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  • 1.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana.
    Noun classes in Sɛlɛɛ2014In: Journal of West African Languages, ISSN 0022-5401, Vol. XLI, no 1, p. 95-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes the noun class system of Sl, a Na-Togo, Kwa (Niger-Congo) language spoken in the Volta Region of Ghana. As shown in this paper, Sl hasa noun class system with an equal number of singular and plural classes that are paired inirregular ways. The singular-plural pairs are referred to as genders. Nouns normally agreewith certain modifiers within the noun phrase. The agreement targets are determiners,numerals, interrogative pronouns and some adjectives. Outside the noun phrase, nounclasses may be indexed on the verb to signal long distance anaphora, a strategy thatspeakers rarely use. The paper provides a detailed account of possible semantic andcultural motivations for the assignment of nouns to a particular gender and/or class.

  • 2.
    Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Ghana.
    Standard negation in SɛlɛɛIn: Afrika und Übersee, ISSN 0002-0427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses standard negation in Sɛlɛɛ. Sɛlɛɛ is a Ghana-Togo Mountain (GTM) Language of the Kwa group of the Niger Congo family. Standard negation is the negation of declarative verbal clauses. Different strategies are used in Sɛlɛɛ to negate declarative verbal main clauses depending on the tense and aspect category of the verb. The basic negation strategy used in standard negation is tonal alternation, with or without other negation markers. The other strategies are the use of portmanteau morphemes, affixes and vowel lengthening. Interestingly, in one and the same tense paradigm, different persons can select different negation strategies. There is syncretism among the 1st person singular forms of the negative recent past, the negative habitual and the negative perfect.

  • 3. Ahlgren, Inger
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Älgkalven Roð i Älvdalen. Recension över Björn Rehnströms barnböcker på älvdalska1999In: Mora Tidning, Vol. 1999-07-07Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Alvarez López, Laura
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Português vernáculo brasileiro e a hipótese da semi-crioulização2003In: Revista da ABRALIN Associação Brasileira de Lingüística, ISSN 1678-1805, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 111-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses the possible semi-creole status of Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese and questions some of the literature on semi-creoles in general. It presents some differences between Brazilian Vernacular Portuguese and creole languages and makes a revision of the semi-creoles. Finally, it proposes new delimitations for the semi-creole concept.

  • 5.
    Bakker, Peter
    et al.
    Research Centre for Grammar and Language Use, Aarhus University .
    Daval-Markussen, Aymeric
    Research Centre for Grammar and Language Use, Aarhus University.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Plag, Ingo
    Universität Siegen.
    Creoles are typologically distinct from non-creoles2011In: Journal of Pidgin and Creole languages ( Print), ISSN 0920-9034, E-ISSN 1569-9870, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 5-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In creolist circles, there has been a long-standing debate whether creoles differ structurally from non-creole languages and thus would form a special class of languages with specific typological properties. This debate about the typological status of creole languages has severely suffered from a lack of systematic empirical study. This paper presents for the first time a number of large-scale empirical investigations of the status of creole languages as a typological class on the basis of different and well-balanced samples of creole and non-creole languages. Using statistical modeling (multiple regression) and recently developed computational tools of quantitative typology (phylogenetic trees and networks), this paper provides robust evidence that creoles indeed form a structurally distinguishable subgroup within the world's languages. The findings thus seriously challenge approaches that hold that creole languages are structurally indistinguishable from non-creole languages.

  • 6.
    Bartning, Inge
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The functions of a high-frequency collocation in native and learner discourse: the case of French c’est and Swedish det är2007In: International Review of Applied Linguistics, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 1-43Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Complex Epistemic Perspective in Kogi (Arwako)2016In: International Journal of American Linguistics, ISSN 0020-7071, E-ISSN 1545-7001, Vol. 82, no 1, p. 1-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper analyzes a form of epistemic marking in Kogi (Arwako-Chibchan) that positions information between the speech-participants from the perspective of the speaker. This form of epistemic marking is tentatively labeled “complex epistemic perspective” and is found with five prefixes that attach to the auxiliary verb. Relevant meaning contrasts are between speaker-perspective and addressee-perspective forms, which may in turn be separated into symmetric and asymmetric forms that signal shared and exclusive knowledge access. The meaning dimension of knowledge access is also subject to a private/public distinction that parallels the notion of “territory of information” (Kamio 1997; Heritage 2012) where information may belong more to one of the speech participants than the other. The analyzed forms thus share a core function in specifying two simultaneous perspectives as part of the referential ground (e.g. Hanks 1990; 2009). The paper builds on first-hand data collected in the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta region of northern Colombia and offers the first comprehensive analysis of epistemic marking in the language.

