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  • 1.
    Al Ansari-Imad, Ali
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A quantitative study on the application and comprehension of English connectors by Swedish L2 learners of English in upper secondary schools2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on L2 learners of English in Swedish upper secondary schools and their ability to comprehend and use connectors in a multiple-choice cloze procedure. Connectors are used in text to signal the text structure and make explicit the relation between text segments. A study by Geva (1992) suggests that with an increased proficiency, learners also improve their ability to comprehend text relations and the use of connectors. The present study applies the suggestions of Geva’s results in a Swedish context. English in Swedish upper secondary schools, is taught at three levels (designated English 5, 6, 7) with increasing difficulty and proficiency level requirements. This study tests the ability to comprehend the context and use the correct connector on pupils in the two mandatory courses (English 5 & 6). Similar to previous studies, the aim is to investigate the relationship between levels of English and the ability to use connectors. This empirical survey investigates the English 5 & 6 pupils’ success in applying the appropriate connector in relation to the level of English they are placed in, in order to analyze whether there is any perceived development, as is presupposed by the English curriculum. Furthermore, the study also aims to analyze what type of connectors the pupils excel at or struggle with and any factors that might affect pupils’ performance. The test consisted of three categories: adversative (6 questions), additive (5 questions), and causal connectors (4 questions), a total of 15 questions, with one point being awarded for each correct response. The results of the two groups were similar and a subsequent t-test revealed that there was no statistical significance between the two groups in any of the categories. This suggests that in the sample which was tested there is no proficiency increase in terms of connectors and comprehending inter-/intrasentential relationships. Furthermore, the results indicate that the pupils are more likely to correctly select the appropriate adversative and causal connectors, but struggled in selecting the additive connectors.

    Keywords: connectors, comprehension, intrasentential & intersentential relationships, teaching, coherence, cohesion

  • 2.
    Almgren, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will focus on the actions taken by a translator to rid a children’s book of sexist content. First of all the sexist content in the book is located by studying the criticism (of sexist content) the book in question has received since it was published. By using the translation theory of shifts these actions will be exemplified and further discussed by the use of other translation theories.

    With the translator’s actions in focus certain translation strategies will be compared to the ones taken by the translator of the book. The shifts made in the translation will be located, presented and explained. Finally a discussion, of the problems occurring when editing a translation in order to change the effect on the reader and about the responsibilities of translators, will follow.

  • 3.
    Alp, Efrim Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Swedish Upper-secondary school students’ exposure to and acquisition of the English language2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this sociolinguistic essay was to investigate differences and similarities between how the English language is encountered and used in a suburban school compared to an inner-city school. Moreover, the primary material was collected with the use of a questionnaire, answered by 22 and 26 students between the ages of 16-19 years old from two upper-secondary schools. The results obtained from this study highlight that the students irrespective of their social backgrounds encountered and used the English language in similar ways. However, in relation to the acquisition of the language, the results highlighted that the students who came from a high socio-economic background had an advantage compared to their peers who shared an immigrant or migrant background in the sense that they to a higher extent came from an academic household which can be beneficial regarding language exposure and acquisition. Nevertheless, the differentiating factors behind that advantage were reduced to some extent by the role of social media.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Stereotypes of English in Hollywood Movies: A Case Study of the Use of Different Varieties of English in Star Wars, The Lord of the Rings and Transformers.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with the use of linguistic stereotypes in Hollywood movies. It investigates whether attitudes towards English dialects found in studies on perceptual dialectology are reflected in the selected movies and discusses the notion of linguistic identity and how standard and nonstandard speech, respectively, are used symbolically to emphasize features of characters in eleven movies from three different movie series, namely The Lord of the Rings, Star Wars and Transformers, with a main focus on syntactic and phonological dimensions. The essay finds a correlation between standard speech and features of competence and wisdom, and nonstandard speech and features of solidarity, sociability and traits of stupidity and humor. Moreover, very specific perceptions of certain varieties of English are probably utilized as amplifiers of equally specific characteristics of some characters. The use of dialects and accents in these movies is probably intentional and not coincidental.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Petter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Language attitudes in the People’s Republic of China’s leading English-language newspaper, China Daily2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Since time immemorial, various governments in China have attempted to promulgate writing reforms and speech reforms in order to unite the nation, mostly for political gain. The aim of this paper is to discover and analyze some language issues in the People’s Republic of China, specifically attitudes and comments on spoken usage of Putonghua (also called Modern Standard Chinese), Shanghai dialect, Cantonese and English by researching China Daily’s online newspaper article archive. A few valid articles could be retrieved and they uncovered that Putonghua, Shanghai dialect and Cantonese are all considered prestigious in different regions of the country; furthermore, English is gaining support rapidly, especially in corporate China.

  • 6.
    Andrea, Mogren
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    “It’s kinda intriguing”: A study of assertiveness and non-assertiveness in relation to gender stereotypes at a Swedish university2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The following study investigates if there are any differences in formulating questions and answers in an assertive or non-assertive way between the sexes that could be related to gender stereotypes. The material consists of audio-visual recordings, field notes and a transcription of the recordings, which were recorded and collected at a Swedish university. Four classes with a total of 71 students and four teachers where observed and recorded. The material was analysed and then sorted into categories of answers, questions, sex of the participant, participant role (i.e. student or teacher), assertiveness and non-assertiveness. The results show that although there are some differences between the sexes and different classes, these differences are not great enough to be related to gender stereotypes and are usually due to some circumstance related to the context of the present study instead.

  • 7.
    Anufrieva, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    “I have measured out my life with coffee spoons” – T.S. Eliot: A semantic analysis of selected metaphors in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Metaphor is the most widely recognized and discussed type of trope. It has attracted the attention of analysts from various disciplines, e.g. philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, and literature. Research from these fields has shown that metaphors are ubiquitous and indispensable in our lives. It is not only literary discourse that is abundant with metaphors, but metaphors are also common in scientific discourse and even in our everyday language. Moreover, research from cognitive linguistics has shown that our thinking is metaphorical to a certain extent. Thus, if metaphors are so ubiquitous in our lives, how do we recognize them?

    In this paper selected metaphors from The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot have been analyzed. These are metaphors from literary discourse; hence, the analysis was partly influenced by the genre and the specific, poetic context. The focus is on linguistic metaphors that can be identified in this poetic text, not on underlying conceptual metaphors. The aim of this paper has been to see how the metaphors in the poem are constructed and how the metaphorical part of the strings they occur in interacts with a seemingly literal part.

    According to the results of the analysis, the metaphorical constructions in the poem show a variety of modes of interaction among their constituents. Typically the metaphorical part of the poetic construction evokes a complex and directly perceptible phenomenon which serves as the basis for the understanding of the poetic persona’s feelings. Also the metaphors that describe the setting of the poem seem to be projections of the protagonist’s mood. Thus, the affective aspect of the metaphors is essential in the poem since it connects the metaphors to a network of meanings related to a prominent theme of the poem, namely the speaker’s paralysis and insecurity of himself, adding to the expressive complexity of the poem’s structure.

