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  • 1. Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Ameka, Felix
    Atintono, Samuel
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature terms in the Ghanaian languages in a typological perspective2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This talk deals with the conceptualisation of temperature in some of the Ghanaian languages as reflected in their systems of central temperature terms, such as hot, cold, to freeze, etc. We will discuss these systems in the light of a large-scale cross-linguistic collaborative project, involving 35 researchers (including the present authors) and covering more than 50 genetically, areally and typologically diverse languages (Koptjevskaja-Tamm ed. 2015). The key questions addressed here are how the different languages carve up the temperature domain by means of their linguistic expressions, and how the temperature expressions are used outside of the temperature domain. Languages cut up the temperature domain among their expressions according to three main dimensions: TEMPERATURE VALUES (e.g., warming vs. cooling temperatures, or excessive heat vs. pleasant warmth), FRAMES OF TEMPERATURE EVALUATION (TACTILE, The stones are cold; AMBIENT, It is cold here; and PERSONAL-FEELING, I am cold), and ENTITIES whose “temperature” is evaluated.  Although the temperature systems are often internally heterogeneous, we may still talk about the main temperature value distinctions for the whole system. The Ghanaian languages favour the cross-linguistically preferred two-value systems, with water often described by a more elaborated system. An interesting issue concerns conventionalisation and frequency of expressions with a primary meaning outside of the temperature domain, for temperature uses. For instance, the conventionalised expressions for talking about ‘warm/hot’ in Ewe involve sources of heat (‘fire’) and bodily exuviae (‘sweat’). The Ghanaian languages often manifest numerous extended uses of their temperature terms. However, strikingly, none of them conforms to one of the most widely quoted conceptual metaphors, “affection is warmth” (Lakoff & Johnson 1999:50), which is also true for many other languages in (West) Africa and otherwise.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Katrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Migration narratives and (ethno)poetics2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Bernal, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    “Lo primero que tendría que hacer el Coletas es frecuentar más su lavado”: Ridiculización y fustigación como posicionamiento en los medios ante la imagen de Pablo Iglesias, líder de Podemos2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [es]

    El panorama político español está siendo testigo en los últimos meses de una situación convulsa propiciada por la aparición de Podemos como partido político que en solo cuatro meses avanzó de su creación en enero de 2014 a la obtención de cinco escaños en las elecciones al Parlamento Europeo de mayo de 2014, y que sigue subiendo en las medidas de intención de voto (CIS, julio de 2014).

    Podemos nació, desde posturas de la izquierda anticapitalista, como una fuerza de participación ciudadana a través de Círculos que van conformando su programa. Frente a este nuevo actor en el panorama político español, el posicionamiento discursivo elegido por parte de representantes tanto de la política como de los medios de comunicación, ambos mayoritariamente con orientación ideológica de derechas, es la presentación de la imagen de Pablo Iglesias, líder de Podemos, desde el escarnio y la ridiculización. Así, se ataca a su imagen personal desde el apodo despectivo “El Coletas”, por llevar el pelo largo recogido, se hacen comentarios que afean su aseo personal (larazón.es), se le llama “miserable” (debate televisivo Al rojo vivo) o, como es el caso de Esperanza Aguirre, expresidenta del PP de la Comunidad de Madrid, se dirige en una columna de opinión (abc.es) a la imagen política estableciendo paralelismos con las campañas informativas de Goebbels. Se ve intrincado así lo político y lo periodístico que tiene efecto en la arena política, tanto es así que Podemos, sintiéndose objeto de una campaña de hostigamiento y difamación que ha llegado a vincularlo con el terrorismo, (www.podemos.info) ha acudido a acciones legales, con demandas a Aguirre y a Eduardo Inda, del diario El Mundo.

    En este trabajo me propongo analizar diferentes tipos de discurso de la escena mediática (Charadeau 2005), como columnas de opinión y extractos de debates televisivos, donde me centraré en las actividades de imagen (Hernández Flores 2013), o, más bien, de ataque a la imagen personal de Pablo Iglesias como muestra de una descortesía exacerbada (Kaul de Marlangeon 2005) basada en insultos (Bolívar, 2005) que persigue un fin político ulterior, en lo que se podría llamar descortesía ideológica, esto es, el descrédito de la izquierda por parte de la derecha.

  • 4.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Engdahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Tengstrand, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Preceding non-linguistic stimuli affect categorisation of Swedish plosives2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception is highly context-dependent. Sounds preceding speech stimuli affect how listeners categorise the stimuli, regardless of whether the context consists of speech or non-speech. This effect is acoustically contrastive; a preceding context with high-frequency acoustic energy tends to skew categorisation towards speech sounds possessing lower-frequency acoustic energy and vice versa (Mann, 1980; Holt, Lotto, Kluender, 2000; Holt, 2005). Partially replicating Holt's study from 2005, the present study investigates the effect of non-linguistic contexts in different frequency bands on speech categorisation. Adult participants (n=15) were exposed to Swedish syllables from a speech continuum ranging from /da/ to /ga/ varying in the onset frequencies of the second and third formants in equal steps. Contexts preceding the speech stimuli consisted of sequences of sine tones distributed in different frequency bands: high, mid and low. Participants were asked to categorise the syllables as /da/ or /ga/. As hypothesised, high frequency contexts shift the category boundary towards /da/, while lower frequency contexts shift the boundary towards /ga/, compared to the mid frequency context.

  • 5.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Jantunen, Tommi
    University of Jyväskylä.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Kimmelman, Vadim
    University of Amsterdam.
    Oomen, Marloes
    University of Amsterdam.
    de Lint, Vanja
    University of Amsterdam.
    Transitivity prominence within and across modalities2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of transitivity as a scalar phenomenon is well known (e.g., Hopper & Thompson 1980; Tsunoda 1985; Haspelmath 2015). However, as with most areas of linguistic study, it has been almost exclusively studied with a focus on spoken languages. A rare exception to this is Kimmelman (2016), who investigates transitivity in Russian Sign Language (RSL) on the basis of corpus data. Kimmelman attempts to establish a transitivity prominence hierarchy of RSL verbs, and compares this ranking to the verb meanings found in the ValPal database (Hartmann, Haspelmath & Bradley 2013). He arrives at the conclusion that using the frequency of overt objects in corpus data is a successful measure of transitivity prominence, and that the prominence ranking of RSL verbs correlate with that found for spoken languages in Haspelmath (2015). In this paper, we expand on these intra- and cross-modal comparisons of transitivity prominence by introducing four other sign languages to the sample: Finnish Sign Language (FinSL), Swedish Sign Language (SSL), Sign Language to the Netherlands (NGT), and German Sign Language (DGS). FinSL and SSL are known to be historically related (cf. Bergman & Engberg-Pedersen 2010), while the other are not related, which allows us to look at both modality and relatedness effects in our sample. Of the 80 core verb meanings in the ValPal database, Kimmelman (2016) included the 25 most frequent verbs in his corpus. For our study, we have annotated all occurrences of these 25 verb meanings in a subset of the corpora of FinSL (2h 40min; 18,446 tokens), SSL (2h 5min; 16,724 tokens), NGT (≈80,000 tokens), and DGS (≈58,000 tokens). We annotate whether a verb occurs with an overt object as well as the type of object (direct, indirect, clausal, or a locative). Looking at the ValPal verb meanings with ≥5 sign tokens in all four new languages, we arrive at 12 verbs that are found in all five sign languages and the spoken languages (SpL) of the ValPal database – see Table 1. In Table 1, we see that there is a general agreement across languages – both signed and spoken – in how transitivity prominent a verb meaning is. Spearman’s rank correlation shows a significant (p<0.05) correlation between all possible pairs except SSL–SpL (p=0.091) and SSL– RSL (p=0.074), corroborating Kimmelman’s finding that there are patterns of transitivity prominence present across languages and modalities. It is interesting that SSL thus diverges from the other sign languages in this sample: this deserves further investigation. We also wanted to investigate the transitivity prominence as a property of individual languages. In order to do so, we took the individual languages of the ValPal database and measured each verb meaning in each language with regard to its transitivity prominence. This meant calculating how many of the verb forms associated with a specific verb meaning took a P argument. Note that this is quite different from calculating transitivity prominence based on corpus data: with corpora, we calculated the proportion of verbal tokens occurring with an overt object, and with the ValPal database, we calculated the proportion of transitive verb associated with a particular concept. We included the 12 verb meanings found across all languages (the five sign languages and 33 spoken languages). We then calculated mean distances across verb meanings and languages, and plotted this with multidimensional scaling in Figure 1. In the figure, we see that the five sign languages form a part of a cluster, suggesting either modality-based similarities, or similarities that come with the difference in data (corpus data rather than lexical data). On the other hand, sign languages as a group are not clearly opposed to spoken languages as a group, which implies that the corpus-based and lexical calculations of transitivity are comparable. Interestingly, FinSL and SSL are not more strongly associated than the other sign languages, which implies that their historical relatedness is not directly relevant to transitivity. In our presentation, we will present the results and the conclusions in more detail, as well as discuss the possibilities of using corpus data to establish valency patterns for languages in the signed modality.

