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  • 1.
    Forssén Renner, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Wlodarzcak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The surprised pupil: New perspectives in semantic processing research2016In: ISSBD 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the research on semantic processing and brain activity, the N400-paradigm has been long known to reflect a reaction to unexpected events, for instance the incongruence between visual and verbal information when subjects are presented with a picture and a mismatching word. In the present study, we investigate whether an N400-like reaction to unexpected events can be captured with pupillometry. While earlier research has firmly established a connection between changes in pupil diameter and arousal, the findings have not been so far extended to the domain of semantic processing. Consequently, we measured pupil size change in reaction to a match or a mismatch between a picture and an auditorily presented word. We presented 120 trials to ten native speakers of Swedish. In each trial a picture was displayed for six seconds, and 2.5 seconds into the trial the word was played through loudspeakers. The picture and the word were matching in half of the trials, and all stimuli were common high-frequency monosyllabic Swedish words. For the analysis, the baseline pupil size at the sound playback onset was compared against the maximum pupil size in the following time window of 3.5 seconds. The results show a statistically significant difference (t(746)=-2.8, p < 0.01) between the conditions. In line with the hypothesis, the pupil was observed to dilate more in the incongruent condition (on average by 0.03 mm). While the results are preliminary, they suggest that pupillometry could be a viable alternative to existing methods in the field of language processing, for instance across different ages and clinical groups. In the future, we intend to validate the results on a larger sample of participants as well as expand the analysis with a view to locating temporal regions of greatest differences between the conditions. In the future, we intend to validate the results on a larger sample of participants as well as expand the analysis with a functional analysis accounting for temporal changes in the data. This will allow locating temporal regions of greatest differences between the conditions.

  • 2.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nods, headshakeas and the perception of multimodal constructions in child language2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within gesture studies, gesture and speech is often conceived of as a single communicative system. This means that human production of gestures are temporally and semantically synchronized with the concurrent verbal phrase, or vice versa. These multimodal clusters are described as constructions where the modalities add different but interrelated content to a common semantic whole, an Utterance (e.g. Goldin-Meadow, 2009, 2011; Kendon, 2004; Murillo & Belinchón, 2012). While this appears to be true for a large amount of gesture types – in particular those who fall under the heading Co-speech Gestures (i.e. gesture that by definition co-occur with a spoken utterance) – there are other gestures that are less explored as to their relation to speech and multimodal meaning. Among these other gestures we find emblems, a vaguely defined group of gestures that are often claimed to carry a semantic meaning on their own, regardless of (optional) concurrent verbalizations (McNeill, 1992). The present study investigated two emblematic gesture forms – nods and headshakes – and their appearance and use in a longitudinal, naturalistic material of child-child and child-adult interaction. The data consists of 11 Swedish children in the ages 0;9 to 5;10 years of age, recorded during a period of 2 ½ years as they interacted with siblings, parents, and friends in their home environment. In all, 22 hours of video recordings were transcribed and analyzed. From the data we could conclude two main factors: i) even emblems appear to be largely speech dependent for their interpretation; and ii) nods and headshakes appear to follow different developmental trajectories and behave rather differently throughout the ages studied. These findings will be discussed in relation to language development in general and to the perceptive system of humans in particular.

  • 3.
    Gerholm, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The Swedish MINT Project: modelling infant language acquisition from parten-child interaction2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The MINT-project is a longitudinal study of verbal and nonverbal interaction between 73 Swedish children and their parents, recorded in lab environment from 3 months to 3 years of age. The overall goal of the project is to deepen our understanding of how language acquisition takes place in a multimodal and interactional framework. 

