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  • 1. Agbetsoamedo, Yvonne
    et al.
    Ameka, Felix
    Atintono, Samuel
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature terms in the Ghanaian languages in a typological perspective2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This talk deals with the conceptualisation of temperature in some of the Ghanaian languages as reflected in their systems of central temperature terms, such as hot, cold, to freeze, etc. We will discuss these systems in the light of a large-scale cross-linguistic collaborative project, involving 35 researchers (including the present authors) and covering more than 50 genetically, areally and typologically diverse languages (Koptjevskaja-Tamm ed. 2015). The key questions addressed here are how the different languages carve up the temperature domain by means of their linguistic expressions, and how the temperature expressions are used outside of the temperature domain. Languages cut up the temperature domain among their expressions according to three main dimensions: TEMPERATURE VALUES (e.g., warming vs. cooling temperatures, or excessive heat vs. pleasant warmth), FRAMES OF TEMPERATURE EVALUATION (TACTILE, The stones are cold; AMBIENT, It is cold here; and PERSONAL-FEELING, I am cold), and ENTITIES whose “temperature” is evaluated.  Although the temperature systems are often internally heterogeneous, we may still talk about the main temperature value distinctions for the whole system. The Ghanaian languages favour the cross-linguistically preferred two-value systems, with water often described by a more elaborated system. An interesting issue concerns conventionalisation and frequency of expressions with a primary meaning outside of the temperature domain, for temperature uses. For instance, the conventionalised expressions for talking about ‘warm/hot’ in Ewe involve sources of heat (‘fire’) and bodily exuviae (‘sweat’). The Ghanaian languages often manifest numerous extended uses of their temperature terms. However, strikingly, none of them conforms to one of the most widely quoted conceptual metaphors, “affection is warmth” (Lakoff & Johnson 1999:50), which is also true for many other languages in (West) Africa and otherwise.

  • 2. Berggren, Max
    et al.
    Karlgren, Jussi
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Inferring the location of authors from words in their texts2015In: Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics: NODALIDA 2015 / [ed] Beáta Megyesi, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, ACL Anthology , 2015, p. 211-218Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For the purposes of computational dialectology or other geographically bound text analysis tasks, texts must be annotated with their or their authors' location. Many texts are locatable but most have no ex- plicit annotation of place. This paper describes a series of experiments to determine how positionally annotated microblog posts can be used to learn location indicating words which then can be used to locate blog texts and their authors. A Gaussian distribution is used to model the locational qualities of words. We introduce the notion of placeness to describe how locational words are.

    We find that modelling word distributions to account for several locations and thus several Gaussian distributions per word, defining a filter which picks out words with high placeness based on their local distributional context, and aggregating locational information in a centroid for each text gives the most useful results. The results are applied to data in the Swedish language.

  • 3.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Evidentiality as stance: Event types and Speaker roles2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper argues for a view of evidentials as a type of shifter and outlines a theory of reference for evidentials that separates the configuration of the ground from the relational axis, as well as the alignment between ground and figure. The paper also evaluates a proposal by Kockelman (2004) that draws on Jakobson’s notion of “event type” and Goffman’s “speaker roles” to suggest an existing analogy between “commitment events” for modals and “source events” for evidentials. The scope properties of ‘factual’ forms in both systems notably constitute a formal difference between (epistemic) modality and evidentiality that cannot be accounted for solely by the referential properties of evidentials.

  • 4.
    Brosig, Benjamin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Dundad zunii mongol helnii baidal, eh üüsver, cagiin ain dürem (Tense, aspect and evidentiality in Middle Mongol)2012In: Proceedings of the 10th international congress of Mongolists: Volume II: Mongolian language and culture and their urgent problems / [ed] D. Tömörtogoo, Sh. Choimaa, E. Pürevjav, International Association for Mongolian studies, 2012, p. 33-37Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Dahl, Östen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Alienability splits and the grammaticalization of possessive constructions1998In: XVIth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, University of Turku & Åbo Akademi, 1998Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Engstrand, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Helgasson, Petur
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The beginnings of a database for historical sound change2008In: Papers from the 21st Swedish Phonetics Conference, 2008, p. 101-104Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a preliminary version of a database from which examples of historical sound change can be retrieved and analyzed. To date, the database contains about 1,000 examples of regular sound changes from a variety of language families. As exemplified in the text, searches can be made based on IPA symbols, articulatory features, segmental or prosodic context, or type of change. The database is meant to provide an adequately large sample of areally and genetically balanced information on historical sound changes that tend to take place in the world’s languages. It is also meant as a research tool in the quest for diachronic explanations of genetic and areal biases in synchronic typology.