    References Bergman, Brita & Elisabeth Engberg-Pedersen. 2010. Transmission of sign languages in the Nordic countries. In Diane Brentari (ed.), Sign languages: A Cambridge language survey, 74–94. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Hartmann, Iren, Martin Haspelmath & Taylor Bradley (eds.). 2013. Valency Patterns Leipzig. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://valpal.info/. Haspelmath, Martin. 2015. Transitivity prominence. In Andrej Malchukov & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Valency classes in the world’s languages: Vol 1 - Introducing the framework, and case studies from Africa and Eurasia, 131–148. Boston, MA: De Gruyter Mouton. Hopper, Paul J. & Sandra A. Thompson. 1980. Transitivity in grammar and discourse. Language 56(2). 251–299. Kimmelman, Vadim. 2016. Transitivity in RSL: A corpus-based account. In Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen & Johanna Mesch (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining, 117–120. Paris: European Language Resources Association (ELRA). Tsunoda, Tasaku. 1985. Remarks on transitivity. Journal of Linguistics 21(2). 385. doi:10.1017/S0022226700010318.

  • 6.
    Cunningham, Una
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    How much linguistics do language teachers need?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of linguistics required or available as part of an undergraduate degree with a major in a foreign language degree has varied through time and from country to country. Currently in New Zealand it is possible to graduate with a double major in in European or Asian languages without ever having come closer to linguistics than a grammar or pronunciation course. Language graduates may not have studied much in the way of linguistics during their degree study. This means that if they choose to enter initial secondary teacher education, they may be quite linguistically naive, despite years of language study.

     

    Current thinking on language education is that the combination of meaningful spoken and written input in the target language, and the possibility of meaningful interaction in the target language are enough to allow students to acquire communicative competence in the target language. However, all but the most radical believe that most learners will be helped by also learning about the target language – in effect learning something of the pragmatics, syntax, morphology, phonology and phonetics of the target language. Communicative competence is the goal for language education, and this paper examines the role of implicit and explicit linguistic knowledge and linguistic teaching in the learning and teaching of languages and the disconnect between language graduates’ linguistic understanding and language education.

  • 7.
    Engdahl, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Byström, Emil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Acoustic analysis of adults imitating infants: a cross-linguistic perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates adult imitations of infant vocalizations in a cross-linguistic perspective. Japanese-learning and Swedish-learning infants were recorded at ages 16-21 and 78-79 weeks. Vowel-like utterances (n=210) were selected from the recordings and presented to Japanese (n=3) and Swedish (n=3) adults. The adults were asked to imitate what they heard, simulating a spontaneous feedback situation between caregiver and infant. Formant data (F1 and F2) was extracted from all utterances and validated by comparing original and formant re-synthesized utterances. The data was normalized for fundamental frequency and time, and the accumulated spectral difference was calculated between each infant utterance and each imitation of that utterance. The mean spectral difference was calculated and compared, grouped by native language of infant and adult, as well as age of the infant. Preliminary results show smaller spectral difference in the imitations of older infants compared to imitations of the younger group, regardless of infant and adult native language. This may be explained by the increasing stability and more speech-like quality of infants' vocalizations as they grow older (and thus have been exposed to their native language for a longer period of time), making their utterances easier for adults to imitate.

  • 8.
    Engel, Hugues
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Accentuation et transfert en français langue seconde2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [fr]

    L’objectif de cette étude est de montrer l’influence des patrons accentuels de la langue maternelle (L1) dans les productions orales d’apprenants de français langue seconde (L2). Nous nous demandons (1) dans quelle mesure les apprenants de français du corpus étudié, qui tous ont le suédois pour langue maternelle, maîtrisent l’accentuation finale du français ; (2) si les différences entre les systèmes accentuels du français et du suédois peuvent expliquer les éventuelles « déviations » constatées en français langue seconde (concernant en particulier la durée de l’accent). Autrement dit, le matériel empirique examiné permet-il de montrer l’existence d’un transfert prosodique entre langue maternelle et langue seconde ?

    Les données analysées sont issues du corpus InterFra (Université de Stockholm). Il s’agit de récits réalisés par des étudiants suédophones de français en français (la L2 des apprenants) et en suédois (leur L1). Des productions orales comparables de locuteurs natifs sont également analysées.

  • 9.
    Grigonyte, Gintare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Schneider, Gerold
    From lexical bundles to surprisal: Measuring the idiom principle2014In: Lexical bundles in English non-fiction writing: forms and functions, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lexical bundles (LB) testify to Sinclair's idiom principle (SIP), and measure formulaicity, complexity and (non-) creativity (FCN). We exploit the information-theoretic measure of surprisal to analyze these.Frequency as measure of LB has been criticized (McEnery et al, 2006:208–220), instead collocation measures were suggested until Biber (2009:286–290) raised three criticisms. First, MI ranks rare collocations, which often include idioms, highest. We answer that also idioms are formulaic, and there are collocation measures which have a bias towards frequent collocations.Second, MI doesn't respect word order. We thus use directed word transition probabilities like surprisal (Levy and Jaeger 2007):3-gram surprisal =Third, formulaic sequences are often discontinuous. We thus sum over sequences, use 3-grams as atoms, and address syntactic surprisal.We argue that abstracting to surprisal as measure of LB and FCN is appropriate, as it expresses reader expectations and text entropy. We use surprisal to analyse differences between:

    1. spoken and written learner language (L2);
    2. L2 across proficiency levels;
    3. L2 compared with L1

    We test Pawley and Syder (1983)'s and Levy and Jaeger (2007)'s hypothesis that native speakers play the tug-of-war between formulaicity and expressiveness best, thus minimizing comprehension difficulty, according to the uniform information density principle.

  • 10.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Pre-attentive speaker recognition: A realistic possibility or Science Fiction?2016In: Abstracts for the presentations at the Campinas Workshop on Vocal Profile Analysis (VPA) to be held at UNICAMP, April 4–8, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In my talk I will present a study on neural processing of voices. The aim was to investigate the possibility of using ERPs as a measure of recognition of a familiar voice. The methodology however raises questions concerning pre-attentive processing of voices. I will present the study on voice familiarity and discuss the typical MMN (Mismatch Negativity) that was found in relation to voices, but not to familiarization. Acoustic analysis of voice characteristics in the current study as well as follow up studies with controlled exposure and voice parameters will also be addressed. I would like to discuss these issues with you, and also the implications of a possible MMN to familiar voices.

  • 11.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wiklund, Anna-Lena
    Restrictions on RC Extraction: Knowing men who sell flowers and escaping them2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12. Jantunen, Tommi
    et al.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Puupponen, Anna
    Aspects of the rhythm in Finnish and Swedish Sign Language2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we investigate a hypothesis, derived from the intuitions of native signers, that there is a rhythmic difference between two historically related sign languages, Finnish Sign Language (FinSL) and Swedish Sign Language (SSL). We define the notion of rhythm as 'the organization of units in time' and presume that the rhythmic feel of a language is determined by the phonetic properties and events that are used in the marking of the areas and borders of temporally ordered units such as signs and sentences (Patel & Daniele 2003; Patel 2006). In previous studies (Boyes Braem 1999; Sandler 2012), it has been suggested that the markers of rhythmic sequences in signed language are, for example, temporal duration, punctual indices (e.g. head nods), and articulatory contours. Accordingly, we approach our hypothesis with three main research questions: (i) Are the signing speed and sign duration different in FinSL and SSL, (ii) Are head nods aligned differently in terms of syntactic units in FinSL and SSL, and (iii) Is the motion of the head different in terms of its articulatory contour in FinSL and SSL sentences? The study is based on narratives collected with identical tasks in both languages (5 Snowman and Frog, where are you? stories per language). The total amount of video material is one hour (30+30 minutes) and it includes signing from twenty (10+10) signers. All of the material has been annotated for signs, sentences and nods. The material also includes 3D numerical data on the head motion of signers (the yaw, pitch, and roll angles). The 3D data has been obtained with computer-vision technology implemented in SLMotion software (Karppa et. al 2014). Concerning question (i), we have not so far found any significant differences in the signing speed and sign duration of the two languages. With a pilot sample of 4+4 signers and 1100 signs per language, we have determined the average signing speed to be two signs per second in both languages, and the average duration of (the core of) the sign to be 0.27 seconds in SSL and 0.29 seconds in FinSL. Concerning (ii), the average number of nods per story was higher in FinSL than in SSL but both languages tended to align nods with syntactic boundaries: of the total number of nods, 81% in FinSL and 77% in SSL occurred on a syntactic boundary, and generally also at the end of the sentence (Figure 1). Concerning question (iii), our initial tests with Snowman revealed that, for example, the amplitude of the tilting-like (roll) motion of the head decreased similarly toward the end of sentences in both languages (Figure 2) but FinSL signers employed this particular type of motion more often in the marking of syntactic junctures than SSL signers (Figure 3). The preliminary results indicate some differences between FinSL and SSL. In our presentation we will present the final results and discuss them in detail with respect to our initial hypothesis.