  • 8.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Epistemic marking and multiple perspective: an introduction2015In: Language Typology and Universals, ISSN 1867-8319, E-ISSN 2196-7148, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 123-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses forms of epistemic marking that instantiate multiple perspective constructions (see Evans 2005). Such forms express the speaker’s and the addressee’s simultaneous epistemic perspectives from the point of view of the speaker, crucially relying on the assumptions of the speaker with regard to the addressee’s knowledge. The analysis of forms considers established semanto-pragmatic concepts, such as semantic scope, mitigation strategies and communicative intention (as marked by sentence-type) in the exploration of forms. In addition, the notion of knowledge asymmetry is discussed alongside the concepts of epistemic status and stance as tools for a semantic analysis of investigated forms

  • 9.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Epistemic marking in Ika (Arwako)2012In: Studies in Language, ISSN 0378-4177, E-ISSN 1569-9978, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 154-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper describes epistemic marking in Ika (Arwako-Chibchan, Colombia) and proposes an analysis in terms of a typologically unusual pattern called conjunct/disjunct, which has been attested for a small number of Asian and South American languages. Canonically, conjunct occurs with first person subjects in statements and with second person in questions, as opposed to any other combination of subject and sentence-type, which is disjunct. The pattern found in Ika both conforms to expectations and, at the same time, contributes to a more nuanced analysis of the functional motivations of the conjunct/disjunct pattern. In Ika, conjunct marking encodes the speaker's direct access to an event that involves either (or both) of the speech participants. In addition, conjunct/disjunct marking interacts predictably with a second set of epistemic markers that encode asymmetries in the epistemic authority of the speaker and the addressee. The analysis builds on first-hand data but remains tentative, awaiting further investigation.

  • 10.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The role of 'perspective' in epistemic marking2017In: Lingua, ISSN 0024-3841, E-ISSN 1872-6135, Vol. 186, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper focuses on inter-personal aspects of the context in the analysis of evidential and related epistemic marking systems. While evidentiality is defined by its capacity to qualify the speaker's indexical point of view in terms of information source, it is argued that other aspects of the context are important to analyze evidentiality both conceptually and grammatically. These distinct, analytical components concern the illocutionary status of a given marker and its scope properties. The importance of the hearer's point of view in pragmatics and semantics is well attested and constitutes a convincing argument for an increased emphasis on the perspective of the hearer/addressee in analyses of epistemic marking, such as evidentiality. The paper discusses available accounts of evidentials that attend to the perspective of the addressee and also introduces lesser-known epistemic marking systems that share a functional space with evidentiality.

  • 11.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Knuchel, Dominique
    Complexity in Egophoric Marking: From Agents to Attitude Holders2017In: Open Linguistics, ISSN 2300-9969, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 359-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper considers attested variation found in egophoric marking systems in order to discuss the role of such variation for the defining features of egophoric marking viz. a speech-act participant's epistemic authority subject to his/her involvement in an event. Austin Hale's (1980) pioneering description of egophoric marking in Kathmandu Newar (called conjunct/disjunct by Hale) has largely shaped our conception of what such systems look like, but in recent years, research on comparable systems has revealed that egophoric marking systems vary with respect to every purportedly defining feature of such systems. The one remaining variable that appears constant is the epistemic authority of the speech-act participants. When attempting to analyze and compare egophoric marking, one should consider all relevant cross-linguistic variation in order to determine what features are defeasible, and which ones are not. In this paper we explore the range of participant-roles that can be associated with egophoric marking focusing on secondary egophoric markers that map onto undergoers, affected participants, and the attitudes of the speech-act participants. It will become clear that these less prototypical instances of egophoric marking bridge such systems to a seemingly unrelated grammatical constructions, known as ethical datives.