  • 7.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att uttrycka känslor språkligt - hinder och möjligheter2011In: VAKKI Symposium XXX: Språk och känslor / [ed] Niina Nissilä,Nestori Siponkoski, Vasa: Vasa universitet , 2011, p. 10-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although language and emotion has received an increasing interest during the last decades we still lack a definition of what this language consist of. In the paper it is argued that one major reason for this state of affairs relates to the fact that language and emotion reside on different poles of the dichotomies body/mind, nature/culture, etc. Thus, researchers from different camps have addressed the issue from oppositional vantage points while at the same time attempting to answer the same questions. As an alternative this paper argues that to define emotive language we need to study the actual crossing point between language and emotion, i.e. the language used together with nonverbal and vocal expressions of emotion. Drawing on a video-recorded material of interaction between children and their parents, three categories of emotive language are illustrated: autonomous, accompanying and descriptive utterances. In the paper the internal relation between these categories is discussed as well as their position vis-á-vis prior research.

  • 8.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Imitation vs association in child-adult and child-child interaction2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of imitation in language development is debated and unclear (e.g., Meltzoff, 2011; Heyes, 2001; Paulus, 2012) in part because of the difficulty to define imitation. Is it when A copies an act or an utterance from B within a specific time frame, or is it when the goal of B is captured and executed by A, regardless of the means to reach the goal? Further, must A be aware that s/he imitated B, or should low-level cognitive mechanisms be regarded as imitation as well?

    The aim of the present study was to identify and describe imitative behaviors in young children as they appear in a longitudinal material of child-child and child-adult interaction. “Imitation” was defined as: any verbal/vocal/nonverbal act that i) occurs after an identical such act; ii) semantically and/or pragmatically repeats an earlier verbal/vocal/nonverbal act. An example of the first kind would be a child, A, clapping his hands against his head hollering “hallo” and another nearby child, B, starts doing the same while watching A. The second kind could be illustrated with a child, C, saying to another mother than his own “mommy there is no need to talk, you can just go straight away” to which his own mother says “I recognize that comment, that’s what I say to grandma”. While the first example appears to be a direct, situated, practice where instant imitation is taking place, the second is a sequence where a more or less formulaic verbalization is copied from some previous occasion/s and delivered in a situation where it appears to fit, an associated imitation.

    In the talk, different imitative behavioral will be illustrated and related to instant vs associated contextual aspects. It will be argued that both behaviors build on common mechanisms of learning (Schöner, 2009; Smith & Katz, 1996), that they appear in parallel throughout the ages studied (see below), but that they differ in cognitive – although not necessarily social – complexity, as well as in their part in language development and socialization routines.

    Data consists of 22 hours of video recordings of 5 Swedish families with in all 11 children. The children are in the ages 0;9 to 5;10 years old and were recorded during a period of 2 ½ years. The recordings were done in a home environment together with siblings and parents.

  • 9.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nods, headshakeas and the perception of multimodal constructions in child language2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within gesture studies, gesture and speech is often conceived of as a single communicative system. This means that human production of gestures are temporally and semantically synchronized with the concurrent verbal phrase, or vice versa. These multimodal clusters are described as constructions where the modalities add different but interrelated content to a common semantic whole, an Utterance (e.g. Goldin-Meadow, 2009, 2011; Kendon, 2004; Murillo & Belinchón, 2012). While this appears to be true for a large amount of gesture types – in particular those who fall under the heading Co-speech Gestures (i.e. gesture that by definition co-occur with a spoken utterance) – there are other gestures that are less explored as to their relation to speech and multimodal meaning. Among these other gestures we find emblems, a vaguely defined group of gestures that are often claimed to carry a semantic meaning on their own, regardless of (optional) concurrent verbalizations (McNeill, 1992). The present study investigated two emblematic gesture forms – nods and headshakes – and their appearance and use in a longitudinal, naturalistic material of child-child and child-adult interaction. The data consists of 11 Swedish children in the ages 0;9 to 5;10 years of age, recorded during a period of 2 ½ years as they interacted with siblings, parents, and friends in their home environment. In all, 22 hours of video recordings were transcribed and analyzed. From the data we could conclude two main factors: i) even emblems appear to be largely speech dependent for their interpretation; and ii) nods and headshakes appear to follow different developmental trajectories and behave rather differently throughout the ages studied. These findings will be discussed in relation to language development in general and to the perceptive system of humans in particular.