  • 13.
    Johnen, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Intercultural Learning by Teletandem2014In: First International Meeting on Language Learning in Tandem: Past, Present and Future: Using ICTs for transnational, transcultural and transcontinental collaboration; Abstracts I INFLIT, Coral Gable, FL: University of Miami , 2014, p. 17-18Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Johnen, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Interkulturelles Lernen durch Sehverstehen im Portugiesischunterricht am Beispiel des Online-Video-Sprachkurses Conversa Brasileira2013In: Sektion Did -XIX- - Deutscher Romanistentag: Sehverstehen im Unterricht der romanischen Sprachen. Zum interkulturellen und kommunikativen Potential einer wenig beachteten (fremd-)sprachlichen Fertigkeit / [ed] Christine Michler, Daniel Reimann, Würzburg: Deutscher Romanistenverband , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Johnen, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Portuguese.
    Teletandem: ein Instrument zur studienbegleitenden sprachlichen und interkulturellen Kompetenzentwicklung2010In: Burr, Elisabeth / Potapenko, Elena (eds.): "SprachRäume" :: Leipzig, 15. - 17.9.2010 / [GAL, Gesellschaft für Angewandte Linguistik e.V. ; Universität Leipzig]. / [ed] Elisabeth Burr & Elena Potapenko, [Wuppertal]: Gesellschaft für Angewandte Linguistik , 2010, p. 122-122Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Johnen, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    The handling of face-threatening situations in interpreter mediated doctor-patient conversations: comparisons between hospital staff and family members as ad-hoc-interpreters2014In: NPIT2: Abstracts, 2014, p. 22-22Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Kaufhold, Kathrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Postgraduates’ genre-knowledge development in ‘new disciplines’2015In: EATAW 2015: 8th Biennial Conference of the European Association for the Teaching of Academic Writing, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interdisciplinary and reflexive research approaches in the Humanities and Social Sciences increasingly influence postgraduate academic writing (Starfield and Ravelli 2006). Writing conventions here are often contested (Casanave 2010) and new forms of English for Academic Purposes pedagogies are required. This paper examines students’ development of genre knowledge (Tardy 2009) in the context of these tendencies: How do master’s students studying in interdisciplinary fields perceive and develop genre knowledge in the multilingual and interdisciplinary learning context of a Swedish university? What are pedagogic challenges and perspectives for a faculty-wide EAP course? The paper presents an ethnographically informed case study (Barton and Hamilton 1998) with eight participants who completed a cross-disciplinary EAP course. The data material includes regular interviews with the students, interviews with discipline-specific teachers, the analysis of students’ texts written as part the EAP course, sample texts introduced to the course by the students as well as their final thesis. Initial results highlight the role of students’ previous genre knowledge in the understanding of writing conventions for their new interdisciplinary projects; the students’ positioning towards their programme of study; and the uncertainties of conventions in relatively young disciplines, such as Fashion Studies, that are still in the process of formation. Thus postgraduate EAP courses can neither be generic nor discipline-specific but have to actively involve students as researchers of their own writing and include the analysis of students’ past writing and other texts relating to their current projects.

  • 18.
    Kaufhold, Kathrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Researching academic conventions in writing a master’s dissertation2014In: EELC 5: Linguistic Ethnography: Benefits and ChallengesExplorations in Ethnography, Language and Communication 5, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many master’s programmes include a dissertation as a form of assessment that contributes substantially to the degree classification. Especially in the social sciences, the dissertation is often student-led with supervisory support. In negotiating their own interests in relation to the requirements of their academic department, students frequently draw on a range of past experiences of academic writing. This presentation focuses on how an ethnographically informed approach can provide additional insights into the processes of understanding academic writing conventions in writing a master’s dissertation. The paper is based on an ethnographically informed case study of dissertation writing practices with twelve students from four social science-oriented master’s programmes. The data include regular interviews with students based on their dissertation drafts. To gain further insight into the complexities of the projects, second-level data were collected including supervisor interviews, thesis workshop observations, analysis of relevant guidelines and seminal literature for each dissertation. The paper discusses benefits and challenges of combining data from a range of sources. It reflects on the importance of clarifying ontological assumptions for the research design and analysis. Finally, the paper outlines the benefits of this approach, which goes beyond a textual analysis and puts the students’ and supervisors’ perspective centre stage. It reveals that while there are departmental requirements for dissertation projects, what these requirements mean in detail for each individual dissertation only emerges in the process of its production. Hence any normative understandings will depend not only on the academic values of the department and discipline, but also on the perceptions of a ‘standard dissertation’ that students bring to their project. While explicit rules on dissertation writing can be useful orientations for the learner, the interpretation of these guidelines is an ongoing process. In this constellation, supervisors have a role as cultural brokers and students as active learners

  • 19.
    Kaufhold, Kathrin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    McGrath, Lisa Jane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Combining ESP and Academic Literacies approaches in a research-based writing course for anthropologists2015In: Abstracts for PRISEAL 3, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academic literacies and ESP-genre approaches to teaching writing tend to be considered as dichotomous: Academic literacies is associated with a critical stance, voice and an epistemological foundation rooted in ethnography. In contrast, the ESP-genre approach is more concerned with the socialisation of students into disciplinary communities and adopts primarily a text-oriented approach. Our study builds on Tribble & Wingate’s (2012, p. 481) theoretical conception a “best of both worlds” model of teaching academic writing. The first author’s research and teaching background is firmly rooted in ESP-genre theory, while the second author has worked primarily in the academic literacies tradition. We report the results of our collaboration in terms of designing and delivering a research-based writing workshop for post-graduate anthropology students at a Swedish university. The project evolved out of a sense that a predominantly ESP genre-based approach was not optimal in terms of preparing students for the demands of research-based writing in anthropology. In the workshop, students engaged in both text-analytical tasks and ethnographically-oriented activities such as developing an interview protocol, and conducting interviews with more experienced students in their field. The aim was to place equal emphasis on the wider practices associated with writing, both epistemological and social, as well as the rhetorical and linguistic characteristics of texts in the discipline. The efficacy of the course design was probed via focus group discussions with the course participants. This paper will discuss the challenges and opportunities encountered over the course of the project.

  • 20.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Modellering av förälder-barn interaktion (MINT): Komponenter hos audio-visuella ledtrådar och deras konsekvenser för språkinlärning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerhom, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The Stockholm Babylab Multimodal Approach: Modelling Infant Language Acquisition Longitudinally from Parent-Child Interaction2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory communicative interaction is in general best analyzed with the help of simultaneously recorded visual information about discourse objects and the positioning of interlocutors in space. Access to visual information is even more important in parent-child interaction since this type of communica-tion is largely based on use of contextual gestures, gaze and imitation. The un-derstanding of parent-child interaction benefits further from information on brain activation involved in speech processing. This paper introduces the Stockholm Babylab approach to study multimodal language learning in typi-cally developing infants and young children. Our effort is to build a multimodal corpus that incorporates EEG (electroencephalography) data in the model. Ap-plication fields are social signal processing (SSP), improvement of diagnosis of late or atypical language development, and further development of habilitation methods for individuals with neurocognitive and language deficits.   

  • 22.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Swedish proper-name compounds in blogs: creativity, productivity and frequency2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 9-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate creativity, productivity and frequency of Swedish proper-name compounds following in the steps of Dahl (2003, 2008) and Kajanus (2005). These studies described several examples of Swedish compounding patterns based on a particular proper name that have manifested a gradual diachronic rise in the frequency of both types (by spreading to further stems) and tokens, i.e. have been gradually entrenched. Dahl’s most striking example is the explosive development of Swedish PropN-compounding with Palme as the first component, following on the important and highly salient event in the modern Swedish history, the murder of the Swedish prime-minister in 1986. In fact, many Palme-compounds are related to the “murder script”, with Palme often metonymic for the Palme murder and also for further compounds derived from it (by means of metonymical chains), cf. Palme+kulorna — ’the Palme bullets, i.e. the bullets found at some distance from the place of the Palme murder’, Palme+misstänkta — ‘Palme suspects, i.e. persons suspected of having committed the Palme murder’, Palme+utredningen ’the Palme investigation, i.e. the investigation of the Palme murder’, etc. In all these previous studies the data come from the Swedish press and novel corpus (86 mln words). Our research uses the Swedish Blog Sentences corpus containing 6 mlrd tokens from 46 mln blog posts in the period of 2010-2014 (Östling and Wirén. We focus on creativity, productivity and frequency of compounds based on several proper names that have been particularly salient in the discourse during the relevant period . We consider how the fluctuations in the type and token frequencies of the proper-name compouns correlate with the rises and falls in the frequency of the relevant proper names. Interestingly, there are very few highly frequent compounds – in fact, 1-2 for each of the proper names considered (e.g., Putinregimen ‘the Putin regime’, Zlatanboken ‘the Zlatan book’, Obamaadministrationen ‘the Obama administration’). On the other hand, each of the proper names ”generates” a high number of unique compounds, i.e. compounds that have only one occurrence in the whole corpus. Finally, there are also proper name compounds that are in-between the unique and the highly frequent ones, but this group is quite restricted.

  • 23.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature terms across languages: derivation, lexical stability and lexical universals2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 28-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this talk I will focus on the cross-linguistic regularities in the origin and development of temperature terms, such as ‘warm’ or ‘cold’, based on the data from about 40 languages in Koptjevskaja-Tamm (ed. 2015). The first question concerns motivational patterns typical for temperature terms, i.e., to what extent and by which word-formation strategies temperature terms are derived from expressions with other meanings. To give a few examples, some of the most frequent sources for ‘hot’ include, not surprisingly, such concepts as ‘burn’, ‘fire’, ‘boil’, ‘cook’, ‘sweat’, while those for ‘cold’ include ‘ice’, ‘shade’, ‘winter’, ‘brr’, ‘to become stiff’. In fact, the close relation between the conventionalised expressions for ‘warm/hot’ and those for ‘fire’ or ‘sweat’ in some languages raises the issue of whether the former do indeed belong to the basic or central temperature terms. In addition, there are many other sources for temperature terms. A fascinating group of questions related to the origin and development of temperature terms concerns their stability. For instance, do genetically related languages share temperature cognates? If they do, do the cognates have the same or similar meanings? What is the role of language contact in shaping the temperature term systems? It has been suggested in earlier research that central temperature terms are unusually stable, i.e. that they are typically «passed on essentially unchanged and with essentially no vocabulary turn-over across hundreds of generations of grammar&lexicon acquirers for thousands of years» (Plank 2010). However, the answers to the above listed questions differ for different languages, or for groups of languages. For instance, some of the central temperature terms across Indo-European turn out to be extremely stable, but these languages also testify to numerous instances of lexical replacement or addition of new temperature terms. The temperature terms in the two closely related Timor-Alor-Pantar languages Abui and Kamang and across the Nyulnyulan family are, on the contrary, strikingly dissimilar. Significantly, in all these cases, the meanings of cognates and their place in the overall temperature system of a language may be subject to significant variation.