  • 8.
    Asgharirad, Saeideh
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Applying Cognitive Linguistics to L2 Acquisiton: the Case of Over: An Experimental Approach to L2 Acquisition2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Many researchers have recently shown interest to Cognitive Linguistics and its potential intuitions for second language acquisition. There are several discussions and analysis (e.g., Tyler & Evans, 2003) regarding the complexity of interpreting the semantics of English prepositions and whether the distinct meanings associated with a single preposition are systematically related or not. Cognitive linguistics offers a promising analysis to L2 acquisition of prepositions, since it argues that the extended meanings associated with a single preposition are systematically related, and L2 speakers can learn them incrementally. Therefore, this study aims to explore the utility of using a cognitive linguistic based approach to evaluate the accessibility of Persian speakers of English to associated senses with the spatial preposition over. We offer an experimental approach in this study in which we use a cognitive linguistic based methodology to find out if the Persian speakers of English will make significant progresses in identifying the multiple senses of prepositions. Then, we discuss the reason why this approach can account the findings.

     

  • 9.
    Awaiko Westin, Carina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Perceptions of English accents in Sweden: L1 Swedish university students' attitudes towards the Nigerian Standard English and the General American English accents2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Language attitude studies have shown that different accents carry different status and peoples’ way of speaking gives rise to judgments of their character. However, there is little known about the effects different Standard English varieties have in Sweden. This study will investigate how L1 speakers of Swedish perceive and judge the speakers of the Nigerian Standard English and General American English accents in terms of credibility and how familiarity contributes to the listener’s judgment of these accents. A modified verbal-guise technique comprising stimulus recordings and questionnaires was used. 91 participants responded to a questionnaire containing 6 questions soliciting their perceptions of the target accents and their speakers. It was hypothesized that the participants’ familiarity to the GenAm accent as well as the high status of the accent in relation to the NSE accent would make the GenAm accent to be judged favorably compared to the NSE accent. The findings indicated that the GenAm accent was favored compared to the NSE accent. However, the findings did not support familiarity as a determining factor for the favorable judgments of the GenAm accent.

  • 10.
    Berglund, Jonny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A Construction Grammar Approach to the Phrase2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay adopts a construction grammar approach to the linguistic pattern why don’t you. It argues that the pattern can have two different senses: an interrogative sense and a suggestive sense. Further it argues that the suggestive sense is a construction similar to the definition of a construction described by construction grammar theory.

    In other words, the linguistic pattern why don’t you can have a specific underlying semantics that cannot be reached by an examination of its formal pattern.

  • 11.
    Bogren, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Swedish Students’ Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Stereotypical Gender Images in Speech2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The research conducted within the linguistic subdiscipline of language and gender was carried out as early as in the 1970’s, when Lakoff (1975) identified nine main traits for female language. Based on Lakoff’s research, this project investigates Swedish students’ attitudes to and perceptions of gender stereotypes in speech. The aim of this study is to examine the attitudes and perceptions of the participants and to investigate if there has been a change in the way a speaker interprets a speech act in comparison to the 1970’s. A survey was carried out in order to be able to identify and elicit the attitudes and perceptions of stereotypical gender speech of the participants. The survey was based on the traits that Lakoff (1975) found to be typical for female speech. The survey consisted of a first part where the participant had to identify the gender of the speaker and a second part where the participants were asked about typical gender stereotypes in speech acts. The main finding was that Swedish students have a negative attitude toward filing individuals in categories based on their gender. In addition, it was found that the participants have unconscious prejudices toward both men and women based on learnt gender patterns. In conclusion, this study has shown the pattern that there has been an attitude change toward gender stereotypes since the 1970’s. However, it revealed that the students in Sweden participating in the study have a tendency to unconsciously apply gender stereotypes when interpreting a speech act. 

  • 12.
    Bohm Fiederling, Inga-Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English in Swedish product packages: An exploratory study of how English is used in product packages sold in the dairy section in Swedish retail2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the use of English in the texts of product packages sold in Swedish retail. This includes looking at the proportion of English of the packages of four brands God Morgon, Froosh, Oatly and Wellness, as well as exploring what moves are most likely to be in English and furthermore, what cultural values are conveyed by the texts. The most significant findings are that the proportion of English varies among both between and within the brands, depending on the specific niche the products have. Furthermore, in line with previous studies, English is mainly found in the attention-grabbing moves such as headlines and leads, whereas Swedish is more frequent in the copy which serves a more explanatory and detailing function. This is true except for the texts of the brand Oatly, with the main copy also in English. The cultural values conveyed by the texts, finally, both support previous findings, but it may be suggested that some of the values, such as nature and morality, have just recently begun to be associated to English.

  • 13.
    Bouveng, Anne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Awareness of English varieties among Swedish secondary school pupils2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay reports on a study concerning awareness of English varieties among Swedish secondary school pupils. The aim is to find out whether Swedish secondary school pupils are aware of the differences between English varieties as regards pronunciation, spelling and vocabulary. In addition, the study aims at finding out whether pupils believe in preferences in their environment for any particular variety and what might be influencing their own preferences of English varieties.

     

    The study is questionnaire-based and the respondents are all pupils in two 8th grade classes in Stockholm. The pupils seem to believe that they are aware of the differences between varieties, although only a little more than half of the respondents claim that this includes differences in vocabulary. High recognition is claimed for Indian, Scottish and Australian English.

     

    As to preferences, British and American English dominate. Possible influences may be English textbooks claimed by the pupils to prefer mainly British English. Even English teachers are believed to have preferences mainly for British English but also American English. To the extent that friends are believed to have a preference, it is for American English. Less strong influences seem to come from the Internet, parents and school. The pupils seem to be exposed to English varieties to some extent, but apparently receive little explicit teaching which could increase awareness of English varieties.

  • 14.
    Bovin, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Occupational titles and supposed gender-neutrality: A corpus-based diachronic study on gender-neutral occupational titles in American English2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, some occupational titles have been explicitly marked for the gender of the group dominating the occupation. For example, in male-dominated occupations, titles often end with -man. However, since the second-wave feminist movement, several of the previously gender-biased titles have been supplemented by new, gender-neutral titles. Previous research has shown a discrepancy between researchers regarding the implications of these new titles. Some argue that the gender-neutral titles are only used for female referents, whereas others claim that gender-neutral titles, especially for male- dominated occupations, tend to still presuppose maleness. In the present paper, a corpus-based study is conducted on a few selected occupational titles. The aim is to investigate whether the gender-neutral alternatives have increased in usage over time, and whether the gender-biased ones have decreased. In addition, the study aims at examining whether the gender-neutral forms tend to be used primarily for women or men. The present study is corpus-based, examining the particular terms in the TIME Magazine Corpus. The results of the study show that there has been an increase of the gender-neutral forms since their introduction to English, and that they are primarily used when there is no explicit gender referencing. Proposed explanations for these results are that it may depend on the type of work involved in the selected occupations, as well as them being male-dominated. Furthermore, the results indicate that the gender- neutral terms are opted for when gender is either unknown or irrelevant for the context. 

  • 15.
    Brandström, Felicia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Intertextuality as a politeness strategy: A qualitative study of the use and function of intertextuality in the television series Suits2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the use and function of intertextuality in the television series Suits, and examines the interplay between intertextuality and politeness. Intertextuality allows a text to incorporate other texts and to draw upon connotations that belong to those texts. Politeness theory offers a tool to analyse the pragmatic use of language in social interaction. Analysing occurrences of intertextuality from the first episode of the television series, the paper explores in what ways the fictional characters use intertextuality and for what purposes. It explores if, and how, intertextuality can be used as a politeness strategy. Findings suggest that intertextuality is used for three main purposes, and functions as characterisation and as a means to establish and/or maintain social relations. Detailed analyses of instances of intertextuality propose that intertextuality can be used as a politeness theory, but only in certain ways. The paper discusses these findings and offers a possible explanation for why intertextuality is only used in this restricted way.

