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  • 1.
    af Sandeberg, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Engelskundervisningens betydelse för elever med dyslexi2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien belyser och diskuterar hur undervisning i engelska inom grundskola och gymnasium samt antagningsregler till högskola kan påverka möjligheten att utbilda sig i tekniska ämnen för personer med dyslexi. Studien belyser att det finns en hel del som tyder på att undervisningen i engelska i grundskola och gymnasium ofta inte är anpassad till de elever som har fonologiska svårigheter, och att detta kan få avgörande betydelse för deras framtid.

    I en första delstudie görs en enkätundersökning bland engelsklärare i grundskola och gymnasium för att se om de har goda möjligheter att undervisa elever med dyslexi. Undersökningen visar bland annat att det har funnits brister på lärarhögskolor när det gäller utbildningen om läs- och skrivsvårigheter/dyslexi.

    81 % av de 33 lärare som har engelska i sin utbildning svarar att de inte har fått kunskap om läs- och skrivsvårigheter/dyslexi som hjälper dem i undervisningen i engelska. Undersökningen visar också att flera kommuner inte ger lärarna den fortbildning de behöver och att många lärare upplever en vardag med tidsbrist, för få alternativa verktyg och för stora undervisningsgrupper.

    I en andra delstudie belyses framgångsfaktorer i engelska för elever med dyslexi. Fyra högskolestudenter som har dyslexi djupintervjuas, samtliga går fjärde året på utbildningen till civilingenjör. Två av studenterna har MVG i engelska B från gymnasiet och två har inte läst engelska B.

    I en tredje studie görs en jämförelse mellan gymnasiebetygen i engelska för 30 studenter med dyslexi på civilingenjörsprogrammet och en kontrollgrupp. Studien visar bland annat att det är 10 % av dyslektikerna som inte skulle ha kommit in på utbildningen på grundval av sina betyg om de hade sökt hösten 2010 när det är nya antagningsregler med högre språkkrav.

  • 2.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. University of Ghana.
    Aspects of the Grammar and Lexicon of Sεlεε2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a description of some aspects of the grammar of Sɛlɛɛ, a Ghana-Togo-Mountain (GTM) language, based on my own fieldwork. The thesis consists of an introduction and five papers.

    Paper (I), Noun classes in Sεlεε, describes the noun class system of Sɛlɛɛ. It consists of eight noun class prefixes, four marking singular and four plural. They are paired in irregular ways to form eight genders (singular-plural pairs). Nouns agree with determiners, numerals and interrogative qualifiers within the noun phrase and can be indexed on the predicate. Nouns are allocated to classes/genders based partly on semantic notions.

    Paper (II), Sεlεε (with Francesca Di Garbo), details the morphological encoding of diminution in Sɛlɛɛ either by the suffixes -bi, -bii, -mii, -e or -nyi alone or in combination with noun class shift. Augmentation is not expressed morphologically.

    Paper (III), The tense and aspect system of Sεlεε: A preliminary analysis, shows that Sɛlɛɛ, unlike most Kwa languages, has a rather elaborate tense system encompassing present, hodiernal, pre-hodiernal and future tenses. The aspectual categories are progressive, habitual and perfect. Both categories often amalgamate with first person singular subject clitics.

    Paper (IV), Standard negation in Sεlεε, deals with the negation of declarative verbal main clauses. This is primarily encoded by a high tone, sometimes combined with segmental morphemes, portmanteau negative tense-aspect morphemes and vowel lengthening. Each tense-aspect category has at least one particular negation strategy.

    Paper (V), Unravelling temperature terms in Sεlεε (with Francesca Di Garbo), investigates the grammatical constructions employed for temperature evaluations. Personal feeling is only encoded via subjects, while ambient and tactile evaluations are construed attributively and predicatively.

    A comparison of Selee and other GTM languages revealed similar noun morphologies but very different verbal morphologies.

  • 3.
    Ahlgren, Inger
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Det svenska teckenspråket2006In: Teckenspråk och teckenspråkiga. Kunskaps och forskningsöpversikt: Betänkande av utredningen Översyn av teckenspråkets ställning, 2006, p. 11-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Andersson, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Verbal contents of repetitions in Swedish child-directed speech2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Repetitions in child-directed speech (CDS) have been shown to vary over time, and are suggested to affect first language acquisition. Correlations between verbal contents of repetitions in CDS and children’s language development have been suggested. The verbal contents of repetitions in Swedish CDS have not yet been investigated.

    The aim of this study was to examine the verbal contents of repetitions in Swedish CDS during the child’s first 2 years and possible changes in proportions of repetitions during the same time span. Verbal contents of repetitions in parents’ speech in 10 parent-child dyads as the children were 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months old were investigated focusing on word classes, sentence types and whole-constituent change. The results were compared to the children’s productive vocabularies at the age of 30 months. Possible occurrences of item-based constructions and frequent frames in the repetitions were also examined.

    The overall results revealed patterns concerning change in verbal contents in repetitions over time and correlations between verbal contents in repetitions and child language development. Two proposals were made: parents adjust the complexity of their speech to linguistic developmental stages of their children, and linguistic variation in the input increases as the child grows older.

  • 5.
    Asfawwesen, Desalegn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The inceptive construction and associated topics in Amharic and related languages2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the syntactic features, functions, and diachrony of a complex predicate called ‘the inceptive construction’ which is based on a grammaticalised use of the converbs ‘get up’, ‘pick up’, ‘grasp’, and ‘take’. The languages under investigation are Amharic, Argobba, Harari, Zay, and Selt’i. The data collection that was analized consists of elicitations, audio recordings, and written texts. The analysis shows that the converbs identify the initial phase of the event encoded by a following verb. The converbs are further associated with nuances like volition, surprise, and emphasis. The rise of such interpretations as surprise and emphasis appears to depend mainly on context, while volition is inherent to the construction. The languages generally do not show much variation. However, there is a notable difference in some co-occurrence restrictions. Moreover, there is a difference in the presence/absence of certain converbs mainly in Harari and Zay, which is clearly a matter of preference between individual consultants. Regarding the origin of the inceptive construction, collocation, frequency, and speakers’ conception of the action of the converbs are possible factors that lead the verbs to grammaticalize into markers of the inception phase. Only some traces of the construction are found in an old Amharic text from the 15th century.