  • 12.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    bilee sul ügiin utga, hereglee [The meaning and function of the particle bilee in Khalkha Mongolian]2012In: Hèl zohiol sudlal, ISSN 2308-510X, Vol. 5, no 37, p. 10-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the meaning and use of the evidential particle bilee and its shortened derived form lee in Khalkha Mongolian are investigated. In indicatives, bilee is used to indicate one's own recollection. Simple past is formed together with the past inferential -j. Similarly, with a hortative mood bilee indicates the recollection of one's mental state. Both confirmation and surprise can be found as connotations, but the notion of surprise even appears to have grammaticalized into the more specific construction -na lee which either expresses surprise or is used to beg for attention. In questions, bilee can both express that one has witnessed, but cannot recall a given event, or an event that the addressee is presumed to remember. With the imperfective -dag, bilee can sometimes induce mono-occasional readings, but these are even possible with -dag alone or most commonly with -dag baijee.

  • 13.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The aspect-evidentiality system of Middle Mongol2014In: Ural-Altaic studies, ISSN 2079-1003, Vol. 13, no 2, p. 7-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper contains an analysis of aspect, tense and evidentiality in Middle Mongol. This language has a fairly complex aspectual system, consisting of mostly periphrastic constructions built up from converbal, participial and final suffixes, and two different stative copula verbs. These express progressivity, habituality, genericity, perfectivity, perfect and resultativity on the present and past tense level. Present progressivity and resultativity can both be expressed by two different constructions that differ by their aspectual scope and/or actional properties. The three past tense suffixes mark factual, firsthand and secondhand information. This evidential trichotomy is restricted to the perfective aspect, while all other aspectual past tense markers only receive firsthand or secondhand marking. No aspectual distinctions seem to be made in the future, though both the future participle and the resultative participle can form contrafactual constructions.

  • 14.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Distribution and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language2016In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 143-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate frequency and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) using the SSL Corpus. The duration of signs is correlated with frequency, with high-frequency items having shorter duration than low-frequency items. Similarly, function words (e.g. pronouns) have shorter duration than content words (e.g. nouns). In compounds, forms annotated as reduced display shorter duration. Fingerspelling duration correlates with word length of corresponding Swedish words, and frequency and word length play a role in the lexicalization of fingerspellings. The sign distribution in the SSL Corpus shows a great deal of cross-linguistic similarity with other sign languages in terms of which signs appear as high-frequency items, and which categories of signs are distributed across text types (e.g. conversation vs. narrative). We find a correlation between an increase in age and longer mean sign duration, but see no significant difference in sign duration between genders.

  • 15.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    An exercise in a posteriori language sampling2008In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, ISSN 1867-8319, Vol. 61, no 3, p. 208-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central methodological issue in language typology is sampling – how to choose a representative set of languages for a typological investigation. Most proposed typological sampling methods are a priori in the sense that they are based on assumed, rather than observed, effects of biasing factors – such as genealogical and areal proximity.The advent of the World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS) creates for the first time a chance to attempt a posteriori sampling. The basic idea is to create a sample by

    removing from the set of available languages one member of each pair of languages whose typological distance – as defined in terms of the features in WALS – does not reach a predefined threshold. In

    this way, a sample of 101 languages was chosen from an initial set of the 222 languages that are best represented in WALS.The number of languages from different macroareas in this sample can be taken as an indication of the internal diversity of the area in question.Two issues are discussed in some detail: (i) the high diversity of the indigenous languages of the Americas and the tendency for these to be underrepresented by previous sampling methods; (ii) the extreme areal convergence of Mainland South East Asian languages. It is concluded that areal factors cannot be neglected in typological sampling, and that it must be questioned whether the creation of elaborate sampling algorithms makes sense.

  • 16.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Frithiof Rundgren2007In: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens Årsbok, ISSN 0083-6796, p. 31-36Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    From questionnaires to parallel corpora in typology2007In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, ISSN 0942-2919, Vol. 60, no 2, p. 172-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This rather programmatic paper discusses the use of parallel corpora in the typological study of grammatical categories. In the author’s earlier work, tense-aspect categories were studied by means of a translational questionnaire, and “cross-linguistic gram-types” were identified through their distribution in the questionnaire. It is proposed that a similar methodology could be applied to multilingual parallel corpora. The possibility of identifying grammatical markers by word-alignment methods is demonstrated with examples from Bible texts.