  • 4.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The neurophysiological correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language comprehension is assumed to proceed incrementally, and comprehenders commit to initial interpretations even in the absence of unambiguous information (e.g., Crocker 1994; Hawkins 2007). Initial ambiguous object arguments are therefore preferably interpreted as subjects, an interpretation that needs to be revised towards an object initial interpretation once the disambiguating information is encountered (e.g, de Vincenzi 1991; Haupt, Schlesewsky, Roehm, Friederici, & Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, 2008). Most accounts of such grammatical function reanalyses (Haupt et al. 2008) assume that they involve phrase structure revisions, and do not differ from other syntactic reanalyses. A number of studies using measurements of event-related brain potentials (ERP:s) provide evidence for this view by showing that both reanalysis types engender similar neurophysiological responses (e.g., P600 effects) (e.g., Bornkessel, McElree, Schlesewsky, & Friederici, 2004; Friederici & Mecklinger, 1996; Matzke, Mai, Nager, Russeler, Munte, 2002). Others have claimed that grammatical function reanalyses rather involves revisions of the mapping of thematic roles to argument NP:s (Bornkessel & Schlesewsky, 2006; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky & Schlesewsky, 2009a, 2009b; Haupt et al., 2008). In line with this, it has been shown that grammatical function reanalysis during spoken language comprehension engender a N400 effect (Haupt et al., 2008), an effect which has been shown to correlate with general problems in the mapping of thematic roles to argument NP:s in a number of languages (see Bornkessel-Schlesewsky & Schlesewsky, 2009b for a review).

    This poster presents a study which investigated the ERP correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish. Post-verbal NP:s that disambiguated the interpretation of object-topicalized sentences towards an object-initial reading engendered a N400 effect with a local, left-parietal distribution. This ―reanalysis N400‖ effect provides further support for the view that grammatical function reanalysis is functionally distinct from syntactic reanalyses and rather involves a revision of the mapping of thematic roles to the sentence arguments.

  • 5.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Jaeger, T. Florian
    Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester.
    Deriving argument ordering biases from expectation-based processing2017In: Cognitive explanations in linguistic typology: Contemporary insights from language processing and language acquisition, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6. Kauschke, Christina
    et al.
    Renner, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Domahs, Ulrike
    Morpho-phonological constraints affect Germanplural and particple formation in children with SLI2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    "Hot and cold — universal or language-specific"?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 8. Lam-Cassettari, Christa
    et al.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Daddy counts: Australian and Swedish fathers? early speech input reflects infants? receptive vocabulary at 12 months 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental input is known to predict language development. This study uses the LENA input duration estimates for female and male voices in two infant language environments, Australian English and Swedish, to predict receptive vocabulary size at 12 months. The Australian English learning infants were 6 months (N = 18, 8 girls), the Swedish learning infants were 8 months (N = 12, 6 girls). Their language environment was recorded on two days: one weekday in the primary care of the mother, and one weekend day when also the father spent time with the family. At 12 months, parents filled in a CDI form, the OZI for Australian English and the SECDI‐I for Swedish. In multiple regressions across languages, only male speech input duration predicted vocabulary scores significantly (β = .56;p = .01). Analysing boys and girls separately, male speech input predicts only boys’ vocabulary (β =.79 ; p= .01). Analysing languages separately for boys, the Australian English results are similar (β =.74 ; p= .02). Discussed in terms of differences in infant age, sample size, sex distribution and language, these findings can still contribute to the growing list of benefits of talker variability for early language acquisition.

  • 9.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    MMR categorization effect at 8 months is related toreceptive vocabulary size at 12 to 14 months2017In: Many Paths to Language (MPaL), 2017, p. 91-92Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Available but not accessible: Options for adapting old Swedish Sign Language archives to modern documentation conventions2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Video is an important medium for linguistic and historic research on signed language. Video recordings of Swedish Sign Language (SSL), mainly from the 1970s, have been preserved for the next generation, but the organizing, archiving, and sharing of this material is not standardized. The Swedish National Association for the Deaf (SDR) has been one of the biggest producers of SSL material, before the production moved to Swedish Broadcasting (SVT). A large amount of video recordings, produced 1970-1990, are in the SDR archive, preserved but not systematically archived and documented. SSL material by SVT since 1974 is available through streaming in their “open archive” (“Öppet arkiv”)—about 72 entries—and the Swedish Media Database at the National Library of Sweden (KB)—about 7,100 entries. The CLARIN Research Infrastructure and the national Swedish consortium SWE-CLARIN is one way for scholars in the humanities and social sciences to access data, and provides tools for exploring, annotating, and analyzing data (Nilsson Björkenstam et al, 2014). Corpus-based work on SSL started in 2003, preceding the SSL Corpus project (2009-2011), and this work provides a model for annotation work, and metadata and archiving procedures. This could be applied to older archives, such as the SDR material.