    The converb is the main verb form used in the inceptive construction, although other verb forms are allowed which may take a coordinating conjunction (in the cases of Amharic and Argobba) and an iterative/simultaneity marker (‘while’). The Amharic conjunction =nna ‘and’ links the light verb with the reference verb in the inceptive construction, but is also used in causal(purposive) and conditional coordination. The criteria of tense iconicity and variable positions indicate that =nna is a coordinating conjunction in the former, but a subordinator in the latter. Lastly, the converb in Amharic is shown to become insubordinated, i.e. the main verb or auxiliary it depends on gets ellipsed over time and it comes to function as a main verb. An insubordinated converb is used in the expression of surprise/exclamation, interrogation, rhetorical questioning, wishing, and the resultative/perfective. The point is it is still possible to use the notion of ‘converb’ in the inceptive construction as this is a separate historical process. 

  • 6.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avd. för teckenspråk.
    Det svenska teckenspråket - ett språk i fyra dimensioner2007In: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens Årsbok 2007, 2007, p. 39-52Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bergman, Brita
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Engberg-Pedersen, Elisabeth
    Institut for nordiske studier og sprogvidenskab, Københavns universitet.
    Transmission of sign languages in the Nordic countries2010In: Sign languages / [ed] Brentari, Diane, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press , 2010, p. 74-94Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Kittilä, Seppo
    Person and Knowledge: Introduction2017In: Open Linguistics, ISSN 2300-9969, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 18-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between person and epistemicity has been a topic of investigation throughout the humanities, including linguistics, but has mostly been focused on how conceptualisations of these two notions overlap, or diverge. This paper reviews some of these conceptualisations, but also adds a finergrained picture of how they intersect in the world's languages. Purported categories such as egophoric marking and lesser known expressions such as non-selected arguments (i.e. ethical datives) are compared to evidentials and modals from a synchronic and diachronic perspective in order to explain how the roles of the speech-act participants as specific arguments relate to their respective function as epistemic authorities. The aim of the paper is to introduce separate contributions relating to such systems as they are found in various parts of the world.

  • 9.
    Björklund, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Att hantera referenser: En jämförande fallstudie med särskilt fokus på teckenspråksanvändare med sen inlärning av sitt förstaspråk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med denna jämförande studie vill jag se och jämföra hur tre individer med olika språklig bakgrund och olika förutsättningar att lära svenskt teckenspråk hanterar referenser i en narrativ berättelse. Med särskilt fokus på en döv informant som lärt sig teckenspråk först i vuxen ålder och i jämförelse med en döv med tidig inlärning av teckenspråk som förstaspråk samt en hörande som lärt sig teckenspråk som andraspråk som vuxen har jag tittat på teckenspråkets olika sätt att referera. De tre informanterna har återberättat samma korta filmklipp vilket underlättat en någorlunda rättvis jämförelse. Syftet är att se vilka likheter och skillnader de har i referenshanteringen. Filmerna har transkriberats i ELAN för att sedan plocka ut de olika sätten att referera och jämföra dem inbördes. Resultatet visar på både skillnader och likheter mellan de tre informanterna. Resultatet bekräftar till viss del tidigare forskning och visar att det finns relevant referensmarkering särskilt i de imiterande delarna, i modifierade verb och i blickvridning och kroppsvridning.

  • 10. Borg, Erik
    et al.
    Edquist, Gertrud
    Reinholdson, Anna-Clara
    Risberg, Arne
    McAllister, Bob
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Speech and language development in a population of Swedish hearing-impaired pre-school-children, a cross-sectional study2007In: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 71, no 7, p. 1061-1077Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: There is little information on speech and language development in preschool children with mild, moderate or severe hearing impairment. The primary aim of the study is to establish a reference material for clinical use covering various aspects of speech and language functions and to relate test values to pure tone audiograms and parents' judgement of their children's hearing and language abilities. Methods: Nine speech and language tests were applied or modified, both classical tests and newly developed tests. Ninety-seven children with normal hearing and 156 with hearing impairment were tested. Hearing was 80 dB HL PTA or better in the best ear. Swedish was their strongest language. None had any additional diagnosed major handicaps. The children were 4-6 years of age. The material was divided into 10 categories of hearing impairment, 5 conductive and 5 sensorineural: unilateral; bilateral 0-20; 21-40; 41-60; 61-80 dB HL PTA. The tests, selected on the basis of a three component language model, are phoneme discrimination; rhyme matching; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT-III, word perception); Test for Reception of Grammar (TROG, grammar perception); prosodic phrase focus; rhyme construction; Word Finding Vocabulary Test (word production); Action Picture Test (grammar production); oral motor test. Results: Only categories with sensorineural toss showed significant differences from normal. Word production showed the most marked delay for 21-40 dB HL: 5 and 6 years p < 0.01; for 41-60 dB: 4 years p < 0.01 and 6 years p < 0.01 and 61-80 dB: 5 years p < 0.05. Phoneme discrimination 21-40 dB HL: 6 years p < 0.05; 41-60 dB: 4 years p < 0.01; 61-80 dB: 4 years p < 0.001, 5 years p < 0.001. Rhyme matching: no significant difference as compared to normal data. Word perception: sensorineural 41-60 dB HL: 6 years p < 0.05; 61-80 dB: 4 years p < 0.05; 5 years p < 0.01. Grammar perception: sensorineural 41-60 dB HL: 6 years p < 0.05; 61-80 dB: 5 years p < 0.05. Prosodic phrase focus: 41-60 dB HL: 5 years p < 0.01. Rhyme construction: 41-60 dB HL: 4 years p < 0.05. Grammar production: 61-80 dB HL: 5 years p < 0.01. Oral motor function: no differences. The Word production test showed a 1.5-2 years delay for sensorineural impairment 41-80 dB HL through 4-6 years of age. There were no differences between hearing-impaired boys and girls. Extended data for the screening test [E. Borg, A. Risberg, B. McAllister, B.M. Undemar, G. Edquist, A.C. Reinholdsson, et at., Language development in hearing-impaired children. Establishment of a reference material for a ""Language test for hearing-impaired children"", Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngot. 65 (2002) 15-26] are presented. Conclusions: Reference values for expected speech and language development are presented that cover nearly 60% of the studied population. The effect of the peripheral hearing impairment is compensated for in many children with hearing impairment up to 60 dB HL. Above that degree of impairment, language delay is more pronounced, probably due to a toss of acuity. The importance of central cognitive functions, speech reading and signing for compensation of peripheral limitations is pointed out.