  • 18.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammatikens grundfärg är som zebrans2008In: Språktidningen, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 44-47Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    How telicity creates time2013In: Journal of Slavic Linguistics, ISSN 1068-2090, E-ISSN 1543-0391, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 45-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most treatments of temporal semantics start out from the conception of time as a line stretching from the past into the future, which is then populated with eventualities or situations. This paper explores how time can be seen as emerging from the construction of representations of reality in which the basic building blocks are static—i.e., timeless—representations, which are connected to each other by events that are transitions between them and that create an ordering which can be understood as temporal. This connects to von Wright’s “logic of change” and the “hybrid semantics” suggested by Herweg and Löbner. In this context, telicity is seen as the capacity of events, or of the predicates that express them, to “create time” in the sense of defining a before and an after. The basic elements of the model are global states, which are timeless taken in isolation but are connected by transition events, which transform one global state into another and thereby define the temporal relationships between them. Transition events, corresponding to Vendlerian achievements, represent simple changes which are then the basis for all other constructs in the model, most notably delimited states, Vendlerian activities (atelic dynamic eventualities), and accomplishments (telic non-punctual eventualities), but also time points and intervals. Transition events are further instrumental in constructing narrative structures and are responsible for narrative progression.

  • 20.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hur exotiskt är finska?2008In: Verkko-Virittäjä, no 4/2008Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kuinka eksoottinen kieli suomi on?2008In: Virittäjä, Vol. 4/2008, p. 545-559Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Allen, Cynthia: Genitives in early English2010In: Diachronica, ISSN 0176-4225, E-ISSN 1569-9714, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 489-496Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Kurzon, Dennis and Adler, Silvia (eds.), Adpositions: Pragmatic, semantic and syntactic perspectives2010In: Language, ISSN 0097-8507, E-ISSN 1535-0665, Vol. 86, no 2, p. 448-450Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The map and the terrain2008In: Theoretical Linguistics, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 53-57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Thoughts on language-specific and crosslinguistic entities2016In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 427-437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses questions arising in connection with Martin Haspelmath’s proposal to distinguish between “descriptive categories” at the language-specific level and “comparative concepts” at the crosslinguistic level, where the latter cannot be seen as either crosslinguistic categories or category types (Haspelmath 2010). It is argued that comparative concepts may be better subsumed under the notion of “generalizing concept”, which is not tied to any specific level of analysis, and that the distinction between what is language-specific and what is crosslinguistic is not absolute. Further, it is shown that crosslinguistic pattern clusters as identified in what is here called “bottom-up typology” meshes well with the homeostatic property cluster approach to biological species.

  • 26.
    Dahl, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Älvdalska - eget språk eller värsting bland dialekter?2008In: Språktidningen, Vol. 1, no 6, p. 12-18Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rich agreement, everything else being equal and large-scale cross-linguistic comparison2010In: Theoretical Linguistics, ISSN 0301-4428, E-ISSN 1613-4060, ISSN 0301-4428, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 49-56Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 28.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The resilient dative and other remarkable cases in Scandinavian vernaculars2006In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung (STUF), a special issue on Swedish in typological perspective, Vol. 59, no 1, p. 19-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Divan får se upp - nu kommer divalaterna!2010In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no aprilArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Perfects and iamitives: two gram types in one grammatical space2016In: Letras de Hoje, ISSN 0101-3335, E-ISSN 1984-7726, Vol. 51, no 3, p. 325-348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the grammatical space of the two gram types – perfects and iamitives. Iamitives (from Latin iam ‘already’) overlap in their use with perfects but differ in that they can combine with stative predicates to express a state that holds at reference time. Iamitives differ from ‘already’ in having a higher frequency and showing a strong tendency to be grammaticalized with natural development predicates. We argue that iamitives can grammaticalize from expressions for ‘already’. In this study, we extract perfect grams and iamitive grams iteratively starting with two groups of seed grams from a parallel text corpus (the New Testament) in 1107 languages. We then construct a grammatical space of the union of 370 extracted grams by means of Multidimensional Scaling. This grammatical space of perfects and iamitives turns out to be a continuum without sharp boundaries anywhere.

