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  • 1. Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Ameka, Felix
    Atintono, Samuel
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature terms in the Ghanaian languages in a typological perspective2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This talk deals with the conceptualisation of temperature in some of the Ghanaian languages as reflected in their systems of central temperature terms, such as hot, cold, to freeze, etc. We will discuss these systems in the light of a large-scale cross-linguistic collaborative project, involving 35 researchers (including the present authors) and covering more than 50 genetically, areally and typologically diverse languages (Koptjevskaja-Tamm ed. 2015). The key questions addressed here are how the different languages carve up the temperature domain by means of their linguistic expressions, and how the temperature expressions are used outside of the temperature domain. Languages cut up the temperature domain among their expressions according to three main dimensions: TEMPERATURE VALUES (e.g., warming vs. cooling temperatures, or excessive heat vs. pleasant warmth), FRAMES OF TEMPERATURE EVALUATION (TACTILE, The stones are cold; AMBIENT, It is cold here; and PERSONAL-FEELING, I am cold), and ENTITIES whose “temperature” is evaluated.  Although the temperature systems are often internally heterogeneous, we may still talk about the main temperature value distinctions for the whole system. The Ghanaian languages favour the cross-linguistically preferred two-value systems, with water often described by a more elaborated system. An interesting issue concerns conventionalisation and frequency of expressions with a primary meaning outside of the temperature domain, for temperature uses. For instance, the conventionalised expressions for talking about ‘warm/hot’ in Ewe involve sources of heat (‘fire’) and bodily exuviae (‘sweat’). The Ghanaian languages often manifest numerous extended uses of their temperature terms. However, strikingly, none of them conforms to one of the most widely quoted conceptual metaphors, “affection is warmth” (Lakoff & Johnson 1999:50), which is also true for many other languages in (West) Africa and otherwise.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Migration narratives and (ethno)poetics2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Alm-Arvius, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Universal and Language-­‐specific Components of Cultural Metaphors2012In: RaAM 9 Conference: Metaphor in Mind and Society: Book of Abstracts, 2012, p. 43-44Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation examines two lexicalised compounds in Swedish with at least basically metaphorical senses connected with the Swedish Social Democratic vision and attempted practical construction of a modern egalitarian welfare state: folkhemmet: ‘’the people’s home’ and klassresa: ‘class journey’.

    We are going to consider the experiential and conceptual grounding of the compounds folkhemmet and klassresa i) within a specific, Swedish cultural and ideological discourse complex as well as in relation to ii) a set of presumably universal meaning dimensions or functions, and iii) some embodied, also presumably universal image schemas.

  • 4.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Engdahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Tengstrand, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Preceding non-linguistic stimuli affect categorisation of Swedish plosives2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception is highly context-dependent. Sounds preceding speech stimuli affect how listeners categorise the stimuli, regardless of whether the context consists of speech or non-speech. This effect is acoustically contrastive; a preceding context with high-frequency acoustic energy tends to skew categorisation towards speech sounds possessing lower-frequency acoustic energy and vice versa (Mann, 1980; Holt, Lotto, Kluender, 2000; Holt, 2005). Partially replicating Holt's study from 2005, the present study investigates the effect of non-linguistic contexts in different frequency bands on speech categorisation. Adult participants (n=15) were exposed to Swedish syllables from a speech continuum ranging from /da/ to /ga/ varying in the onset frequencies of the second and third formants in equal steps. Contexts preceding the speech stimuli consisted of sequences of sine tones distributed in different frequency bands: high, mid and low. Participants were asked to categorise the syllables as /da/ or /ga/. As hypothesised, high frequency contexts shift the category boundary towards /da/, while lower frequency contexts shift the boundary towards /ga/, compared to the mid frequency context.

  • 5.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Jantunen, Tommi
    University of Jyväskylä.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Kimmelman, Vadim
    University of Amsterdam.
    Oomen, Marloes
    University of Amsterdam.
    de Lint, Vanja
    University of Amsterdam.
    Transitivity prominence within and across modalities2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of transitivity as a scalar phenomenon is well known (e.g., Hopper & Thompson 1980; Tsunoda 1985; Haspelmath 2015). However, as with most areas of linguistic study, it has been almost exclusively studied with a focus on spoken languages. A rare exception to this is Kimmelman (2016), who investigates transitivity in Russian Sign Language (RSL) on the basis of corpus data. Kimmelman attempts to establish a transitivity prominence hierarchy of RSL verbs, and compares this ranking to the verb meanings found in the ValPal database (Hartmann, Haspelmath & Bradley 2013). He arrives at the conclusion that using the frequency of overt objects in corpus data is a successful measure of transitivity prominence, and that the prominence ranking of RSL verbs correlate with that found for spoken languages in Haspelmath (2015). In this paper, we expand on these intra- and cross-modal comparisons of transitivity prominence by introducing four other sign languages to the sample: Finnish Sign Language (FinSL), Swedish Sign Language (SSL), Sign Language to the Netherlands (NGT), and German Sign Language (DGS). FinSL and SSL are known to be historically related (cf. Bergman & Engberg-Pedersen 2010), while the other are not related, which allows us to look at both modality and relatedness effects in our sample. Of the 80 core verb meanings in the ValPal database, Kimmelman (2016) included the 25 most frequent verbs in his corpus. For our study, we have annotated all occurrences of these 25 verb meanings in a subset of the corpora of FinSL (2h 40min; 18,446 tokens), SSL (2h 5min; 16,724 tokens), NGT (≈80,000 tokens), and DGS (≈58,000 tokens). We annotate whether a verb occurs with an overt object as well as the type of object (direct, indirect, clausal, or a locative). Looking at the ValPal verb meanings with ≥5 sign tokens in all four new languages, we arrive at 12 verbs that are found in all five sign languages and the spoken languages (SpL) of the ValPal database – see Table 1. In Table 1, we see that there is a general agreement across languages – both signed and spoken – in how transitivity prominent a verb meaning is. Spearman’s rank correlation shows a significant (p<0.05) correlation between all possible pairs except SSL–SpL (p=0.091) and SSL– RSL (p=0.074), corroborating Kimmelman’s finding that there are patterns of transitivity prominence present across languages and modalities. It is interesting that SSL thus diverges from the other sign languages in this sample: this deserves further investigation. We also wanted to investigate the transitivity prominence as a property of individual languages. In order to do so, we took the individual languages of the ValPal database and measured each verb meaning in each language with regard to its transitivity prominence. This meant calculating how many of the verb forms associated with a specific verb meaning took a P argument. Note that this is quite different from calculating transitivity prominence based on corpus data: with corpora, we calculated the proportion of verbal tokens occurring with an overt object, and with the ValPal database, we calculated the proportion of transitive verb associated with a particular concept. We included the 12 verb meanings found across all languages (the five sign languages and 33 spoken languages). We then calculated mean distances across verb meanings and languages, and plotted this with multidimensional scaling in Figure 1. In the figure, we see that the five sign languages form a part of a cluster, suggesting either modality-based similarities, or similarities that come with the difference in data (corpus data rather than lexical data). On the other hand, sign languages as a group are not clearly opposed to spoken languages as a group, which implies that the corpus-based and lexical calculations of transitivity are comparable. Interestingly, FinSL and SSL are not more strongly associated than the other sign languages, which implies that their historical relatedness is not directly relevant to transitivity. In our presentation, we will present the results and the conclusions in more detail, as well as discuss the possibilities of using corpus data to establish valency patterns for languages in the signed modality.

    References Bergman, Brita & Elisabeth Engberg-Pedersen. 2010. Transmission of sign languages in the Nordic countries. In Diane Brentari (ed.), Sign languages: A Cambridge language survey, 74–94. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Hartmann, Iren, Martin Haspelmath & Taylor Bradley (eds.). 2013. Valency Patterns Leipzig. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://valpal.info/. Haspelmath, Martin. 2015. Transitivity prominence. In Andrej Malchukov & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Valency classes in the world’s languages: Vol 1 - Introducing the framework, and case studies from Africa and Eurasia, 131–148. Boston, MA: De Gruyter Mouton. Hopper, Paul J. & Sandra A. Thompson. 1980. Transitivity in grammar and discourse. Language 56(2). 251–299. Kimmelman, Vadim. 2016. Transitivity in RSL: A corpus-based account. In Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen & Johanna Mesch (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining, 117–120. Paris: European Language Resources Association (ELRA). Tsunoda, Tasaku. 1985. Remarks on transitivity. Journal of Linguistics 21(2). 385. doi:10.1017/S0022226700010318.

  • 6.
    Cunningham, Una
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    How much linguistics do language teachers need?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of linguistics required or available as part of an undergraduate degree with a major in a foreign language degree has varied through time and from country to country. Currently in New Zealand it is possible to graduate with a double major in in European or Asian languages without ever having come closer to linguistics than a grammar or pronunciation course. Language graduates may not have studied much in the way of linguistics during their degree study. This means that if they choose to enter initial secondary teacher education, they may be quite linguistically naive, despite years of language study.

     

    Current thinking on language education is that the combination of meaningful spoken and written input in the target language, and the possibility of meaningful interaction in the target language are enough to allow students to acquire communicative competence in the target language. However, all but the most radical believe that most learners will be helped by also learning about the target language – in effect learning something of the pragmatics, syntax, morphology, phonology and phonetics of the target language. Communicative competence is the goal for language education, and this paper examines the role of implicit and explicit linguistic knowledge and linguistic teaching in the learning and teaching of languages and the disconnect between language graduates’ linguistic understanding and language education.

  • 7.
    Engdahl, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Byström, Emil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Acoustic analysis of adults imitating infants: a cross-linguistic perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates adult imitations of infant vocalizations in a cross-linguistic perspective. Japanese-learning and Swedish-learning infants were recorded at ages 16-21 and 78-79 weeks. Vowel-like utterances (n=210) were selected from the recordings and presented to Japanese (n=3) and Swedish (n=3) adults. The adults were asked to imitate what they heard, simulating a spontaneous feedback situation between caregiver and infant. Formant data (F1 and F2) was extracted from all utterances and validated by comparing original and formant re-synthesized utterances. The data was normalized for fundamental frequency and time, and the accumulated spectral difference was calculated between each infant utterance and each imitation of that utterance. The mean spectral difference was calculated and compared, grouped by native language of infant and adult, as well as age of the infant. Preliminary results show smaller spectral difference in the imitations of older infants compared to imitations of the younger group, regardless of infant and adult native language. This may be explained by the increasing stability and more speech-like quality of infants' vocalizations as they grow older (and thus have been exposed to their native language for a longer period of time), making their utterances easier for adults to imitate.