  • 11.
    Branderud, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Traunmüller, HartmutStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Proceedings of FONETIK 981998Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Aspect, evidentiality and tense in Mongolian: From Middle Mongol to Khalkha and Khorchin2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis consists of an introduction and the following papers:

    • The aspect-evidentiality system of Middle Mongol. Ural-Altaic Studies, 13. (forthcoming)
    • The tense-aspect system of Khorchin Mongolian. In: Pirkko Suihkonen & Lindsay Whaley (eds.), Typology of Languages of Europe and Northern and Central Asia. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (forthcoming)
    • Aspect and epistemic notions in the present tense system of Khalkha Mongolian. Acta Linguistica Petropolitana. (forthcoming)
    • Factual vs. evidential? - The past tense forms of spoken Khalkha Mongolian. In: Ad Foolen, Helen de Hoop, & Gijs Mulder (eds.), Empirical Approaches to Evidentiality. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (under review)

    Its purpose is to give an account of tense, aspect and evidentiality in three Mongolian varieties: Middle Mongol (MM) as spoken in the Mongol Empire, Khalkha Mongolian as spoken in the Mongolian state, and Khorchin Mongolian as spoken in eastern Inner Mongolia, China. MM started out with a tripartite tense distinction and a medium-sized aspectual system. Its past evidential system was tripartite with suffixes for firsthand, non-firsthand and evidentially neutral information. In Khorchin, which developed under the influence of Mandarin and Manchu, evidentiality was lost, and tense was simplified into a past / non-past distinction, alongside with a discontinuous proximal future / past marker. The aspect system underwent some changes, but retained its complexity. Khalkha, which developed under the influence of Turkic and Tibetan, underwent some shared innovations with Khorchin, but retained participles as a multifunctional unit within finite predicates, so that its aspectual system grew more complex. The past evidentiality distinctions of MM were basically retained, but the introduction of present tense evidentiality brought a number of changes: the evidentially neutral value shifted to signaling assimilated knowledge, and discontinuous future uses were introduced for all past markers.

  • 13.
    Buschmeier, Hendrik
    et al.
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Malisz, Zofia
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Skubisz, Joanna
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Wachsmuth, Ipke
    Bielefleld University, Germany.
    Kopp, Stefan
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    Wagner, Petra
    Bielefeld University, Germany.
    ALICO: A multimodal corpus for the study of active listening2014In: Proceedings of LREC 2014, 2014, p. 3638-3643Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Active Listening Corpus (ALICO) is a multimodal database of spontaneous dyadic conversations with diverse speech andgestural annotations of both dialogue partners. The annotations consist of short feedback expression transcription with correspondingcommunicative function interpretation as well as segmentation of interpausal units, words, rhythmic prominence intervals andvowel-to-vowel intervals. Additionally, ALICO contains head gesture annotation of both interlocutors. The corpus contributes to researchon spontaneous human–human interaction, on functional relations between modalities, and timing variability in dialogue. It also providesdata that differentiates between distracted and attentive listeners. We describe the main characteristics of the corpus and present the mostimportant results obtained from analyses in recent years.

  • 14.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Object marking in the signed modality: Verbal and nominal strategies in Swedish Sign Language and other sign languages2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, I investigate various aspects of object marking and how these manifest themselves in the signed modality. The main focus is on Swedish Sign Language (SSL), the national sign language of Sweden, which is the topic of investigation in all five studies. Two of the studies adopt a comparative perspective, including other sign languages as well. The studies comprise a range of data, including corpus data, elicited production, and acceptability judgments, and combine quantitative and qualitative methods in the analyses.

    The dissertation begins with an overview of the topics of valency, argument structure, and object marking, primarily from a spoken language perspective. Here, the interactions between semantics and morphosyntax are presented from a typological perspective, introducing differential object marking as a key concept. With regard to signed language, object marking is discussed in terms of both verbal and nominal strategies.

    Verbal strategies of object marking among sign languages include directional verbs, object handshape classifiers, and embodied perspective in signing. The first study investigates the use of directionality and object handshapes as object marking strategies in Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language (ABSL), Israeli Sign Language (ISL), and SSL. It is shown that the strategies generally display different alignments in terms of the types of objects targeted, which is uniform across languages, but that directionality is much more marginal in ABSL than in the other two languages. Also, we see that there is a connection between object marking strategies and the animacy of the object, and that the strategies, object animacy, and word order preferences interact. In the second and third studies, SSL is investigated with regard to the transitive–reflexive distinction. Here, we see that there are interactional effects between object handshapes and the perspective taken by the signer. This points to intricate iconic motivations of combining and structuring complex verb sequences, such as giving preference to agent focusing structures (e.g., agent perspective and handling handshapes). Furthermore, the use of space is identified as a crucial strategy for reference tracking, especially when expressing semantically transitive events.

    Nominal strategies include object pronouns and derivations of the sign PERSON. The fourth study provides a detailed account of the object pronoun OBJPRO in SSL, which is the first in-depth description of this sign. It is found that the sign is in widespread use in SSL, often corresponds closely to object pronouns of spoken Swedish, and is argued to be grammaticalized from the lexical sign PERSON. In the final study, the possible existence of object pronouns in other sign languages is investigated by using a sample of 24 languages. This analysis reveals that the feature is found mostly in the Nordic countries, suggesting areal contact phenomena. However, the study also shows that there are a number of derivations of PERSON, such as reflexive pronouns, agreement auxiliaries, and case markers. The use of PERSON as a source of grammaticalization for these functions is attributed to both semantic and phonological properties of the sign.

    This dissertation is unique in that it is dedicated to the topic of object marking in the signed modality. It brings a variety of perspectives and methods together in order to investigate the domain of object marking, cross-linguistically and cross-modally.

  • 15.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Revisiting Reduplication: Toward a description of reduplication in predicative signs in Swedish Sign Language2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the use of reduplication with predicative signs in Swedish Sign Language (SSL), and also the related phenomena doubling and displacement.

    Reduplication in SSL typically expresses plurality of events and/or referents, but may also express intensification, ongoing event or generic activity. There is a distinction between external and internal events with reduplication: external reduplication expresses some event happening over and over at different points in time and/or with different referents, and is associated with a frequentative/habitual reading; internal reduplication expresses some event consisting of several e.g. movements/actions and is associated with an ongoing reading. Only external expression seems to be applicable to stative constructions, as one would expect. The study also found a phenomenon not previously described: oral reduplication without manual reduplication. This process is found to have the ongoing functions with telic predicates, such that it focuses on the telic predicate as a single event in progress, and thus replaces the function of manual reduplication, which, with telic predicates, would instead express several events. The reading of reduplicated signs is associated with the semantics of the sign reduplicated, and it is also associated with the phonological citation form of the sign—monosyllabic signs tend to get pluractional reading; bisyllabic signs tend to get an ongoing reading. Also, the reading expressed by reduplication is connected to the presence/absence of oral reduplication.