  • 16.
    Cabraja, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The effects of video games on the receptive vocabulary proficiency of Swedish ESL students2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Playing video games is an activity that takes up an increasing amount of children’s and adolescent’s spare time. While some previous studies have highlighted the negative aspects of video games, little research has been carried out on the linguistic learning opportunities that video games present. This study primarily investigates if Swedish second language learners of English can increase their vocabulary proficiency in English with the use of video games. In order to answer the research questions, two quantitative data elicitation methods are used: a questionnaire which aims to gather attitudinal and behavioral data, and a Vocabulary Levels Test which elicits data about the participants’ receptive vocabulary proficiency. The participants consist of 25 students at an upper secondary school in Stockholm. The results show that participants who played video games scored higher on the Vocabulary Levels Test, indicating a higher receptive vocabulary proficiency. Furthermore, the results show that participants who played moderate to frequent amounts of time performed better in the Vocabulary Levels Test than infrequent players. The results also show that video games emphasizing co-operation and communication are preferable to use for vocabulary acquisition. Additionally, the study discusses if video games could be integrated into the Swedish upper secondary school system.

  • 17.
    Collantes, Sebastian
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Scrutinizing the use of online data: A critical study of the use of online forum texts in research2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has given researchers a convenient and accessible tool for collecting data. It enables researchers to find natural occurring language that gives them the opportunity to save time and partake of various advantages the Internet has to offer. Web forums are deep and complex message boards occupied by online communities. These web forums are a rich source for collecting naturally occurring language that can be used for various sorts of research. Several researchers have shown that these web forums have a generous amount of advantages when used as data (Yates, 1996; Hsiung, 2000; Joinson, 2001; Im & Chee, 2006; Newhagen & Rafaeli, 2006; Misoch, 2015). However, it is equally important to understand the nature of the flaws that web forum texts as data may have. The notion of anonymity and the overrepresentation of a certain demographic groups may mislead incautious researchers collecting data from web forums.

    This paper aims to analyse several research articles which uses web forum texts as data within two different disciplines, health and social care and linguistics, in addition to classifying them as either high-stakes or low-stakes research. The goal is to investigate how researchers handle possible limitations and risks of such data. Initial results showed that high-stakes are more thorough when discussing and reporting concerns regarding their data. Evidently, health and social care high-stakes research articles reported more concerns than linguistics research articles. Several recommendations based on these results were made in the end of the paper for researchers to use when conducting research based on web forum texts.

  • 18.
    Dervisevic, Melisa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A Comparative Study of Possible Early Bilingual Advantages in EFL Writing2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This project involved a quantitative study of written proficiency in the English Language of early balanced bilingual Bosnian/Swedish learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). 15 early bilingual Bosnian/Swedish EFL learners were recruited for the study and matched with their respective control groups of intermediate-advanced EFL learners (15 speakers of Bosnian as their first language (L1) and 15 speakers of Swedish as their L1). Prior to the experimental task, the participants and their respective controls were asked to self-assess their linguistic skills on a 6-point Likert scale, then they were instructed to write a reflective text in English without prior preparation about the most significant invention of the 20th century. The written data were analyzed in L2 Syntactic Complexity Analyzer and TL software programs respectively. Data analysis involved measures of syntactical and lexical complexity, specifically t-units and type token ratio. It was found that the participants’ written data were characterized by superior type token ratio values as well as by superior T-units scores.

  • 19.
    Duff, Shawn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Relative clause formation in King Alfred's translation of Gregory's Pastoral Care2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, relative clauses in King Alfred’s Old English translation of Gregory the Great’s Pastoral Care were examined using relative frequency as a tool to determine whether or not certain factors influenced the choice of relativization strategy. These factors include antecedent case, antecedent gender, antecedent number, distance, animacy, noun phrase type, case of relativized NP, and syntactic function.

    The method involved gathering together all the occurrences of relative clauses using the Old English corpus and a Modern English translation. This process was not unproblematic as the correct translation from Old English to modern English sometimes was left to the discretion of the translator. Some clauses that were initially thought to be relative clauses were, in fact, not relative clauses. The components of each of the clauses were then examined and categorized after any problematic examples were discarded. Relative frequencies for each of the categories were calculated and chi-square tests were performed to check the reliability of the results.

    The results of this paper were compared to another paper which did somewhat similar research to determine if the findings were consistent although that paper did not look at as many factors as this paper.

  • 20.
    Engström, Paul
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    What does it mean to be 'manly'?: A corpus analysis of masculinity in the 19thcentury2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine how the word manly was used during the 19thcentury. Using the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA) it looks atcollocates, the spread across registers and semantic meaning, in order to gain a betterunderstanding of the word and its usage. Due to this term’s connotations with gender,the findings will finally be discussed in relation to Gender Performativity andMasculinity Theory.

  • 21.
    Ericsson, Tina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    "It is certain that it can be argued a million times over" - expressions of epistemic modality in L1 and L2 writing2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This corpus-based study analyzes different types of epistemic markers used in argumentative essays by University students. More specifically it compares Swedish L2 writers and English L1 writers. The scope of the analysis covers epistemic modal verbs, lexical verbs and adverbs. A number of markers are counted to see which expressions are preferred by L1 and L2 writers respectively and if the frequency rates differ between the two groups. Further, it discusses whether the non-native writers use epistemic markers appropriate to an academic register, and an attempt is made to see whether the L1 and L2 writers show similar patterns of ‘committing’ to and ‘distancing’ themselves to their arguments. The results reveal a few notable differences between the Swedish and English writers. A tendency is seen among the L2 writers to ‘overuse’ certain expressions, particularly in the category of lexical verbs. Compared to the native writers, the L2 writers display higher frequency rates when it comes to markers that are most commonly found in spoken conversation. Further the L2 writers seem to display more ‘writer visibility’ than the L1 writers do, which could perhaps be due to differences in writing culture. The findings also suggest that Swedish L2 writers, even on a relatively advanced level, may have difficulties in mastering modal expressions in English.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Effects of conventionality and proficiency in metaphor processing: A response time study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Some researchers that work with metaphor theory claim that metaphors and figurative language are understood and processed just as easily as literal language. However, as this thesis will explore in detail, other research indicates that such is not always the case. That is, if the category of metaphor is further subcategorized into conventional and non-conventional metaphor, the scope will change because of the fact that it is possible to argue that non-conventionalized metaphors require a more conscious path of processing. In order to explain this alternative path, there are two primary approaches to language processing worth introducing: implicit and explicit. These approaches vary in required attention and speed of processing. With regards to conscious effort, these approaches are rather similar to the way in which we process conventionalized and non-conventionalized metaphors. Conventional metaphors are processed more quickly and easily than non-conventional ones. Hence, the claim that all metaphors are similarly processed may not always be true. Furthermore, an individual’s level of proficiency presumably correlates with speed in language processing. However, if non-conventional metaphor requires a more deliberate path of processing, this thesis assumes that the processing of this type of metaphor will be relatively unaffected by proficiency level, thus causing informants to process them in similar manners. In this thesis, 24 non-native speakers (NNS), categorized into intermediate proficient and advanced proficient, and seven native speakers (NS) were tested with an RT-test on subjective metaphor comprehension. Results were compared using mean response times and standard deviations, as well as looking at correlations and coefficient of variation. The results showed a distinct difference in processing speed with conventional metaphors being processed significantly faster. Moreover, the findings indicate that conventional metaphor processing speed seems to be predicted by proficiency, whilst non-conventional processing speed is not. The RT differences remained relatively consistent in both conventional and non-conventional metaphor processing, but when taking correlations, variance and coefficient of variation into consideration, the findings indicate that these other factors help level out the differences in non-conventional metaphor processing in more subtle ways than simply by RT’s.