  • 8.
    Engel, Hugues
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Accentuation et transfert en français langue seconde2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [fr]

    L’objectif de cette étude est de montrer l’influence des patrons accentuels de la langue maternelle (L1) dans les productions orales d’apprenants de français langue seconde (L2). Nous nous demandons (1) dans quelle mesure les apprenants de français du corpus étudié, qui tous ont le suédois pour langue maternelle, maîtrisent l’accentuation finale du français ; (2) si les différences entre les systèmes accentuels du français et du suédois peuvent expliquer les éventuelles « déviations » constatées en français langue seconde (concernant en particulier la durée de l’accent). Autrement dit, le matériel empirique examiné permet-il de montrer l’existence d’un transfert prosodique entre langue maternelle et langue seconde ?

    Les données analysées sont issues du corpus InterFra (Université de Stockholm). Il s’agit de récits réalisés par des étudiants suédophones de français en français (la L2 des apprenants) et en suédois (leur L1). Des productions orales comparables de locuteurs natifs sont également analysées.

  • 9.
    Grigonyte, Gintare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Schneider, Gerold
    From lexical bundles to surprisal: Measuring the idiom principle2014In: Lexical bundles in English non-fiction writing: forms and functions, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lexical bundles (LB) testify to Sinclair's idiom principle (SIP), and measure formulaicity, complexity and (non-) creativity (FCN). We exploit the information-theoretic measure of surprisal to analyze these.Frequency as measure of LB has been criticized (McEnery et al, 2006:208–220), instead collocation measures were suggested until Biber (2009:286–290) raised three criticisms. First, MI ranks rare collocations, which often include idioms, highest. We answer that also idioms are formulaic, and there are collocation measures which have a bias towards frequent collocations.Second, MI doesn't respect word order. We thus use directed word transition probabilities like surprisal (Levy and Jaeger 2007):3-gram surprisal =Third, formulaic sequences are often discontinuous. We thus sum over sequences, use 3-grams as atoms, and address syntactic surprisal.We argue that abstracting to surprisal as measure of LB and FCN is appropriate, as it expresses reader expectations and text entropy. We use surprisal to analyse differences between:

    1. spoken and written learner language (L2);
    2. L2 across proficiency levels;
    3. L2 compared with L1

    We test Pawley and Syder (1983)'s and Levy and Jaeger (2007)'s hypothesis that native speakers play the tug-of-war between formulaicity and expressiveness best, thus minimizing comprehension difficulty, according to the uniform information density principle.

  • 10.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Pre-attentive speaker recognition: A realistic possibility or Science Fiction?2016In: Abstracts for the presentations at the Campinas Workshop on Vocal Profile Analysis (VPA) to be held at UNICAMP, April 4–8, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In my talk I will present a study on neural processing of voices. The aim was to investigate the possibility of using ERPs as a measure of recognition of a familiar voice. The methodology however raises questions concerning pre-attentive processing of voices. I will present the study on voice familiarity and discuss the typical MMN (Mismatch Negativity) that was found in relation to voices, but not to familiarization. Acoustic analysis of voice characteristics in the current study as well as follow up studies with controlled exposure and voice parameters will also be addressed. I would like to discuss these issues with you, and also the implications of a possible MMN to familiar voices.

  • 11. Haualand, Hilde
    et al.
    Holmström, Ingela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    In the shadow of a myth? Public discourses on the status of signed languages in Norway and Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the similar approaches that frame the different contexts of the legal recognition accorded to signed languages in Sweden and Norway. It illustrates that factors other than formal legislation seem to be more influential when the status of signed languages and signed language ideologies are discussed. By comparing the legal recognition of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) and Norwegian Sign Language (NTS), including the general discussions related to them, it seems that NTS has enjoyed a stronger legal status as compared to SSL for two decades. This somewhat contradicts the story about Sweden as the first country in the world that accorded recognition to deaf peoples’ bilingualism and as a haven for people who use signed language. The paper presents a short history of the milestones in legislation (and the official recognition status) of signed languages in Sweden and Norway, and highlights some similarities and differences. Data focused upon include written documents like legal texts, deaf associations’ periodicals, etc. and interviews with former activists in the deaf communities in Norway and Sweden.

    The various enactments and legislation implementations show that Sweden has been the frontrunner as far as public recognition of SSL is concerned, but that formally, it appears that Norway has a stronger and more wide-reaching legislation, especially with regards to the right to NTS acquisition for deaf children and their families. The analysis shows that legal recognition is not necessarily reflected in how people discuss the status of a specific signed language. Rather, it seems that Swedish people have been more active in using the “story of legislation” in the imagination and rhetoric about the deaf community (Anderson, 1983), when compared to the situation in Norway. The similarities in legislation, and the continued differences in popular discourses and representations of signed languages, reveal that looking at the level and scope of legal recognition of a signed language in a country, only partially reflects the acceptance and status of language in general.

    Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined communities: reflections on the origin and spread of nationalism. London: Verso.

  • 12.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wiklund, Anna-Lena
    Restrictions on RC Extraction: Knowing men who sell flowers and escaping them2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Holmström, Ingela
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Shifts in attitudes towards ‘sign bilingualism’ due to a demographic change: The case of deaf education in Sweden2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A ‘sign bilingual’ education was implemented across Sweden for deaf children in 1983, entailing a visually-oriented bilingual modal wherein the languages of instruction were Swedish Sign Language (SSL) and Swedish (in the subsequent national curriculum revision in 1996, this became framed as SSL and written-Swedish). As one of the first countries in the world with such a curriculum, Sweden gained attention internationally. During the subsequent decades, a large majority of deaf children were enrolled in deaf schools with such a ‘sign bilingual’ instruction. However, since the 2000’s, a demographic change has occurred within the deaf community, due to increased rates of early cochlear implantation (CI) of young deaf children. As a consequence, deaf children (with CIs or other hearing aids) are no longer primarily placed in deaf schools; they are commonly placed in mainstream public schools or in schools with special programs for hard-of-hearing students, where Swedish monolingualism and speech instruction are the norm. These increased expectations regarding the children’s hearing and speaking abilities have led to a conviction that they should function according to hearing majority norms of society, rather than align to a minority approach, i.e. visually-oriented bilingualism with SSL and Swedish.

    Through the lens of postcolonial theory, this presentation examines the changing patterns in deaf education in Sweden, and is built on empirical data from i) semi-structured interviews with teachers of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students, and ii) ethnographic created archival data from three NGOs’ periodicals. The focus is on changes in DHH students’ language and communication, and attitudes toward visually-oriented education over time. 

    Among other things, our results reveal that DHH students’ language use and skills have changed from being primarily visually-oriented previously to becoming more orally-oriented during the last decade. The students also vary in their preferred communication forms and knowledge of Swedish and SSL. This has brought new challenges to the different schools and their teachers who are required to teach a highly heterogenous group. In general, this demographic change has challenged the idea of ‘sign bilingualism’ within deaf education in Sweden.

  • 14. Jantunen, Tommi
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Puupponen, Anna
    Aspects of the rhythm in Finnish and Swedish Sign Language2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate a hypothesis, derived from the intuitions of native signers, that there is a rhythmic difference between two historically related sign languages, Finnish Sign Language (FinSL) and Swedish Sign Language (SSL). We define the notion of rhythm as 'the organization of units in time' and presume that the rhythmic feel of a language is determined by the phonetic properties and events that are used in the marking of the areas and borders of temporally ordered units such as signs and sentences (Patel & Daniele 2003; Patel 2006). In previous studies (Boyes Braem 1999; Sandler 2012), it has been suggested that the markers of rhythmic sequences in signed language are, for example, temporal duration, punctual indices (e.g. head nods), and articulatory contours. Accordingly, we approach our hypothesis with three main research questions: (i) Are the signing speed and sign duration different in FinSL and SSL, (ii) Are head nods aligned differently in terms of syntactic units in FinSL and SSL, and (iii) Is the motion of the head different in terms of its articulatory contour in FinSL and SSL sentences? The study is based on narratives collected with identical tasks in both languages (5 Snowman and Frog, where are you? stories per language). The total amount of video material is one hour (30+30 minutes) and it includes signing from twenty (10+10) signers. All of the material has been annotated for signs, sentences and nods. The material also includes 3D numerical data on the head motion of signers (the yaw, pitch, and roll angles). The 3D data has been obtained with computer-vision technology implemented in SLMotion software (Karppa et. al 2014). Concerning question (i), we have not so far found any significant differences in the signing speed and sign duration of the two languages. With a pilot sample of 4+4 signers and 1100 signs per language, we have determined the average signing speed to be two signs per second in both languages, and the average duration of (the core of) the sign to be 0.27 seconds in SSL and 0.29 seconds in FinSL. Concerning (ii), the average number of nods per story was higher in FinSL than in SSL but both languages tended to align nods with syntactic boundaries: of the total number of nods, 81% in FinSL and 77% in SSL occurred on a syntactic boundary, and generally also at the end of the sentence (Figure 1). Concerning question (iii), our initial tests with Snowman revealed that, for example, the amplitude of the tilting-like (roll) motion of the head decreased similarly toward the end of sentences in both languages (Figure 2) but FinSL signers employed this particular type of motion more often in the marking of syntactic junctures than SSL signers (Figure 3). The preliminary results indicate some differences between FinSL and SSL. In our presentation we will present the final results and discuss them in detail with respect to our initial hypothesis.

  • 15.
    Johnen, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Intercultural Learning by Teletandem2014In: First International Meeting on Language Learning in Tandem: Past, Present and Future: Using ICTs for transnational, transcultural and transcontinental collaboration; Abstracts I INFLIT, Coral Gable, FL: University of Miami , 2014, p. 17-18Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Johnen, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Interkulturelles Lernen durch Sehverstehen im Portugiesischunterricht am Beispiel des Online-Video-Sprachkurses Conversa Brasileira2013In: Sektion Did -XIX- - Deutscher Romanistentag: Sehverstehen im Unterricht der romanischen Sprachen. Zum interkulturellen und kommunikativen Potential einer wenig beachteten (fremd-)sprachlichen Fertigkeit / [ed] Christine Michler, Daniel Reimann, Würzburg: Deutscher Romanistenverband , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Johnen, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Portuguese.
    Teletandem: ein Instrument zur studienbegleitenden sprachlichen und interkulturellen Kompetenzentwicklung2010In: Burr, Elisabeth / Potapenko, Elena (eds.): "SprachRäume" :: Leipzig, 15. - 17.9.2010 / [GAL, Gesellschaft für Angewandte Linguistik e.V. ; Universität Leipzig]. / [ed] Elisabeth Burr & Elena Potapenko, [Wuppertal]: Gesellschaft für Angewandte Linguistik , 2010, p. 122-122Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Johnen, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    The handling of face-threatening situations in interpreter mediated doctor-patient conversations: comparisons between hospital staff and family members as ad-hoc-interpreters2014In: NPIT2: Abstracts, 2014, p. 22-22Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Learnability as an explanation of language change in contact settings2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Accelerated language change in contact settings, especially language shift, has commonly been attributed to innovation during the second language acquisition process (Weinreich, 1979; Thomason & Kaufman, 1988). The role of second language speakers in contact-induced change is investigated quantitatively by Bentz et al. (2013) who find negative correlations between the proportions of L2 speakers and morphosyntactic complexity in synchronic cross-linguistic data. At the same time, evolutionary models and experiments have revealed learnability as a general force in language evolution (Kirby 2001, Kirby et al. 2008), suggesting that more learnable features (such as morphological simplicity or compositionality) would be favored by language acquisition in general and not only by second language acquisition. The aim of this paper is to use agent-based modeling and simulations in order to test if diffusion of linguistic innovation in a language shift setting may result from a general acquisition effect reinforced by large proportions of learners, or if special weight needs to be attributed to second language acquisition. The models’ predictions are compared to linguistic and demographic diachronic data from the ongoing language shift from Bantu languages to Portuguese in Maputo, Mozambique.