  • 10.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The Swedish MINT-project – or, the quest to pull apart and put together constituents of verbal and nonverbal interaction2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Gerholm, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The MINT-project: Modeling infant language acquisition from parent-child interction2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 12. Glahn, Esther
    et al.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Holmen, Anne
    Hvenekilde, Anne
    Håkansson, Gisela
    Lund, Karen
    Pienemanns processabilitetsteori testet på dansk, norsk og svensk2002In: Forskning i nordiske sprog som andet- og fremmedsprog: Rapport fra konference i Reykjavik 23-25 maj 2001 / [ed] Audur Hauksdóttir et al., 2002, p. 31-47Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 13.
    Grigonyte, Gintare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Pronunciation and Spelling: the Case of Misspellings in Swedish L2 Written Essays2014In: Human Language Technologies - The Baltic Perspective, Baltic HLT 2014 / [ed] Andrius Utka, Gintarė Grigonytė, Jurgita Kapočiūtė-Dzikienė, Jurgita Vaičenonienė, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2014, p. 95-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research presents an investigation performed on the ASU corpus. We analyse to what extent does the pronunciation of intended words reflects in spelling errors done by L2 Swedish learners. We also propose a method that helps to automatically discriminate the misspellings affected by pronunciation from other types of misspellings.

  • 14.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Aktuella teman i forskningen om andraspråksuttal1990In: Andra symposiet om svenska som andraspråk i Göteborg 1989 / [ed] Gunnar Tingbjörn, Stockholm: Skriptor Förlag , 1990, p. 297-315Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    ASU-korpusen, en longitudinell korpus av vuxna inlärares svenska1997In: Svenskans bekrivning 22: Förhandlingar vid tjugoandra sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning, Lund den 18-19 oktober 1996 / [ed] Gisela Håkansson, Lena Lötmarker, Lillemor Santesson, Jan Svensson, Åke Viberg, Lund: Lund University Press , 1997, p. 303-317Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Brytningen tar form - om dynamiken i den tidiga andraspråksforskningen1990In: På väg mot ett nytt språk / [ed] Viveka Adelsvärd, Norman Davies, Uppsala: ASLA , 1990, p. 67-79Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Conditions on transfer in second language phonology acquisition1990In: New Sounds 90: Proceedings of the 1990 Amsterdam Symposium on the Acquisition of Second-Language Sopeech / [ed] Jonathan Leather, Allan James, Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam , 1990Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Conditions on transfer in second language phonology acquisition1990In: New Sounds 90: Proceedings of the 1990 Amsterdam Symposium on the Acquisition of Second-Language Speech / [ed] Jonathan Leather, Allan James, Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam , 1990, p. 198-215Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Forskning kring svenska som målspråk: fonologi1984In: Nordens språk som målspråk: Forskning och undervisning / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Katrin Maandi, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik , 1984, p. 40-60Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Forskning om svenska som andraspråk i Sverige1992In: Första forskarsymposiet om Nordens språk som andraspråk i Stockholm 1991 / [ed] Monica Axelsson, Åke Viberg, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet , 1992, p. 49-81Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Inlärningsstrategier i främmandespråksfonologi1992In: Nordens språk i Baltikum: Konferanse for lærere og sendelektorer ved baltiske universiteter Riga 26.-30. november 1991 = Pohjoismaiden kielet Baltiassa : Baltian maiden yliopistojen pohjoismaisten kieltenopettajien kokous Riika 26.-30.11.1991, Oslo: Nordisk språksekretariat , 1992, p. 82-94Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Is it possible to predict phonetic difficulty in a second language?1989In: Language learning and learner language: Papers from a conference held in Stockholm and Åbo, 17-18 October, 1988 / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning , 1989, p. 11-19Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Komparativa uttryck i inlärarspråket - en skiss1993In: Rapport fra det andre forskersymposiet om Nordens språk som andrespråk i Oslo den 19.-20. mars 1993 / [ed] Anne Golden, Anne Hvenekilde, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, Institutt for lingvistiske fag, Avdeling for norsk som andrespråk , 1993, p. 209-221Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Maskinell generering av böjningsformer och identifikation av ordklass1966In: Förhandlingar vid Sammankomst för att dryfta frågor rörande svenskans beskrivning 3, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk , 1966, p. 59-70Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Några grunddrag i uttalsutvecklingen i andrapråket1988In: Första symposiet i svenska som andraspråk. Vol. I. Föredrag om språk, språkinlärning och interaktion / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inger Lindberg, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning , 1988, p. 178-190Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    On intralingual, interlingual and developmental solutions in interlanguage1979In: Interlanguage: Workshop at the Fifth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, Frostavallen, April 27-29 1979 / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Moira Linnarud, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International , 1979, p. 7-24Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The insufficiency of error analysis1973In: Errata: Papers in error analysis, Lund: Gleerup , 1973, p. 29-35Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grigonyté, Gintaré
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Non-Native Writers’ Errors – a Challenge to a Spell-Checker2014In: 1st Nordic workshop on evaluation of spellchecking and proofing tools (NorWEST2014), 2014, , p. 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spell checkers are widely used and if they do their job properly are also highly useful. Usually they are built on the assumption that the text to be corrected is written by a mature native speaker. However non-native speakers are in an even greater need of using spell checkers than native speakers. On the other hand current spell checkers do not take the linguistic problems of learners into account and thus they are poor in identifying errors and supplying the adequate corrections. There is a number of linguistic complexities specific to non-native learners that a spell-checker would need to handle in order to be successful.