  • 11.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    A second language learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes work on an ongoing learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as a second language (L2). The purpose of this learner corpus is to provide a solid database for second language research in SSL, as there is a lack of research regarding how adults learn a signed language as a second language, and the availability of such a corpus for research would ultimately lead to new insights in the field. Work on this SSL learner corpus started in 2013 (Schönström & Mesch, 2014), and it now contains longitudinal data collected from 2013 to 2016. The corpus consists of data from two groups of learners. Data collection for the first group was completed in 2014 and contains 9:06 hours of data from a total of 18 learners. Data collection from the second group is ongoing.

    The longitudinal data collection consisted of interviews as well as picture and video retellings recorded on four occasions over a period of 1.5 years. The learners consisted of students from a sign language interpreter program at university level. The first collection began one month after course onset, and the second one 1.5 years after onset. The aim was to obtain a wider range of data illustrating the learners’ different developmental stages. The recorded material has been annotated and transcribed in the multimodal annotation tool ELAN using current SSL annotation conventions, especially for annotation of glosses as well as a special annotation schema for L2 analysis according to our particular research objectives.

    For those who are learning SSL, we hypothesize that simultaneous and spatial structures in a gestural-visual modality are challenging to learn (cf. Ortega & Morgan, 2015). Earlier we began analyzing the mouth actions of L2 learners (Mesch, Schönström, Riemer-Kankkonen & Wallin, 2016). Data was annotated according to annotation tiers for mouthing categories, such as mouth movements borrowed from Swedish (mouthing without sound), and mouth gestures, as well as L2 tiers. The next step is to analyze a set of complex sign categories (i.e. signs modified according to meaning and space). We are interested in how learners acquire depicting signs as well as other complex sign categories, i.e. modified signs and indicating signs. This overlaps partly with the use of space for meaning and reference, which is a challenge to annotate. In our presentation, we will show our annotation scheme and discuss the challenges of annotating these structures in an L2 context. 

  • 12.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    The non-dominant hand as delimitation between inner element and outer element2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In previous studies, Liddell (2003), Liddell, Vogt-Svendsen & Bergman (2004), Vogt-Svendsen & Bergman (2007) and Nilsson (2007) described buoys in American, Norwegian and Swedish sign languages, as in the list buoy, THEME buoy, POINTER buoy and point buoy. Common to all of these is that they are realized with the non-dominant hand or weak hand, which “are held in a stationary configuration as the strong hand continues producing signs” (Liddell, 2003:223).

    In this paper, we present an additional sign (usually consisting of all fingers relaxed gathered and slightly bent at both distal knuckles with the thumb in opposition, or lateral), which, with respect to performance, matches the description of other buoys but differs in function/content from previously described buoys with the partial exception of POINT-B (Vogt-Svendsen & Bergman, 2007). In the Swedish Sign Language Corpus, we have tentatively annotated this sign as DELIMIT (translated from the Swedish AVGRÄNS) because, in our initial analysis (of 84 preliminary tokens on 45 annotated texts (of dialogue) with 26 informants of different ages and genders), the sign seems to represent a form of delimitation between an “inner” element – represented by the space in front of the hand’s palmar side – and an “outer” element – represented by the space in front of the hand’s dorsal side – as if someone is inside and another is outside, or there is an island surrounded by sea.