    Reduplication generally does not occur in negative constructions. This study shows that inherently negative signs may be reduplicated, but reduplicated predicates are negated according to other strategies than for non-reduplicated predicates, thus reduplication has the largest scope.

    Doubling and displacement are both associated mainly with plural referents, and it is in this respect that they are related to reduplication, and they both occur frequently with reduplication.

  • 16. Coull, Mia
    et al.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Kan en robot lära sig att prata?2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kort notis om forskningsprojekt med robotmodeller av tidig språkutveckling (Vi föräldrar, 2007, Nr 13, s. 73)

  • 17.
    Couturier Kaijser, Vilma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Metaphorical uses of verbs of animal sounds in Swedish2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animals often act as source domain is metaphorical shifts. In European languages, there are often several lexicalised verbs for specific sounds with a prototypical animal as subject. These verbs of animal sounds and their metaphorical meanings have been studied cross-linguistically, which have made it possible to create a classification of situations that tend to be expressed by animal metaphors. There are many verbs of animal sounds in Swedish, but their metaphorical uses are not investigated. The present study investigates the metaphorical use of verbs of animal sounds in Swedish blog text and news text. The classification is used as a starting point for analysing occurrences of 13 Swedish verbs. The study seeks to answer which situations can be expressed by the Swedish verbs, which different situations can one and the same verb express metaphorically, and how did the typological classification suit the Swedish data? The results showed that the verbs often have human subjects, and different verbs varies in the range of metaphorical uses they possess. Three types of changes were made to the classification to suit the Swedish data: situations were moved, situations were added, and situations were removed.

  • 18.
    Couturier Kaijser, Vilma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Omöjlig, olycklig, oönskad: O-prefigerade adjektiv och particip i svensk blogg- och nyhetstext2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Affixal negation of adjectives occur in several Indo-European languages. Previous studies show recurring patterns: the affixed stem is derived and has a positive value. The affixation creates a negative antonym. This corpus-based study examines the prefix o- in modern Swedish. The form and value of prefixed stems are investigated. The results of this study show that 91.5 % of the 563 most frequent prefixed words have a derived stem and many are deverbal. Among the 100 most frequent words, the stems have a positive value. Asymmetry in the use of the prefix occurs. 11.2 % of the study’s prefixed stems do not have a non-prefixed form. 48 of the 100 most frequent words belong to the semantic type HUMAN PROPENSITY.

    The second part of this study investigates the antonymic relationship between prefixed and non-prefixed words. The prefixed word often has a more general and abstract meaning when there is no direct antonymic relationship. The prefixed word may also have an older meaning, which is no longer used today. This study shows no clear patterns in differences in generality and abstractness in meaning between the prefixed word and the lexical antonym to the non-prefixed word.

  • 19.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Animacy and egophoricity: Grammar, ontology and phylogeny2008In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 118, no 2, p. 141-150Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some results of earlier work on animacy by Kari Fraurud and the author are reviewed, demonstrating the close relationship between (i) the role of animacy as a determinant of grammatical rules and the choice between types of referential expressions, and (ii) statistical regularities in discourse. The idea that animacy is an ontological category is developed further. In the final section, the phylogenetic basis of the notions behind animacy and egophoricity is discussed. It is argued that the grammatical animacy hierarchy corresponds to a three-step cognitive scale: the self is the model for other animate individuals, which are in their turn models for inanimate objects when understood as individual ‘things’.

  • 20.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. allmän språkvetenskap.
    Reinhammar, Maj
    Williams, Henrik
    Josephson, Olle
    Älvdalska - dialekt eller minoritetsspråk?2007In: Saga och sed: Kungl. Gustav Adolfs Akademiens Årsbok, p. 75-92Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Dahlberg, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Tre svenska myndigheters strategier för termöversättning till spanska och franska2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vilka strategier som tre svenska myndigheter använder vid översättning av femton systematiskt utvalda termer, från svenska till spanska och franska. Arbetet grundar sig därtill i Niskas och Frøilis (1992) sex strategier för termöversättning, anpassade för detta arbetes praktiska tillämpning: direkt/ungefärlig motsvarighet; översättningslån; parafrasering; direktlån; nybildning; och översättningsdubblett. Därutöver ställs hypotesen att antalet rotmorfem i en term inverkar på vilken strategi som används för dess översättning. Resultaten visar att fem av Niskas och Frøilis strategier, närmare bestämt alla utom nybildning, används för termöversättningarna. De totala resultaten avslöjar att den största andelen av dem använder direkt/ungefärlig motsvarighet, följt av översättningslån och parafrasering som har ungefär jämnstora andelar, vartefter översättningsdubblett och direktlån har betydligt mindre andelar, varav den förras är större än den senares. Hypotesen visar sig inte kunna bekräftas. Vad beträffar värdet av resultaten poängteras att variation i översättningsstrategier försvårar förståelsen av de spanska och franska måltexterna, vilket i sin tur motverkar det enkla, vårdade och begripliga språk i myndigheters kommunikation som svensk lagstiftning strävar efter.

  • 22. Davis, Babs
    et al.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Phonetic variability and Baby Talk2001In: Emerging Cognitive Abilities in Early Infancy, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah NJ , 2001, p. 135-171Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Gender and its interaction with number and evaluative morphology: An intra- and intergenealogical typological survey of Africa2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates interactions between gender and number and gender and evaluative morphology in a sample of 100 African languages, and provides a method for assessing the role that these interactions play in the grammatical complexity of gender systems. The dissertation is organised around three research foci.

    First, the dissertation surveys patterns of interaction between gender and number along the following dimensions: exponence, syncretism, indexation, correlations in type of marking, and gender assignment. The study provides evidence for the possibility that nominal features are organised in a relevance hierarchy. In addition, the study shows that animacy and lexical plurality play a crucial role in the distribution of special patterns of plural indexation. The study also shows that pervasive indexation systems in the language sample always involve both gender and number. Finally, the study shows how gender assignment can be used as a means for encoding variation in the countability properties of nouns and noun phrases.