  • 24.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    IJzerman, Hans
    How our biology predisposes us to an "AFFECTION IS WARMTH" "metaphor", and how our environment changes its anchor2015In: 48th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europea: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Alwin Kloekhorst, Martin Kohlberger, 2015, p. 83-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "AFFECTION IS WARMTH" is one of the most widely quoted "universal" conceptual metaphors. Cognitive linguists suggest these to be conceptual, based on frequently used English expressions as “warm words, feelings”. In this talk, we will reflect on their cross-disciplinary collaboration, using both the findings of a large-scale cross-linguistic study of the meanings and uses of the temperature terms in the world’s languages and the insights from (social) psychology. Our first question –inspired by Geeraerts and Grondelaers (1995) –was to explore whether these reflect universal patterns or whether they are based on specific cultural traditions. Their presence across languages indeed varies considerably: while some languages demonstrate elaborated systems of such uses, quite a few lack them altogether, and yet others vary as to which temperature term has predominantly positive associations in its extended uses (e.g. ‘cold’rather than ‘warm’). This disconfirms the idea that this conceptual metaphor is universal, and further confirms suspicions from social psychology, which has falsified another basic assumption from conceptual metaphor theory –unidirectionality (IJzerman & Semin 2010). In the remainder, we first explore these patterns, and then provide first explorations for why they are likely to differ across languages. Perhaps surprisingly, the edited volume by Koptjevskaja-Tamm (2015) clearly reveals a significant variance in using temperature metaphors. Australian languages, Hup (Nadahup), Mapudungun (Araucanian), and Ojibwe (Algonquian) basically lack any extended use of temperature terms, while the 84SLE 2015 Book of AbstractsOceanic languages in Vanuatu and Nganasan (Uralic) have very few. This is in contrast both to some European and other Asian languages, but also to the African languages Ewe, Gbaya, Gurenɛ, Likpe, Sɛlɛɛ, Abui and Kamang (Timor-Alor-Pantar), and Yucatec Maya. These latter reveal a rich inventory of extended uses pertaining to their temperature terms, ranging from the more common ones, to the idiosyncratic ones. The actual cross-linguistic variation is both striking, thought-provoking, and calling for more research. Insights from (social) psychology may provide us with further answers for why such cross-cultural variation exists among languages. The most important reason is likely that temperature metaphors reflect how people deal with the metabolic demands of the environment. Thermoregulation is one of the most metabolically expensive activities across the animal kingdom. Other animals (and thus also humans) help regulate the temperature environment when this gets too cold, making a comfortable warm touch seem to answer basic biological necessities in mammalian sociality (Harlow & Suomi 1970; IJzerman et al. 2015). The second part of this talk will discuss the biological mechanisms behind social thermoregulation, and point to how others keeping us warm can help us answer to basic metabolic needs (cf. Beckes & Coan 2011; Beckes et al. 2014). From that, humans have developed so-called "cultural complements" to deal with the demands of the environment, and we will speculate that different linguistic metaphors are reflective of different metabolic needs across cultures, which are implemented according to different cultural practices (e.g., differences in touch) and rely on different needsdepending on the environment (e.g., different climates). Together, we discuss how language can facilitate culturally coordinated metabolism regulation, and thus point to the role of different attention-driving functions of linguistic –not conceptual –metaphors in cultural coordination.

  • 25.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Antonyms and derivational negation: a pilot study of cross-linguistic variation2015In: ALT 2015: 11th Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology. August 1-3, 2015, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Abstract Booklet, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico , 2015, p. 85-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typological research on negation has mainly focused on clausal negation and on indefinite pronouns in the scope of negation (see Miestamo 2007 for an overview). Derivational affixes expressing negation (e.g., un- in unhappy or -less in powerless), have so far not figured in systematic typological studies. Zimmer's (1964) seminal study of affixal negation with adjectives is mainly restricted to a few well-known Indo-European languages; other families are given less attention. Semantically, derivational negation is closely connected to antonymy, which can be expressed by unrelated lexemes (lexical antonyms: small vs. big) or by means of overt derivational negation (morphological antonyms: happy vs. unhappy). Lexical and morphological antonymy do not necessarily exclude each other. E.g., Russian has regular triads of the kind bol’šoj ‘big’ – malen’kij ‘little’ – nebol’šoj ‘NEG.big’, and even tetrads, such as dobryj ‘kind’ – zloj ‘mean’ – nedobryj ‘NEG.kind’ – nezloj ‘NEG.mean’. Antonymy has been a popular topic in semantic theories and in logic (see Horn 2001). A central distinction is the one between contradictory vs. contrary opposites; the former are either–or (dead vs. alive), whereas the latter show a middle ground between the two poles (small vs. big). It has been suggested that languages have “canonical antonyms”, i.e. “a limited core of highly opposable couplings” (speed: slow/fast, luminosity: dark/light, strength: weak/strong, size small/large, width: narrow/wide, merit bad/good and thickness thin/thick) (Paradis & al. 2009). However, systematic typological studies of antonymy are lacking. This talk presents a cross-linguistic pilot study of antonymy and its expression by both lexical and overt morphological means. Our pilot sample includes 20 languages from different families and geographical areas. The data come from dictionaries and grammars as well as from a questionnaire sent to language experts. We focus on antonymy in property words (adjectives), more specifically in such forms that can be used as adnominal modifiers, with the goal to find correlations between semantic and formal properties of antonyms. From the formal point of view, we will pay attention to the type of marking (e.g., prefix vs. suffix), to the number of different derivational negators in a language, whether these markers can be used on other word classes than property words and how they are related to other negative markers in the language, primarily to clausal negation. Taking in semantics, we will observe what types of opposition (contrary vs. contradictory, scalar vs. non-scalar etc.) and which domains (evaluation, size, dimension, temperature etc.) are expressed by lexical antonyms vs. each attested type of overt morphological marking. Specific hypotheses to be tested against the cross-linguistic data include the following. Evaluatively positive members of an antonym pair are more likely to accept morphological negation (unclever vs. *unstupid). The existence of a lexical antonym may block the possibility of morphological marking and if triads (or tetrads) exist, there will be cross-linguistically recurring ways in which the meanings of the lexical vs. morphological antonyms are related to each other. Morphological antonyms built with elements similar to clausal negators in the language will tend to involve contradictory rather than contrary opposites.

  • 26.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Antonyms and word-level negation2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 74-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typological research on negation has focused most prominently on standard negation, i.e. the basic negation strategies in declarative clauses, and some work has also been done on other aspects of clausal negation as well as on indefinite pronouns in the scope of negation. Negation at the level of words, i.e., derivational affixes expressing negation as well as case markers with negative semantics, has so far not figured in systematic typological studies, but it has received some attention in theoretical literature on semantics and morphology. Zimmer (1964) discusses “affixal” negation primarily in English and a couple of other Indo-European languages, but also comments on a few non-­Indo‐European languages and even suggests some cross‐linguistic generalizations. Subsequent work (e.g., Horn 1989) is similarly restricted in its cross‐linguistic scope. From the semantic point of view, the issue of word­‐level negation is closely connected to antonymy. Antonymy and types of opposition have been a popular topic in semantic theories (see Horn 1989), where the central distinction is between contrary and contradictory opposites. The two types differ as to whether they allow a third possibility in-­between: contradictory opposites are either–or (dead vs. alive), whereas in contrary opposites there is a middle ground between the two poles (small vs. big). Linguistically, antonyms can be expressed by unrelated lexemes (lexical antonyms) like the examples cited above, or by means of overt negation (happy vs. unhappy, possible vs. impossible). Lexical and morphological antonymy do not necessarily exclude each other. E.g., Russian has regular triads of the kind bol’šoj ‘big’ – malen’kij ‘little’ – nebol’šoj ‘NEG‐big’, and even tetrads, such as dobryj ‘kind’ – zloj ‘mean’ – nedobryj ‘NEG-­kind’ – nezloj ‘NEG-­mean’. Despite all the attention that antonymy has received from semanticists, work in a broader cross‐linguistic comparative perspective is lacking. This talk presents a pilot study of antonymy and its expression by both lexical and overt morphological means. We will focus on antonymy in property words (adjectives), more specifically in such forms that can be used as adnominal modifiers. Our main interest will be in finding correlations between semantic and formal properties of antonyms. From the formal point of view, we will pay attention to the type of marking (e.g., prefix vs. suffix), to the number of different word-­‐level negators in a language, whether these markers can be used on other word classes than property words and how they are related to other negative markers in the language. Taking in semantics, we will observe what types of opposition (contrary vs. contradictory, scalar vs. non-­‐scalar etc.)and which domains of property scales (evaluation, size, dimension, temperature etc.) are expressed by lexical antonyms vs. each attested type of overt morphological marking, i.e. whether the linguistic evidence allows us to classify antonyms into cross‐linguistically relevant types. Does the existence of a lexical antonym exclude the possibility of morphological marking? Do the markers exclude one another on the same lexical item? Are there semantic principles governing such blocking effects? Can triads and/or tetrads be found in addition to pairs? Our pilot sample includes 15 languages from different families and geographical areas. The data comes from dictionaries and grammars and, most importantly, from a questionnaire sent to language experts. As this is a pilot study of a domain previously unexplored in language typology, our main goal is to sketch different ways of approaching this intriguing domain from a broader cross-­linguistic perspective.