    A typical example using DELIMIT is shown in the series of pictures below (see figure 1). The (left-handed) informant is initially describing a comic strip about a lonely man on an island with a palm tree in the middle of the sea. The first photograph shows the dominant hand performing the sign of the island (O-hand is moved up) with the non-dominant hand initiating the execution of DELIMIT, which is completed in the second photograph, while the dominant index hand is making a circular motion in the space in front of palmar side of DELIMIT, which now represents the inner elements, or the island. After the third photograph, in which the dominant hand is performing the sign of the sea, the following three photographs show the informant describing the sea as an outer element by using the dominant hand to make a sweeping motion forward past DELIMIT's dorsal side – further in front of DELIMIT – and ending on the contralateral side of the space.

    DELIMIT is typically carried out in the space in front of the body. However, one example in our data uses the neck as the location for DELIMIT by representing the space beneath the non-dominant hand with the palmar side down for the chest and downwards, and the dorsal side of the space above the hand for the head.

    Together  the buoys described in this presentation show how the use of the non-dominant hand can be regarded as more important at the discourse level than the dominant hand in individual signs, and thus, is not particularly “weak” at all.  

      …

    Figure 1.

    References:

    Bergman, B. & Vogt-Svendsen, M. 2007. Point buoys. The weak hand as a point of reference for time and space. In Vermeerbergen, M., Leeson, L. & Crasborn, O. (eds.), Simultaneity in Signed Languages: Form and Function. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

    Liddell, S. K. 2003. Grammar, Gesture and Meaning in American Sign Language. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    Liddell, S. K., Vogt-Svendsen, M. & Bergman, B. 2007. A crosslinguistic comparison of buoys. Evidence from American, Norwegian, and Swedish Sign Language. In Vermeerbergen, M., Leeson, L. & Crasborn, O. (eds.), Simultaneity in Signed Languages: Form and Function. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

    Nilsson, A-L. 2007. The non-dominant hand in a Swedish Sign Language discourse. In Vermeerbergen, M., Leeson, L. & Crasborn, O. (eds.), Simultaneity in Signed Languages: Form and Function. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

    Mesch, J., Wallin, L., Nilsson, A-L. & Bergman, B. 2012. Datamängd. Projektet Korpus för det svenska teckenspråket 2009-2011 (version 1). Avdelningen för teckenspråk, Institutionen för lingvistik, Stockholms universitet. (http://www.ling.su.se/teckensprakskorpus)

  • 13.
    Mesch, Johanna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Sign Language Resources in Sweden: Dictionary and Corpus2012In: Proceedings of the 5th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Interactions between Corpus and Lexicon, 2012, p. 127-130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sign language resources are necessary tools for adequately serving the needs of learners, teachers and researchers of signed languages. Among these resources, the Swedish Sign Language Dictionary was begun in 2008 and has been in development ever since. Today, it has approximately 8,000 sign entries. The Swedish Sign Language Corpus is also an important resource, but it is of a very different kind than the dictionary. Compiled during the years 2009–2011, the corpus consists of video recorded conversations among 42 informants aged between 20 and 82, from three separate regions in Sweden. With 14 % of the corpus having been annotated with glosses for signs, it comprises total of approximately 3,600 different signs occurring about 25,500 times (tokens) in the 42 annotated sign language discourses/video files. As these two resources sprang from different starting points, they are independent from each other; however, in the late phases of building the corpus the importance of combining work from the two became evident. This presentation will show the development of these two resources and the advantages of combining them.

     

  • 14.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Use of signing space in simultanous sign language interpretation: Marking discourse structure with the body2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental difference between signed and spoken languages is that in signed languages the signer uses the three dimensional space in front of him/her (signing space) and his/her own body for reference and cohesion. According to recent studies of signed languages (e.g. Liddell, 2003; Liddell, Vogt-Svendsen & Bergman, 2007; Nilsson, 2010; Dudis, 2011; Ferrara, 2011; Thumann, 2011) such linguistic tools make use of the conceptual blending process (Fauconnier & Turner, 2002).