    Second, the dissertation surveys patterns of interaction between gender and evaluative morphology in the languages of the sample. Two types of interactions are found. The study shows that the distribution of the two types depends on three factors: the type of gender system, the number of gender distinctions and the possibility of assigning a noun to more than one gender.

    Third, the dissertation investigates the role that interactions of gender and number and gender and evaluative morphology play in the absolute complexity of gender. The study proposes a metric for gender complexity and uses this metric to compute complexity scores for the languages of the sample. The results suggest that the gender systems of the language sample lean toward high complexity, that genealogically related languages have the same or similar complexity scores, and that the distribution of the outliers can often be understood as the result of language contact.

  • 24. Diehl, Randy
    et al.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Explaining the structure of feature and phoneme inventories2004In: Speech Processing in the Auditory System, Springer-Verlag, New York , 2004, p. 101-162Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 25. Diehl, Randy
    et al.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Creeger, Carl
    Increasing Realism of Auditory Representations Yields Further Insights into Vowel Phonetics2003In: XVth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, Barcelona, Spain., 2003Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Drapsa, Mindy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    En kartläggning av kalendariska termer i svenskt teckenspråk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kartläggningen av kalendariska tecken som semantisk domän i det svenska teckenspråket grundar sig på en pågående tjeckisk teckenspråkstypologisk studie. Parametrar som kartläggningen fokuserar på är bokstaverade tecken, sammansatta tecken, sifferinkorporering och tecken som placeras utmed tidslinjer.

    Datainsamlingen sker via en enkätundersökning med videointervjuer, samt från svenskt teckenspråkslexikon. Tecknen från svenskt teckenspråkslexikon sorteras vidare i tabeller med presentation och diskussion. Det framgår att bokstaverade tecken tillämpas mest när det gäller kalendermånader och veckodagar. Både sammansatta tecken och sifferinkorporering förekommer hos ett par kalendariska tecken. Tidslinjer tillämpas hos teckenexempel i tidsenheter samt veckodagar med ett visst tillägg.

  • 27.
    Edlund, Jens
    et al.
    KTH Speech, Music and Hearing.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Department of Linguistics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Is breathing prosody?2014In: International Symposium on Prosody to Commemorate Gösta Bruce, Lund: Lund University , 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Even though we may not be aware of it, much breathing in face-to-face conversation is both clearly audible and visible. Consequently, it has been suggested that respiratory activity is used in the joint coordination of conversational flow. For instance, it has been claimed that inhalation is an interactionally salient cue to speech initiation, that exhalation is a turn yielding device, and that breath holding is a marker of turn incompleteness (e.g. Local & Kelly, 1986; Schegloff, 1996). So far, however, few studies have addressed the interactional aspects of breathing (one notable exeption is McFarland, 2001). In this poster, we will describe our ongoing efforts to fill this gap. We will present the design of a novel corpus of respiratory activity in spontaneous multiparty face-to-face conversations in Swedish. The corpus will contain physiological measurements relevant to breathing, high-quality audio, and video. Minimally, the corpus will be annotated with interactional events derived from voice activity detection and (semi-) automatically detected inhalation and exhalation events in the respiratory data. We will also present initial analyses of the material collected. The question is whether breathing is prosody and relevant to this symposium? What we do know is that the turntaking phenomena that of particular interest to us are closely (almost by definition) related to several prosodic phenomena, and in particular to those associated with prosodic phrasing, grouping and boundaries. Thus, we will learn more about respiratory activity in phrasing (and the like) through analyses of breathing in conversation. References Local, John K., & Kelly, John. (1986). Projection and 'silences': Notes on phonetic and conversational structure. Human Studies, 9, 185-204. McFarland, David H. (2001). Respiratory markers of conversational interaction. Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 44, 128-143. Schegloff, E. A. (1996). Turn organization: One intersection of grammar and interaction. In E. Ochs, E. A. Schegloff & S. A. Thompson (Eds.), Interaction and Grammar (pp. 52-133), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • 28.
    Eklund, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Comparative study of male and female whispered and phonated versions of the long vowels of Swedish1997In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, E-ISSN 1423-0321, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Confusions in vowel quality and in speaker sex for whispered and phonated versions of the long vowels of Swedish have been analysed. The recognition rate was higher than that obtained in other studies, and this is attributed to the use of real words (letter names). The recognition of vowel quality was observed to interact with that of speaker sex in the whispered versions, but not in the phonated ones. The paper also reports on F0 and the frequency positions of the first three formants, and their dynamics, as well as on the overall spectral shape of the vowels. Intrinsic pitch and the observed upward shift of the lower formants in whispering as well as the spectral level differences agree largely with those found in other languages. Similarities and discrepancies with previous descriptions of the Swedish vowels are discussed.

  • 29.
    Engstrand, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Björsten, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Bruce, Gösta
    Eriksson, Anders
    Hur udda är Viby-i? Experimentella och typologiska observationer2000In: Folkmålsstudier, Vol. 39, p. 83-95Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Engstrand, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Frid, Johan
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    A perceptual bridge between coronal and dorsal /r/2007In: Experimental approaches to phonology, Oxford University Press, Oxford , 2007, p. 175-191Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A possible perceptual basis for change between coronal and dorsal rhotics was examined. An approximant /r/ continuum was synthesized with F2 and F3 ranging from ‘velar’ to ‘alveolar’ values. Listener responses indicated that the observed region was articulatorily ambiguous. It may, thus, constitute a perceptual bridge between coronal and dorsal rhotics, i.e., a perceptual basis for potential sound change.

  • 31. Engstrand, Olle
    et al.
    Krull, Diana
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Sorting stops by place in acoustic space2000In: Proceedings of FONETIK 2000, 2000, p. 53-56Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Ericsdotter, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Articulatory-Acoustic Relationships in Swedish Vowel Sounds2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of a classical method for predicting vocal tract cross-sectional areas from cross-distances, to be implemented in speaker-specific articulatory modelling. The data forming the basis of the evaluation were magnetic resonance images from the vocal tract combined with simultaneous audio and video recordings. These data were collected from one female and one male speaker. The speech materials consisted of extended articulation of each of the nine Swedish long vowels together with two short allophonic qualities. The data acquisition and processing involved, among other things, the development of a method for dental integration in the MR image, and a refined sound recording technique required for the particular experimental conditions. Articulatory measurements were made of cross-distances and cross-sectional areas from the speakers’ larynx, pharynx, oral cavity and lip section, together with estimations on the vocal tract termination points. Acoustic and auditory analyses were made of the sound recordings, including an evaluation of the influence of the noise from the MR machine on the vowel productions. Cross-distance to cross-sectional area conversion rules were established from the articulatory measurements. The evaluation of these rules involved quantitative as well as qualitative dimensions. The articulatory evaluation gave rise to a vowel-dependent extension of the method under investigation, allowing more geometrical freedom for articulatory configurations along the vocal tract. The extended method proved to be more successful in predicting cross-sectional areas, particularly in the velar region. The acoustic evaluation, based on area functions derived from the proposed rules, did however not show significant differences in formant patterns between the classical and the extended method. This was interpreted as evidence for the classic method having higher acoustic than physiological validity on the present materials. For application and extrapolation in articulatory modelling, it is however possible that the extended method will perform better in articulation and acoustics, given its physiologically more fine-tuned foundation. Research funded by the NIH (R01 DC02014) and Stockholm University (SU 617-0230-01).