  • 31.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Evaluative morphology and noun classification: a cross-linguistic study of Africa2013In: SKASE Journal of Theoretical Linguistics, ISSN 1336-782X, E-ISSN 1336-782X, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 114-136Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims at illustrating how, in languages with grammatical gender, this feature of noun morphology interacts with evaluative morphology. This is done on the basis of a sample of sixty-two African languages. The paper shows that interactions among gender and evaluative morphology are quite regular in the African languages. Two major types of interactions are found depending on whether a language hasa rich or a limited number of noun classes. The geographic diffusion and diachronic stability of these interactions are discussed. The correlation between gender and evaluation in the African languages has promising implications for our understanding of the two grammatical domains and fostersfurther research questions as to how common the relationships between these domains are cross-linguistically, and why they emerge in the first place.

  • 32.
    Dunn, Michael
    et al.
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen; Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Levinson, Stephen C.
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reesink, Ger
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Terrill, Angela
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Structural phylogeny in historical linguistics: methodological explorations applied in Island Melanesia2008In: Language, ISSN 0097-8507, E-ISSN 1535-0665, Vol. 84, no 4, p. 710-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using various methods derived from evolutionary biology, including maximum parsimony and Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, we tackle the question of the relationships among a group of Papuan isolate languages that have hitherto resisted accepted attempts at demonstration of interrelatedness. Instead of using existing vocabulary-based methods, which cannot be applied to these languages due to the paucity of shared lexemes, we created a database of STRUCTURAL FEATURES — abstract phonological and grammatical features apart from their form. The methods are first tested on the closely related Oceanic languages spoken in the same region as the Papuan languages in question. We find that using biological methods on structural features can recapitulate the results of the comparative method tree for the Oceanic languages, thus showing that structural features can be a valid way of extracting linguistic history. Application of the same methods to the otherwise unrelatable Papuan languages is therefore likely to be similarly valid. Because languages that have been in contact for protracted periods may also converge, we outline additional methods for distinguishing convergence from inherited relatedness.

  • 33. Evans, Nicholas
    et al.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Roque, Lila San
    The grammar of engagement I: framework and initial exemplification2018In: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1866-9808, E-ISSN 1866-9859, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 110-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human language offers rich ways to track, compare, and engage the attentional and epistemic states of interlocutors. While this task is central to everyday communication, our knowledge of the cross-linguistic grammatical means that target such intersubjective coordination has remained basic. In two serialised papers, we introduce the term 'engagement' to refer to grammaticalised means for encoding the relative mental directedness of speaker and addressee towards an entity or state of affairs, and describe examples of engagement systems from around the world. Engagement systems express the speaker's assumptions about the degree to which their attention or knowledge is shared (or not shared) by the addressee. Engagement categories can operate at the level of entities in the here-and-now (deixis), in the unfolding discourse (definiteness vs indefiniteness), entire event-depicting propositions (through markers with clausal scope), and even metapropositions (potentially scoping over evidential values). In this first paper, we introduce engagement and situate it with respect to existing work on intersubjectivity in language. We then explore the key role of deixis in coordinating attention and expressing engagement, moving through increasingly intercognitive deictic systems from those that focus on the the location of the speaker, to those that encode the attentional state of the addressee.

  • 34. Evans, Nicholas
    et al.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Roque, Lila San
    The grammar of engagement II: typology and diachrony2018In: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1866-9808, E-ISSN 1866-9859, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 141-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engagement systems encode the relative accessibility of an entity or state of affairs to the speaker and addressee, and are thus underpinned by our social cognitive capacities. In our first foray into engagement (Part 1), we focused on specialised semantic contrasts as found in entity-level deictic systems, tailored to the primal scenario for establishing joint attention. This second paper broadens out to an exploration of engagement at the level of events and even metapropositions, and comments on how such systems may evolve. The languages Andoke and Kogi demonstrate what a canonical system of engagement with clausal scope looks like, symmetrically assigning 'knowing' and 'unknowing' values to speaker and addressee. Engagement is also found cross-cutting other epistemic categories such as evidentiality, for example where a complex assessment of relative speaker and addressee awareness concerns the source of information rather than the proposition itself. Data from the language Abui reveal that one way in which engagement systems can develop is by upscoping demonstratives, which normally denote entities, to apply at the level of events. We conclude by stressing the need for studies that focus on what difference it makes, in terms of communicative behaviour, for intersubjective coordination to be managed by engagement systems as opposed to other, non-grammaticalised means.