    Optimal use of signing space is dependent on the signer’s knowledge of what s/he is going to talk about. In a simultaneous interpreting situation, both the content and the structure of the discourse become known to the interpreter only gradually. Thus, it is difficult for an interpreter working simultaneously into a signed language to know how to best structure the discourse, as there is no way s/he can know exactly what the speaker will say next. To date, there are only a few studies regarding use of signing space in simultaneously interpreted signed language (see, however, e.g. Frasu, 2007; Nicodemus, 2009; Armstrong, 2011; Goswell, 2011).

    In the present study, Swedish Sign Language (SSL) interpreters have been filmed when interpreting from spoken Swedish into SSL. Both interpreters whose first language is SSL (L1 interpreters) and those who are second language learners of SSL (L2 interpreters) have been recorded. Their signed language production is studied using a model based in Conceptual Blending Theory, and mainly analyzing use of Real Space Blending (Liddell, 2003), focusing on how they use signing space and their body to mark the discourse structure. Does the interpreting situation make interpreters use fewer of the linguistic tools available, or use them differently than in spontaneously produced SSL (as described in e.g. Bergman, 2007; Nilsson, 2010; Sikström, 2011)?

    The unexpected findings of a preliminary analysis indicate striking differences both in how and how much the recorded L1 and L2 interpreters use their body, especially regarding the use of movements of the upper body. In this presentation, I will show how the L1 interpreters structure the discourse content using buoys and tokens (Liddell, 2003) in a highly visual interplay with body movements. Buoys and tokens are combined with e.g. sideway movements and rotations of the upper body, thereby marking the structure of the discourse. The L1 interpreters move their upper body in a manner that gives a relaxed and natural impression, frequently e.g. raising their shoulders as part of sign production. Despite finding out the discourse content only gradually, and while already rendering their interpretation of what has been said so far, they manage to produce signed discourse that is strikingly similar to spontaneously produced SSL discourse. In comparison, as we will see, the L2 interpreters generally move their upper body less, and they use fewer buoys and tokens. Their use of directions in signing space to indicate e.g. contrast and/or comparisons is more stereotypical, and their body movements do not reflect the structure of the discourse to the same extent.

  • 15.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Variation sets in child-directed speech2015In: / [ed] Ellen Marklund, Iris-Corinna Schwarz, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Renner, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Markelius, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Brain responses to typical mispronunciations among toddlers2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In first language acquisition research, investigations on the semantics and lexicon of the child are often conducted by measuring brain activity at the surface of the scalp (EEG). Such EEG studies have shown different brain reactions to matching and mismatching pairs of pictures and words from 19-month-olds (Friedrich & Friederici, 2005). Similarly, results from 20-month-olds exposed to auditory stimuli only indicated different brain reactions to correct pronunciations and mispronunciations (Mills et al., 2004). However, these studies do not take the typical production patterns in that specific age into account.

    In the present study, we measured brain reactions of 13 24-month-olds exposed to pairs of pictures and words in four different conditions: correctly pronounced words, two different kinds of mispronounced words, and novel words. The first type of mispronunciations (M1) consisted in minor mispronunciations consistent with typical production patterns in first language acquisition, e.g. ‘ko’ instead of ‘sko’ (shoe). The second type (M2) was characterized by phonological changes that are not expected at 24 months, e.g. ‘fo’ instead of ‘sko’ (shoe). The novel words consisted of phonotactically possible Swedish non-words.

    A principal component analysis (PCA) decomposition of the EEG data showed two patterns of posterior negativity typical of lexical-semantic processing: one for novel words in comparison to the other conditions, and the other for novel and M2 word forms compared to M1 and correct word forms. These results indicate that M1 are processed similar as correct word forms, and that M2 and novel words are processed alike. However, while these patterns were visually salient in successive components, the results were not statistically significant. We suspect that the non-significant results were due to the small dataset. Nevertheless, this study contributes to the discussion on the relationship between perception and production in first language acquisition.