    To model linguistic interaction, I adapted Jansson et al. (2015)’s model of creole formation. Speakers interact pairwise and chose a variant of a linguistic feature based on their probability distribution of usage. Each agent modifies their distribution of usage based on what they heard. The simulation starts with a conservative linguistic variant fixed. After a round of interactions, population turnover occurs with some individuals dying and new first and second language speakers entering. New individuals are assigned with a probability of introducing a novel variant during a period of acquisition.  Experienced speakers accommodate less to learners than vice versa.  To investigate the role of first and second language acquisition, we test if a rate of innovation low enough not to spread in a situation with no recruitment of second language speakers, may result in the observed spread of reduced verbal morphology in Maputo Portuguese when demographic parameters are fixed to data on the number of first and second language speakers in Maputo over the period 1975-2007. The linguistic data comprehend recordings with 20 participants in similar circumstances from two time points (1993 & 2007), where variation between the conservative pre-contact variant (full verbal plural agreement) and the innovative variant (deletion of verbal plural suffix) is quantified. Results show it is possible to account for a stable low level of use of the new variant with standard population turnover, as well as to account for the diffusion of the new variant when the proportion of learners increases due to language shift. With parameters set to demographic data on language shift from Bantu languages to Portuguese in Mozambique, changes in proportions of learners are sufficiently high to account for the spread of new variants. The model where all learners introduce the new variant is a better fit to data than the one where only second language learners introduce the new variant. This suggests that learnability This qualitative deviation suggests that mechanisms included in recent models for replicator-neutral language change may also be important to account for contact-driven change where some variants are inherently favored.

  • 20.
    Jon-And, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Modeling the effect of learnability in contact-induced language change2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Language contact, especially language shift, is known to accelerate language change. This has commonly been attributed to innovations during the second language acquisition process. At the same time, cultural evolution experiments and models have revealed learnability as a general constraint in language evolution, suggesting that more learnable features (such as morphological simplicity), would be favored by language acquisition in general and not only by second language acquisition. I use multi-agent simulations to test if diffusion of linguistic innovation in language shift may result from a general acquisition effect reinforced by large proportions of learners compared to experienced speakers. Learners introduce a new variant, and experienced speakers accommodate less to learners than vice versa. Results show that this way it is possible to account for a stable low level of use of the new variant with standard population turnover, as well as account for the diffusion of the new variant when the proportion of learners increases due to language shift. With parameters set to demographic data on language shift from Bantu languages to Portuguese in Mozambique, changes in proportions of learners are sufficiently high to account for the spread of new variants but the trajectory of change differs from linguistic data. This qualitative deviation suggests that mechanisms included in recent models for replicator-neutral language change may also be important to account for contact-driven change where some variants are inherently favored.

  • 21.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Is Language Less Cumulative than Other Culture? Indicators of Breakdown and Build-up of Complexityin Pidgins, Creoles and Non-contact Languages2018In: Applications in Cultural Evolution: Arts, Languages, Technologies: Conference abstracts, 2018, p. 18-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study of cultural evolution, human culture is generally assumed to be cumulative, implying increasing complexity and diversity over time (Enquist et al. 2011, Lewis & Laland 2012). Recent studies suggest that evolutionary mechanisms operate differently in different cultural domains (Tamariz et al. 2016), but it has not been discussed whether all mechanisms result in cumulativity. Experiments have shown that compositional language structure emerge as a trade-off between learnability and expressivity (Kirby et al. 2008, 2015), but there is no evidence of languages generally becoming more compositional, or regular, over time. As all modern natural languages are expressive enough for human communicative needs and compressed enough for generational transmission, we suggest that linguistic complexity is 19 not currently cumulative but breaks down and builds up in cycles triggered by demographically determined variation in learnability and expressivity pressures. We focus on pidgins, a special case of natural languages where the expressivity pressure is presumably weaker and learnability pressure stronger than in other languages. We compare pidgins to creoles, where both expressivity and learnability pressures are presumably high, and non-contact languages where the learnability pressure is presumably lower, allowing for more complexity. We analyze compiled material from spoken and written pidgins, spoken creoles and non-contact languages and a parallel bible corpus, applying two complexity measures: the relation between word length and frequency, and pronominal morphology. We observe a smaller degree of exponentiality in the negative correlation between word length and frequency in pidgins than in their lexifiers, likely reflecting the loss of short and common grammatical words. Creoles expose a higher exponentiality in this correlation, which may reflect a newly built up analytical grammar. For pronouns, we observe expected reduced marking of person, number, case and gender in pidgins, increasing in creoles, being highest in non-contact languages.

  • 22.
    Kaufhold, Kathrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Postgraduates’ genre-knowledge development in ‘new disciplines’2015In: EATAW 2015: 8th Biennial Conference of the European Association for the Teaching of Academic Writing, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interdisciplinary and reflexive research approaches in the Humanities and Social Sciences increasingly influence postgraduate academic writing (Starfield and Ravelli 2006). Writing conventions here are often contested (Casanave 2010) and new forms of English for Academic Purposes pedagogies are required. This paper examines students’ development of genre knowledge (Tardy 2009) in the context of these tendencies: How do master’s students studying in interdisciplinary fields perceive and develop genre knowledge in the multilingual and interdisciplinary learning context of a Swedish university? What are pedagogic challenges and perspectives for a faculty-wide EAP course? The paper presents an ethnographically informed case study (Barton and Hamilton 1998) with eight participants who completed a cross-disciplinary EAP course. The data material includes regular interviews with the students, interviews with discipline-specific teachers, the analysis of students’ texts written as part the EAP course, sample texts introduced to the course by the students as well as their final thesis. Initial results highlight the role of students’ previous genre knowledge in the understanding of writing conventions for their new interdisciplinary projects; the students’ positioning towards their programme of study; and the uncertainties of conventions in relatively young disciplines, such as Fashion Studies, that are still in the process of formation. Thus postgraduate EAP courses can neither be generic nor discipline-specific but have to actively involve students as researchers of their own writing and include the analysis of students’ past writing and other texts relating to their current projects.

  • 23.
    Kaufhold, Kathrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Researching academic conventions in writing a master’s dissertation2014In: EELC 5: Linguistic Ethnography: Benefits and ChallengesExplorations in Ethnography, Language and Communication 5, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many master’s programmes include a dissertation as a form of assessment that contributes substantially to the degree classification. Especially in the social sciences, the dissertation is often student-led with supervisory support. In negotiating their own interests in relation to the requirements of their academic department, students frequently draw on a range of past experiences of academic writing. This presentation focuses on how an ethnographically informed approach can provide additional insights into the processes of understanding academic writing conventions in writing a master’s dissertation. The paper is based on an ethnographically informed case study of dissertation writing practices with twelve students from four social science-oriented master’s programmes. The data include regular interviews with students based on their dissertation drafts. To gain further insight into the complexities of the projects, second-level data were collected including supervisor interviews, thesis workshop observations, analysis of relevant guidelines and seminal literature for each dissertation. The paper discusses benefits and challenges of combining data from a range of sources. It reflects on the importance of clarifying ontological assumptions for the research design and analysis. Finally, the paper outlines the benefits of this approach, which goes beyond a textual analysis and puts the students’ and supervisors’ perspective centre stage. It reveals that while there are departmental requirements for dissertation projects, what these requirements mean in detail for each individual dissertation only emerges in the process of its production. Hence any normative understandings will depend not only on the academic values of the department and discipline, but also on the perceptions of a ‘standard dissertation’ that students bring to their project. While explicit rules on dissertation writing can be useful orientations for the learner, the interpretation of these guidelines is an ongoing process. In this constellation, supervisors have a role as cultural brokers and students as active learners

  • 24.
    Kaufhold, Kathrin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    McGrath, Lisa Jane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Combining ESP and Academic Literacies approaches in a research-based writing course for anthropologists2015In: Abstracts for PRISEAL 3, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academic literacies and ESP-genre approaches to teaching writing tend to be considered as dichotomous: Academic literacies is associated with a critical stance, voice and an epistemological foundation rooted in ethnography. In contrast, the ESP-genre approach is more concerned with the socialisation of students into disciplinary communities and adopts primarily a text-oriented approach. Our study builds on Tribble & Wingate’s (2012, p. 481) theoretical conception a “best of both worlds” model of teaching academic writing. The first author’s research and teaching background is firmly rooted in ESP-genre theory, while the second author has worked primarily in the academic literacies tradition. We report the results of our collaboration in terms of designing and delivering a research-based writing workshop for post-graduate anthropology students at a Swedish university. The project evolved out of a sense that a predominantly ESP genre-based approach was not optimal in terms of preparing students for the demands of research-based writing in anthropology. In the workshop, students engaged in both text-analytical tasks and ethnographically-oriented activities such as developing an interview protocol, and conducting interviews with more experienced students in their field. The aim was to place equal emphasis on the wider practices associated with writing, both epistemological and social, as well as the rhetorical and linguistic characteristics of texts in the discipline. The efficacy of the course design was probed via focus group discussions with the course participants. This paper will discuss the challenges and opportunities encountered over the course of the project.

  • 25.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Modellering av förälder-barn interaktion (MINT): Komponenter hos audio-visuella ledtrådar och deras konsekvenser för språkinlärning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerhom, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The Stockholm Babylab Multimodal Approach: Modelling Infant Language Acquisition Longitudinally from Parent-Child Interaction2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory communicative interaction is in general best analyzed with the help of simultaneously recorded visual information about discourse objects and the positioning of interlocutors in space. Access to visual information is even more important in parent-child interaction since this type of communica-tion is largely based on use of contextual gestures, gaze and imitation. The un-derstanding of parent-child interaction benefits further from information on brain activation involved in speech processing. This paper introduces the Stockholm Babylab approach to study multimodal language learning in typi-cally developing infants and young children. Our effort is to build a multimodal corpus that incorporates EEG (electroencephalography) data in the model. Ap-plication fields are social signal processing (SSP), improvement of diagnosis of late or atypical language development, and further development of habilitation methods for individuals with neurocognitive and language deficits.   