  • 29.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Håkansson, Gisela
    Lunds universitet .
    Martin, Maisa
    Universitetet i Jyväskylä.
    Cognitive and functional aspects of second language development1999In: Multiple languages - multiple perspectives: Texts on language teaching and linguistic research / [ed] Päivi Pietilä & Olli-Pekka Salo, Jyväskylä, 1999, p. 55-82Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Possessiva konstruktioner i svenskan i ett kombinerat språktypologiskt och andraspråkligt perspektiv2002In: Forskning i nordiske sprog som andet- og fremmedsprog: Rapport fra konference i Reykjavik 23-25 maj 2001, 2002, p. 64-83Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reported speech in Swedish and ten immigrant languages1976In: Papers from the Third Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, Hanasaari, October 1-3, 1976, Turku: Academy of Finland , 1976, p. 131-148Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Williams, Sarah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    A study of third language acquisition1993In: Problem, process, product in language learning: Papers from the Stockholm-Åbo Conference, 21-22 October 1992 / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Stockholm: Stockholm University, Department of Linguistics , 1993, p. 60-70Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 33.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Swedish evaluative relative clauses2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 34.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vilka faktorer påverkar grammatikalitet, Grammatikfestival Göteborgs universitet2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Klingvall, Eva
    Lund University.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Agreeing passives in Finnish2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Klingvall, Eva
    Lund University.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    How do things get done? On non-canonical passives in Finnish2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 37.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Evidence for a Finnish Personal Passive, the 24th Annual meeting of the Linguistic Association of Great Britain, University of Leeds2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Gradient Well-Formedness of Finnish Passive Constructions 24th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics. University of Joensuu.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Using gradient acceptability judgments to investigate syntactic constructions, Grammatik i focus, Lunds universitet2010In: Grammatik i focus, Lunds universitet, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 40.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wiklund, Anna-Lena
    Restrictions on RC Extraction: Knowing men who sell flowers and escaping them2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Incremental syntactic prediction in the comprehension of Swedish2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehenders need to incrementally integrate incoming input with previously processed material. Constraint-based and probabilistic theories of language understanding hold that comprehenders do this by drawing on implicit knowledge about the statistics of the language signal, as observed in their previous experience. I test this prediction against the processing of grammatical relations in Swedish transitive sentences, combining corpus-based modeling and a self-paced reading experiment.