  • 27.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperaturord: lexikal typologi och lexikografi2015In: 13. Konference om Leksikografi i Norden: Abstracts til foredrag, 2015, p. 7-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Temperatur tillhör våra mest självklara dagliga upplevelser, som vi gärna pratar om. Tänk på alla kalla, svala, kyliga, ljumma, varma och heta dagar som vi avhandlar i samband med det ofarligaste och vanligaste nordiska samtalsämnet, vädret. Ljummet kaffe och ljummen champagne väcker negativa känslor, kalla fötter kan leda till en förkylning, medan en alltför varm panna vittnar om att man redan är sjuk. Vi använder också temperaturbeskrivningar för annat – man förväntar sig inte någon empati av en kall människa; heta kyssar är knappast avsedda för ens barn; vissa klär bättre i varma än i kalla färger. Språk varierar dock kraftigt i fråga om antal temperaturord, vad de betyder och hur de används. Vissa språk skiljer endast på ’varm’ och ’kall’; andra tycks tvärtom ha alldeles för många temperaturord där svenskan klarar sig med ett. Språk varierar också i fråga om temperaturordens grammatik. Många språk har exempelvis inte några temperaturadjektiv alls, utom använder temperaturverb, ungefär som frysa, fast för allting. Slutligen är också språk väldigt olika när det gäller varifrån temperaturorden kommer och i vilka överförda betydelser de används. ’Varm’ och ’het’ kommer ofta från ord som betyder ’eld’ eller ’att brinna’, men ’varm’ på estniska, soe, är besläktad med sauna och kommer ursprungligen från ett ord med betydelsen ’(be)skydd’. Flera afrikanska språk har samma ord för ’varm’ och ’snabb’, ’en kall plånbok’ på japanska syftar på någon som är pank, medan aboriginspråk i Australien brukar sakna överförda användningar av temperaturord.Men kan språksystem variera helt fritt i fråga om hur många temperaturuttryck de har och vad de betyder, vilket grammatiskt beteende de uppvisar, varifrån de kommer och vilka överförda betydelser de har, eller finns det begränsningar? Liknande frågeställningar utgjorde grunden för det lexikaltypologiska projektet “Varmt och kallt – universellt eller språkspecifikt?” (Vetenskapsrådet) och volymen “The linguistics of temperature” (https://benjamins.com/#catalog/books/tsl.107/main), som studerat temperaturord i ca 50 språk från olika språkfamiljer och geografiska områden. I föredraget kommer jag att presentera de viktigaste resultaten av den tvärspråkliga jämförelsen och använda dem för att diskutera beröringspunkter mellan lexikografi och lexikal typologi.

  • 28.
    Kuzmičová, Anežka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Culture and Aesthetics.
    Mangen, Anne
    Støle, Hildegunn
    Begnum, Charlotte
    Correlations between foregrounding, reading strategy and theory of mind2015In: PALA 2015 Creative Style, University of Kent, 15-20 July 2015: Book of abstracts, 2015, p. 76-76Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies have recently been produced in the U.S. and Canada linking theory of mind (the ability to accurately assess the mental states of other people) to lifetime exposure to literary, especially stylistically foregrounded, fiction. The paper presents an experiment devised to partially replicate and further develop this strand of research outside the English-speaking world. Subjects (Norwegian teacher training undergraduates) were asked to read a short story while assessing their reading experience on a number of variables. They were also tested for general reading skills and, in two different sessions, for their theory of mind abilities. In addition, they provided personal background information concerning their reading behavior and attitudes to literature. One group of subjects read the original story, which was rich in foregrounding, while another group read a manipulated, subliterary version of the story where foregrounding was minimized. The foregrounded version was expected to correlate with a broader range of affective responses and increased scores on theory of mind. The paper offers a first analysis of the data with regard to these hypotheses.

  • 29.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hindukush-Karakoram as a Linguistic Area: Problems and Prospects2015In: Abstract Book: The 2nd Kashmir International Conference on Linguistics, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hindukush, Karakoram, and Western-most Himalayan mountain region – comprising northern Pakistan, northeastern Afghanistan and the territories of Kashmir on both sides of the LOC – is characterized by great linguistic and cultural diversity. The 40-50 distinct language varieties spoken in the region belong to various genera (Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman, Turkic and the isolate Burushaski) and a number of different languages serve as lingua franca. It is also a transit zone between the cultural spheres of South Asia, Central Asia, and  the Himalayas.

    On the one hand, there are linguistic features shared by a large number of the region’s languages (Bashir 2003, 821–823; Tikkanen 1999; 2008), in some cases as the result of prolonged language contact, in others – such as in the so-called “Dardic” group of Indo-Aryan – due to shared retention (Morgenstierne 1961, 139; Strand 2001). On the other, there is also a good deal of structural diversity. Instead of trying to simplify the picture by proposing another Linguistic Area (or Sprachbund), this presentation aims at outlining a more nuanced, fine-tuned, and typologically-enlightened, profile of this region, a region that I henceforth will refer to as the Greater Hindukush Region. Certain features are identified as macroareal (i.e. as characteristic of a much larger area which this region forms only a small part of), other features as linking features (i.e. linking a part of the region with a geographically adjacent area), yet others as essentially regional (i.e. Hindukush-specific), or features with a significant sub-regional scope. The framework and the terms used are largely the ones proposed by Masica (2001).

    Arriving at the present, yet tentative, “profile”, an empirical study was undertaken, whereby a substantial number of traits (phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical—many of them overlapping with those of WALS (Haspelmath 2005), the World Atlas of Language Structure) were taken into account, drawing from the author’s own fieldwork in the region, collaboration with several native-speaker consultants, as well as from studies undertaken in the past by other scholars. Among the features discussed are: a tripartite differentiation within the affricate and fricative subsets (Tikkanen 2008, 255), the emergence of tonal contrasts (Baart 2003; Liljegren 2013), the display and degree of ergativity (Liljegren 2014), the presence vs. absence of gender distinctions, vigesimal numeral systems, multi-dimensional deictic contrasts, shared derivational pathways in kinship differentiation, double-marked contrastive constructions, and the prevalence of complex predicates (Liljegren 2010).

    While the treatment is primarily a synchronic one, we will also have to assume several layers of settlement and highly complex patterns of language contact even in a distant past. In addition, there are strong indications that several ancient substrata (the proto-language of Burushaski most likely one of them) have made important contributions to shaping the present-day typologies (Tikkanen 1988, 304; Zoller 2005, 16–18; Bashir 1996, 203).

  • 30.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Multi-level lexical convergence along the Silk Road2013In: 46th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea: Book of abstracts / [ed] Bert Cornillie and María Sol Sansiñena Pascual, Split, 2013, p. 213-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This preliminary study, partly based on fieldwork data, partly on available descriptions, looks at lexical convergence resulting from language contact in the Greater Hindu Kush (northern Pakistan, north-eastern Afghanistan, and Kashmir), a region characterized by a combination of linguistic diversity (including Indo-Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman and the isolate Burushaski), a high level of multilingualism and by serving as an age-old transit zone between South, West, and Central Asia (Tikkanen 1988; Bashir 2003, 821–823). A few influential “culture carriers” of change are: Islam; a common Persian culture; poetry; and, in more recent times, media in which regional lingua franca-filtered English plays an increasing role. The lexical convergence can be observed on three interrelated levels: a) a micro-level characterized by shared internal semantic structure, b) a mid-level, whereby the structure of entire semantic domains display significant similarities, and c) a macro-level, with shared features of lexicon organization.