  • 27.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Swedish proper-name compounds in blogs: creativity, productivity and frequency2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 9-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate creativity, productivity and frequency of Swedish proper-name compounds following in the steps of Dahl (2003, 2008) and Kajanus (2005). These studies described several examples of Swedish compounding patterns based on a particular proper name that have manifested a gradual diachronic rise in the frequency of both types (by spreading to further stems) and tokens, i.e. have been gradually entrenched. Dahl’s most striking example is the explosive development of Swedish PropN-compounding with Palme as the first component, following on the important and highly salient event in the modern Swedish history, the murder of the Swedish prime-minister in 1986. In fact, many Palme-compounds are related to the “murder script”, with Palme often metonymic for the Palme murder and also for further compounds derived from it (by means of metonymical chains), cf. Palme+kulorna — ’the Palme bullets, i.e. the bullets found at some distance from the place of the Palme murder’, Palme+misstänkta — ‘Palme suspects, i.e. persons suspected of having committed the Palme murder’, Palme+utredningen ’the Palme investigation, i.e. the investigation of the Palme murder’, etc. In all these previous studies the data come from the Swedish press and novel corpus (86 mln words). Our research uses the Swedish Blog Sentences corpus containing 6 mlrd tokens from 46 mln blog posts in the period of 2010-2014 (Östling and Wirén. We focus on creativity, productivity and frequency of compounds based on several proper names that have been particularly salient in the discourse during the relevant period . We consider how the fluctuations in the type and token frequencies of the proper-name compouns correlate with the rises and falls in the frequency of the relevant proper names. Interestingly, there are very few highly frequent compounds – in fact, 1-2 for each of the proper names considered (e.g., Putinregimen ‘the Putin regime’, Zlatanboken ‘the Zlatan book’, Obamaadministrationen ‘the Obama administration’). On the other hand, each of the proper names ”generates” a high number of unique compounds, i.e. compounds that have only one occurrence in the whole corpus. Finally, there are also proper name compounds that are in-between the unique and the highly frequent ones, but this group is quite restricted.

  • 28.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature terms across languages: derivation, lexical stability and lexical universals2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 28-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this talk I will focus on the cross-linguistic regularities in the origin and development of temperature terms, such as ‘warm’ or ‘cold’, based on the data from about 40 languages in Koptjevskaja-Tamm (ed. 2015). The first question concerns motivational patterns typical for temperature terms, i.e., to what extent and by which word-formation strategies temperature terms are derived from expressions with other meanings. To give a few examples, some of the most frequent sources for ‘hot’ include, not surprisingly, such concepts as ‘burn’, ‘fire’, ‘boil’, ‘cook’, ‘sweat’, while those for ‘cold’ include ‘ice’, ‘shade’, ‘winter’, ‘brr’, ‘to become stiff’. In fact, the close relation between the conventionalised expressions for ‘warm/hot’ and those for ‘fire’ or ‘sweat’ in some languages raises the issue of whether the former do indeed belong to the basic or central temperature terms. In addition, there are many other sources for temperature terms. A fascinating group of questions related to the origin and development of temperature terms concerns their stability. For instance, do genetically related languages share temperature cognates? If they do, do the cognates have the same or similar meanings? What is the role of language contact in shaping the temperature term systems? It has been suggested in earlier research that central temperature terms are unusually stable, i.e. that they are typically «passed on essentially unchanged and with essentially no vocabulary turn-over across hundreds of generations of grammar&lexicon acquirers for thousands of years» (Plank 2010). However, the answers to the above listed questions differ for different languages, or for groups of languages. For instance, some of the central temperature terms across Indo-European turn out to be extremely stable, but these languages also testify to numerous instances of lexical replacement or addition of new temperature terms. The temperature terms in the two closely related Timor-Alor-Pantar languages Abui and Kamang and across the Nyulnyulan family are, on the contrary, strikingly dissimilar. Significantly, in all these cases, the meanings of cognates and their place in the overall temperature system of a language may be subject to significant variation.

  • 29.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    IJzerman, Hans
    How our biology predisposes us to an "AFFECTION IS WARMTH" "metaphor", and how our environment changes its anchor2015In: 48th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europea: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Alwin Kloekhorst, Martin Kohlberger, 2015, p. 83-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "AFFECTION IS WARMTH" is one of the most widely quoted "universal" conceptual metaphors. Cognitive linguists suggest these to be conceptual, based on frequently used English expressions as “warm words, feelings”. In this talk, we will reflect on their cross-disciplinary collaboration, using both the findings of a large-scale cross-linguistic study of the meanings and uses of the temperature terms in the world’s languages and the insights from (social) psychology. Our first question –inspired by Geeraerts and Grondelaers (1995) –was to explore whether these reflect universal patterns or whether they are based on specific cultural traditions. Their presence across languages indeed varies considerably: while some languages demonstrate elaborated systems of such uses, quite a few lack them altogether, and yet others vary as to which temperature term has predominantly positive associations in its extended uses (e.g. ‘cold’rather than ‘warm’). This disconfirms the idea that this conceptual metaphor is universal, and further confirms suspicions from social psychology, which has falsified another basic assumption from conceptual metaphor theory –unidirectionality (IJzerman & Semin 2010). In the remainder, we first explore these patterns, and then provide first explorations for why they are likely to differ across languages. Perhaps surprisingly, the edited volume by Koptjevskaja-Tamm (2015) clearly reveals a significant variance in using temperature metaphors. Australian languages, Hup (Nadahup), Mapudungun (Araucanian), and Ojibwe (Algonquian) basically lack any extended use of temperature terms, while the 84SLE 2015 Book of AbstractsOceanic languages in Vanuatu and Nganasan (Uralic) have very few. This is in contrast both to some European and other Asian languages, but also to the African languages Ewe, Gbaya, Gurenɛ, Likpe, Sɛlɛɛ, Abui and Kamang (Timor-Alor-Pantar), and Yucatec Maya. These latter reveal a rich inventory of extended uses pertaining to their temperature terms, ranging from the more common ones, to the idiosyncratic ones. The actual cross-linguistic variation is both striking, thought-provoking, and calling for more research. Insights from (social) psychology may provide us with further answers for why such cross-cultural variation exists among languages. The most important reason is likely that temperature metaphors reflect how people deal with the metabolic demands of the environment. Thermoregulation is one of the most metabolically expensive activities across the animal kingdom. Other animals (and thus also humans) help regulate the temperature environment when this gets too cold, making a comfortable warm touch seem to answer basic biological necessities in mammalian sociality (Harlow & Suomi 1970; IJzerman et al. 2015). The second part of this talk will discuss the biological mechanisms behind social thermoregulation, and point to how others keeping us warm can help us answer to basic metabolic needs (cf. Beckes & Coan 2011; Beckes et al. 2014). From that, humans have developed so-called "cultural complements" to deal with the demands of the environment, and we will speculate that different linguistic metaphors are reflective of different metabolic needs across cultures, which are implemented according to different cultural practices (e.g., differences in touch) and rely on different needsdepending on the environment (e.g., different climates). Together, we discuss how language can facilitate culturally coordinated metabolism regulation, and thus point to the role of different attention-driving functions of linguistic –not conceptual –metaphors in cultural coordination.

  • 30.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Antonyms and derivational negation: a pilot study of cross-linguistic variation2015In: ALT 2015: 11th Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology. August 1-3, 2015, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Abstract Booklet, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico , 2015, p. 85-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typological research on negation has mainly focused on clausal negation and on indefinite pronouns in the scope of negation (see Miestamo 2007 for an overview). Derivational affixes expressing negation (e.g., un- in unhappy or -less in powerless), have so far not figured in systematic typological studies. Zimmer's (1964) seminal study of affixal negation with adjectives is mainly restricted to a few well-known Indo-European languages; other families are given less attention. Semantically, derivational negation is closely connected to antonymy, which can be expressed by unrelated lexemes (lexical antonyms: small vs. big) or by means of overt derivational negation (morphological antonyms: happy vs. unhappy). Lexical and morphological antonymy do not necessarily exclude each other. E.g., Russian has regular triads of the kind bol’šoj ‘big’ – malen’kij ‘little’ – nebol’šoj ‘NEG.big’, and even tetrads, such as dobryj ‘kind’ – zloj ‘mean’ – nedobryj ‘NEG.kind’ – nezloj ‘NEG.mean’. Antonymy has been a popular topic in semantic theories and in logic (see Horn 2001). A central distinction is the one between contradictory vs. contrary opposites; the former are either–or (dead vs. alive), whereas the latter show a middle ground between the two poles (small vs. big). It has been suggested that languages have “canonical antonyms”, i.e. “a limited core of highly opposable couplings” (speed: slow/fast, luminosity: dark/light, strength: weak/strong, size small/large, width: narrow/wide, merit bad/good and thickness thin/thick) (Paradis & al. 2009). However, systematic typological studies of antonymy are lacking. This talk presents a cross-linguistic pilot study of antonymy and its expression by both lexical and overt morphological means. Our pilot sample includes 20 languages from different families and geographical areas. The data come from dictionaries and grammars as well as from a questionnaire sent to language experts. We focus on antonymy in property words (adjectives), more specifically in such forms that can be used as adnominal modifiers, with the goal to find correlations between semantic and formal properties of antonyms. From the formal point of view, we will pay attention to the type of marking (e.g., prefix vs. suffix), to the number of different derivational negators in a language, whether these markers can be used on other word classes than property words and how they are related to other negative markers in the language, primarily to clausal negation. Taking in semantics, we will observe what types of opposition (contrary vs. contradictory, scalar vs. non-scalar etc.) and which domains (evaluation, size, dimension, temperature etc.) are expressed by lexical antonyms vs. each attested type of overt morphological marking. Specific hypotheses to be tested against the cross-linguistic data include the following. Evaluatively positive members of an antonym pair are more likely to accept morphological negation (unclever vs. *unstupid). The existence of a lexical antonym may block the possibility of morphological marking and if triads (or tetrads) exist, there will be cross-linguistically recurring ways in which the meanings of the lexical vs. morphological antonyms are related to each other. Morphological antonyms built with elements similar to clausal negators in the language will tend to involve contradictory rather than contrary opposites.