    Grammatical relations are often assumed to express role-semantic (e.g., Actor and Undergoer) and discourse-related (such as topic and focus) functions that are encoded on the basis of a systematic interplay between morphosyntactic (e.g., case and word order), semantic / referential (e.g., animacy and definiteness) and verb semantic (e.g., volitionality and sentience) information. Constraint-based and probabilistic theories predict that these information types serve as cues in the process of assigning functions to the argument NPs during language comprehension. The weighting, interplay and availability of these cues vary across languages but do so in systematic ways. For example, languages with fixed word orders tend to have less morphological marking of grammatical relations than languages with less rigid word order restrictions. The morphological marking of grammatical relations is also in many languages restricted to NP arguments which are non-prototypical or marked in terms of semantic or referential properties, given their functions (overt case marking of objects is, e.g., restricted to personal pronouns in English and Swedish). I first assess how these factors affect constituent order (i.e. the order of grammatical relations) in a corpus of Swedish and then test whether comprehenders use the statistical information contained in these cues.

    Corpus study. The distribution of SVO and OVS orders conditional on semantic / referential (e.g., animacy and givenness), morphosyntactic (e.g., case) and verb semantic (e.g. volitionality) information was calculated on the basis of 16552 transitive sentences, extracted from a syntactically annotated corpus of Swedish. Three separate mixed logistic regression models were fit to derive the incremental predictions that a simulated comprehender with experience in Swedish would have after seeing the sentence up to and including the first NP (model 1), the verb (model 2), or the second NP (model 3). The regression models provide separate estimates of the objective probability of SVO vs. OVS word order at each point in the sentence. This information was used to design stimuli for a self-paced reading experiment to test whether comprehenders draw on this objectively present information in the input.

    Self-paced reading experiment. 45 participants read transitive sentences that varied with respect to word order (SVO vs. OVS), NP1 animacy (animate vs. inanimate) and verb class (volitional vs. experiencer).  By-region reading times were well-described by the region-by-region shifts in the probability of SVO vs. OVS word order, calculated as the relative entropy. For example, reading times in the NP2 region observed in locally ambiguous, object-initial sentences were mitigated when the animacy of NP1 and its interaction with the verb class bias towards an object-initial word order, as predicted by the constraint-based and probabilistic theories.

  • 42.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The neurophysiological correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language comprehension is assumed to proceed incrementally, and comprehenders commit to initial interpretations even in the absence of unambiguous information (e.g., Crocker 1994; Hawkins 2007). Initial ambiguous object arguments are therefore preferably interpreted as subjects, an interpretation that needs to be revised towards an object initial interpretation once the disambiguating information is encountered (e.g, de Vincenzi 1991; Haupt, Schlesewsky, Roehm, Friederici, & Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, 2008). Most accounts of such grammatical function reanalyses (Haupt et al. 2008) assume that they involve phrase structure revisions, and do not differ from other syntactic reanalyses. A number of studies using measurements of event-related brain potentials (ERP:s) provide evidence for this view by showing that both reanalysis types engender similar neurophysiological responses (e.g., P600 effects) (e.g., Bornkessel, McElree, Schlesewsky, & Friederici, 2004; Friederici & Mecklinger, 1996; Matzke, Mai, Nager, Russeler, Munte, 2002). Others have claimed that grammatical function reanalyses rather involves revisions of the mapping of thematic roles to argument NP:s (Bornkessel & Schlesewsky, 2006; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky & Schlesewsky, 2009a, 2009b; Haupt et al., 2008). In line with this, it has been shown that grammatical function reanalysis during spoken language comprehension engender a N400 effect (Haupt et al., 2008), an effect which has been shown to correlate with general problems in the mapping of thematic roles to argument NP:s in a number of languages (see Bornkessel-Schlesewsky & Schlesewsky, 2009b for a review).