  • 23.
    Espar, Sinaya
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    'You Never Truly Feel at Home': Students' Perceptions of their Multilingualism and its Role in their Identity Construction: - A Study Performed in a Suburb Located in a Socially Vulnerable Area2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A relevant subject in our globalized world concerns the relationship between language and identity, specifically amongst migrant youngsters’ experience of group belonging. This study therefore focused on how adolescents born to foreign parents in Sweden, perceived their multilingualism as part of their identity formation. I also aimed to include how socio-economic aspects could affect the process of identity construction. Thus, the investigation was performed with seventh grade students at a primary school located in the Stockholm suburb Bredäng. The methods consisted of a questionnaire, which was completed by the entire class and a group interview where six students participated. The results revealed that students adapted their language use based on the context, but Swedish was used most habitually. The informants viewed their multilingualism as beneficial but yet fully aware of the linguistic ideologies functioning in society. By combining their minority and majority language, the students were left with different ethnic identities and had diverse interpretations of what it meant to be Swedish. Even though all of them perceived themselves to have multiple ethnic identities, this was not solely seen positively. The issue of belonging was raised and the students claimed to be outcasts everywhere. However, the results differed depending on whether the students were born in Sweden or not. Also, most of them struggled with the process of assumed and ascribed identities, since they perceived themselves to be Swedish but experienced that society valued them as immigrants. Lastly, the study revealed that there were connections between their multilingualism and social mobility as the relationship towards the motherland was highly prioritized even with low levels of economic capital. 

  • 24.
    Fernandez Almlöf, Sebastian
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Peloton versus Pack & Bunch: A study of French lexical borrowing in live English cycling commentary2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The sport of cycling is an ever expanding global phenomenon, drawing crowds in their thousands to watch the races unfold. Its community has a distinct vocabulary, with many terms borrowed from several other languages, principally French. This study investigates the presence of French loanwords in the language of English cycling commentators, and to what extent these loanwords are used in comparison to their English equivalents. It also examines extra-linguistic factors that could affect the commentator’s choice of vocabulary, mainly the location of the race. The study investigated the language of English commentators from live broadcast of 6 different races: 2 located in English speaking countries, 2 in France, and 2 countries where neither French nor English was the native language. All utterances of French loanwords and their English counterparts were noted and collected for analysis. The findings demonstrated a clear presence of French loanwords in the language of the commentators, with a varying degree of frequency. Some loanwords were preferred over their English equivalents, whilst others were not. The location did not seem to have a significant impact on the choice of vocabulary, with the exception of the only race held outside of Europe, where the commentators demonstrated a clear preference for English terminology over French loanwords. The analysis concluded that many different extra-linguistic factors may play a role in the commentator’s choice of vocabulary.

  • 25.
    Frederiksen, Diana
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    BELF in the workplace: a linguistic ethnographic study: An observation of English as a lingua franca used by employees at a Swedish company2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper was aimed at researching the use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) in a business context by the use of linguistic ethnography (LE). Previous research has been primarily either survey- or interview-based or strictly qualitative in its investigation. Using shadowing observations of three employees at a Swedish multinational company and subsequently interviewing the participants about their use of Business English as a lingua franca (BELF), the present study set out to investigate for what kinds of functions and how often these employees use English on an everyday basis. English was shown to be the default language of the multinational company and the findings suggest that employees’ use of language is not only determined by the nature of their work and the business setting, but also by their personal backgrounds. Their education, upbringing, and social experiences since moving to Sweden have come to shape their language use at work and in everyday life. Moreover, there could be subsequent implications for them not only in work-related functions and activities at the company but also in their integration and immersion in Swedish society. Using LE to investigate language choice and use in a corporate setting allows for a more nuanced collection of data, providing a context to linguistic research.

  • 26.
    Fröderberg Shaiek, Christopher
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Distribution and Spread of English Loanwords: Some Indications from Written Bangla in Articles concerned with Science, Culture, Lifestyle, and Religion.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    English has served as a donor language of loanwords to many different languages in the world. One of these languages is Bangla. Despite the importance of the English influence on Bangla, few researchers have investigated English loanwords in Bangla and even fewer have looked at the distribution of them between different categories such as science, lifestyle, culture, and religion. The purpose of the present study was to establish whether the distribution of English loanwords varied between these categories, how these results would relate to findings in other languages, and what this would tell us about word-formation processes in relation to English loanwords in general. Articles related to these categories were found and analyzed to find English loanwords which were at the same time counted manually and compared with the overall amount of words in each article. The results showed a clear tendency for a higher number of English loanwords in texts concerned with the topic of science, followed by; lifestyle, culture; and lastly religion; the differences were statistically significant. These findings were also similar to what has been shown in other languages. Future research should aim to include a larger, more balanced sample, but also having a more reliable method of collecting and analyzing texts and words.

  • 27.
    Golmann, Stella
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    General L2 Proficiency and Spoken Word Recognition2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This essay concerns the ability of advanced L2 users of English to recognise spoken words in a noisy environment. Its main objective is to see whether there exists any correlation between the proficiency level of an advanced user of L2 English and his/her ability to recognise spoken words. Twenty students in the English Department at Stockholm University were given several proficiency tests as well as a test of spoken word recognition. The spoken words were embedded in a “cocktail party” background noise. The central research question is whether proficiency levels (as reflected in the tests) are related to levels of ability to recognise words in a noisy input situation.

    A secondary goal of this essay is to identify the phonemes that seemed most difficult for the informants to recognise in a noisy environment.

    The results indicate that general L2 proficiency, as measured by three types of tests (vocabulary knowledge, written word recognition, reading comprehension) has no impact on a subjects’ ability to recognise spoken words in a noisy environment. The results also indicate that some phonemes were more difficult to recognise than others. Furthermore, the analysis of mishearings indicate that in doublets (words where both the noun forms and the verb forms were given), the words with first syllable stress (nouns) were correctly recognised considerably more often than words with second syllable stress (verbs). For words with only a single form the stress pattern did not seem to influence recognition. Several lines of future research are discussed.