  • 33.
    Ericsdotter, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Detail in Vowel Area Functions2007In: Proceedings of the XVIth ICPhS, Saarbrücken, 6-10 August 2007, 2007, p. 513-516Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some results and a small follow-up investigation from an MRI study of vowels [3], in which classical distance-to-area equations [5] were evaluated for implementation in sagittal view articulatory modelling. It was shown that an articulatorily more detailed application of the conversion rules improved the accuracy of the predicted areas, but that this increased realism failed to improve acoustic performance, if midline derivation and vocal tract termination points were kept the same. These results are discussed in relation to articulatory modelling in linguistic research. Work funded by the NIH (R01DC02014) and Stockholm University (SU617023001).

  • 34.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Grabe, Esther
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Perception of syllable prominence by listeners with and without competence in the tested language2002In: Proceedings of the Speech Prosody 2002 Conference, 2002, p. 275-278Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    In an experiment reported previously, subjects rated perceived syllable prominence in a Swedish utterance produced by ten speakers at various levels of vocal effort. The analysis showed that about half of the variance could be accounted for by acoustic factors. Slightly more than half could be accounted for by linguistic factors. Here, we report two additional ex-periments. In the first, we attempted to eliminate the linguistic factors by repeating the Swedish listening experiment with English listeners who had no knowledge of Swedish. In the second, we investigated the prominence pattern Swedish sub-jects expect by presenting the utterance only in written form. The results from these subjects and from the Swedish listeners were very similar but for two of the syllables where the promi-nence pattern did not coincide with the expectations of the readers. Swedish and English listeners perceived the promi-nence of the syllables to be almost identical in most cases, but where there was a conflict between expected and produced prominence, the Swedish listeners appeared to be influenced by their expectations. There was also a difference in the weights the Swedish and English listeners attached to different acoustic cues in the listening experiments.

  • 35.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Charlatanry in forensic speech science: A problem to be taken seriously2007In: International Journal of Speech, Language and the Law: (formerly Forensic Linguistics: ISSN 1350-1771), ISSN 1748-8885, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 169-193Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A lie detector which can reveal lie and deception in some automatic and perfectly reliable way is an old idea we have often met with in science fiction books and comic strips. This is all very well. It is when machines claimed to be lie detectors appear in the context of criminal investigations or security applications that we need to be concerned. In the present paper we will describe two types of ‘deception’ or ‘stress detectors’ (euphemisms to refer to what quite clearly are known as ‘lie detectors’). Both types of detection are claimed to be based on voice analysis but we found no scientific evidence to support the manufacturers’ claims. Indeed, our review of scientific studies will show that these machines perform at chance level when tested for reliability. Given such results and the absence of scientific support for the underlying principles it is justified to view the use of these machines as charlatanry and we argue that there are serious ethical and security reasons to demand that responsible authorities and institutions should not get involved in such practices.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Thunberg, Gunilla C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Syllable prominence: A matter of vocal effort, phonetic distinctness and top-down processing2001In: Proceedings of EuroSpeech-2001, 2001, p. 399-402Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this experiment, subjects had to rate the "prominence" of each of the syllables of 20 versions of the same utterance produced by men, women and children at various levels of vocal effort. The ratings were correlated with measurements of the SPL of the fundamental, spectral emphasis, vowel duration, F0max and F0 rise from the previous syllable. Together with ratings of the perceived vocal effort at which the utterances had been produced, these measurements were used to obtain the possible contributions of vocal effort, prosodic distinctness, and vowel duration to the perceived prominence. Together, these accounted for half of the variance. This was compared with the possible contribution of the linguistic structure of the utterance, which accounted for slightly more of the variance. The predictions of a model based on this analysis came closer to the mean than the average subject.

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Anders
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Perception of vocal effort and distance from the speaker on the basis of vowel utterances.2002In: Percept Psychophys, ISSN 0031-5117, Vol. 64, no 1, p. 131-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sound pressure level of vowels reflects several non-linguistic and linguistic factors: distance from the speaker, vocal effort, and vowel quality. Increased vocal effort also involves an emphasis of higher frequency components and increases in F0 and F1. This should allow listeners to distinguish it from decreased distance, which does not have these additional effects. It is shown that listeners succeed in doing so on the basis of single vowels if phonated, but not if whispered. The results agree with a theory according to which listeners demodulate speech signals and evaluate the properties of the carrier signal, which reflects most of the para- and extra-linguistic information, apart from those of its linguistic modulation. It is observed that listeners allow for between-vowel variation, but tend to substantially underestimate changes in both kinds of distance.

  • 38.
    Eriksson, Freya
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Fasta uttryck i svenskt barnriktat tal2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fasta uttryck definieras i den här studien som ordsekvenser som helt eller delvis finns lagrade i det mentala lexikonet, vilket både innefattar idiom och mer flexibla uttryck där vissa enheter kan bytas ut mot andra. Användningen av fasta uttryck i vuxenriktat tal har undersökts mycket, och är något som förekommer ofta. När det gäller fasta uttryck i barnriktat tal har det föreslagits att det är en hjälp för språkutvecklingen, i och med att barnen får ramar att sätta in nya ord i, samtidigt som det precis som hos vuxna tros underlätta processandet av språket. I den här studien undersöks användningen av fasta uttryck i svenskt barnriktat tal under det första levnadsåret och vid 24 månaders ålder hos 10 förälder-barndyader. Syftet är att utröna både hur användningen ser ut gällande kvantitet och kvalitet och om det finns ett samband mellan användningen av fasta uttryck och barnens produktiva ordförråd vid 30 månaders ålder. Resultaten visade en stor variation i hur många fasta uttryck som användes, men fördelningen mellan de olika kategorierna var snarlik hos föräldrarna. Gällande ett eventuellt samband mellan användningen av fasta uttryck och barnens språkutveckling hittades inga signifikanta resultat.