    This poster presents a study which investigated the ERP correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish. Post-verbal NP:s that disambiguated the interpretation of object-topicalized sentences towards an object-initial reading engendered a N400 effect with a local, left-parietal distribution. This ―reanalysis N400‖ effect provides further support for the view that grammatical function reanalysis is functionally distinct from syntactic reanalyses and rather involves a revision of the mapping of thematic roles to the sentence arguments.

  • 43.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Jaeger, T. Florian
    Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester.
    Deriving argument ordering biases from expectation-based processing2017In: Cognitive explanations in linguistic typology: Contemporary insights from language processing and language acquisition, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vulgar Latin and Middle Arabic2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 45. Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Modelling the evolution of creoles2012In: The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference (EVOLANG9) / [ed] Thomas C. Scott-Phillips et al., Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company , 2012, p. 464-465Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Developing a pidgin corpus2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Is Language Less Cumulative than Other Culture? Indicators of Breakdown and Build-up of Complexityin Pidgins, Creoles and Non-contact Languages2018In: Applications in Cultural Evolution: Arts, Languages, Technologies: Conference abstracts, 2018, p. 18-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study of cultural evolution, human culture is generally assumed to be cumulative, implying increasing complexity and diversity over time (Enquist et al. 2011, Lewis & Laland 2012). Recent studies suggest that evolutionary mechanisms operate differently in different cultural domains (Tamariz et al. 2016), but it has not been discussed whether all mechanisms result in cumulativity. Experiments have shown that compositional language structure emerge as a trade-off between learnability and expressivity (Kirby et al. 2008, 2015), but there is no evidence of languages generally becoming more compositional, or regular, over time. As all modern natural languages are expressive enough for human communicative needs and compressed enough for generational transmission, we suggest that linguistic complexity is 19 not currently cumulative but breaks down and builds up in cycles triggered by demographically determined variation in learnability and expressivity pressures. We focus on pidgins, a special case of natural languages where the expressivity pressure is presumably weaker and learnability pressure stronger than in other languages. We compare pidgins to creoles, where both expressivity and learnability pressures are presumably high, and non-contact languages where the learnability pressure is presumably lower, allowing for more complexity. We analyze compiled material from spoken and written pidgins, spoken creoles and non-contact languages and a parallel bible corpus, applying two complexity measures: the relation between word length and frequency, and pronominal morphology. We observe a smaller degree of exponentiality in the negative correlation between word length and frequency in pidgins than in their lexifiers, likely reflecting the loss of short and common grammatical words. Creoles expose a higher exponentiality in this correlation, which may reflect a newly built up analytical grammar. For pronouns, we observe expected reduced marking of person, number, case and gender in pidgins, increasing in creoles, being highest in non-contact languages.

  • 48.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Word Length and word frequency in pidgins and creoles2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Keidel Fernández, Alejandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Qualitative differences in L3 learners’ neurophysiological response to L1versus L2 transfer2017In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017) / [ed] Włodarczak, Marcin, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 1789-1793Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Third language (L3) acquisition differs from first language (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition. There are different views on whether L1 or L2 is of primary influence on L3 acquisition in terms of transfer. This study examines differences in the event-related brain potentials (ERP) response to agreement incongruencies between L1 Spanish speakers and L3 Spanish learners, comparing response differences to incongruencies that are transferrable from the learners’ L1 (Swedish), or their L2 (English). Whereas verb incongruencies, available in L3 learners’ L2 but not their L1, engendered a similar response for L1 speakers and L3 learners, adjective incongruencies, available in L3 learners’ L1 but not their L2, elicited responses that differed between groups: Adjective incongruencies engendered a negativity in the 450-550 ms time window for L1 speakers only. Both congruent and incongruent adjectives also engendered an enhanced P3 wave in L3 learners compared to L1 speakers. Since the P300 correlates with task-related, strategic processing, this indicates that L3 learners process grammatical features that are transferrable from their L1 in a less automatic mode than features that are transferrable from their L2. L3 learners therefore seem to benefit more from their knowledge of their L2 than their knowledge of their L1.

  • 50.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Modellering av förälder-barn interaktion (MINT): Komponenter hos audio-visuella ledtrådar och deras konsekvenser för språkinlärning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
123 1 - 50 of 109
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