    The first level encompasses single lexemes across languages, e.g. shared specializations (Kamviri (Strand 2013): nuč ‘three days ago’, nutrí ‘the day before yesterday’, dus ‘yesterday’, strák ɡaaǰaar ‘today’, daalkẽ́ ‘tomorrow’, aatrí ‘the day after tomorrow’, aačǘ ‘three days hence’; Dameli (Morgenstierne 1942, 137–178, Emil Perder pc.): učoo/čoo diyoo,itrii, doos, mu(n)dya, beraa, truida, čoo/čooa ki, respectively), shared polysemy (Kalasha (Trail and Cooper 1999, 112): ɡríik; Pashto: axistəl ‘take’ – ‘buy’), and metaphorical extensions (Kashmiri: toon; Palula: šidáalu ‘cold’—‘hostile, unkind’). The second level is defined by semantic domains, and includes lexical relations between semantically related concepts (Khowar: ma oraru ɡoyan [lit. to-me sleep is coming] ‘I’m feeling sleepy’ vs. xaphosi parir ‘Xaposi sleeps’; Palula: asaám húluk dítu de [lit. on-us heat is fallen] ‘We were feeling hot’  vs. anú wíi táatu ‘This water is hot’; where the subjective experience is expressed as the stimulus coming to the experiencer) and shared derivational pathways, such as a participial ‘attaching’ marking the “manipulee” in causative constructions (Kalasha (Trail and Cooper 1999, 289; Bashir 2003, 823): a ísa aawái, ɡoník čhinawáis ‘I had him break the stick’; Kalam Kohistani (Baart 1999, 94–95): yä murād ā ǰämāl bakānt ‘I’m making Murad beat up Jamal’). The third level is probably the most interesting, as it facilitates lower-level convergence. One example is the gradual substitution of the single verb inventory by “new” complex predicates (Ladakhi: ban-coces (cf. indigenous satces); Indus Kohistani (Zoller 2005, 301): bʌ́n karʌ́v̄; Pashto bandawəl [lit. closed-do] ‘to turn off’, modelled on Urdu band karnaa). Other examples are the prevalence of co-lexicalized intensifiers (Burushaski (Berger 1998, 226–227): qhal-matúm ‘pitch black’; Gilgiti Shina: khutún šaróo ‘full autumn’, the first component often being a unique lexical unit) and the presence of cross-cutting pro-categories, reflecting multiple deictic contrasts (Kohistani Shina (Schmidt and Kohistani 2008, 97–98): paár ajóo ‘over there where I point’, paár adí ‘right over there’, paár asdí ‘right over there somewhere’, pér adí ‘over there (near, known but invisible)’, pér asdí ‘over there (out of sight)’; Kashmiri (Koul 2003, 914): kūtāh ‘how much?’, yūtāh ‘this much’, hūtāh ‘that much (within sight)’, tˈūtāh that much (out of sight)’).

    References

    Baart, Joan L. G. 1999. A Sketch of Kalam Kohistani Grammar. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies  Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics.

    Bashir, Elena L. 2003. “Dardic.” In The Indo-Aryan Languages, ed. George Cardona and Danesh Jain, 818–894. 1 Mul. London: Routledge.

    Berger, Hermann. 1998. Die Burushaski-Sprache von Hunza und Nager 3. Wörterbuch. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

    Koul, Omkar N. 2003. “Kashmiri.” In The Indo-Aryan Languages, ed. George Cardona and Danesh Jain, 895–952. 1 Mul. London: Routledge.

    Morgenstierne, Georg. 1942. “Notes on Dameli: A Kafir-Dardic Dialect of Chitral.” NTS 12: 115–198.

    Schmidt, Ruth Laila, and Razwal Kohistani. 2008. A Grammar of the Shina Language of Indus Kohistan. Beiträge Zur Kenntnis Südasiatischer Sprachen and Literaturen 17. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

    Strand, Richard F. 2013. “Richard Strand’s Nuristân Site: Lexicons of Kâmviri, Khowar, and Other Hindu-Kush Languages.” Accessed January 10. http://nuristan.info/lngFrameL.html.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1988. “On Burushaski and Other Ancient Substrata in Northwestern South Asia.” Studia Orientalia 64: 3030–325.

    Trail, Ronald L, and Gregory R Cooper. 1999. Kalasha dictionary with English and Urdu. Islamabad; United Kingdom: National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University ; Summer Institute of Linguistics.

    Zoller, Claus Peter. 2005. A Grammar and Dictionary of Indus Kohistani: Volume 1, Dictionary. Trends in Linguistics 21-1. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

     

  • 31.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The linguistic identity of the Greater Hindu Kush, a transit zone between South and Central Asia2012In: 45th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Bert Cornillie and María Sol Sansiñena Pascual, Stockholm, 2012, p. 187-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regardless of the particular view one takes on areality, there are a number of reasons for trying to characterize the accumulation of languages in the highland region between, or simultaneously belonging to, South Asia (or the Indian subcontinent) and Central Asia.  This region is, to borrow the words of one of the foremost experts on South Asian linguistics, “where conflicting areal patterns meet and interact, and many peculiar languages (‘Dardic’, Burushaski [a language isolate], the Pamir group of Eastern Iranian), at once archaic and innovating, find their home” (Masica 2001:225). To the aforementioned mix should be added Tibeto-Burman Balti, spoken in the eastern part of this region, and the Nuristani languages in the border region between northern Pakistan and Afghanistan, the latter now considered a third branch of Indo-Iranian (on par with Indo-Aryan and Iranian). Historically we will have to assume several layers of settlement and highly complex patterns of language contact in this extremely mountainous region, and there are strong indications that several ancient substrata (the proto-language of Burushaski most likely one of them) have made important contributions to the resulting typologies (Tikkanen 1988:304).

    In the present study a substantial number of features (phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical) are taken into account in order to arrive at a non-speculative typological profile of the region. The author draws from his own fieldwork in the region, collaborating with several native-speaker consultants,  as well as from language-specific studies carried out by other researchers. In an initial stage, an intragenealogical typology of the Indo-Aryan cluster, native to and linguistically dominant in the region (often, although controversially, referred to as ‘Dardic’, see Bashir 2003:822; Strand 2001:258; Zoller 2005:10–11), is established, by investigating a sample representing each of the tentatively classified subgroups of ‘Dardic’. This is meant to shed further light on the still ongoing but very challenging classification work. This is projected to be followed up by a more extensive cross-genera comparison of the same features.

    A number of convergence features that are of particular relevance to this region have been identified (many of them confirming suggestions made by Bashir (Bashir 2003:821–823) and Tikkanen (1999; 2008). Some of those are macroareal features that either characterize South Asia at large (or the larger part of it), such as the presence of retroflex stops and non-nominative experiencers, or large parts of Central Asia, such as a contrast between velar and uvular stops and the presence of a vigesimal numeral system. Other features are better described as subareal, some covering a substantial part of the region, such as a the presence of retroflex affricates as well as fricatives, contrasting with corresponding dental and palatal sounds, and the optionality of copula verbs in nominal and adjectival predication, other features characterizing more limited subsets of (often geographically adjacent) languages, such as grammaticalization of evidentiality and animacy distinctions, multi-differentiating deictic systems, a preferred order subordinate clause followed by main clause, the development of tonal/accentual systems, the use of co-lexicalized intensifiers, and a great variety in alignment patterns and in the display and degree of ergativity.

    References:

    Bashir, Elena L. 2003. “Dardic.” Pp. 818-894 in The Indo-Aryan Languages, edited by George Cardona and Danesh Jain. London: Routledge.

    Masica. 2001. “The definition and significance of linguistic areas: Methods, pitfalls, and possibilities (with special reference to the validity of South Asia as a linguistic area).” Pp. 205-267 in The yearbook of South Asian languages and linguistics 2001. London: SAGE.

    Strand, Richard F. 2001. “The tongues of Peristân. Appendix 1.” in Gates of Peristan: History, Religion and Society in the Hindu Kush, Reports and memoirs, edited by Alberto M Cacopardo and Augusto S Cacopardo. Rome: IsIAO.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1988. “On Burushaski and other ancient substrata in northwestern South Asia.” Studia Orientalia 64:3030-325. Retrieved January 4, 2012.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1999. “Archaeological-linguistic correlations in the formation of retroflex typologies and correlating areal features in South Asia.” Pp. 138-148 in Archaeology and language. London: Routledge.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 2008. “Some areal phonological isoglosses in the transit zone between South and Central Asia.” Pp. 250-262 in Proceedings of the third International Hindu Kush Cultural Conference. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

    Zoller, Claus Peter. 2005. A Grammar and Dictionary of Indus Kohistani: Volume 1, Dictionary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

     

  • 32.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    From left-branching to right-branching: Syntactic changes in the Hindukush under pressure from languages of wider communication2014In: Book of abstracts, 2014, p. 251-252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Hindukush languages spoken in the north-western regions of the Indian Subcontinent (particularly Indo-Aryan, sometimes referred to as “Dardic”), a variety of means are available within a complex construction to mark one clause as dependent on another. A subordinate clause may precede the main clause, whereby a complementizer is placed at the end of the subordinate clause: tu kíi baáanu thaní, khooǰóolu. ‘Where are you going? (he) asked‘ (Indo-Aryan Palula), or tu xató hatoɣoót doós reé, buhtuií astám,‘I was afraid that you might give him the letter’ (Indo-Aryan Khowar). A preposed subordinate clause can also be formed with a verbal noun, with or without case marker/postposition: nu ba asaám mhaar-anií the ukháatu de. ‘He had come up to kill us’ (Palula). Pre-nominal participials is another strategy, semantically corresponding to relative clauses in languages such as English: phaí, teeṇíi háa-tam čooṇṭéeli, rumiaál díti híni. ‘The girl gave him a handkerchief which she herself had embroidered’ (Palula). Alternatively, the subordinate clause can be placed after the main clause, in this case often making use of a complementizer ki (or something similar) preceding the subordinate clause: mhéeli i khooǰóolu, ki míi báabu koó. ‘(He) asked: Who is my father?’ (Palula), or, awá buhtaí astám, ki hatoɣóot doós reé. ‘I was afraid that you might give him the letter‘ (Khowar). In a survey covering an area from southern India through parts of southern Pakistan, Hook (1987) observed a significant pattern, whereby the order subordinate – main clause was gradually replaced by the order main clause—subordinate as one moves from the Dravidian South to the Iranian Northwest. While the survey did not include the Hindukush, Bashir (2003: 823), points out that left-branching (i.e. the order subordinate—main clause), like in Dravidian and in the Indo-Aryan languages spoken in their vicinity, is also characteristic of the extreme North of the Subcontinent. Bashir (1996: 177) proposes that left-branching in this northern region has come about as the result of ancient areal influences related to Central Asia, whereas right-branching (i.e. main clause—subordinate) and the use of ki is a feature more recently imported from influential languages spoken in South and West Asia. She further notes that the two constructions are used parallel in Khowar, and that the more recent construction may include the imported marker ki as well as the indigenous (a grammaticalization of ‘say’).In the present study, we investigated interlinear texts in a few Hindukush Indo-Aryan languages (Palula, Kalasha, Pashai, Gilgiti Shina, Kalam Kohistani), empirically testing Bashir‘s suggestion, and found that these, like Khowar, to a varying degree allow both constructions, with the left-branching alternative representing what seems like an older stratum of the languages, whereas the right-branching alternative most likely stems from massive Persian and, more recently, Urdu pressure as influential languages of literacy and wider communication. The distribution across different types of subordination within each language (Noonan 2007; Andrews 2007; Thompson et al. 2007), as well as quantitative differences between the languages in this regard, is presented and discussed.