  • 31.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Antonyms and word-level negation2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 74-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typological research on negation has focused most prominently on standard negation, i.e. the basic negation strategies in declarative clauses, and some work has also been done on other aspects of clausal negation as well as on indefinite pronouns in the scope of negation. Negation at the level of words, i.e., derivational affixes expressing negation as well as case markers with negative semantics, has so far not figured in systematic typological studies, but it has received some attention in theoretical literature on semantics and morphology. Zimmer (1964) discusses “affixal” negation primarily in English and a couple of other Indo-European languages, but also comments on a few non-­Indo‐European languages and even suggests some cross‐linguistic generalizations. Subsequent work (e.g., Horn 1989) is similarly restricted in its cross‐linguistic scope. From the semantic point of view, the issue of word­‐level negation is closely connected to antonymy. Antonymy and types of opposition have been a popular topic in semantic theories (see Horn 1989), where the central distinction is between contrary and contradictory opposites. The two types differ as to whether they allow a third possibility in-­between: contradictory opposites are either–or (dead vs. alive), whereas in contrary opposites there is a middle ground between the two poles (small vs. big). Linguistically, antonyms can be expressed by unrelated lexemes (lexical antonyms) like the examples cited above, or by means of overt negation (happy vs. unhappy, possible vs. impossible). Lexical and morphological antonymy do not necessarily exclude each other. E.g., Russian has regular triads of the kind bol’šoj ‘big’ – malen’kij ‘little’ – nebol’šoj ‘NEG‐big’, and even tetrads, such as dobryj ‘kind’ – zloj ‘mean’ – nedobryj ‘NEG-­kind’ – nezloj ‘NEG-­mean’. Despite all the attention that antonymy has received from semanticists, work in a broader cross‐linguistic comparative perspective is lacking. This talk presents a pilot study of antonymy and its expression by both lexical and overt morphological means. We will focus on antonymy in property words (adjectives), more specifically in such forms that can be used as adnominal modifiers. Our main interest will be in finding correlations between semantic and formal properties of antonyms. From the formal point of view, we will pay attention to the type of marking (e.g., prefix vs. suffix), to the number of different word-­‐level negators in a language, whether these markers can be used on other word classes than property words and how they are related to other negative markers in the language. Taking in semantics, we will observe what types of opposition (contrary vs. contradictory, scalar vs. non-­‐scalar etc.)and which domains of property scales (evaluation, size, dimension, temperature etc.) are expressed by lexical antonyms vs. each attested type of overt morphological marking, i.e. whether the linguistic evidence allows us to classify antonyms into cross‐linguistically relevant types. Does the existence of a lexical antonym exclude the possibility of morphological marking? Do the markers exclude one another on the same lexical item? Are there semantic principles governing such blocking effects? Can triads and/or tetrads be found in addition to pairs? Our pilot sample includes 15 languages from different families and geographical areas. The data comes from dictionaries and grammars and, most importantly, from a questionnaire sent to language experts. As this is a pilot study of a domain previously unexplored in language typology, our main goal is to sketch different ways of approaching this intriguing domain from a broader cross-­linguistic perspective.

  • 32.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperaturord: lexikal typologi och lexikografi2015In: 13. Konference om Leksikografi i Norden: Abstracts til foredrag, 2015, p. 7-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Temperatur tillhör våra mest självklara dagliga upplevelser, som vi gärna pratar om. Tänk på alla kalla, svala, kyliga, ljumma, varma och heta dagar som vi avhandlar i samband med det ofarligaste och vanligaste nordiska samtalsämnet, vädret. Ljummet kaffe och ljummen champagne väcker negativa känslor, kalla fötter kan leda till en förkylning, medan en alltför varm panna vittnar om att man redan är sjuk. Vi använder också temperaturbeskrivningar för annat – man förväntar sig inte någon empati av en kall människa; heta kyssar är knappast avsedda för ens barn; vissa klär bättre i varma än i kalla färger. Språk varierar dock kraftigt i fråga om antal temperaturord, vad de betyder och hur de används. Vissa språk skiljer endast på ’varm’ och ’kall’; andra tycks tvärtom ha alldeles för många temperaturord där svenskan klarar sig med ett. Språk varierar också i fråga om temperaturordens grammatik. Många språk har exempelvis inte några temperaturadjektiv alls, utom använder temperaturverb, ungefär som frysa, fast för allting. Slutligen är också språk väldigt olika när det gäller varifrån temperaturorden kommer och i vilka överförda betydelser de används. ’Varm’ och ’het’ kommer ofta från ord som betyder ’eld’ eller ’att brinna’, men ’varm’ på estniska, soe, är besläktad med sauna och kommer ursprungligen från ett ord med betydelsen ’(be)skydd’. Flera afrikanska språk har samma ord för ’varm’ och ’snabb’, ’en kall plånbok’ på japanska syftar på någon som är pank, medan aboriginspråk i Australien brukar sakna överförda användningar av temperaturord.Men kan språksystem variera helt fritt i fråga om hur många temperaturuttryck de har och vad de betyder, vilket grammatiskt beteende de uppvisar, varifrån de kommer och vilka överförda betydelser de har, eller finns det begränsningar? Liknande frågeställningar utgjorde grunden för det lexikaltypologiska projektet “Varmt och kallt – universellt eller språkspecifikt?” (Vetenskapsrådet) och volymen “The linguistics of temperature” (https://benjamins.com/#catalog/books/tsl.107/main), som studerat temperaturord i ca 50 språk från olika språkfamiljer och geografiska områden. I föredraget kommer jag att presentera de viktigaste resultaten av den tvärspråkliga jämförelsen och använda dem för att diskutera beröringspunkter mellan lexikografi och lexikal typologi.

  • 33.
    Kuzmičová, Anežka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Mangen, Anne
    Støle, Hildegunn
    Begnum, Charlotte
    Correlations between foregrounding, reading strategy and theory of mind2015In: PALA 2015 Creative Style, University of Kent, 15-20 July 2015: Book of abstracts, 2015, p. 76-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have recently been produced in the U.S. and Canada linking theory of mind (the ability to accurately assess the mental states of other people) to lifetime exposure to literary, especially stylistically foregrounded, fiction. The paper presents an experiment devised to partially replicate and further develop this strand of research outside the English-speaking world. Subjects (Norwegian teacher training undergraduates) were asked to read a short story while assessing their reading experience on a number of variables. They were also tested for general reading skills and, in two different sessions, for their theory of mind abilities. In addition, they provided personal background information concerning their reading behavior and attitudes to literature. One group of subjects read the original story, which was rich in foregrounding, while another group read a manipulated, subliterary version of the story where foregrounding was minimized. The foregrounded version was expected to correlate with a broader range of affective responses and increased scores on theory of mind. The paper offers a first analysis of the data with regard to these hypotheses.

  • 34.
    LaMonica, Clelia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Dealing with disagreement: Politically influenced impoliteness in news interviews2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Big Mamas, Little Papas and Milk Brothers: Kin classification and other semantic isoglosses in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram2017In: Book of Abstracts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hindu Kush-Karakoram, or the mountain region of northern Pakistan, north-eastern Afghanistan and the northern-most part of Indian Kashmir, is home to approximately 50 languages belonging to six different genera: Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman, Turkic and the isolate Burushaski. Areality research in this region is only in its early stages, and while its significance as a convergence area has been suggested by several scholars (Toporov 1970; Èdel’man 1980; 1983:16; Bashir 1996; 2003:823; Tikkanen 1999; 2008; Baart 2014), only a few, primarily phonological and grammatical, features have been studied in a more systematic fashion. Cross-linguistic research in the realms of semantics and lexical organization has been given considerably less attention, but preliminary findings (Liljegren 2017:143–148; Koptjevskaja-Tamm & Liljegren 2017) indicate that features are geographically bundled with one another, across genera, in significant ways, displaying semantic areality on multiple levels throughout the region or in one or more of its sub-regions. A number of semantic features are being investigated in an ongoing areal-linguistic study, in which first-hand data has been collected from speakers of most of the region’s many languages.

    A highly promising domain for research is kinship systems and the way in which their distributions reflect cross-community relationships. Taking kinship terms for one’s parents and their siblings as an example, a number of the region’s centrally located languages have a basic term covering both ‘father’ and ‘father’s brother’ (often lexically distinct from ‘mother’s brother’), with the latter meaning becoming lexicalized in combinations with qualifying adjectives ‘big’ and ‘small’, where big father is one’s father’s older brother and small father is one’s father’s younger brother. Similarly, there is a widespread polysemy pattern for ‘mother’ and ‘mother’s sister’, but again with ‘big’ and ‘small’ only used for ‘mother’s sister’. This pattern, found in a number of Indo-Aryan and Nuristani languages also reflects what has been posited as the ancestral kin terminology of Burushaski (Parkin 1987:165), the region’s only language isolate, while also being the terminology used in Balti, the nearest Tibeto-Burman neighbour. In contrast, languages in a southern belt instead uses a maximum differentiating terminology (F≠FB≠MB≠M≠MZ≠FZ), thus aligning itself with lowland Punjabi kin organization; and at the northwestern periphery, a cluster of languages, Indo-Aryan as well as Iranian, instead use an “aunt” (MZ=FZ≠M) and “uncle” (FB=MB≠F) terminology.

    Comparisons are made between the geographical distribution of kinship systems and those of a few other convergence features similarly related to the organization of entire semantic domains (particularly numerals, calendrical expressions, spatial reference and demonstratives), polysemy sharing, shared lexico-constructional patterns and area-specific lexicalizations. In a few cases, particular patterns or configurations cluster both with one another, with the presence of other linguistic features (for example rare phoneme sets, contrasting constructions and kinship suffixes) as well as with non-linguistic factors such as shared cultural values or religious (particularly pre-Muslim) identities and a long history of close cross-community interaction and intermarriage (Liljegren & Svärd 2017).

     

  • 36.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Competing forces and the emergence of areality: The Hindu Kush as a natural laboratory2017In: Book of abstracts, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The under-researched Hindu Kush-Karakoram region (NE Afghanistan, N Pakistan and N Kashmir) with its 50 densely situated language communities, representing 6 genera, provides unique opportunities for studying the many, often competing, forces at work in the typological fine-tuning of a selected geographical area. By applying Koptjevskaja-Tamm’s (2010:584) guidelines for areal-linguistic research, 5 linguistic domains (retroflexion, gender, alignment, numerals and spatial reference) were investigated – for a tight sample and partly by novel field data – and their respective micro-typologies were evaluated against wider distributions, as well as against Nichol’s (2003) stability predictions, each of the domains illustrating a different profile in terms of diversity, family-internal stability, cross-linguistic diffusion, sub-areality or inclusion in region-external configurations.