  • 35.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att skapa ett språk i en kontext2008In: Psyke og Logos: Tema: Spädbarnspsykologi, ISSN 0107-1211, Vol. 2, no 29, p. 557-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utan en språklig infrastruktur av relativt stabil natur blir det svårt för ett barn att finna tolkningsbara mönster i de verbala och ickeverbala stimuli det möter. Sådana stabila mönster verkar emellertid finnas i föräldrarnas språkliga agerande, vilket beskrivs och illustreras i artikeln. Huvudsaklig fokus är dock att lyfta fram och diskutera den hittills mindre uppmärksammade aspekten av barnets eget agerande för att tillägna sig de språkliga ramar och normer som utgör basen för samvaro. Ett agerande där de genom bl.a. blickbeteende och direkta frågor vidmakthåller föräldrarnas scaffoldingramar, samt själva laborerar med fraser och beteenden som de tillägnat sig genom interaktion med föräldrarna. I artikeln introduceras även begrepp som avser att benämna två kvalitativt olika former av beteenden som återfinns hos barn mellan 1 och 5 år: oinskränkt vs normkänsligt beteende. Utifrån den ständiga växelverkan mellan föräldrarnas reaktioner och responser och barnets tolkning av desamma argumenteras för att barnet guidas mot att välja en utvecklingsprocess där den ena formen av språkligt och ickespråkligt beteende ersätts av den andra.

  • 36.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Children's development of facework practices - An emotional endeavor2011In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, no 13, p. 3099-3110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the origin and development of facework practices in young children by focusing on two kinds of practices in child–parent interaction: (1) situations in which a child’s verbal and nonverbal emotive expressions indicate a need to save face; and (2) situations in which a child uses various strategies in order to save face. Through illustrations from a longitudinal material of child–adult interaction it is argued that emotive reactions constitute the base for face awareness in children. This awareness in time turns to child facework practices, a process aided and shaped by the interactional routines with parents. The central aim of the article is to highlight these two aspects of facework, one internal, emotional and related to face; the other external and interactional. As a second aim the article will enforce that the way we analyze interaction must be transparent in that it can be understood, reviewed and contested by others.

  • 37.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Mamma!2010In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, Vol. December, no 6, p. 24-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 38.
    Hallonsten Halling, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Prototypical adverbs: from comparative concept to typological prototype2017In: Acta Linguistica Hafniensia. International Journal of Structural Linguistics, ISSN 0374-0364, E-ISSN 1949-0763, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 37-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While adjectives and their potential universality have been much debated, adverbs remain rather neglected in the typological and cognitive literature. From a typological perspective, adjectives can be dealt with using a comparative concept: rather than assuming from the outset the existence of a class of adjectives, a particular language-independent definition of adjectives is used as a heuristic for examining recurrent form-meaning combinations. In the present article, adverb is addressed as a comparative concept in the same vein: an adverb is a lexeme that denotes a descriptive property and can be used to narrow the predication of a verb. This comparative concept is applied to a sample of 41 languages from the whole world. The results show that although there are diverse structural possibilities in terms of different adverbial constructions of varying spread and productivity, simple adverbs are found in a considerable number of unrelated languages, even in some cases where adjectives cannot be found. Clear adverb subtypes reminiscent of semantic types of adjectives further emerge, leading to a discussion of whether the comparative concepts in this case allow us to uncover a substantial cross-linguistic prototype.

  • 39.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Acquisition of phonology1989In: Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0267-1905, E-ISSN 1471-6356, Vol. 9, p. 23-41Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Andraspråksforskning med ASU-korpusen2013In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 7-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ASU is a longitudinal corpus of L2 production by adult learners of Swedish, which is now accessible on the web for searching and analysis. This is a presentation of its intentions and structure, how to work with it, and how to access it. Some examples are also given of the research on L2 Swedish which has been carried out based on data from ASU.

    After a brief introduction on different kinds of corpora and their degree of accessibility, the next section discusses the various requirements that should be met by a longitudinal corpus, and how these have been handled in ASU. An aim for ASU has been to follow individuals longitudinally from the start of their acquisition of the L2 to an elaborate stage of proficiency, and to be able to observe a clear and coherent development over time. ASU is also characterized by the parallel collection of oral and written material, and by a control material from native Swedes. Foreign students at Stockholm University were recorded individually during conversations with Swedes, and in addition to this they also wrote essays. Corresponding data were collected from native Swedish students. The material was then transcribed and tagged morphologically.

