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  • 1.
    Al Ansari-Imad, Ali
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A quantitative study on the application and comprehension of English connectors by Swedish L2 learners of English in upper secondary schools2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on L2 learners of English in Swedish upper secondary schools and their ability to comprehend and use connectors in a multiple-choice cloze procedure. Connectors are used in text to signal the text structure and make explicit the relation between text segments. A study by Geva (1992) suggests that with an increased proficiency, learners also improve their ability to comprehend text relations and the use of connectors. The present study applies the suggestions of Geva’s results in a Swedish context. English in Swedish upper secondary schools, is taught at three levels (designated English 5, 6, 7) with increasing difficulty and proficiency level requirements. This study tests the ability to comprehend the context and use the correct connector on pupils in the two mandatory courses (English 5 & 6). Similar to previous studies, the aim is to investigate the relationship between levels of English and the ability to use connectors. This empirical survey investigates the English 5 & 6 pupils’ success in applying the appropriate connector in relation to the level of English they are placed in, in order to analyze whether there is any perceived development, as is presupposed by the English curriculum. Furthermore, the study also aims to analyze what type of connectors the pupils excel at or struggle with and any factors that might affect pupils’ performance. The test consisted of three categories: adversative (6 questions), additive (5 questions), and causal connectors (4 questions), a total of 15 questions, with one point being awarded for each correct response. The results of the two groups were similar and a subsequent t-test revealed that there was no statistical significance between the two groups in any of the categories. This suggests that in the sample which was tested there is no proficiency increase in terms of connectors and comprehending inter-/intrasentential relationships. Furthermore, the results indicate that the pupils are more likely to correctly select the appropriate adversative and causal connectors, but struggled in selecting the additive connectors.

    Keywords: connectors, comprehension, intrasentential & intersentential relationships, teaching, coherence, cohesion

  • 2.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Semantics and pragmatics2008In: Linguistics Applied, ISSN 1689-7765, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Christina Alm-Arvius

    English Department,

    Stockholm University

    SE106 91 Stockholm

    Sweden

    Christina.Alm-Arvius@English.su.se

    http://www.english.su.se/

     

     

    Semantics and Pragmatics

     

    Abstract:

    Meanings in natural language use can be either systematic or incidental, but all the same it does not appear possible to identify a set of consistent and non-contradictory criteria for distinguishing two general contrasting meaning categories termed semantics and pragmatics respectively. Instead the most valid theoretical description seems to be to include any possible meanings of a language, or its use, in the qualitative notion of semantics, and, in addition, recognise the occurrence of incidental pragmatic meaning variations and additions. In other words, semantics is the wider or superordinate category, encompassing all and any language meanings, while pragmatics is a smaller, subordinate category, including only situationally induced or personally variable meaning aspects.

     

    Key words: deixis, implicatures, pragmatics, presuppositions, reference, semantics, semantics of understanding, speech acts, truth-conditional semantics

  • 3.
    Almgren, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will focus on the actions taken by a translator to rid a children’s book of sexist content. First of all the sexist content in the book is located by studying the criticism (of sexist content) the book in question has received since it was published. By using the translation theory of shifts these actions will be exemplified and further discussed by the use of other translation theories.

    With the translator’s actions in focus certain translation strategies will be compared to the ones taken by the translator of the book. The shifts made in the translation will be located, presented and explained. Finally a discussion, of the problems occurring when editing a translation in order to change the effect on the reader and about the responsibilities of translators, will follow.

  • 4.
    Alp, Efrim Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Swedish Upper-secondary school students’ exposure to and acquisition of the English language2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this sociolinguistic essay was to investigate differences and similarities between how the English language is encountered and used in a suburban school compared to an inner-city school. Moreover, the primary material was collected with the use of a questionnaire, answered by 22 and 26 students between the ages of 16-19 years old from two upper-secondary schools. The results obtained from this study highlight that the students irrespective of their social backgrounds encountered and used the English language in similar ways. However, in relation to the acquisition of the language, the results highlighted that the students who came from a high socio-economic background had an advantage compared to their peers who shared an immigrant or migrant background in the sense that they to a higher extent came from an academic household which can be beneficial regarding language exposure and acquisition. Nevertheless, the differentiating factors behind that advantage were reduced to some extent by the role of social media.