    A number of languages, particularly in the central–northern parts of the region, are characterized by large retroflex inventories. While retroflex plosives have a wide distribution in South Asia, regional languages in 5 of the 6 genera include an additional set of fricative/affricate retroflex consonants. Grammatical gender is present in four of the six genera. In Indo-Aryan, the region’s largest phylogenetic component, an inherited sex-based system persists but is more pervasive in the East, i.e. contiguous with the main Indo-Aryan belt of the Subcontinent, whereas it overlaps with an animacy-based system in the SW and has been entirely “replaced” by such a system in the NW adjacent to similarly gender-deprived or gender-less languages. A combination of sex and animacy as a basis for gender characterizes Burushaski’s 4-gender system, the region’s only language isolate, thus hinting at possible substratal influences. Ergative alignment is evidenced in 5 of the 6 genera. The distribution of particular alignment patterns, however, illustrates how sub-areas participate in a few wide-spread configurations that conflate in the region, see Liljegren (2014). Overt case-marking of patients characterizes the West, which extends to a large, Persian-dominated, area. Overt, tense-aspect-independent, case-marking of agents characterizes an area in the East, linking it to Tibetan-dominated regions of the Himalayas. Patient agreement in the perfective is a strong feature of the South, i.e. contiguous with the influential Hindi-Urdu belt. As for numerals, there is a dominance of vigesimal systems across the region, including 5 of the 6 genera, but in addition there is a distinct sub-areal distribution of numeral composition, with a consistent 10+n/20+n structure along the northern fringe, continuing into the Pamirs, a consistent n+10/n+20 structure in the southeastern parts (thus contiguous with the dominant languages of the Subcontinent which, although decimal, share this compositional structure), while languages distributed in a central west-to-east belt display a mixed (n+10/20+n) structure, see Liljegren (2017:143–145). Finally, the study reveals the presence of a common geomorphic system of spatial reference in a subarea in the West, whereas it seems absent in other parts of the region. These languages encode the inclination of the mountain slope as well as the flow of the river. While this system reflects the topography of the surrounding landscape, the emergence and pervasiveness of it seems linked to language contact, clustering significantly with a few other features (Liljegren & Svärd 2017) and coincides with the boundaries of an area that only recently came under the influence of Islam (Klimburg 2008; Jettmar, Jones & Klimburg 1975:394).     

    Finally, an attempt is made at characterizing the Hindu Kush in its entirety along a scale of diversity—homogeneity.   

  • 37.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hindukush-Karakoram as a Linguistic Area: Problems and Prospects2015In: Abstract Book: The 2nd Kashmir International Conference on Linguistics, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hindukush, Karakoram, and Western-most Himalayan mountain region – comprising northern Pakistan, northeastern Afghanistan and the territories of Kashmir on both sides of the LOC – is characterized by great linguistic and cultural diversity. The 40-50 distinct language varieties spoken in the region belong to various genera (Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman, Turkic and the isolate Burushaski) and a number of different languages serve as lingua franca. It is also a transit zone between the cultural spheres of South Asia, Central Asia, and  the Himalayas.

    On the one hand, there are linguistic features shared by a large number of the region’s languages (Bashir 2003, 821–823; Tikkanen 1999; 2008), in some cases as the result of prolonged language contact, in others – such as in the so-called “Dardic” group of Indo-Aryan – due to shared retention (Morgenstierne 1961, 139; Strand 2001). On the other, there is also a good deal of structural diversity. Instead of trying to simplify the picture by proposing another Linguistic Area (or Sprachbund), this presentation aims at outlining a more nuanced, fine-tuned, and typologically-enlightened, profile of this region, a region that I henceforth will refer to as the Greater Hindukush Region. Certain features are identified as macroareal (i.e. as characteristic of a much larger area which this region forms only a small part of), other features as linking features (i.e. linking a part of the region with a geographically adjacent area), yet others as essentially regional (i.e. Hindukush-specific), or features with a significant sub-regional scope. The framework and the terms used are largely the ones proposed by Masica (2001).

    Arriving at the present, yet tentative, “profile”, an empirical study was undertaken, whereby a substantial number of traits (phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical—many of them overlapping with those of WALS (Haspelmath 2005), the World Atlas of Language Structure) were taken into account, drawing from the author’s own fieldwork in the region, collaboration with several native-speaker consultants, as well as from studies undertaken in the past by other scholars. Among the features discussed are: a tripartite differentiation within the affricate and fricative subsets (Tikkanen 2008, 255), the emergence of tonal contrasts (Baart 2003; Liljegren 2013), the display and degree of ergativity (Liljegren 2014), the presence vs. absence of gender distinctions, vigesimal numeral systems, multi-dimensional deictic contrasts, shared derivational pathways in kinship differentiation, double-marked contrastive constructions, and the prevalence of complex predicates (Liljegren 2010).

    While the treatment is primarily a synchronic one, we will also have to assume several layers of settlement and highly complex patterns of language contact even in a distant past. In addition, there are strong indications that several ancient substrata (the proto-language of Burushaski most likely one of them) have made important contributions to shaping the present-day typologies (Tikkanen 1988, 304; Zoller 2005, 16–18; Bashir 1996, 203).

  • 38.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Micro-areality meets macro-areality in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram2018In: Book of abstracts / [ed] Olga Spevak, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high-altitude Hindu Kush-Karakoram region covering north-eastern Afghanistan, northern-most Pakistan and Kashmir, is for the Eurasian context particularly diverse with its approximately 50 languages belonging to six genera (Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Turkic, Tibeto-Burman, Burushaski). While it has been claimed to constitute a significant linguistic convergence area (Toporov 1970; Èdel’man 1980; 1983:16; Bashir 1996; 2003:823; Tikkanen 1999; 2008; Baart 2014) largely overlapping with a distinct religious-cultural sphere (Jettmar 1975; Cacopardo & Cacopardo 2001), relatively little systematic research has been carried out, often based on small, non-representative samples. Those studies were also largely limited to a few phonological and grammatical features.

    The present project aims at revisiting those claims by: a) using very tight sampling, b) applying a high degree of feature aggregation, and c) striving for high granularity in determining the nature of areality and long-term contact patterns in the region. While utilizing available descriptions, priority was given to obtaining comparable sets of first-hand data, gathered in five “collaborative elicitation workshops” arranged in various locations in the region with invited native-speaker consultants. The elicitation package consists of: a) a 40-word list, based on the Automated Similarity Judgment Program (Wichmann, Holman & Brown 2016); b) a list of numerals; c) a 96-item kinship list; d) a sentence questionnaire, based on the Leipzig Valency Classes Project (Hartmann, Haspelmath & Taylor 2013); e) a translation of the ‘Northwind and the Sun’ fable; d) the Pear Story video (Chafe 1980) used as a stimulus for obtaining a natural narrative; and, e) an abbreviated and slightly adapted version of Wilkin’s demonstrative questionnaire (1999). The resulting data sets (comprising 54 data points as of late 2017) were used as a source for exploring multiple features: lexical, phonological, morphological and syntactic. The analysis uses WALS-features, as well as a number of novel WALS-like features, as its starting point, but allows for discovering fine-grained distinctions made by individual languages, thereby allowing for higher resolution in typological classification.

    The features subject to study so far are e.g., the inventory and size of retroflex and affricate subsets, kinship terminology, numeral bases/composition, alignment patterns (case marking and verbal agreement), the presence and nature of gender/animacy distinctions, the presence and nature of spatial and geomorphic coding, basic word order, and the order of adposition and noun phrase. The emerging distribution shows partly contradictory results, but at the same time gives evidence to historical contact patterns in the central parts of the region while reflecting ongoing encroachment of surrounding macro-areas (such as the South Asian linguistic area and a Persian-dominated area of West and Central Asia) on the present-day region. A possible interpretation of those patterns is that different features reflect separate stages of ongoing fragmentation of an old “refuge” zone (possibly a continuous one extending throughout the entire Himalayan region (Nichols 1992:21)), in which the language isolate Burushaski probably played a non-trivial role (Hock 2015; Tikkanen 1988) along with other languages or language families now only detectable as substrata.

  • 39.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Multi-level lexical convergence along the Silk Road2013In: 46th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea: Book of abstracts / [ed] Bert Cornillie and María Sol Sansiñena Pascual, Split, 2013, p. 213-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This preliminary study, partly based on fieldwork data, partly on available descriptions, looks at lexical convergence resulting from language contact in the Greater Hindu Kush (northern Pakistan, north-eastern Afghanistan, and Kashmir), a region characterized by a combination of linguistic diversity (including Indo-Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman and the isolate Burushaski), a high level of multilingualism and by serving as an age-old transit zone between South, West, and Central Asia (Tikkanen 1988; Bashir 2003, 821–823). A few influential “culture carriers” of change are: Islam; a common Persian culture; poetry; and, in more recent times, media in which regional lingua franca-filtered English plays an increasing role. The lexical convergence can be observed on three interrelated levels: a) a micro-level characterized by shared internal semantic structure, b) a mid-level, whereby the structure of entire semantic domains display significant similarities, and c) a macro-level, with shared features of lexicon organization.

    The first level encompasses single lexemes across languages, e.g. shared specializations (Kamviri (Strand 2013): nuč ‘three days ago’, nutrí ‘the day before yesterday’, dus ‘yesterday’, strák ɡaaǰaar ‘today’, daalkẽ́ ‘tomorrow’, aatrí ‘the day after tomorrow’, aačǘ ‘three days hence’; Dameli (Morgenstierne 1942, 137–178, Emil Perder pc.): učoo/čoo diyoo,itrii, doos, mu(n)dya, beraa, truida, čoo/čooa ki, respectively), shared polysemy (Kalasha (Trail and Cooper 1999, 112): ɡríik; Pashto: axistəl ‘take’ – ‘buy’), and metaphorical extensions (Kashmiri: toon; Palula: šidáalu ‘cold’—‘hostile, unkind’). The second level is defined by semantic domains, and includes lexical relations between semantically related concepts (Khowar: ma oraru ɡoyan [lit. to-me sleep is coming] ‘I’m feeling sleepy’ vs. xaphosi parir ‘Xaposi sleeps’; Palula: asaám húluk dítu de [lit. on-us heat is fallen] ‘We were feeling hot’  vs. anú wíi táatu ‘This water is hot’; where the subjective experience is expressed as the stimulus coming to the experiencer) and shared derivational pathways, such as a participial ‘attaching’ marking the “manipulee” in causative constructions (Kalasha (Trail and Cooper 1999, 289; Bashir 2003, 823): a ísa aawái, ɡoník čhinawáis ‘I had him break the stick’; Kalam Kohistani (Baart 1999, 94–95): yä murād ā ǰämāl bakānt ‘I’m making Murad beat up Jamal’). The third level is probably the most interesting, as it facilitates lower-level convergence. One example is the gradual substitution of the single verb inventory by “new” complex predicates (Ladakhi: ban-coces (cf. indigenous satces); Indus Kohistani (Zoller 2005, 301): bʌ́n karʌ́v̄; Pashto bandawəl [lit. closed-do] ‘to turn off’, modelled on Urdu band karnaa). Other examples are the prevalence of co-lexicalized intensifiers (Burushaski (Berger 1998, 226–227): qhal-matúm ‘pitch black’; Gilgiti Shina: khutún šaróo ‘full autumn’, the first component often being a unique lexical unit) and the presence of cross-cutting pro-categories, reflecting multiple deictic contrasts (Kohistani Shina (Schmidt and Kohistani 2008, 97–98): paár ajóo ‘over there where I point’, paár adí ‘right over there’, paár asdí ‘right over there somewhere’, pér adí ‘over there (near, known but invisible)’, pér asdí ‘over there (out of sight)’; Kashmiri (Koul 2003, 914): kūtāh ‘how much?’, yūtāh ‘this much’, hūtāh ‘that much (within sight)’, tˈūtāh that much (out of sight)’).