    The corpus, which was compiled in its early form in the 1990s, is now converted into a modern format and has been connected to the user interface ITG, which is handled by the Swedish Language Bank (Språkbanken) at Gothenburg University. This is a flexible instrument for searching, analysing and editing data from the corpus. The article describes briefly how to work with corpus data using ITG.

    The corpus has been used for research on several areas of L2 Swedish. Some examples which are presented briefly here concern reference to future, syllable structure, possessive constructions, the utterance process, and the role of background languages in third language use.

    A description of how to access the corpus terminates the article.

  • 41.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Becoming multilingual: The macro and the micro time perspective2017In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential multilingualism is a characteristic property of human language. This paper adopts a usage-based, complex-systems approach in discussing two different but interrelated perspectives on how multilingualism takes shape in individuals: the development of a linguistic repertoire over time (macro time perspective) and the processes of language use and acquisition in specific situations (micro time perspective). The concept of L3 has a role at the micro time level, in the situations of language use. A variable model of the situation of language use and acquisition in micro time is proposed. It adopts a factor approach which is inspired by Hufeisen's Factor Model, but extends that model so as to be applicable to more variable stages and forms of linguistic repertoires. The connection between dynamic processes in micro and macro time is illustrated by data from a longitudinal test of phonological production which exposes both specific usage events and an evolving pattern.

  • 42.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Constructions of comparison in Swedish: Quantitative dominance patterns in acquisition and use2014In: Constructions, ISSN 1860-2010, E-ISSN 1860-2010, Vol. 1, no 5, p. 1-15Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Interference in American English speakers' pronunciation of Swedish1967In: Studia linguistica, ISSN 00393193, Vol. 21, p. 15-36Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Jämförelsekonstruktioner i svenskan och grammatikaliseringen av jämfört med1995In: Språk & Stil, ISSN 1101-1165, Vol. 5 NF, p. 21-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svenska som målspråk1975In: Språkvård, ISSN 0038-8440, Vol. 1975, no 2, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svenskan i ljuset av invandrares språkfel1977In: Nysvenska studier, ISSN 0345-8768, Vol. 57, p. 60-73Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The insufficiency of error analysis1974In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 12, p. 185-192Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The languages of the multilingual: Some conceptual and terminological issues2010In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 48, no 2-3, p. 91-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on individual multilingualism and third language acquisition has expanded greatly in recent years. A theoretical correlate of this is the recognition of the fact that humans are potentially multilingual by nature, that multilingualism is the default state of language competence, and that this in turns has implications for an adequate theory of language competence, use and acquisition. Traditional SLA research usually treats all non-first language learners as L2 learners. The recent focus on L3 acquisition means that one has begun taking the complexity of multilingual learners’ language background into account. This gives raise to reflection about some of the currently used basic terminology in the field, in particular how the concepts first, second and third language are understood.

    These terms are used variably in the literature. One approach, the common practice of labelling a multilingual’s languages along a linear chronological scale as L1, L2, L3, L4 etc., is shown here to be untenable, being based on an inadequate conception of multilingualism. A different and arguably more satisfactory approach is based on the conventional dichotomy of L1 (established during infancy) versus L2 (added after infancy) and relates the notion of L3 to the presence of a more complex language background.

    The limitation to a three-order hierarchy involving the distinction between the concepts of L1, L2 and L3 is discussed and adopted as a working hypothesis, awaiting further research on this issue.

    Finally, the problems with the expressions first, second and third language have become more apparent with the emergence of research on L3 acquisition. Maybe the time is ripe to work for a change of these established terms? As possible replacements, primary, secondary and tertiary language are put forward for discussion.

    The paper stresses the need for reconsideration and clarification of the concepts L1, L2 and L3 from the point of view of multilingual language users and learners.

  • 49.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Anaforiska processer i svenskan i invandrarperspektiv1976In: Nysvenska studier, ISSN 0345-8768, Vol. 55-56, p. 213-226Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The place-holder constraint, language typology, and the teaching of Swedish to immigrants1977In: Studia linguistica, ISSN 0039-3193, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 106-131Article in journal (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 144
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