  • 5.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Seiler Brylla, CharlottaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.Shaw, PhilipStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Computer mediated discourse across languages2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Seiler Brylla, Charlotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Shaw, Philip
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Introduction2013In: Computer mediated discourse across languages / [ed] Laura Alvarez López, Charlotta Seiler Brylla & Philip Shaw, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, 1, p. 11-16Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Andersson, Marta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Spenader, Jennifer
    University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
    RESULT and PURPOSE relations with and without 'so'2014In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 148, p. 1-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coherence relations differ in their tendency to be explicitly marked. How such relations are recognized and what determines their tendency to be marked is a matter of debate. The connective so represents a special case: it can be used to signal RESULT coherence relations and the more specific cause-effect relation of PURPOSE, but overt marking has been claimed to be required for PURPOSE and optional for RESULT. We present written corpus and experimental results on the use of so that show that RESULT and PURPOSE with this connective can be reliably distinguished from each other, and that the modal auxiliaries can/could and will/would are strongly associated with PURPOSE. In the corpus study, PURPOSE always occurs with explicit so, while RESULT is often left unmarked. These results are in line with recent claims based on annotated corpus data that implicit (unmarked) and explicit (marked) coherence relations can be qualitatively different (e.g. Sporleder and Lascarides, 2008; Webber, 2009). However, in our experiments using strongly purposive event pairs, 35-40% of examples were identified as PURPOSE without a connective or a modal verb cue. We argue that the difference between the corpus results and the experimental results can be explained as a difference between the tasks of speakers and hearers, and we outline an explanation for how marking can be obligatory for PURPOSE relations and yet optional for RESULT. We also propose that nonveridicality seems to play a key role in a marking requirement for PURPOSE, and explain why the unusual marking pattern found makes it difficult to give a pragmatic account similar to more well-known language asymmetries.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Stereotypes of English in Hollywood Movies: A Case Study of the Use of Different Varieties of English in Star Wars, The Lord of the Rings and Transformers.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with the use of linguistic stereotypes in Hollywood movies. It investigates whether attitudes towards English dialects found in studies on perceptual dialectology are reflected in the selected movies and discusses the notion of linguistic identity and how standard and nonstandard speech, respectively, are used symbolically to emphasize features of characters in eleven movies from three different movie series, namely The Lord of the Rings, Star Wars and Transformers, with a main focus on syntactic and phonological dimensions. The essay finds a correlation between standard speech and features of competence and wisdom, and nonstandard speech and features of solidarity, sociability and traits of stupidity and humor. Moreover, very specific perceptions of certain varieties of English are probably utilized as amplifiers of equally specific characteristics of some characters. The use of dialects and accents in these movies is probably intentional and not coincidental.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Language attitudes in the People’s Republic of China’s leading English-language newspaper, China Daily2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since time immemorial, various governments in China have attempted to promulgate writing reforms and speech reforms in order to unite the nation, mostly for political gain. The aim of this paper is to discover and analyze some language issues in the People’s Republic of China, specifically attitudes and comments on spoken usage of Putonghua (also called Modern Standard Chinese), Shanghai dialect, Cantonese and English by researching China Daily’s online newspaper article archive. A few valid articles could be retrieved and they uncovered that Putonghua, Shanghai dialect and Cantonese are all considered prestigious in different regions of the country; furthermore, English is gaining support rapidly, especially in corporate China.

  • 10.
    Andrea, Mogren
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    “It’s kinda intriguing”: A study of assertiveness and non-assertiveness in relation to gender stereotypes at a Swedish university2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following study investigates if there are any differences in formulating questions and answers in an assertive or non-assertive way between the sexes that could be related to gender stereotypes. The material consists of audio-visual recordings, field notes and a transcription of the recordings, which were recorded and collected at a Swedish university. Four classes with a total of 71 students and four teachers where observed and recorded. The material was analysed and then sorted into categories of answers, questions, sex of the participant, participant role (i.e. student or teacher), assertiveness and non-assertiveness. The results show that although there are some differences between the sexes and different classes, these differences are not great enough to be related to gender stereotypes and are usually due to some circumstance related to the context of the present study instead.