    References

    Baart, Joan L. G. 1999. A Sketch of Kalam Kohistani Grammar. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies  Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics.

    Bashir, Elena L. 2003. “Dardic.” In The Indo-Aryan Languages, ed. George Cardona and Danesh Jain, 818–894. 1 Mul. London: Routledge.

    Berger, Hermann. 1998. Die Burushaski-Sprache von Hunza und Nager 3. Wörterbuch. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

    Koul, Omkar N. 2003. “Kashmiri.” In The Indo-Aryan Languages, ed. George Cardona and Danesh Jain, 895–952. 1 Mul. London: Routledge.

    Morgenstierne, Georg. 1942. “Notes on Dameli: A Kafir-Dardic Dialect of Chitral.” NTS 12: 115–198.

    Schmidt, Ruth Laila, and Razwal Kohistani. 2008. A Grammar of the Shina Language of Indus Kohistan. Beiträge Zur Kenntnis Südasiatischer Sprachen and Literaturen 17. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

    Strand, Richard F. 2013. “Richard Strand’s Nuristân Site: Lexicons of Kâmviri, Khowar, and Other Hindu-Kush Languages.” Accessed January 10. http://nuristan.info/lngFrameL.html.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1988. “On Burushaski and Other Ancient Substrata in Northwestern South Asia.” Studia Orientalia 64: 3030–325.

    Trail, Ronald L, and Gregory R Cooper. 1999. Kalasha dictionary with English and Urdu. Islamabad; United Kingdom: National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University ; Summer Institute of Linguistics.

    Zoller, Claus Peter. 2005. A Grammar and Dictionary of Indus Kohistani: Volume 1, Dictionary. Trends in Linguistics 21-1. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

     

  • 40.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Northwestern Indo-Aryan and the rise of diversity in the Hindu Kush-Karakoram2017In: Book of abstracts: SALA-33, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on Nichols (2003), this is an attempt at characterizing the multilingual Hindu Kush-Karakoram region (northeastern Afghanistan, northern Pakistan and northernmost Kashmir) in terms of genetic stability and structural diversity, and a further development of the micro-typology suggested in Liljegren (2017). It also addresses the issue of areality or sub-areality. The structural features surveyed include grammatical gender, alignment, kinship and geomorphic systems. As the dominant phylogenetic component of the Hindukush-Karakoram is Indo-Aryan, regional representatives of that particular group (of which the majority were collectively referred to as “Dardic” in the past) are the main focus of the study, but naturally references will be made throughout to languages belonging to other genera in the region (Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman, Turkic and Burushaski) as well as to Indo-Aryan in general. The features have been selected in order to represent (relatively) independent variables, each of them illustrating a unique (areal and sub-genetic) distribution, shaped by a variety of factors and competing forces at work.

    The inherited sex-based gender system largely prevails in Hindu Kush Indo-Aryan (henceforth HKIA), with most of the languages making a two-way masculine vs. feminine distinction in their noun lexicons. However, at closer inspection, these languages – in spite of their relatedness – display a few signs of significant diversification: 1. The pervasiveness of such sex-based gender is stronger (and perhaps further strengthened) in the Southeast than elsewhere, i.e. among languages spoken adjacent to the main Indo-Aryan belt. 2. It is missing altogether in two languages spoken in the opposite geographic extreme, i.e. the Northwest (as earlier pointed out by Emeneau (1965:68–71) and Bashir (2003:823)), and is on the retreat in yet another neighbouring language (all three characterized by an animacy-contrast of low complexity). 3. The Southwest stands out with a few languages that instead combine their inherited sex-based gender with animacy-related distinctions and thereby form highly complex agreement patterns.

    As for alignment patterns, the HKIA languages display a great range of variation (as laid out in further detail in (Liljegren 2014)). The diversity is primarily evidenced in the case marking of core argument noun phrases and verbal person marking properties. As many as six distinct alignment types have been identified, each reflecting contact-induced changes that can be attributed to three significant areas that conflate in the region: 1. A large Persian-dominated area overlaps with the Western part of the region, characterized by overt patient marking. 2 An area in the East, with e.g. ancient Tibetan influences, is characterized by overt agent marking. 3 An area in the South, bordering on the influential Hindi-Urdu belt, is characterized by patient agreement in the perfective.

    For kinship as a feature, the present study is restricted to the lexical items used for one’s parents and their siblings. Here, too a great deal of variation is displayed, with a total of six verified configurations. In essence, however, the distribution is the result of three competing systems (the remaining three constituting hybrids), each with a clear geographical distribution: 1. A maximum differentiating terminology, with six different terms (F≠FB≠MB/M≠MZ≠FZ) dominates in a southern belt, thus aligning itself with Punjabi kinship systems. 2. A pattern F=FB≠MB/M=MZ≠FZ is an eastern or northeastern feature, possibly reflecting the ancestral terminology of Burushaski (Parkin 1987:165) and the one used in Balti, the nearest Tibeto-Burman neighbour; if looking at the distribution of F=FB only, it appears typical of the languages spoken in an uninterrupted central belt, stretching all the way from the extreme Southwest to the extreme Northeast. 3. An “aunt” and “uncle” terminology (F≠FB=MB/M≠MZ=FZ) is found in the Northwest (consistently so in a single HKIA language), with obvious reflexes in adjacent non-Indo-Aryan communities in the Pamir.     

    Although deserving a more careful cross-linguistic study, a preliminary survey reveals the presence of a geomorphic system of spatial reference in a few of the HKIA languages spoken in a subarea in the West, whereas it seems virtually absent in other parts of the larger region. Languages in this subarea (along with neighbouring Nuristani languages) linguistically encode the inclination of the mountain slope, the flow of the river as well as boundary-crossing. This partly confirms Palmer’s (2015) so-called Topographic Correspondence Hypothesis, predicting that a language’s system of spatial reference will reflect the topography of the surrounding landscape. However, that the emergence and pervasiveness of such a system is further conditioned by language contact, is evidenced by the subareal clustering of a few other structural features –retroflex vowels, pronominal kinship suffixes and bisyndetic contrast marking (Liljegren & Svärd Forthcoming) – coinciding with the boundaries of “Peristan”, an area that until relatively recently constituted a pre-Islamic cultural sphere with Nuristan (previously referred to as Kafiristan) as its most prominent local centre of influence (Cacopardo & Cacopardo 2001: 249–250; Klimburg 2008; Jettmar, Jones & Klimburg 1975: 394).

     

  • 41.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The linguistic identity of the Greater Hindu Kush, a transit zone between South and Central Asia2012In: 45th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Bert Cornillie and María Sol Sansiñena Pascual, Stockholm, 2012, p. 187-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regardless of the particular view one takes on areality, there are a number of reasons for trying to characterize the accumulation of languages in the highland region between, or simultaneously belonging to, South Asia (or the Indian subcontinent) and Central Asia.  This region is, to borrow the words of one of the foremost experts on South Asian linguistics, “where conflicting areal patterns meet and interact, and many peculiar languages (‘Dardic’, Burushaski [a language isolate], the Pamir group of Eastern Iranian), at once archaic and innovating, find their home” (Masica 2001:225). To the aforementioned mix should be added Tibeto-Burman Balti, spoken in the eastern part of this region, and the Nuristani languages in the border region between northern Pakistan and Afghanistan, the latter now considered a third branch of Indo-Iranian (on par with Indo-Aryan and Iranian). Historically we will have to assume several layers of settlement and highly complex patterns of language contact in this extremely mountainous region, and there are strong indications that several ancient substrata (the proto-language of Burushaski most likely one of them) have made important contributions to the resulting typologies (Tikkanen 1988:304).

    In the present study a substantial number of features (phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical) are taken into account in order to arrive at a non-speculative typological profile of the region. The author draws from his own fieldwork in the region, collaborating with several native-speaker consultants,  as well as from language-specific studies carried out by other researchers. In an initial stage, an intragenealogical typology of the Indo-Aryan cluster, native to and linguistically dominant in the region (often, although controversially, referred to as ‘Dardic’, see Bashir 2003:822; Strand 2001:258; Zoller 2005:10–11), is established, by investigating a sample representing each of the tentatively classified subgroups of ‘Dardic’. This is meant to shed further light on the still ongoing but very challenging classification work. This is projected to be followed up by a more extensive cross-genera comparison of the same features.

    A number of convergence features that are of particular relevance to this region have been identified (many of them confirming suggestions made by Bashir (Bashir 2003:821–823) and Tikkanen (1999; 2008). Some of those are macroareal features that either characterize South Asia at large (or the larger part of it), such as the presence of retroflex stops and non-nominative experiencers, or large parts of Central Asia, such as a contrast between velar and uvular stops and the presence of a vigesimal numeral system. Other features are better described as subareal, some covering a substantial part of the region, such as a the presence of retroflex affricates as well as fricatives, contrasting with corresponding dental and palatal sounds, and the optionality of copula verbs in nominal and adjectival predication, other features characterizing more limited subsets of (often geographically adjacent) languages, such as grammaticalization of evidentiality and animacy distinctions, multi-differentiating deictic systems, a preferred order subordinate clause followed by main clause, the development of tonal/accentual systems, the use of co-lexicalized intensifiers, and a great variety in alignment patterns and in the display and degree of ergativity.

    References:

    Bashir, Elena L. 2003. “Dardic.” Pp. 818-894 in The Indo-Aryan Languages, edited by George Cardona and Danesh Jain. London: Routledge.

    Masica. 2001. “The definition and significance of linguistic areas: Methods, pitfalls, and possibilities (with special reference to the validity of South Asia as a linguistic area).” Pp. 205-267 in The yearbook of South Asian languages and linguistics 2001. London: SAGE.