  • 17.
    Renner, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Markelius, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Productional abilities can affect the perception of mispronounced words: An eye-tracking study with Swedish two-year-old children2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    Renner, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Combining EEG signals and Eye-tracking data to investigate the relationship between phonological and lexical acquisition2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Renner, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Strandberg, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Phonological templates in Swedish 18-month-old children in relation to vocabulary size2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between phonology and lexicon in first language acquisition has been of interest for many researchers in the last years (for a review see  [1]). Both perception and production studies have been conducted to investigate each of these areas. Among the speech production studies, phonological templates have been proposed as an account of how children acquire words. Phonological templates are child-specific word form patterns such as consonant harmony, which children frequently use. In projecting the phonological template onto adult word forms the child adapts new words to fit to his or her own preferred production pattern [2].

    In the present study, we investigate phonological templates in spontaneous speech from 12 Swedish 18-month-old children. The phonological templates are also related to each child’s vocabulary size, based on  the Swedish version of the McArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (CDI) [3]. The participants included four children with a vocabulary size above 100 words, three with a vocabulary size between 50 and 100 words and five children with a vocabulary size below 50 words. The tentative findings indicate that only those children with a vocabulary size above 100 words show phonological templates, pointing to a relationship between lexical and phonological development in speech production. The results are discussed in relation to the existence of phonological templates in general and to the increased probability of the occurrence of phonological templates in a specific window of vocabulary size.

     

  • 20.
    Schneider, Gerold
    et al.
    Institute of Computational Linguistics, University of Zurich, Switzerland.
    Grigonyté, Gintaré
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Using an automatic parser as a language learner model2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Contingency differences in parent-infant turn-taking between primary and secondary caregivers in relation to turn-taking experience2017In: Many Paths to Language (MPaL), 2017, p. 59-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contingent turn-taking between parents and infants is positively correlated with child language outcome (Tamis-LeMonda, Bornstein & Baumwell, 2001; Marklund, Marklund, Lacerda & Schwarz, 2015). Many studies focus exclusively on mothers (e.g., Sung, Fausto-Sterling, Garcia Coll & Seifer, 2013). However, infants in Western countries acquire language with input both from mothers and fathers in varying degree, depending on how the family chooses to organize their parental leave. Sweden is an ideal country to study both mothers and fathers as caregivers for infants.

    Parental contingency is often reported as response frequency within a time window after infant vocalizations (e.g., Johnson, Caskey, Rand, Tucker & Vohr, 2014). In this study, turn-taking contingency is measured by the duration of parent-child and child-parent switching pauses around infant vocalization with potential communicative intent. Fourteen (7 girls) infants and their primary and secondary caregivers were recorded in the family home when the infant was six months (M = 5 months 29 days, range: 5 months 3 days – 6 months 16 days). The audio recordings were collected two different days and lasted approximately ten minutes each. One of the days was a typical weekday on which the primary caregiver – in all cases the mother – was at home with the infant. The other day was a typical weekend day on which also the secondary caregiver – in all cases the father – was at home and spent time with the infant. On each of these days, a daylong LENA recording was also made to estimate the amount of exposure to female and male speech input on a typical day. Using Wavesurfer 1.8.5 (Sjölander & Beskow, 2010), on- and offset of all infant vocalizations were tagged as well as on- and offset for the surrounding switching pauses. If parent utterance and infant vocalization overlapped, switching pause duration received a negative value.

    Two repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of caregiver type (primary/secondary) and infant sex (girl/boy) on pause duration in infant-parent and parent-infant switching pauses. A main effect was found for caregiver type in infant-parent switching pauses (F(12,1) = 5.214; p = .041), as primary caregivers responded on average about 500 ms faster to infant vocalizations than secondary caregivers, with no effect of or interaction with infant sex. In parent-infant switching pauses, the main effect for caregiver type was almost significant (F(12,1) = 4.574; p = .054), with no effect of or interaction with infant sex. It is therefore fair to say that turn-taking between primary caregivers and 6-month-olds is more contingent than turn-taking between secondary caregivers and 6-month-olds.