  • 11.
    Anufrieva, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    “I have measured out my life with coffee spoons” – T.S. Eliot: A semantic analysis of selected metaphors in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Metaphor is the most widely recognized and discussed type of trope. It has attracted the attention of analysts from various disciplines, e.g. philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, and literature. Research from these fields has shown that metaphors are ubiquitous and indispensable in our lives. It is not only literary discourse that is abundant with metaphors, but metaphors are also common in scientific discourse and even in our everyday language. Moreover, research from cognitive linguistics has shown that our thinking is metaphorical to a certain extent. Thus, if metaphors are so ubiquitous in our lives, how do we recognize them?

    In this paper selected metaphors from The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot have been analyzed. These are metaphors from literary discourse; hence, the analysis was partly influenced by the genre and the specific, poetic context. The focus is on linguistic metaphors that can be identified in this poetic text, not on underlying conceptual metaphors. The aim of this paper has been to see how the metaphors in the poem are constructed and how the metaphorical part of the strings they occur in interacts with a seemingly literal part.

    According to the results of the analysis, the metaphorical constructions in the poem show a variety of modes of interaction among their constituents. Typically the metaphorical part of the poetic construction evokes a complex and directly perceptible phenomenon which serves as the basis for the understanding of the poetic persona’s feelings. Also the metaphors that describe the setting of the poem seem to be projections of the protagonist’s mood. Thus, the affective aspect of the metaphors is essential in the poem since it connects the metaphors to a network of meanings related to a prominent theme of the poem, namely the speaker’s paralysis and insecurity of himself, adding to the expressive complexity of the poem’s structure.

  • 12.
    Asgharirad, Saeideh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Applying Cognitive Linguistics to L2 Acquisiton: the Case of Over: An Experimental Approach to L2 Acquisition2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many researchers have recently shown interest to Cognitive Linguistics and its potential intuitions for second language acquisition. There are several discussions and analysis (e.g., Tyler & Evans, 2003) regarding the complexity of interpreting the semantics of English prepositions and whether the distinct meanings associated with a single preposition are systematically related or not. Cognitive linguistics offers a promising analysis to L2 acquisition of prepositions, since it argues that the extended meanings associated with a single preposition are systematically related, and L2 speakers can learn them incrementally. Therefore, this study aims to explore the utility of using a cognitive linguistic based approach to evaluate the accessibility of Persian speakers of English to associated senses with the spatial preposition over. We offer an experimental approach in this study in which we use a cognitive linguistic based methodology to find out if the Persian speakers of English will make significant progresses in identifying the multiple senses of prepositions. Then, we discuss the reason why this approach can account the findings.

     

  • 13.
    Awaiko Westin, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Perceptions of English accents in Sweden: L1 Swedish university students' attitudes towards the Nigerian Standard English and the General American English accents2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Language attitude studies have shown that different accents carry different status and peoples’ way of speaking gives rise to judgments of their character. However, there is little known about the effects different Standard English varieties have in Sweden. This study will investigate how L1 speakers of Swedish perceive and judge the speakers of the Nigerian Standard English and General American English accents in terms of credibility and how familiarity contributes to the listener’s judgment of these accents. A modified verbal-guise technique comprising stimulus recordings and questionnaires was used. 91 participants responded to a questionnaire containing 6 questions soliciting their perceptions of the target accents and their speakers. It was hypothesized that the participants’ familiarity to the GenAm accent as well as the high status of the accent in relation to the NSE accent would make the GenAm accent to be judged favorably compared to the NSE accent. The findings indicated that the GenAm accent was favored compared to the NSE accent. However, the findings did not support familiarity as a determining factor for the favorable judgments of the GenAm accent.

  • 14.
    Berglund, Jonny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Construction Grammar Approach to the Phrase2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay adopts a construction grammar approach to the linguistic pattern why don’t you. It argues that the pattern can have two different senses: an interrogative sense and a suggestive sense. Further it argues that the suggestive sense is a construction similar to the definition of a construction described by construction grammar theory.

    In other words, the linguistic pattern why don’t you can have a specific underlying semantics that cannot be reached by an examination of its formal pattern.