  • 39.
    F. Renner, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    When a dog is a cat and how it changes your pupil size: Pupil Dilation in Response to Information Mismatch2017In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2017, 2017, p. 674-678Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Fagius, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Gullmer, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Rasmusson, Linnea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Predicting the consequences of own vocalizations in infancy2007Report (Other academic)
  • 41. Fahey, Richard P
    et al.
    Diehl, Randy L
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Perception of back vowels: effects of varying F1 - F0 Bark distance.1996In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 99, no 4 Pt 1, p. 2350-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a study of vowel height perception using front vowels, Hoemeke and Diehl [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 96, 661 - 674 (1994)] found that F1 - F0 distance was the best predictor of perceived vowel height for the phonological distinction [+/-high], while for two other vowel height distinctions F1 alone was the best predictor. Further, the [+/-high] identification function was defined by a sharp boundary located at 3 to 3.5 Bark F1-F0 distance. One hypothesis offered was that F1 - F0 distance had cue value for the [+/-high] distinction because of an underlying quantal region on the F1 - F0 distance dimension. However, the results are also predicted if it is supposed that F1 - F0 distance is a cue for vowel height only for pure height distinctions. The present study further tested these possibilities, using back vowels. The results allowed us to reject both as general explanations of vowel height perception. However, the results were consistent with a third possible explanation, namely, that phonetic quality is determined by the tonotopic distances between any adjacent spectral peaks (e.g., F3 - F2, F2 - F1, and F1 - F0), with greater perceptual weight accorded to smaller distances.

  • 42.
    Fougstedt, Mileydi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    SKORR: möjliga orsaker till fenomenet2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats avser att kartlägga förekomsten av skorr i det spansktalande Karibien. Dorsala realiseringar av fonemet /r/, dvs skorr är ett fenomen som inte är belagt i europeisk spanska. Hur kommer det sig? Jag har försökt utröna de möjliga orsakerna till varför bakre /r/ förekommer i spanskan i den karibiska övärlden trots att det inte förekommer i standardspanska. Uppsatsen har visst fokus på Kuba, men berör också Puerto Rico och Dominikanska Republiken. Syftet har varit att försöka hitta en geografisk korrelation mellan olika språk och etniska grupper samt förekomsten av skorr i karibisk spanska. Resultaten är inte enhetliga. På Puerto Rico verkar skorr ha spritts sedan 1980-talet. På Kuba har fenomenet fått mer uppmärksamhet sedan 1970-talet. Beträffande Dominikanska Republiken var underlaget bristfälligt och det gick inte att dra säkra slutsatser. Enligt befintlig litteratur har fonemet /r/ i Karibien åtminstone sju dorsala realiseringar fördelade som följer: [n],[R],[ʁ],[x],[χ],[h]och [ɣ], varav de sista sex här betraktas som instanser av skorr. Ibland förekommer skorr i hela områden och ibland fläckvis. Ibland korrelerar skorr med någon av hypoteserna, och ibland inte alls. Resultaten är inte entydiga, men i stort korrelerar skorr med det faktum att den spanska övärlden har haft stora bosättningar av franska och fransk-kreoltalare, de enda grannar som konsekvent har skorr i sitt foneminventarium.  Ingen annanstans i Spanskamerika har skorr belagts.

  • 43.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    From shrieks to "Stupid poo": emotive language in a developmental perspective2018In: Text & Talk, ISSN 1860-7330, E-ISSN 1860-7349, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 137-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to highlight and describe the forms of verbal emotive utterances that appeared in a longitudinal corpus of 11 Swedish children interacting with parents, siblings and friends. The children were in the ages 0;9 to 5;10 and were recorded four to six times during a two-year period. The verbal emotive expressions of the material are divided into the categories Descriptive versus Accompanying utterances. Descriptive utterances are emotive mainly from semantic conventions, whereas Accompanying utterances are emotive due to prosodic and contextual traits. The categories are illustrated and related to conventions, language development and cognitive growth. By classifying and labeling verbal expressions as emotive in different ways, it is argued that we can gain a better understanding of how language is used when intertwined with emotions, but also that we access a way to compare and investigate emotive language in a more thorough manner.

  • 44. Glahn, Esther
    et al.
    Håkansson, Gisela
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Holmen, Anne
    Hvenekilde, Anne
    Lund, Karen
    Processability in Scandinavian second language acquisition2001In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 389-416Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Gomes, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Investigating the tonal contours of Sawi nouns: A contrastive analysis with established tonal features of Palula2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores whether or not tonal contours are a contrastive feature in Sawi nouns. It aims to provide evidence towards the claim that Sawi has lost contrastive tones and provide a basis from which further research into how the use of qualitative vowel differences may have replaced the pitch accent system still found in Sawi’s closest relative, Palula. This was done through the analysis of a corpus of Sawi nouns with a computer program that visually stylizes prosodic and tonal features in audio samples of the language. This corpus was then analyzed for trends within itself as well as compared to known trends in the Palula lexicon. The findings support the original hypothesis that Sawi nouns do not have contrastive pitch accents, as found in Palula; and that further research may reveal a regular or semi-regular tonal contour accentuating the final mora of each noun.

  • 46.
    Gustafson-Capková, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Integrating Prosody into an Account of Discourse Structure2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a study of discourse segmenting is carried out, which investigates both segment boundaries and segment content. The results are related to discourse theory. We study the questions of how the prosody and the text structure influence subjects' annotations of discourse boundaries and discourse prominence. The hypothesis was that the annotations would be influenced by the discourse type.

    Two studies were carried out. 1) a study of boundary annotation, 2) a study of prominence annotation. All studies were made on four different discourse types, scripted and spontaneous monologue and scripted and spontaneous dialogue. In addition the annotations were carried out under two different conditions 1) based on transcripts alone and 2) based on transcripts together with access to the speech signal.

    The results indicate that the boundary annotations were less dependent on the speech signal than the prominence annotations. It seems that subjects have segmented on the basis of the text structure, while prominence to a great extent was annotated on the basis of the prosody. In the case of boundary markings the boundary context in terms of parts of speech differs across speaking styles, which is not the case for the prominences. A separate study of segment intentions was also made, and it was found that the interpretation of a specific intention, questions, seems to be arrived at primarily on the basis of the text structure. However, in some cases also the prosody affects the annotations.