    Four linear regressions were then used to predict parent-infant and infant-parent switching pause duration from the average duration of female speech exposure and the average duration of male speech exposure across the two days, with the assumption that female speech duration equals speech input from the primary caregiver and male speech duration the secondary caregiver. None of the regression analyses turned out to be significant. However, it is likely that the greater contingency between primary caregivers and the infant is a function of greater turn-taking experience, that is, conversational turns rather than mere exposure to speech. Therefore, we will look next at the number of conversational turns for each caregiver separately and investigate whether they predict parental response contingency.

    The present study shows that vocal turn-taking is more contingent between infants and primary caregivers than with secondary caregivers. Primary caregivers respond significantly faster to infant vocalizations than secondary caregivers and in turn, infants have a tendency to respond faster to primary caregivers. It is likely that this relationship is mediated by turn-taking experience, although this could not be shown with regression analyses using LENA estimates of total duration of speech exposure to primary and secondary caregiver.

     

     

  • 22.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Dye, Matthew
    Leeson, Lorraine
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Building up L2 Corpora in Different Signed Languages: SSL, ISL and ASL2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Schönström, Krister
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Swedish as a Second Language for the Deaf.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gesture, signs and L2/M2 acquisition corpus in Swedish Sign Language2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The emerging research field of L2/M2 acquisition in signed languages is contributing toour understanding of human languages in various ways. What are the challenges oflearning a new language that is manifested in a different modality? Is there anymodality-specific component, as well as language-specific component, that is harder toacquire than others? And how does this relate to questions concerning the acquisition ofsigned modalities in light of gesture-language discussions (Kendon, 2014)? For example,it has been shown in earlier research that a gesture “strategy” can be advantageous aswell as disadvantageous for the L2 learners of any signed language (Ortega & Morgan,2015). In light of this, our paper will present some preliminary notes from the analysis of an L2learner corpus in Swedish Sign Language that consists of longitudinal data (1.5 years) from hearing adult students learning SSL in an SSL interpreting program at theuniversity level. The learner corpus in SSL, which was started in 2013, so far contains approximately 14 hours of data from a total of 26 learners and is still expanding. We also collected data from a control group consisting of three L1 learners. Additionally, part of the corpus has been annotated with tiers for sign glosses and an L2 relatedanalysis. We conducted a qualitative analysis that included a performance analysis on the sign vocabulary on annotated data in the SSL as L2 corpus and compared the outcomes with the L1 control group. In our analysis, we adopted an applied view, dividing up thevocabulary into the three main sign types proposed by (Hodge & Johnston, 2014): 1) lexical signs; 2) partly lexical signs; and 3) non-lexical signs. In our study, we are specifically interested in how L2 learners acquire “partly lexical signs”, i.e. pointing signs (pronouns, indexing signs) and depicting signs (classifier constructions, polycomponential signs). We hypothesized that learning a language in a modality thatallows for a high degree of iconically motivated vocabulary makes it possible forlearners to, in fact, imitate the tasks or events from a stimulus in an elicited narrative task. But what are the error types, and how should the differences between depicting signs by L1 and L2 signers be described? Is there a gesture strategy used here, and is it linked to a typical L2/M2 strategy? Our results showed qualitative differences between L2 and L1 learners regarding theuse of depicting signs. In the L2 group, depicting signs describing size and shape were used less frequently than in the L1 group, while the L2 group varied more in depicting signs representing handle (agentive) classifiers. Furthermore, the learners also relied onother strategies, e.g. fingerspellings and mouthings. The results will be discussed froman acquisition view as well in light of the gesture-language discussion.

  • 24.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Applying the Negative Existential Cycle on the Uralic Language Family2012Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 24 of 24
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