  • 15.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An analysis of polyadic lingua franca speech: A communicative strategies framework2014In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 66, p. 122-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an analysis of the communicative strategies (CSs) used by speakers in spoken lingua franca English (ELF) in an academic setting. The purpose of the work has primarily been to outline the CSs used in polyadic ELF speech which are used to ensure communication effectiveness in consequential situations and to present a framework that shows the different communicative functions of a number of CSs. The data comprise fifteen group sessions of naturally occurring student group-work talk in content courses at a technical university. Detailed qualitative analyses have been carried out, resulting in a framework of the communication strategies used by the speakers. The methodology here provides us with a taxonomy of CSs in natural ELF interactions. The results show that other than explicitness strategies, comprehension checks, confirmation checks and clarification requests were frequently employed CSs in the data. There were very few instances of self and other-initiated word replacement, most likely owing to the nature of the high-stakes interactions where the focus is on the task and not the language. The results overall also show that the speakers in these ELF interactions employed other-initiated strategies as frequently as self-initiated communicative strategies.

  • 16.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Attitudes towards English in university language policy documents in Sweden2015In: Attitudes towards English in Europe: English in Europe, Volume 1 / [ed] Andrew Linn, Neil Bermel, Gibson Ferguson, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 115-138Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents a discourse analytic study of the existing language policy documents from nine Swedish universities with regard to attitudes towards English. The discourse of the language policy documents has been studied carefully to investigate how the use of English is mentioned, what main themes it occurs in and what these themes seem to indicate with regard to attitudes towards the use of English in Swedish higher education. Four main themes for English emerge from the results of the investigation: 1) English as an important language that one is required to be proficient in; 2) English is here to stay, but it needs to be used alongside the local language Swedish and other languages where possible, aiming for parallel language use; 3) English poses a threat to Swedish (and other languages); and finally 4) English used in such university settings needs to be plain, comprehensible and intelligible. The theme with the strongest presence in the documents overall is theme 2, which is also explicitly stated in the rules, regulations and guidelines in these documents. Although there are few explicit instances of theme 3 in the data, the strong presence of theme 2 reveals the underlying attitudes in the documents: Swedish as an academic language is under threat and therefore must be “maintained”, “promoted” and “protected”. The results suggest that, despite the everyday language practices (as defined by Spolsky 2004) of the individuals in these higher education settings and which language they need for their everyday tasks, the use of English seems to be encouraged only if it occurs with the local language Swedish.

  • 17.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as a lingua franca and the international university: Language policy rhetoric and ground reality2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as a lingua franca in higher education: Implications for EAP2011In: Ibérica, ISSN 1139-7241, E-ISSN 2340-2784, no 22, p. 79-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has brought a number of changes for higher education in continental Europe and elsewhere, a major one being the increasing use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) as the medium of instruction. With this change, RAP is faced with a new group of learners who will need to use it predominantly in ELF settings to communicate with speakers from other first language backgrounds. This overview paper first discusses the changes that have taken place in the field of EAP in terms of student body, followed by an outline of the main findings of research carried out on ELF These changes and the results of recent ELF research have important implications for EAP instruction and testing. It is argued here that EAP needs to be modified accordingly to cater for the needs of this group. These revolve around the two major issues: norms and standards for spoken English and target use. If the aim of EAP instruction and testing is to prepare speakers for academic settings where English is the lingua franca, the findings of ELF research need to be taken into consideration and then integrated into EAP curriculum design and testing, rethinking norms and target use. The norms and standards used by EAP instruction must be based on this realistic English, and educational resources should be deployed more realistically, including the usage of ELF, thereby validating the pluralism of English. This paper argues that any practice that excludes this perspective would be reducing EAP qualitatively and quantitatively.

  • 19.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as a Lingua Franca in the business domain (BELF)2016In: Investigating English in Europe: Contexts and Agendas: English in Europe, Volume 6 / [ed] Andrew Linn, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, p. 89-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as an academic lingua franca: An investigation of form and communicative effectiveness2013Book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Exploring ELF: Academic English Shaped by Non-native Speakers2013In: English Language Teaching, ISSN 1916-4742, E-ISSN 1916-4750, Vol. 67, no 4, p. 494-497Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Investigating English as a lingua franca in applied science education: Aims, methods, findings and implications2012In: Current Trends in LSP Research. Aims and Methods / [ed] Petersen, M.; Engberg, J., Bern: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012, p. 163-186Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Language ideology or language practice?: An analysis of language policy documents at Swedish universities2014In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communiciation, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 33, no 3-4, p. 335-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language practices, language beliefs, values (and ideology), and language planning or management (Spolsky 2004). The results show that the language policy documents refer heavily to official documents that have as their primary aim to protect and promote the Swedish language (e. g., the Language Act 2009), which appears to have been the point of departure for the language policy work in these settings, reflecting their protectionist stance towards the local language, Swedish. Little focus is put on actual language practices in these policy documents. The description of language practices is often limited to the description of the existing situation, based on concerns about Swedish losing ground as a result of the widespread use of English. Similarly, the notion of ELF is used primarily for description of the existing situation without sufficient guidance as to how students and staff in these university settings are to use English in their everyday practices. These results bring to the fore the question of what the purpose of university language policy documents should be with reference to a speech community's everyday practices. It is suggested here that university language policy documents would benefit from taking research on actual language practices as their starting point and base their work on research on language practices, striving to provide guidance on local choices made for communicative effectiveness.