    Strand, Richard F. 2001. “The tongues of Peristân. Appendix 1.” in Gates of Peristan: History, Religion and Society in the Hindu Kush, Reports and memoirs, edited by Alberto M Cacopardo and Augusto S Cacopardo. Rome: IsIAO.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1988. “On Burushaski and other ancient substrata in northwestern South Asia.” Studia Orientalia 64:3030-325. Retrieved January 4, 2012.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1999. “Archaeological-linguistic correlations in the formation of retroflex typologies and correlating areal features in South Asia.” Pp. 138-148 in Archaeology and language. London: Routledge.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 2008. “Some areal phonological isoglosses in the transit zone between South and Central Asia.” Pp. 250-262 in Proceedings of the third International Hindu Kush Cultural Conference. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

    Zoller, Claus Peter. 2005. A Grammar and Dictionary of Indus Kohistani: Volume 1, Dictionary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

     

  • 42.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    From left-branching to right-branching: Syntactic changes in the Hindukush under pressure from languages of wider communication2014In: Book of abstracts, 2014, p. 251-252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Hindukush languages spoken in the north-western regions of the Indian Subcontinent (particularly Indo-Aryan, sometimes referred to as “Dardic”), a variety of means are available within a complex construction to mark one clause as dependent on another. A subordinate clause may precede the main clause, whereby a complementizer is placed at the end of the subordinate clause: tu kíi baáanu thaní, khooǰóolu. ‘Where are you going? (he) asked‘ (Indo-Aryan Palula), or tu xató hatoɣoót doós reé, buhtuií astám,‘I was afraid that you might give him the letter’ (Indo-Aryan Khowar). A preposed subordinate clause can also be formed with a verbal noun, with or without case marker/postposition: nu ba asaám mhaar-anií the ukháatu de. ‘He had come up to kill us’ (Palula). Pre-nominal participials is another strategy, semantically corresponding to relative clauses in languages such as English: phaí, teeṇíi háa-tam čooṇṭéeli, rumiaál díti híni. ‘The girl gave him a handkerchief which she herself had embroidered’ (Palula). Alternatively, the subordinate clause can be placed after the main clause, in this case often making use of a complementizer ki (or something similar) preceding the subordinate clause: mhéeli i khooǰóolu, ki míi báabu koó. ‘(He) asked: Who is my father?’ (Palula), or, awá buhtaí astám, ki hatoɣóot doós reé. ‘I was afraid that you might give him the letter‘ (Khowar). In a survey covering an area from southern India through parts of southern Pakistan, Hook (1987) observed a significant pattern, whereby the order subordinate – main clause was gradually replaced by the order main clause—subordinate as one moves from the Dravidian South to the Iranian Northwest. While the survey did not include the Hindukush, Bashir (2003: 823), points out that left-branching (i.e. the order subordinate—main clause), like in Dravidian and in the Indo-Aryan languages spoken in their vicinity, is also characteristic of the extreme North of the Subcontinent. Bashir (1996: 177) proposes that left-branching in this northern region has come about as the result of ancient areal influences related to Central Asia, whereas right-branching (i.e. main clause—subordinate) and the use of ki is a feature more recently imported from influential languages spoken in South and West Asia. She further notes that the two constructions are used parallel in Khowar, and that the more recent construction may include the imported marker ki as well as the indigenous (a grammaticalization of ‘say’).In the present study, we investigated interlinear texts in a few Hindukush Indo-Aryan languages (Palula, Kalasha, Pashai, Gilgiti Shina, Kalam Kohistani), empirically testing Bashir‘s suggestion, and found that these, like Khowar, to a varying degree allow both constructions, with the left-branching alternative representing what seems like an older stratum of the languages, whereas the right-branching alternative most likely stems from massive Persian and, more recently, Urdu pressure as influential languages of literacy and wider communication. The distribution across different types of subordination within each language (Noonan 2007; Andrews 2007; Thompson et al. 2007), as well as quantitative differences between the languages in this regard, is presented and discussed.

  • 43.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vowel categorization correlates with speech exposure in 8-month-olds2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants ability to discriminate non-native speech contrasts attenuates, whereas their ability to discriminate native contrasts improves. This transition reflects the development of speech sound categorization, and is hypothesized to be modulated by exposure to spoken language. The ERP mismatch response has been used to quantify discrimination ability in infants, and its amplitude has been shown to be sensitive to amount of speech exposure on group level (Rivera-Gaxiola et al., 2011). In the present ERP-study, the difference in mismatch response amplitudes for spoken vowels and for spectrally rotated vowels, quantifies categorization in 8-month-old infants (N=15, 7 girls). This categorization measure was tested for correlation with infants? daily exposure to male speech, female speech, and the sum of male and female speech, as measured by all-day home recordings and analyzed using LENA software. A positive correlation was found between the categorization measure and total amount of daily speech exposure (r = .526, p = .044). The present study is the first to report a relation between speech exposure and speech sound categorization in infants on subject level, and the first to compensate for the acoustic part of the mismatch response in this context.

  • 44.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckenspråk i IT-stödd undervisning2013In: Lärarkonferens 2013 :, 2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenskt teckenspråk är ett gestuellt-visuellt språk. På sistone har det skett en förändring när det gäller undervisningsformer och analysverktyg för lingvistiska studier i teckenspråk vid Institutionen för lingvistik, Stockholms universitet. Att utveckla IT-stödd undervisning ställer större krav på videoteknik och ämnesdidaktik. I presentationen delger vi våra erfarenheter för a) webbaserad kommunikation via Adobe Connect och Skype, b) redovisning och inlämningsuppgift på teckenspråkoch c) digitala språkresurser.

  • 45.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Clark, Becky
    Birley, Dawn Jani
    WSI on Breaking Barriers and Empowering Deaf and Hard of Hearing Girls and Women in Sport2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Riemer Kankkonen, Nikolaus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    The interaction between mouth actions and signs in Swedish Sign Language as an L22016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we observed several patterns related to interaction and the synchronization of mouth actions and hands among L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) compared to native signers. Previous research on signed languages has examined the synchronization of mouthings and mouth gestures (e.g. the edited volume by Boyes Braem & Sutton-Spence 2001; Crasborn et al. 2008; Johnston et al. in press). Another line of sign language research has investigated phonological errors made by L2 learners of sign languages (adult learners of signing as a second language) across a limited number of languages, primarily in the use of manual parts (e.g. Rosen 2004) as well as in the use of non-manual parts (e.g. McIntire & Reilly 1988), not including mouth actions. The current study draws from both of these research areas in an effort to answer two questions: (i) Do L2 learners use mouthings borrowed from spoken language to a greater extent than L1 (native) signers? And (ii) how do borrowed mouthings and mouth gestures interact with manual signs? In other words, what are the distribution and the scope of mouthings with respect to prosodic constituents of SSL? We based this study on an analysis of an L2 Swedish Sign Language corpus (Mesch & Schönström 2014), which consists of 9:06 hours of data from 17 different L2 signers, and a control group of 3 deaf native L1 signers who provided 0:34 hours of video. For the analysis, we sampled data consisting of various materials (interviews, picture and video retellings) from six L2 learners and compared it to parallel data from the control group. With respect to question (i), our analysis revealed a greater use of mouthings borrowed from spoken Swedish among the L2 group, and for (ii), we found a lack of prosodic features in spreading/interaction between mouthings and signs in SSL as an L2. Compared to the L1 control group, L2 learners either overused or avoided mouthing. Among L2 speakers, our analysis also revealed that Swedish function words (e.g. som ‘as’) often appeared as mouthings without corresponding manual signs, thus being articulated simultaneously with a “mismatched” sign (as in Example 1). Furthermore, the interaction of signs and mouthing was often dependent on Swedish mouthing: whereas L1 signers produced the pattern in Example 2, in which mouthing belonging to the first unit spread to the second unit, the L2 learners’ mouthings often followed a strict 1-to-1 pattern, in which mouthings accompanied single manual signs and rarely spread across sign boundaries. As shown in this study, linguistic factors impacting SSL as an L2 include bilingualism and different modalities, i.e. how mouthing and signs interact. This has implications for L2 teaching, in how L2 learners should be taught to use “unvoiced” articulations of spoken words with manual signs. For future research, it would be useful to compare these results with those of deaf people who are late learners of SSL, since they rarely have a spoken language as an L1 (and thus lack that type of interference).

  • 47.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Constructions and paradigms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The marking of nominal participants under negation2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    What is a corpus and why are corpora important tools?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    En korpusstudie om multimodal synkroni i tidig ordinlärning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöker vi synkroni i tidig multimodal interaktion mellan föräldrar och barn. Med synkroni menas här återkommande mönster eller strukturella regelbundenheter (vad gäller ord, prosodi, blickriktning, gester och handlingar) som kan reducera komplexitet i språkinlärning.

    Data består av inspelningar av fem longitudinella dyader med två barn (0;7-2;7 år) och deras föräldrar. Inspelningarna transkriberas och annoteras med grundtonsfrekvens, blickriktning, gester och hantering av objekt. Vi undersöker synkroni genom att studera samtliga omnämnanden av två valda objekt (två dockor). För varje omnämnande undersöks grundtonsfrekvens och om omnämnandet kombineras med att den vuxne/barnet tittar på, pekar mot eller rör objektet.

    Man tänker sig att barnet använder sig av grundläggande perceptuella processer för att ta fasta på mönster och regelbundenheter i interaktionen med den vuxne, både i den akustiska signalen men också i den fysiska omgivningen (Gogate & Hollich, 2010). Den vuxne är dessutom benägen att framhäva den språkliga strukturen i interaktion med barnet, t ex genom att den vuxne talar om ett objekt och samtidigt visar objektet för barnet eller låter barnet känna på objektet. Denna synkroniserade multimodala input blir en hjälp för barnet att strukturera och sortera talsignalen och göra kopplingar mellan ord och objekt. I den här studien vill vi försöka fånga den här typen av multimodal synkroni genom att studera två specifika målord och hur interaktionen ser ut just kring dessa ord. Vi tänker oss att regelbundenheter vad gäller prosodi, blickriktningar och gester kommer att vara mer synkroniserade när barnet är mindre och målorden nya, än när barnen är äldre och målorden bekanta.

    Studien är del av ett projekt där vi försöker förklara tidig språkinlärning utifrån generella sociala och kognitiva förmågor. Genom att studera tidig förälder-barn-interaktion vill vi undersöka hur språkliga konstruktioner växer fram, vilka funktioner de har och hur de korrelerar med andra stimuli i barnets omgivning.

    Gogate, L., Hollich, G. 2010. Invariance detection within an interactive system: A perceptual gateway to language development. Psychological Review 117(2), 496-516.

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