    The picture that emerges indicates a distribution of labour between text structure and prosody, governed by the principle of economy. In cases where the boundaries were less well definied, as in e.g. spontaneous monologue, the pattern of the prominences was clearer. In cases where the boundaries were more clearly indicated, as in read aloud text, the prominences were less clearly communicated.

    The findings were interpreted within Grosz and Sidner's (1986) discourse theory. It is suggested that differences in the segmenting strategy originating from the interaction of text structure and prosody can be expressed as differences in the contributions from the different components of discourse suggested in the framework of Grosz and Sidner (1986).

  • 47.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Pre-attentive speaker recognition: A realistic possibility or Science Fiction?2016In: Abstracts for the presentations at the Campinas Workshop on Vocal Profile Analysis (VPA) to be held at UNICAMP, April 4–8, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In my talk I will present a study on neural processing of voices. The aim was to investigate the possibility of using ERPs as a measure of recognition of a familiar voice. The methodology however raises questions concerning pre-attentive processing of voices. I will present the study on voice familiarity and discuss the typical MMN (Mismatch Negativity) that was found in relation to voices, but not to familiarization. Acoustic analysis of voice characteristics in the current study as well as follow up studies with controlled exposure and voice parameters will also be addressed. I would like to discuss these issues with you, and also the implications of a possible MMN to familiar voices.

  • 48.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The language learning infant: Effects of speech input, vocal output, and feedback2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the characteristics of the acoustic signal in speech, especially in speech directed to infants and in infant vocal development, to gain insight on essential aspects of speech processing, speech production and communicative interaction in early language acquisition. Three sets of experimental studies are presented in this thesis. From a phonetic point of view they investigate the fundamental processes involved in first language acquisition.

    The first set (study 1.1 and study 1.2) investigated how linguistic structure in the speech signal can be derived and which strategy infants and adults use to process information depending on its presentation. The second set (study 2.1 and study 2.2) studied acoustic consequences of the anatomical geometry of the infant vocal tract and the development of sensory-motor control for articulatory strategies. The third set of studies (study 3.1 and study 3.2) explored the infant's interaction with the linguistic environment, specifically how vocal imitation and reinforcement may assist infants to converge towards adult-like speech.

    The first set of studies suggests that structure and quality of simultaneous sensory input impact on the establishment of initial linguistic representations. The second set indicates that the anatomy of the infant vocal tract does not constrain the production of adult-like speech sounds and that some degree of articulatory motor control is present from six months of age. The third set of studies suggests that the adult interprets and reinforces vocalizations produced by the infant in a developmentally-adjusted fashion that can guide the infant towards the sounds of the ambient language. The results are discussed in terms of essential aspects of early speech processing and speech production that can be accounted for by biological general purpose mechanisms in the language learning infant.

     

  • 49.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Syntaktisk struktur i svenskt teckenspråk hos hörande andraspråksinlärare: – En analys av ordföljd, bisatser och användning av verb2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien har den syntaktiska strukturen hos två grupper L2-inlärare med olika teckenspråkskunskaper undersökts. Deras resultat har jämförts med en kontrollgrupp döva förstamålstalare. Resultatet visar att L2-grupperna i stort sett använder samma ordföljd (SVO) som kontrollgruppen vilket kan bero på facilitering (positiv transfer) från svenskan som också är ett SVO-språk. Vidare verkar L2-grupperna vilja uttrycka ett verb två gånger i en sats – en så kallad verb-sandwich. Användningen av verb-sandwich minskar med tiden, och istället ökar de seriella verben – flera semantiska verb efter varandra. Resultatet visar också att ju större teckenspråkskunskaper man har, desto fler subjektlösa satser uttrycks. Med tiden blir många av referenterna i återberättelserna implicita i takt med att L2-deltagarna lär sig behärska constructed action. Vad gäller bisatserna tycks de adverbiella bisatserna utvecklas först hos L2-inlärarna, men användningen av dem minskar efterhand. Med tiden utvecklas även objektsbisatserna. Till sist utvecklas de relativa satserna som är svåra för L2-gruppen att lära sig eftersom man måste behärska de icke-manuella signalerna. Gruppernas bisatsutveckling jämfördes slutligen med en annan undersökning som studerade L2-inlärare av talad modalitet. Även här var ordningen av bisatsutvecklingen adverbiella bisatser>objektsbisatser>relativa satser.

  • 50.
    Hallonsten Halling, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Adverbs: A typological study of a disputed category2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion adverb is often treated as encompassing leftover items in a class that shows little consistency both within and ​across languages. Adverbs are less frequent than other parts of speech cross-linguistically, they seldom inflect, and they are rarely used as a source for derivation to other categories.

    This dissertation focuses on adverbs that denote properties and that can be used as modifiers within predicating expressions. The adverbs in this group are roughly equivalent to the traditional manner adverbs (She walked slowly). In their role as modifiers, these adverbs are parallel to attributive adjectives, which also denote properties, and are modifiers in referring expressions (slow train). Adjectives often also occur in the predicative function (The train is slow). This study compares adverbs to attributive and predicative adjectives in a sample of 60 genealogically diverse languages from around the world. Simple adverbs are attested in the majority of these languages, including in some languages that do not have simple adjectives. The comparison with attributive and predicative adjectives is carried out at three levels of encoding: the root, the lexeme, and the construction. The analysis shows that a great majority of languages have the same root encoding for adverbs, attributive adjectives, and predicative adjectives. Many languages have a class of lexemes that are used in the functions of both adverbs and attributive adjectives, here called general modifiers. On the construction level, where constructions are analyzed in their entirety, important encoding similarities between adverbs and predicative adjectives are unraveled. In a few languages, adverbs and attributive adjectives are encoded by the same or similar constructions.

    The attested simple adverbs and general modifiers both fall into certain characteristic semantic types. For simple adverbs, a core type is SPEED, which is found among the adverbs of most sample languages. The types VALUE, CARE, and NOISE are also found among the simple adverbs of several languages. For general modifiers, VALUE appears as a core type. These semantic types are further attested in tendencies of adverb lexicalization and in adverbial affixation across languages. 

    This dissertation shows that adverbs constitute a cross-linguistically prototypical part of speech, although they differ in many ways from other categories. The basis for this class, just as for adjectives, is the presence of simple lexemes that tend to have similar semantics in unrelated and geographically distant languages. Adverbs are thus conceptually no less basic than adjectives.

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