  • 24.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Morphosyntactic Variation in Spoken English as a Lingua Franca (ELF): Revisiting linguistic variety2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is now well-known that in ELF settings, we have complex language contact situations with high linguistic heterogeneity. The linguistic diversity present in ELF settings naturally manifests itself in several areas, including variation in morphosyntactic use. While the conventional wisdom has been that non-standardness is associated with a speaker’s L1, ELF research has shown repeatedly that this variation is not (solely) due to speakers’ L1 backgrounds (e.g. author, 2013a and 2013b; Ranta, 2013), and that there are too many non-standard forms shared by a wide spectrum of L1s that may be considered commonalities. ELF research has revealed several processes of syntactic variation in ELF usage, such as reducing redundancy (e.g. ‘not marking the plural on the noun’, author 2013a), and creating extra explicitness (e.g. ‘unraised negation’ in author 2013a; see Schneider, 2012 for an overview of the processes of variation). When it comes to morphology, similar trends have been observed (author, 2013a), namely non-standard word forms with semantic transparency (e.g. discriminization, levelize), analytic comparatives (e.g. more narrow), and non-standard plurals (e.g. how many energy). The present paper focuses on morphosyntactic variation in 15 hours of naturally-occurring speech from a Swedish higher education setting and reports research conducted by the author (2013a, b and in preparation) where s/he approaches variation in ELF with reference to the World Englishes (WE) paradigm, Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and creole studies. Included in the discussion are other ELF studies on grammatical variation (e.g. Ranta, 2013). Following major studies that problematize variation and variability in ELF usage (e.g. Ferguson, 2009; Schneider, 2012; Seidlhofer, 2009), the present paper aims to offer new perspectives on the theoretical construct of ‘variety’. The paper also argues that WE and ELF paradigms have much to gain from each other (see Seidlhofer, 2009) while addressing the sociolinguistic realities of the world today.

  • 25.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Morphosyntactic variation in spoken English as a lingua franca interactions: Revisiting linguistic variety2018In: Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca / [ed] Jennifer Jenkins, Will Baker, Martin Dewey, Abingdon: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Peer assessment of spoken lingua franca English in tertiary education in Sweden: criterion-referenced versus norm-referenced assessment2013In: Of Butterflies and Birds, of Dialects and Genres: essays in Honour of Philip Shaw / [ed] Johannesson, N. L., Melchers, G., Björkman, B., Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, p. 109-123Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD adviser and student interactions as a spoken academic genre2016In: The Routledge handbook of English for Academic Purposes / [ed] Ken Hyland, Philip Shaw, Routledge, 2016, p. 348-361Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD supervision meetings in an English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) setting: linguistic competence and content knowledge as neutralizers of institutional and academic power2017In: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 111-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper investigates PhD supervision meetings, using material from naturally occurring speech of ten hours by PhD supervisors and students who all use English as a lingua franca (ELF) for research purposes. The recordings have been transcribed in their entirety, with conversation analytical procedures and additional ethnographic interviews with the PhD supervisors. The present paper is a follow-up to the two previous studies by the author (in European Journal for Applied Linguistics 3[2], 2015, and The Routledge Handbook of English for Academic Purposes, 2016) and focuses on linguistic competence and content knowledge as factors possibly mitigating the power asymmetry present in the interactions. The findings show no observable power asymmetries manifested in the interactions or in the interview responses by the supervisors. The analyses showed that the supervisors’ and the students’ level of linguistic competence seemed very similar, which was further supported by the supervisors’ self-reports of their own English and their informal evaluations of their students’ levels of proficiency. When it comes to content knowledge, the students overall showed very good command of their subjects, disciplinary conventions and their projects in general, further supported by their supervisors’ evaluations in the interview data. Based on these findings, it is suggested here that in ELF interactions of this particular type where the speakers have similar levels of linguistic competence and content knowledge, power asymmetries become less visible.