  • 33.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vowel categorization correlates with speech exposure in 8-month-olds2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants ability to discriminate non-native speech contrasts attenuates, whereas their ability to discriminate native contrasts improves. This transition reflects the development of speech sound categorization, and is hypothesized to be modulated by exposure to spoken language. The ERP mismatch response has been used to quantify discrimination ability in infants, and its amplitude has been shown to be sensitive to amount of speech exposure on group level (Rivera-Gaxiola et al., 2011). In the present ERP-study, the difference in mismatch response amplitudes for spoken vowels and for spectrally rotated vowels, quantifies categorization in 8-month-old infants (N=15, 7 girls). This categorization measure was tested for correlation with infants? daily exposure to male speech, female speech, and the sum of male and female speech, as measured by all-day home recordings and analyzed using LENA software. A positive correlation was found between the categorization measure and total amount of daily speech exposure (r = .526, p = .044). The present study is the first to report a relation between speech exposure and speech sound categorization in infants on subject level, and the first to compensate for the acoustic part of the mismatch response in this context.

  • 34.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Teckenspråk i IT-stödd undervisning2013In: Lärarkonferens 2013 :, 2013Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Svenskt teckenspråk är ett gestuellt-visuellt språk. På sistone har det skett en förändring när det gäller undervisningsformer och analysverktyg för lingvistiska studier i teckenspråk vid Institutionen för lingvistik, Stockholms universitet. Att utveckla IT-stödd undervisning ställer större krav på videoteknik och ämnesdidaktik. I presentationen delger vi våra erfarenheter för a) webbaserad kommunikation via Adobe Connect och Skype, b) redovisning och inlämningsuppgift på teckenspråkoch c) digitala språkresurser.

  • 35.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Clark, Becky
    Birley, Dawn Jani
    WSI on Breaking Barriers and Empowering Deaf and Hard of Hearing Girls and Women in Sport2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Riemer Kankkonen, Nikolaus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    The interaction between mouth actions and signs in Swedish Sign Language as an L22016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we observed several patterns related to interaction and the synchronization of mouth actions and hands among L2 learners of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) compared to native signers. Previous research on signed languages has examined the synchronization of mouthings and mouth gestures (e.g. the edited volume by Boyes Braem & Sutton-Spence 2001; Crasborn et al. 2008; Johnston et al. in press). Another line of sign language research has investigated phonological errors made by L2 learners of sign languages (adult learners of signing as a second language) across a limited number of languages, primarily in the use of manual parts (e.g. Rosen 2004) as well as in the use of non-manual parts (e.g. McIntire & Reilly 1988), not including mouth actions. The current study draws from both of these research areas in an effort to answer two questions: (i) Do L2 learners use mouthings borrowed from spoken language to a greater extent than L1 (native) signers? And (ii) how do borrowed mouthings and mouth gestures interact with manual signs? In other words, what are the distribution and the scope of mouthings with respect to prosodic constituents of SSL? We based this study on an analysis of an L2 Swedish Sign Language corpus (Mesch & Schönström 2014), which consists of 9:06 hours of data from 17 different L2 signers, and a control group of 3 deaf native L1 signers who provided 0:34 hours of video. For the analysis, we sampled data consisting of various materials (interviews, picture and video retellings) from six L2 learners and compared it to parallel data from the control group. With respect to question (i), our analysis revealed a greater use of mouthings borrowed from spoken Swedish among the L2 group, and for (ii), we found a lack of prosodic features in spreading/interaction between mouthings and signs in SSL as an L2. Compared to the L1 control group, L2 learners either overused or avoided mouthing. Among L2 speakers, our analysis also revealed that Swedish function words (e.g. som ‘as’) often appeared as mouthings without corresponding manual signs, thus being articulated simultaneously with a “mismatched” sign (as in Example 1). Furthermore, the interaction of signs and mouthing was often dependent on Swedish mouthing: whereas L1 signers produced the pattern in Example 2, in which mouthing belonging to the first unit spread to the second unit, the L2 learners’ mouthings often followed a strict 1-to-1 pattern, in which mouthings accompanied single manual signs and rarely spread across sign boundaries. As shown in this study, linguistic factors impacting SSL as an L2 include bilingualism and different modalities, i.e. how mouthing and signs interact. This has implications for L2 teaching, in how L2 learners should be taught to use “unvoiced” articulations of spoken words with manual signs. For future research, it would be useful to compare these results with those of deaf people who are late learners of SSL, since they rarely have a spoken language as an L1 (and thus lack that type of interference).

  • 37.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Constructions and paradigms2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The marking of nominal participants under negation2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    What is a corpus and why are corpora important tools?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    En korpusstudie om multimodal synkroni i tidig ordinlärning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöker vi synkroni i tidig multimodal interaktion mellan föräldrar och barn. Med synkroni menas här återkommande mönster eller strukturella regelbundenheter (vad gäller ord, prosodi, blickriktning, gester och handlingar) som kan reducera komplexitet i språkinlärning.

    Data består av inspelningar av fem longitudinella dyader med två barn (0;7-2;7 år) och deras föräldrar. Inspelningarna transkriberas och annoteras med grundtonsfrekvens, blickriktning, gester och hantering av objekt. Vi undersöker synkroni genom att studera samtliga omnämnanden av två valda objekt (två dockor). För varje omnämnande undersöks grundtonsfrekvens och om omnämnandet kombineras med att den vuxne/barnet tittar på, pekar mot eller rör objektet.

    Man tänker sig att barnet använder sig av grundläggande perceptuella processer för att ta fasta på mönster och regelbundenheter i interaktionen med den vuxne, både i den akustiska signalen men också i den fysiska omgivningen (Gogate & Hollich, 2010). Den vuxne är dessutom benägen att framhäva den språkliga strukturen i interaktion med barnet, t ex genom att den vuxne talar om ett objekt och samtidigt visar objektet för barnet eller låter barnet känna på objektet. Denna synkroniserade multimodala input blir en hjälp för barnet att strukturera och sortera talsignalen och göra kopplingar mellan ord och objekt. I den här studien vill vi försöka fånga den här typen av multimodal synkroni genom att studera två specifika målord och hur interaktionen ser ut just kring dessa ord. Vi tänker oss att regelbundenheter vad gäller prosodi, blickriktningar och gester kommer att vara mer synkroniserade när barnet är mindre och målorden nya, än när barnen är äldre och målorden bekanta.

    Studien är del av ett projekt där vi försöker förklara tidig språkinlärning utifrån generella sociala och kognitiva förmågor. Genom att studera tidig förälder-barn-interaktion vill vi undersöka hur språkliga konstruktioner växer fram, vilka funktioner de har och hur de korrelerar med andra stimuli i barnets omgivning.

    Gogate, L., Hollich, G. 2010. Invariance detection within an interactive system: A perceptual gateway to language development. Psychological Review 117(2), 496-516.

  • 41.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Modelling the informativeness of different modalities in parent-child interaction2015In: Workshop on Extensive and Intensive Recordings of Children's Language Environment / [ed] Alex Cristia, Melanie Soderstrom, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42. Odlin, Terence
    et al.
    Jarvis, Scott
    Sánchez, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Just what is a "constraint on tranfer"?2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Spaces for multilingualism in the Swedish school: Affordances and constraints in the national curriculum and teacher education2016In: Education and migration: Language foregrounded, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish education ideology is captured in the motto: One school for all. However, growing numbers of multilingual pupils from diverse cultural backgrounds in the Swedish school system are presenting new challenges to both teacher educators and teacher students. With approximately 20% of Sweden’s population comprised of immigrants and at least 140 languages spoken by pupils in the compulsory school system, questions of affordances and constraints for multilingualism in the school are highly relevant today. While the official response to linguistic diversity is positive, with provisions for both mother tongue tuition and minority language instruction, the question is how spaces for multilingualism are being created in general policy and practice.

    The present research is part of an ongoing project investigating multilingualism and interculturality in the Swedish compulsory school, through analyses of the discourse of education policy and selected teacher training programs, together with semi-structured interviews with teacher educators, student teachers in pre-service training and working teachers. The triangulation of methods allows for a deeper understanding of how the concepts multilingualism and interculturality are represented: on the one hand, explicitly and implicitly in teacher education in relation to national policy, and on the other hand, in the attitudes of individual teachers and students in response to the multilingual and multicultural classroom.