  • 28.
    Graham, Robert
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Codeswitching from L1 to L2 in group work by teenagers: An investigation of codeswitching from Swedish to English in student group-work discussions by learners of English in 9th grade at a upper primary school in Sweden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to perform an investigation into instances of codeswitching by Swedish teenagers from L1 Swedish to L2 English in student group-work discussions. The specific focus of the investigation were the instances of codeswitching which were performed as a demonstration of personal expression on the part of the speaker. It was the goal of this research to analyse such examples of codeswitching and attempt to create an understanding of the underlying mechanisms that drive this type of communication.  The study took place at an upper primary school in Sweden.  Data was collected through the recording of two group discussions. The group discussions were framed and recorded as part of an English language lesson in grade 9. Four student interviews were also performed. The results of the data analysis indicated that Swedish teenagers codeswitch from Swedish to English in group discussions quite frequently. The students expressed that they codeswitch to English in this manner as way of communicating with each other in a way that is generally agreed to be “cool” and “fun”. They also do this to display their own proficiency in the language. Proficiency in English is perceived to be a desirable attribute. The conclusion of the study is that codeswitching of this type is an important part of this group’s language use in terms of how the social relationships are expressed and maintained. A secondary result of this behaviour is that it appears to be a positive driver of oral English language skills.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Motivation in L2 and L3 learning: A comparative study of Finnish students learning English and Swedish as compulsory school subjects1990Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation has long been recognised to function as a crucial part in language learning. Nonetheless, the linguistic complexity of simultaneous L2 learning as well as L3 learning has been largely overlooked in motivational studies and only a few researchers, such as Dörnyei and his associates (2005) as well as Henry (2011; 2012; 2014), have conducted studies concerning the issue and point to the need of more research in the field. The current study investigates motivation in simultaneous foreign language learning, focusing on Finnish high school students learning English and Swedish as compulsory subjects in school. The study compares the students’ motivation to learn the two target languages and attempts to find explanation to the appearing differences by analysing the collected data in terms of Dörnyei’s (2005) Motivational Self System, which includes the concepts of ideal L2 self, ought-to L2 self and L2 learning experience. Twelve 14-year-old high school students in Åbo area participated in completing a questionnaire and five of these students were asked to take part in a focus group interview. The questionnaire and interview results show generally a more positive attitude towards learning English in all the investigated motivational dimensions in comparison to Swedish. Ought-to L2 self and ideal L2 self were found to be important elements forming the students’ motivation to learn English, ideal L2 self being the stronger motivator of the possible selves. However, the students’ motivation to learn Swedish is merely dominated by ought-to self, and it appears the main factors causing the students’ demotivation to learn Swedish is the difficulty of the language, learning experience as well as lack of instrumentality and contact with the language. Unlike shown in previous research, the current study found the dominating ideal-self in English and ought-to self in Swedish to cause highly similar levels of learning success in the languages, despite the difference in strength of the possible selves in English and Swedish.  

  • 30.
    Hengameh, Moadeli
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Attitudes and experiences in Parallel Languages at the department of History of Religion2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Attitudes and experiences in Parallel Languages at the department of History of Religion

    Hengameh Moadeli

     

    Abstract

    The purpose of this case study is to obtain deeper knowledge about students´ and teachers´ beliefs and attitudes towards the arrangement of using two languages for study at university level in one humanities field. This case study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with ten students and two teachers at the Department of History of Religion at Stockholm University.

    Our findings show that the majority of students perceive using two languages in one field as positive and that the (perceived) long-term benefits of being more proficient in English outweigh the immediate problems of more time-consuming reading. Both subject groups described using English as a medium in of education as a natural part of studying at a university and knowing academic English was perceived as a fundamental part of being a student. Although the teachers stated that the motivation behind using English textbooks was not to enhance the students’ language proficiency, most students believed that the advantage they could get from using English textbooks was to become more proficient in English or at least more familiar with academic English. One feature of this case study is to show the impact of having an inadequate knowledge of academic English which is rooted in insufficient training in the upper-secondary school system.

     

     

     

    Key words: Internationalization, attitudes and beliefs, Parallel languages, English textbooks, Department of History of Religion

  • 31.
    Henriksson, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Self-regulation and the motivation to achieve: A quantitative study on the effects of self-regulation strategies and motivation on learning English at an upper secondary school in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Agency for Education recently begun explicitly promoting teaching through self-regulation strategies in national steering documents intended for teachers, following a number of other countries world wide (Skolverket, 2012; LGY 11; Dalland & Klette, 2016). The goal of self-regulation strategies is for the students to take control of their own learning process, and though there is research on the benefits of self-regulation strategies and motivation, these ideas are based on abstract concepts and biological processes in the brain, that are very difficult to measure (Zimmerman, 1990; Hattie, 2012; Simpson & Balsam, 2016; Schumann, 2004). As such, more research on these strategies is warranted, and little has been done to evaluate their effects on Swedish upper secondary school students. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to attempt to operationalize the theoretical concepts of self-regulation strategies in order to calculate the correlation between students perceived usage of self-regulation strategies, and English performance, with a special focus on motivation. This was done by operationalizing motivation and self-regulation strategies into six variables based on previous research, and then surveying 40 English 05 (year one) students at Enskilda Gymnasiet upper secondary school in Stockholm, and then running correlation tests with their grades from a grammar test the week after the survey, as well as with their overall grade from the previous year. The results showed almost no statistically significant correlations between the students´ grades, and the students self-reported usage of self-regulation strategies. The exception was a statistically significant positive correlation between high levels of intrinsic motivation and good grades. The causes of these results are not specified within the parameters of this research project, however, it could be that there simply were no correlations between the perceived usage of self-regulation strategies and performance due to the strategies not having an effect on performance, or because the strategies were not being used properly. However, it could also be that the operationalizing of the variables in the questionnaire did not generate accurate levels of usage of these strategies. Either way, the results of this essay stress the need for further research that evaluates the effect of self-regulation strategies and motivation on learning English. 

  • 32.
    Hultgren, Annie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    An Analysis of Rhetorical Devices, with the Focus on Schemes and Repetition, in the Two Speeches “We Shall Fight on the Beaches” and “Invasion of France” by Winston Churchill2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation analyzes two speeches, namely “We Shall Fight on the Beaches” and “Invasion of France”, by Winston Churchill from a semantic point of view. The main focus is on the intra-linguistic components. The aim of this study is to find what kinds of rhetorical devices are used in both speeches, if the rhetorical devices are similar or different when comparing the two speeches, analyze what function the prominent figures of speech have in the speeches, and lastly what the general rhetorical effect of the devices chosen is. This was done by looking at the factually descriptive, the interpersonal, the affective, the poetic, and the textual function. Note that (language) function and (language) meaning are synonymous in this work. Another theoretical framework includes classical rhetoric.

    In “We Shall Fight on the Beaches”, the following was discovered in the poetic meaning. The first characteristic was the use of coordinating two words that are from the same lexical field. The second is about building up a factual scenario in the sentences. The third aspect is about repetition, including parallelism. The last characteristic is the schematic phonological features found throughout the speech, with alliteration as the most noticeable feature.

    In “Invasion of France”, quite similar rhetorical strategies were found. Within the poetic meaning, the use of coordinating two words from the same lexical field was used. The use of repetition, especially the use of verbatim, was also found. The most prominent trope found was the noticeable instances of metaphor.

    Different kinds of rhetorical devices were found in the four other language functions and in classical rhetoric in both speeches. Mostly, they had similar functions and patterns. On the whole, the devices containing potential of rhetorical force used in the speeches make the speeches more coherent, reasonable, smooth, and ultimately more persuasive. All rhetorical aspects contribute in some way to making the speech more convincing, perhaps especially the parallelistic schematic repetitions, which was the main focus of this study.

    Note: italicised words are used to highlight terminology or examples of Churchill’s speech throughout the essay.