  • 29.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD supervisor and supervisee interactions as a spoken academic genre: Genre features, power issues and linguistic competence2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 30.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD supervisor-PhD student interactions in an English-medium Higher Education (HE) setting: Expressing disagreement2015In: European Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 2192-953X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 205-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the latest figures, the increase in English-taught programs in European Higher Education (HE) has been tremendous at a growth rate of 500% since 2002 (Wächter and Maiworm 2014). In all these HE institutes, English serves as the main lingua franca for students and staff. The present paper reports from such a HE setting in Sweden and focuses on how disagreement is expressed in PhD supervisor-PhD student supervision meetings, a spoken genre largely neglected in the study of spoken academic discourse. The material comprises digitally-recorded, naturally-occurring speech adding up to approximately seven hours, all by PhD supervisors and students from different L1 backgrounds, who all use English as a lingua franca. All recordings have been transcribed, and the instances of disagreement have been analysed by a mixed-methods approach, drawing on Conversation Analysis (CA). The results show, first of all, that the PhD students directly construct disagreement with their supervisors on content-related advice despite the academic and institutional power asymmetry present in these interactions. The supervisors, on the other hand, seem to indirectly construct disagreement with their students. It is suggested here that linguistic competence and content knowledge may be two factors mitigating the power asymmetry. Also, the expression of disagreement does not seem to be perceived as confrontational by either the supervisors or students. On the contrary, disagreement seems to be typical of this spoken genre in this setting, implying that it may even be a “preferred second” turn in this spoken genre with reference to the enculturation of the PhD student into the academic community.

  • 31.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD supervisor-supervision interactions in an English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) setting: genre features and ways of expressing disagreement2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Policies in the European Higher Education Arena2016In: Investigating English in Europe: Contexts and Agendas: English in Europe, Volume 6 / [ed] Andrew Linn, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, p. 145-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Pragmatic strategies in English as an academic lingua franca:  Ways of achieving communicative effectiveness2011In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 950-964Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will report the findings of a study that has investigated spoken English as a lingua franca (ELF) usage in Swedish higher education. The material comprises digital recordings of lectures and student group-work sessions, all being naturally occurring, authentic high-stakes spoken exchange, i.e. from non-language-teaching contexts. The aim of the present paper, which constitutes a part of a larger study, has been to investigate the role pragmatic strategies play in the communicative effectiveness of English as a lingua franca. The paper will document types of pragmatic strategies as well as point to important differences between the two speech event types and the implications of these differences for English-medium education. The findings show that lecturers in ELF settings make less frequent use of pragmatic strategies than students who deploy these strategies frequently in group-work sessions. Earlier stages of the present study (Björkman, 2008a, Björkman, 2008b and Björkman, 2009) showed that despite frequent non-standardness in the morphosyntax level, there is little overt disturbance in student group-work, and it is highly likely that a variety of pragmatic strategies that students deploy prevents some disturbance. It is reasonable to assume that, in the absence of appropriate pragmatic strategies used often in lectures, there is an increased risk for covert disturbance

