. These factors have led to both individual and social bilingualism, which favor an increase of communicative encounters between native and non-native speakers of a certain language.

    The above situation has contributed to a growth of studies on second language acquisition. Some of these studies have focused on native speakers’ perception and understanding of the non-native speech. More specifically, perception and effectiveness of communication through the analysis of three dimensions; accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility. Although these three constructs have been intensively studied, little is known about the effect of semantic context on them. To our knowledge, just two studies have analyzed the effect of semantic context on native speakers’ judgments of the three dimensions by using read material. Therefore, this thesis extends the research on the influence of semantic context over these three dimension when the auditory stimulus corresponds to spontaneous non-native speech.

    In this thesis, the results on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility tasks of 40 native Swedish speakers are presented. The findings showed that listeners’ perceived comprehensibility of the non-native speech is affected by the use of additional contextual information. That is, the listeners who were provided with additional visual information perceived the non-native speech as significantly easier to understand than those listeners who did not receive the extra contextual support. Furthermore, the results showed that accentedness and comprehensibility perception of the listeners is influenced by their actual understanding of the non-native speech.

    Finally, this thesis proves the difficulty of studying the effect of semantic context on listeners’ response to accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility when using spontaneous non-native speech. The results indicate that more research on how semantic context influences the perception of extemporaneous non-native speech is needed.

  • 9.
    Simonis, Rita
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The effects of multilingualism on executive processing.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the first decades of the 20th century, research on bilingualism was just beginning. The first studies on bilingual children proposed a substantial disadvantage with respect to intelligence and learning abilities. This first proposition was later discarded when Peal and Lambert (1962) suggested that, on the contrary, speaking two languages was providing children with significant advantages in their cognition. At the present time, it is assessed that, while knowing more than one language is not negative, the supposition that bilingualism might have positive effects on executive processing is subject to controversy. The Bilingual Executive Advantage (BEA) hypothesis has been tested many times and in several ways. Nevertheless, it appears more like an overstated theory rather than a real and proven fact.

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to this scholarly debate not only by conducting one more experiment but also by investigating a possible extension to the original hypothesis, more specifically, the possibility that additional languages might confer an even greater cognitive advantage than the one that has been claimed to exist for bilingual individuals. In the study, 23 young adults were tested on a version of the Attentional Network Task and a Colour-Shape switching task, both used in a previous study on professional interpreters (Babcock and Vallesi, 2017). The subjects were divided in two groups, bilinguals and multilinguals. The comparison of their performances in the two task revealed no significant difference in any of the examined measures.

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