  • 33.
    Hultgren, Annie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Using Coh-Metrix to Compare Cohesion Measures between the United States Senators John McCain and Barack Obama2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation explores and analyzes speeches by John McCain and Barack Obama, who were the candidates of the United States Presidential election 2008. Ten speeches by each speaker are in a non-biased way selected from the year 2007 from their official websites when they were senators of Arizona and Illinois respectively. The analyses of the speeches concern cohesive measures and are not about what they say in their political occupation. This approach was selected to see if there are any comparisons and/or contrasts in terms of cohesion between the speakers or within their own set of speeches. The website Coh-Metrix has been used and out of it nine measures have been selected and analyzed in detail. This study looks at the average words per sentence, the average syllables per word, the Flesch Reading Ease score, the average concreteness for content words, the average minimum concreteness for content words, the mean number of higher level constituents, the type-token ratio, the syntactic structure similarity, and the average number of negations. The two speakers had overall very similar results except for a few standard deviations as in for example the average concreteness and average minimum concreteness for content words results. However, eight out of the nine measurement numbers were non-significant according to a t-test for non-matched observations and/or a chi-square goodness-of-fit test. One measurement, the average number of negation expressions per 1000 words, was nonetheless highly significant according to a t-test and chi-square test, as Obama used about twice as many negations in comparison to McCain. This study shows that the speakers’ twenty speeches are similar in terms of structure and cohesion except for the fact that Obama uses more negation expressions compared to McCain. These results do not, however, necessarily say anything else about the speakers and/or speeches.

    Keywords: cohesion, cohesion markers, cohesion measures/measurements, Coh-Metrix, speeches, texts

  • 34.
    Jansson, Pernilla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Hard Muscle, Slim Body: A Systemic Functional Analysis of the Covers of Men’s and Women’s Fitness Magazines2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Magazine covers are multimodal texts designed to draw the attention of potential readers. Health and fitness magazines, in particular, make up a large portion of the publishing industry, and previous research has pointed to their influence on readers’ perceptions of health and fitness. In order to interpret the multimodality of magazine covers, a different approach other than the purely linguistic one needs to be employed. Following the theoretical frameworks of Systemic Functional Linguistics and Social Semiotics, this study set out to investigate the verbal and visual construction of health on eight covers of Men’s Health and Women’s Health. The findings indicate that there are significant differences in how health is constructed on the men’s and women’s edition of the magazines. These differences mainly concern the way in which health is achieved, and the relationship between the viewers and the magazine. This not only indicates that different strategies were used to attract viewers, but also reveals something about the relationship the viewer is supposed to have with their bodies as well as their perceptions of health.

  • 35.
    Jevring, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Charlie likes sherry and chips, Shirley likes cherries and ships: New sounds in a new language2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims at investigating the suitability of the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis and the Speech Learning Model in describing young Swedish learners’ L2 phonology difficulties. It also explores what L1 sounds they replace L2 sounds with, and whether spelling has any influence on pronunciation. 15 Swedish students aged 9-10 were interviewed and recorded reading a word list containing minimal pairs, a text passage, and free speech. The focus was on initial and final / ʃ / and / tʃ /, initial and medial / s / and / z /, and initial / ð / and / θ /. The recordings were analysed with spectrograms and compared to a native speaker. The results were that the SLM has an advantage over the CAH. The results show that / z / was replaced by / s / 100% of the time, / tʃ / was mostly replaced by / ʃ /, but also by / k /; and that / θ / and / ð / were replaced by many different sounds that were not anticipated. The results also showed that orthography affects pronunciation for / θ /, / ð / and / tʃ /, but not for / z /. Some students had nearly established new categories for some of the new sounds, but their daily encounters with English through TV, music, and school does not seem to have had a significant part in this.  

  • 36.
    Jevring, Cecilia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    I Perceive, Therefore I Produce?: A Study on the Perception and Production of Three English Consonantal Sounds by Swedish L2 learners2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study set out to investigate the relationship between perception and production of English / tʃ, dʒ/ and / ʒ / by native speakers of Swedish learning English in secondary

    school. The aim was to find out if Flege’s Speech Learning Model (SLM) (1995) and Major’s Ontogeny Phylogeny Model (OPM) (2001) are suitable to describe young learners’ L2 phonological attainment. To test perception, an identification task containing Nonwords with target sounds in initial, medial, and final position was constructed and tested on 17 school students. Three speaking tasks were carried out to test the participants’ production of the phonemes in initial, medial and final position. All participants also completed a questionnaire with questions regarding exposure and motivation. Six students were chosen for deeper analysis.

    The results show that both the SLM and the OPM can be used to describe young learners L2 phonology acquisition. Similar sounds were found to be harder to produce and more affected by L1 transfer, which corroborates both the SLM and the OPM. Marked sounds were affected more by universals, which was suggested by the OPM. Desire to have a native accent and reported use of the L2 seems to have effect on L2 phonology acquisition, as well. However, the relationship between all these factors is complex and the results from this study are merely suggestive. 

  • 37.
    Joandi, Linnéa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Productivity Measurements Applied to Ten English Prefixes: A comparison of different measures of morphological productivity based on ten prefixes in English2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Morphological productivity is difficult to define and describe. Nevertheless have several measures been proposed by scholars, in order to quantify this notion. This paper investigates ten common English prefixes with meanings related to degree or size. The aims of the study are (1) to review several measures of morphological productivity, (2) via a sample of corpus occurrences of ten prefixes, to calculate productivity figures using five different measures of productivity, and (3), perhaps most importantly, to discuss the differences and similarities of the five measures. The results suggest that while several of the measures are quite similar (e.g. type frequency and hapax legomena frequency), other measures are different (e.g. 'Productivity in the narrow sense'). While three of the measures could be said to provide information concerning past or 'factual' productivity, two of the measures seem instead to indicate an aspect of productivity that is referred to as 'potential' productivity.

  • 38.
    Johansson, Björn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Use of English Prepositions in Swedish Schools: A survey study on language transfer effects on Swedish EFL learners in a Swedish upper secondary school2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This empirical study investigates how English as a foreign language (EFL) learners in Swedish upper secondary schools succeed in their use of English prepositions. EFL learners in Sweden today represent a multitude of nationalities and ethnic groups with many different first languages (L1); therefore, English teaching could be subject to change in order to adapt to the new situation. The study is based on an online survey given to pupils taking “English 7” at upper secondary schools in Stockholm. The study aims to find patterns in how pupils with Swedish as their L1 handle English prepositions and use a control group consisting of pupils with another L1 in a comparative analysis based on language transfer. A teacher of English at the respondents’ school was interviewed to elicit teaching methodology and how they use the language diversity in the classroom when teaching prepositions. Even though it was hypothesised that negative language transfer was a factor, the analysis of the focus group shows that negative language transfer from Swedish did not inhibit the focus group’s ability to choose prepositions compared to the control group in the given context. In contrast, positive transfer from Swedish as an L1 contributed to a substantial increase in success rate. However, no clear connection could be made to teaching methodology as the interviewed teacher did not have any specific method for dealing with prepositions and mainly treated teaching prepositions implicitly. Furthermore, the interviewed teacher did not use language diversity in classroom as a tool for learning.