  • 34.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Questions in academic ELF interaction2012In: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 93-119Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Review of David Deterding, Misunderstandings in English as a Lingua Franca. An Analysis of ELF Interactions in South-East Asia. 2015In: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 385-389Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Review of Philippe Van Parijs Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World2013In: International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, ISSN 0269-8595, E-ISSN 1469-9281, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 354-359Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    So You Think You Can ELF: English as a Lingua Franca as the Medium ofInstruction2010In: Hermes - Journal of Language and Communication Studies, ISSN 0904-1699, E-ISSN 1903-1785, Vol. 45, p. 77-99Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The grammar of English as a lingua franca2013In: The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics / [ed] Chapelle, C., Oxford/UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The pragmatics of English as a lingua franca in the international university: Introduction2011In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 923-925Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Bogren, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Swedish Students’ Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Stereotypical Gender Images in Speech2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research conducted within the linguistic subdiscipline of language and gender was carried out as early as in the 1970’s, when Lakoff (1975) identified nine main traits for female language. Based on Lakoff’s research, this project investigates Swedish students’ attitudes to and perceptions of gender stereotypes in speech. The aim of this study is to examine the attitudes and perceptions of the participants and to investigate if there has been a change in the way a speaker interprets a speech act in comparison to the 1970’s. A survey was carried out in order to be able to identify and elicit the attitudes and perceptions of stereotypical gender speech of the participants. The survey was based on the traits that Lakoff (1975) found to be typical for female speech. The survey consisted of a first part where the participant had to identify the gender of the speaker and a second part where the participants were asked about typical gender stereotypes in speech acts. The main finding was that Swedish students have a negative attitude toward filing individuals in categories based on their gender. In addition, it was found that the participants have unconscious prejudices toward both men and women based on learnt gender patterns. In conclusion, this study has shown the pattern that there has been an attitude change toward gender stereotypes since the 1970’s. However, it revealed that the students in Sweden participating in the study have a tendency to unconsciously apply gender stereotypes when interpreting a speech act. 

  • 41.
    Bohm Fiederling, Inga-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English in Swedish product packages: An exploratory study of how English is used in product packages sold in the dairy section in Swedish retail2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the use of English in the texts of product packages sold in Swedish retail. This includes looking at the proportion of English of the packages of four brands God Morgon, Froosh, Oatly and Wellness, as well as exploring what moves are most likely to be in English and furthermore, what cultural values are conveyed by the texts. The most significant findings are that the proportion of English varies among both between and within the brands, depending on the specific niche the products have. Furthermore, in line with previous studies, English is mainly found in the attention-grabbing moves such as headlines and leads, whereas Swedish is more frequent in the copy which serves a more explanatory and detailing function. This is true except for the texts of the brand Oatly, with the main copy also in English. The cultural values conveyed by the texts, finally, both support previous findings, but it may be suggested that some of the values, such as nature and morality, have just recently begun to be associated to English.

  • 42.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Introduction to Asian sociolinguistics2001In: Language and Society in Hong Kong, The Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong , 2001, p. 1-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Language and hybridization: Pidgin tales from the China coast2000In: Interventions, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 35-52Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Aylward, LouiseLevine, Paul
    Language and Society in Hong Kong2001Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Bacon-Shone, John
    University of Hong Kong.
    Bilingualism and multilingualism in the HKSAR: language surveys and Hong Kong’s changing linguistic profile2008In: Language and society in Hong Kong / [ed] Kinglsey Bolton, Han Yang, Hong Kong: Open University of Hong Kong Press , 2008, p. 25-51Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Bauer, Robert
    The Hong Kong speech community2001In: Language and Society in Hong Kong, The Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong , 2001, p. 1-38Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Chen, Katherine
    The sociolinguistics of Chinese in Hong Kong2001In: Language and Society in Hong Kong, The Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong , 2001, p. 1-40Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Chen, Katherine
    Varieties of language2001In: Language and Society in Hong Kong, The Open University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong , 2001, p. 1-29Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. City University Hong Kong, People's Republic of China.
    Graddol, David
    English in Contemporary China2012In: English Today, ISSN 0266-0784, E-ISSN 1474-0567, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 3-9Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to a 2010 China Dailyarticle, the number of English learners in China is now around 400 million, approximately one third of China's population (see also Wei and Su, this issue). The importance of English in the state education system has been supplemented by the rapid growth of privately-run language schools and training institutes across the country in recent years. The same article quoted a comment by Ms Xiao Yan, the public relations manager of the Wall Street English language school chain, who gave her explanation for the current popularity of English in the following terms:

    More and more importance has been given to English after China carried out the policy of reform and opening up to the outside world in the late 1970s. And accompanying China's rise on the world stage in recent years are growing connections of commerce and culture with other countries, especially those developed English-speaking countries […] The entire Chinese society attaches high importance to the English study as sometimes it even plays a vital role for a person who plans to pursue further education and seek a better career. There is no doubt that people who have a good command of English are more competitive than their peers. (China Daily, 2010a)

  • 50.
    Bolton, Kingsley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Hutton, Christopher
    Linguistics and orientalism2000Collection (editor) (Other academic)
12345 1 - 50 of 245
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