    This paper will present two aspects of the current study of ideological and implementational spaces for multilingual education. The first part is an analysis of the development of the national curricula from 1994 to 2011 (with addenda 2015), focusing on the implicit and explicit conceptualizations of multilingualism in the texts; and the second part is an exploration of educators’ perspectives on spaces for multilingualism in their own teacher training programs. The affordances or constraints these spaces offer are fundamental to our possibilities to promote linguistic diversity and social justice in the schools of today’s global societies. Although the focus is on the Swedish context, the present research is of interest to other educators as well as to researchers and practitioners involved in creating education policy for compulsory schools in other multilingual contexts.

     

  • 44. Perkova, Natalia
    Revisiting comitative constructions and related matters: the Circum-Baltic data from a typological perspective2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Premat, Christophe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Les usages du dégagisme dans la campagne présidentielle de Jean-Luc Mélenchon2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    If we define populism as a grid of reading that simplifies political questions, then we would be tempted to classify the simple anti-system positioning as an expression of this simplifying impulse (Wiles, 1969). The movement "La France insoumise" was created by the left-wing leader Jean-Luc Mélenchon on 10 February 2016 around a socialist and environmental program, “L'Avenir en commun”. The objective is both to impose an ideological vision of social relations and to prepare the future electoral deadlines. In the course of the presidential election campaign, Jean-Luc Mélenchon repeatedly referred to the idea of ​​a get lostism (dégagisme) which means that a large part of the representatives should be recalled or removed from duty as they betrayed the meaning of the mandate that people gave them. This contribution proposes to analyze the genealogy of this injunction which has been repeatedly taken up as a slogan. The chapter will be based on the critical discourse analysis that focuses on relations between social (Berger, Luckmann, 1991) reality and the conditions of emergence of the political discourse (Fairclough, 2015).

  • 46.
    Premat, Christophe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Sullet-Nylander, Françoise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Quand ne pas dire, c´est dire. Étude de la figure de prétérition en contexte politique2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Pöppel, Ludmila
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures.
    Dobrovolskij, Dmitrij
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic Languages and Literatures.
    Combinatorial profile and synonymy: Russian synonyms from the semantic field of power2012In: BASEES Annual Conference 2012, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the semantic field theory was introduced in the 1920s and 1930s (Ipsen 1924, Trier 1931), it has been developed in hundreds of studies. Surprisingly, the semantic field POWER has been overlooked by researchers. However, this field is of considerable interest not only for specialists in lexical semantics but also for journalists, politicians, lawyers and other professional groups. The semantic field of power is covered in Russian by such words as революция (revolution), переворот (coup), восстание (uprising), бунт (mutiny), мятеж (revolt), путч (putsch), заговор (conspiracy, plot), свержение (overthrow), выступление (protest action, march), протест/акция протеста (protest action) etc. In this paper, we concentrate on the words восстание (uprising), бунт (mutiny) and мятеж (revolt) that can be considered near-synonyms.

    The delimitation of synonyms is among the most productive and topical areas of contemporary lexical semantics, and an enormous number of studies have been devoted to the subject. Synonymy has been investigated from different theoretical perspectives and with the help of various tools at the disposal of present-day linguistics, including theoretical semantics (Apresjan 1974, 2009, Wierzbicka 1992, 1997), corpus linguistics using elements of statistical analysis (Divjak & Gries 2006, Janda & Solovyev 2009), and academic lexicography (Apresjan 1995, 2004).Unlike traditional dictionaries of synonyms, present-day dictionaries of synonyms are based on sound theory. They take into consideration all important relevant results within this field (cf. Rosselli 1990, Urdang 1991, Apresjan 2004). Jurij Apresjan (2004, 2009) has been constantly developing operational criteria for distinguishing synonyms (2009: 200-213). Synonymy research has also been the topic of international conferences (cf. Re-thinking synonymy 2010, http://www.linguistics.fi/synonymy/book_of_abstracts.pdf , ”La synonymie” 2009). Nevertheless, the two synonymic rows in the six languages we plan to investigate have never been described before.

    The relevance of the problems, which will be concidered in the present study, is based on our previous research. We have studied the words революция (revolution), переворот (coup), восстание (uprising) and мятеж (revolt) in Russian (Dobrovol’skij & Pöppel 2012a, 2012b, 2012c, 2012d) and identified distinctive semantic features of these words (see 5.).

    Our study is based on three main methods of linguistic analysis – synonymy analysis along the lines of the Moscow Semantic School, Frame Semantics in the sense of Fillmore, the Construction Grammar approach and the principles of cross-linguistic analysis developed by Haspermath.

    (a) We will approach our analysis from the position of the Moscow Semantic School using the semantic theory developed by Apresjan (1995, 2000, 2004, 2009). Within this theory, contexts profiling semantic differences between synonyms play the central role. If a lexical unit cannot be replaced by its (near-)synonym in a given context it proves that the synonyms are not semantically identical. This approach makes it possible to single out all relevant distinctive semantic features of every lexeme in question by analyzing diagnostic contexts.

    (b) We will also use Charles Fillmore’s theory of Frame Semantics (Fillmore 1977, 1982, 1985). The basic idea of Fillmore’s theory is that the meaning of a single word cannot be understood without access to both the essential knowledge that relates to the word and its combinatorial properties. In order to describe a word’s semantics and to distinguish between (near-)synonyms, one has to study the range of its semantic and syntactic valences, i.e. its combinatorial profile. This enables us to fill the slots of corresponding frames, i.e. to postulate all obligatory and facultative participants in the situation pointed to by the lexeme in question. Examples are the words бунт ‘riot’ and мятеж ‘revolt’ in Russian. Бунт can often start on a ship or in prison i.e. slot “location” of the frame БУНТ is specified, in contrast to МЯТЕЖ. This difference between the words бунт and мятеж can obviously not be fixed within the lexicographic definitions of the meanings of these words but this difference is extremely important for the native-like usage. Therefore it is also important to address the theory of Frame Semantics along with Apresjan’s method (2004, 2009) of synonym discrimination.

    (c) In the analysis of lexical co-occurrences we are also going to use some Construction Grammar approaches. The method has been developed since large text corpora became available and can be labeled constructional approach based on corpus evidence (Janda & Solovyev 2009, Divjak 2010, Divjak & Gries 2008). Its basic assumption is that

    (near-)synonyms are sensitive to specific constructions. Examples are the words революция ‘revolution’ and переворот ‘coup’ in Russian. They are sensitive to the constructions [ВО ИМЯ N] ‘for the sake of N’ and [НА БЛАГО N] ‘for the benefit of N’. The constructions ‘for the sake/benefit of revolution’ occur often, whereas ‘for the sake/benefit of coup’ do not occur in the present-day contexts. This can be explained by the fact that революция is directed towards noble long-term objectives, which is not the case with переворот.

    The recent development of the theory of Frame semantics and Construction Grammar shows that both approaches tend to converge.

    An analysis of combinatorial properties of these words in present-day Russian demonstrates a number of relevant distinctive features. Most of them have not yet been fixed in dictionaries. The main task of our research is to find out semantic contrasts between these near-synonyms.

    Another important aspect is to study diachronic shifts that took place over the last hundred years. As compared to political texts written between two Russian revolutions of 1917, the use of мятеж (revolt), бунт (mutiny), and восстание (uprising) in the present-day discourse reveals some features that differ from the usage of that time. This means that a present-day semantic map cannot be mechanically projected onto the state of language in previous periods of linguistic development. Otherwise there is a great risk of misunderstanding historical texts, especially of misinterpreting the intentions of authors and their political platform.

  • 48.
    Renner, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The role of production in perception of mispronounced words2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    First language acquisition could be investigated from two different domains: perception and production. Earlier perceptual studies showed different reactions to correct word forms compared to mispronounced ones, indicating that lexical representations of early word forms are stored in detail (e.g. White & Morgan 2008, Swingley 2003). However, these perceptual experiments do not take the individual production of the child into account. My research project involves different studies on perception and production. At the Norphlex-­‐seminar in Tromsø I will present the results of an eye-­‐tracking study on the perception of mispronounced words and I hope to be able to present some results on the ongoing study of production.

  • 49.
    Riad, Tomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Myrberg, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    The prosodic word in Swedish2013In: Nordic prosody: proceedings of the XIth conference, Tartu 2012 / [ed] Eva Liina Asu, Pärtel Lippus, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2013, p. 255-264Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50. Schneider, Gerold
    et al.
    Grigonyte, Gintare
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    From surprisal to tagging and syntactic parsing: measuring the idiom and syntax principle2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We introduced surprisal as abstraction from lexical bundles to lexical bundleness. There are forces beyond lexical bundles: on the one hand word-sequence abstractions to word classes, on the other hand the syntax principle (SSP) in contradistinction to the idiom principle (SIP). We ultimately aim for a model of their mutual influence (Sinclair 1991).We motivate the use of models, then abstract to word-class models using a part-of-speech tagger, and to syntactic models, using a large-scale parser. Part-of-speech taggers assign word-classes based on sequences. They typically achieve high accuracy. Areas of low accuracy and low tagger confidence for word class assignment indicate low model fit, and thus often high entropy, lack of formulaic sequences. Tagger model fit can be used as measure of morphosyntactic bundleness.Although creative language (SSP) is rarer, it needs to be respected. We thus also use a syntactic parser language model (Schneider 2008) which combines SSP in form of a hand-written competence grammar and SIP as probabilistic performance disambiguation, paying tribute to Hoey (2005)'s insights on lexical priming. We show that parser model fit is lower on low-level L2 texts, as we can expect according to Pawley and Syder (1983). Finally, we introduce measures of syntactic surprisal.

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