  • 39.
    Johansson, Karin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Young learners’ perceptions of and attitudes towards learning English during their first year of English L2 education: A comparative study conducted in rural and urban areas in Sweden2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates perceptions of and attitudes towards English second language [L2] acquisition among primary school pupils in rural and urban areas in Sweden. Sixteen children facing their first year of English L2 education took part in the study and all participants had been settled in the target area for more than 5 years. Data was collected through individual interviews with the children (Patton, 2002) and a parental questionnaire that was constructed for their respective parents. The interview questions were designed to elicit children’s perceptions of English L2 education and to allow expression of their attitudes towards learning the language.  The questionnaire was constructed to attain information about each child’s linguistic background and language exposure, and to identify patterns of external factors which could be traced in each child’s personal perception and attitude. The interviews provided information that confirmed a slight difference between the urban and rural children; the urban participants had a higher ability to picture a future English speaking self and showed evidence of a more positive attitude towards the importance of acquiring English. These results did not correspond with results from the questionnaire. However, parents’ level of education in correlation with their own views of the importance of English proficiency revealed a potential link with differing results found between the children. Overall, the majority of participants expressed awareness of the establishment of English as a lingua franca and emphasised its usefulness in Swedish society. Nevertheless, due to the nature of the study and working with children of a young age the results must be treated with caution.

  • 40.
    Jonsson, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Achieving Communicative Competence in Business English: A study of teacher and participant attitudes in Business English courses2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing globalization of trade has resulted in a growing need for Swedish corporations to ensure that their work force is able to communicate in English. In order to meet this demand, there is a growing market of companies offering courses in Business English. When English is used for communication between people from different linguacultural backgrounds in a business context it is referred to as BELF (Business English as a Lingua Franca). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the participants and teachers in different classes of Business English are more open to the non-native speaker model, as this type of course is supposed to prepare the students for communication with people of various nationalities. This was done with the aim to explore how these attitudes can be linked to the development of communicative competence in a business context. In the study a survey was distributed to twenty-one participants of courses in Business English and four teachers were interviewed. The study showed that although the business context affects the attitudes of the participants, there is still a preference for a native-like model. However, the teachers show an open attitude towards BELF, focusing instead on promoting communicative competence in their teaching. The findings of this study support previous research in the field indicating that there exists a certain discrepancy between the perceptions of the teachers and learners as to what constitutes an effective communicator.

  • 41.
    Josefsson, Emil
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A journey through our surroundings: A study of organizational metaphors in Metasaga2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    According to recent cognitive science, our perceptive senses help develop human cognition, and the process of organizing our inner representations of the world around us. As a result, conceptual metaphors are deemed to be essential to our understanding of abstract entities; how we perceive an organization depends for instance on what metaphor is used to describe it. Thus, conceptual metaphor theory has been given a lot of attention in the past thirty years. The Metasaga philosophy was established on the Shetland Islands in 2008. The idea is for participants to explore the environment and create reflective questions involving metaphors which can be used for reflective purposes in connection to work, school, businesses or other organizations. In this paper, linguistic metaphors involving organizations in 228 reflective questions were studied. The linguistic metaphors were sorted according to which organization conceptual metaphor they appeared to belong to. A broad category called Organization Is Physical Structure was set up, and the name was taken from Joseph Grady’s list of primary metaphors in Lakoff and Johnson (1999 pp. 50-55) Four sub-categories of organization metaphors were subsequently established: Organization Is An Artificial Structure, Organizational Help Is Support, Organization Is A Plant and Organization Is A Living Creature. Almost 55 % of the reflective questions involving organization shared the common theme of a description of an organization as some kind of artificial structure. Thus, it seems likely that we often think of organizational arrangement as some kind of concrete structure and also that we use different metaphors depending on how the organization is structured.

     

  • 42.
    Jurkowski, Cassandra
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A Lexical Field Analysis of Culture-Specific Vocabulary Items in Australian English: With an Examination of Comparable Word Senses in American and British English2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay presents a study of culture-specific vocabulary in Australian English (AusE) in the lexical fields of living spaces and family relations. It also examines how the senses of the chosen words used by AusE speakers correspond to comparable word senses used by British English (BrE) and American English (AmE) speakers respectively. The empirical material for the essay was collected through questionnaires filled in by native AmE, BrE and AusE speakers. 95 questionnaires were completed in total with 65 AusE, 20 BrE and 10 AmE informants taking part. Further interviews were carried out via telephone with 10 speakers from each English variety. A lexical field analysis was then carried out on the nouns apartment, flat and unit in the lexical field of living spaces and the word olds in the lexical field of family relations. These nouns are discussed in terms of sense relations, attitudinal meaning and figures of speech.

    Answers from the questionnaires and interviews revealed significant differences between the informants of each English variety as regards the use and the senses of the nouns being analysed. For example, for the English translation of the Swedish word lägenhet, AmE speakers would normally use apartment, while BrE speakers would normally use flat and AusE speakers use unit. BrE and AusE speakers also use apartment as a word for a living space but associate it with higher standards of living. AusE speakers further tend to associate flat with lower standards of living. Syntagmatic sense relations also show differences as regards how the studied lexical items in the lexical field of living spaces are used in word combinations.

    Words used in place of parents also showed differences among the three English varieties. The AusE speakers hardly use the word folks as much as the BrE speakers and especially not as much as the AmE speakers. The AusE speakers in this study are more likely to use olds, which is a word that demonstrates the use of mockery in Australian culture. Olds can be best understood as a figure of speech. It is a straightforward example of metonymy, but also has metaphoric and hyperbolic qualities.

    Generally, this study shows how there are distinct differences between the informants of each English variety, even though all informants are native English speakers. Reasons for these differences include geographical location and cultural differences. Australians, for example, are known for their witty sense of humour.

  • 43.
    Järvinen Palme, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    "Nobody but you can do that to me, I don't know why": Covert Power in Representations of Casual Talk. A Case Study of Woody Allen's Hannah and Her sister(s)2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis is an exploratory qualitative analysis of conversations between two out of three leading characters in Woody Allen’s motion picture Hannah and Her Sisters (1986). Due to a perception of invisible power relations, it is hypothesized that what seems like a powerful position in discourse, in fact is an indication of the opposite, and that what seems like a powerless position, is an indication of power. Three features based on scholarship connected to Conversation Analysis (CA), Dyadic Power Theory (DPT) and power relations in verbal interaction are chosen to test the hypotheses: first and second positions in sequences as dicussed by Hutchby (1996), control attempts as elaborated by DPT, and mitigating strategies as argued for by Mullany (2004). Findings confirm the hypotheses, but also reveal ambiguities and contrasting results. Connecting the data to sources based on talk in the private sphere, in particular within family discourse, is mentioned as one way to further illuminate the subject in future research.

  • 44.
    Kabous, Mariam
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Who is called a terrrorist?: An investigation of the use of the term terrorist2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how the use of the words terrorist and terrorismhave changed from before 9/11 until today, and how it is being used presently, and finally ifthe use of the word is different depending on the ethnicity of the person who commits the act.The data for this study was gathered through articles published in The Guardian and SVTNyheter, and also through Google Ngram corpus and academic discourse. Google Ngramviewer is an online search engine that collects data about all the printed sources searched forbetween the years of 1500 and 2008.The study adopts a comparative approach which meansthat the articles with the most similar content, and only difference of ethnicity of the attackers,are being compared. The results suggest that there has indeed been a change in the use of theterm. Terrorism is today being used more frequently and as has been shown, commonly todescribe a person of Middle Eastern origin.

  • 45.
    Kazemi, Ruholla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Yod Variation in Australian English: A Sociolinguistic Investigation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In various post-consonantal environments, the palatal glide /j/ has been subject to variation and change since the late 17th century. Retention, coalescence, and deletion of the glide respectively account for various pronunciations of the word due [dju:], [dʒu:], and [du:] in different dialects of English. Research in this area has often focused on internal motivations. However, the external motivations that regulate the practice of glide variants in the speech of different segments of communities have been a relatively recent area of investigation. Among other dialects, Australian English is one of the major varieties that has not been formally assessed in this area. Hence, the aim of this thesis has been to investigate possible associations between the glide variants and their emergence in the speech of 48 speakers of Australian English. The audio data for this study were 12 tokens pronounced by the speakers in wordlist, sentences, and a story, and were extracted from the AusTalk Corpus (Burnham, Cox et al., 2011). The results for separate analysis of social variables seem to indicate that the spread of different glide variants in the speech of speakers are mainly conditioned by age. The combination of the social variables shows that glide retention is most frequent in the speech of higher educated old individuals. By contrast, glide deletion seems to be almost non-existent in their speech while more frequent in the pronunciations of the young. Overall, glide coalescence is the most present and has the strongest stylistic consistency in the speech of individuals. Further details and possible reasons behind these observations are discussed in the work that follows.

  • 46.
    Kedziora, Beata
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Wikis in teaching and learning a foreign language: A case study of wiki usage in the course Academic reading and writing for teacher candidates2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of universities are providing the current generation of students, the socalled ‘digital natives’ (Prensky, 2001) - with more flexible and innovative language learning environments through the use of free Web 2.0 tools, such as wikis, blogs, social networking, Second Life and podcasting. However, still relatively little is known about wikis in the context of teaching English for Academic Purposes. My project aims to fill this research gap. I applied a case study strategy, where three groups of students attending a course Academic reading and writing for teacher candidates were examined. This paper demonstrates how the wiki software was employed in the course to encourage teacher candidates to proof-read and edit their own and others’ texts in order to be more accurate in academic writing. The present case study applied several research methods, including analysis of the texts written by students on the wiki and chat-room comments, an interview with the teacher of examined groups and a student questionnaire. The analysis of peer revisions was carefully conducted with a particular focus on: the variations in the way that students corrected each others’ texts, types of revised language issues, and the extent to which the teacher candidates were correcting accurately. My findings show that the students paid close attention to sentence structure (e.g. clauses, punctuation), fixing sentence problems (e.g. parallelism, choppy and stringy sentences), inflection and academic style. It is noteworthy that most of these languages issues were discussed in class. Considerably less attention was given by students to questions like paragraph structure and content. The accuracy of students’ revisions varied depending on the type of corrected language issue. The general impression of employing the wiki in this course was favourable. Many of the teacher candidates admitted that they would like to utilize the wiki tool in their future teaching courses.

  • 47.
    Kenntoft Hof, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    L2 learners’ perceptions of accents: A study of the attitudes of Swedish 2nd language learners of English to standard and non-standard English accents2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to find out what attitudes non-native speakers of English have towards standard and non-standard varieties of British English and how these attitudes correlate with the attitudes of native speakers. This study is restricted to Swedish L2 learners of English taking the courses English 5 and English B in a Swedish Upper Secondary School and it is compared to studies done in the UK. The study shows that there are correlations between the accent attitudes of L2 learners of English and the accent attitudes of native speakers of British English, and reflects over and discusses why these correlations occur and what may have affected them.

  • 48.
    Kjellander, Daniel
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Beauty and the Blend: Implications of Cognitive Constraints and Word Class Distribution in Lexical Blending2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis investigates underlying principles and usage-based aspects of lexical blending. In a corpus study examining the lexical items, or matrix words, republican, liberal, and vegetarian it was found that there were three cognitive constraints influencing their potential to form blends. Mapping of a prefixation schema onto the lexical item republican was shown to fuel blend formation. Neighborhood effects and morphological lexicalization, on the other hand, were observed to have a negative influence on the possibility to form blends from the terms liberal and vegetarian. Also, an examination of word class distribution in the matrix words and their blend and compound derivatives showed that the patterns of the blends were less consistent than the compounds. These findings point to an important duality in the derivative blends. While they operate in an interplay with regular morphological processes they are at the same time creatively elaborated in use. Therefore blends exhibit a fundamental aspect of language, which is phrased as the dynamic interrelatedness between socio-pragmatic motivation and schematization, or pattern-finding. This positions blending not in the margin, but at the centre of studies on language development.

  • 49.
    Kurnik, Mattias
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Mid-Atlantic Communication in the Classroom2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study of Swedish upper secondary students aimed to make an analysis of the English that students are using in school with the hope to comment on whether there is a bias towards either one of the two major dialects, GA and RP. To this end, an upper secondary class was asked to complete tests on vocabulary, spelling, and pronunciation. The pronunciation test was designed in such a way that the articulation became largely a factor of dialect. Similarly, each question in the vocabulary and spelling tests had its correct answer in both American and British English to elicit either an American or British English response. The speech analysis of the recording was done by using computer programs for spectrographic analysis. The results revealed a bias among the students for American vocabulary and British spelling, and a mix of pronunciation conventions from both varieties in addition to possible future pronunciation patterns of Swedish English.

  • 50.
    Larsson, Tove
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A corpus-based study of anticipatory it patterns in university student writing: The role of nativeness and student levels2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The anticipatory it pattern has been found to serve as a means for writers not only to present propositional content in an objective way, but also to achieve a range of different rhetorical purposes. Indeed, its usefulness in academic writing has been confirmed in previous studies (e.g. Thompson, 2009). One of the rhetorical functions of the pattern is as a hedging device. Since it has been shown that appropriate use of hedges and the anticipatory it pattern may pose considerable difficulty for apprentice writers (e.g. Hewings & Hewings, 2002; Hyland & Milton, 1997), a more detailed study of “anticipatory it hedging” would be of particular interest for EAP teaching. The present study aims to investigate university students’ use of the anticipatory it pattern in general and as a hedging device by comparing non-native speaker (NNS) to native speaker (NS) use of the pattern and by investigating the use of the pattern across two NNS student levels. Swedish and British student essays from the Stockholm University Student English Corpus (SUSEC) were investigated for this purpose.

    The results from the comparison of the NS and NNS groups show that the NS students used the anticipatory it pattern significantly more frequently. With regards to function, a statistically significant tendency to use the pattern to hedge claims rather than to make strong claims was found in the NS data. The analysis of “anticipatory it-hedges” with regards to modal verb and linking verb usage shows that the NNS students generally made less frequent use of the different types of “anticipatory it-hedges” and relied more heavily on a smaller set of types. The comparison of the two Swedish student levels shows that there was no statistically significant difference in frequency of use of the pattern. The only statistically significant difference found in terms of function was the more frequent use of the pattern to express difficulty found in the first-term student data. Moreover, an analysis of “anticipatory it-hedges” in terms of modal and linking verb usage revealed that no general development in use was found across the student levels. Taken together, the findings of the study would then suggest that nativeness, contrary to what has been reported in previous studies (cf. Römer, 2009), appears to be an important factor along with other factors such as general language proficiency and expertise in academic writing. Then, in orders to help NNS students further develop their proficiency in academic writing, it would seem that greater emphasis ought to be put on teaching students to use the pattern in an appropriate and varied way.

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