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  • 1.
    Asfawwesen, Desalegn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The inceptive construction and associated topics in Amharic and related languages2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the syntactic features, functions, and diachrony of a complex predicate called ‘the inceptive construction’ which is based on a grammaticalised use of the converbs ‘get up’, ‘pick up’, ‘grasp’, and ‘take’. The languages under investigation are Amharic, Argobba, Harari, Zay, and Selt’i. The data collection that was analized consists of elicitations, audio recordings, and written texts. The analysis shows that the converbs identify the initial phase of the event encoded by a following verb. The converbs are further associated with nuances like volition, surprise, and emphasis. The rise of such interpretations as surprise and emphasis appears to depend mainly on context, while volition is inherent to the construction. The languages generally do not show much variation. However, there is a notable difference in some co-occurrence restrictions. Moreover, there is a difference in the presence/absence of certain converbs mainly in Harari and Zay, which is clearly a matter of preference between individual consultants. Regarding the origin of the inceptive construction, collocation, frequency, and speakers’ conception of the action of the converbs are possible factors that lead the verbs to grammaticalize into markers of the inception phase. Only some traces of the construction are found in an old Amharic text from the 15th century.

    The converb is the main verb form used in the inceptive construction, although other verb forms are allowed which may take a coordinating conjunction (in the cases of Amharic and Argobba) and an iterative/simultaneity marker (‘while’). The Amharic conjunction =nna ‘and’ links the light verb with the reference verb in the inceptive construction, but is also used in causal(purposive) and conditional coordination. The criteria of tense iconicity and variable positions indicate that =nna is a coordinating conjunction in the former, but a subordinator in the latter. Lastly, the converb in Amharic is shown to become insubordinated, i.e. the main verb or auxiliary it depends on gets ellipsed over time and it comes to function as a main verb. An insubordinated converb is used in the expression of surprise/exclamation, interrogation, rhetorical questioning, wishing, and the resultative/perfective. The point is it is still possible to use the notion of ‘converb’ in the inceptive construction as this is a separate historical process. 

  • 2.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Object marking in the signed modality: Verbal and nominal strategies in Swedish Sign Language and other sign languages2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, I investigate various aspects of object marking and how these manifest themselves in the signed modality. The main focus is on Swedish Sign Language (SSL), the national sign language of Sweden, which is the topic of investigation in all five studies. Two of the studies adopt a comparative perspective, including other sign languages as well. The studies comprise a range of data, including corpus data, elicited production, and acceptability judgments, and combine quantitative and qualitative methods in the analyses.

    The dissertation begins with an overview of the topics of valency, argument structure, and object marking, primarily from a spoken language perspective. Here, the interactions between semantics and morphosyntax are presented from a typological perspective, introducing differential object marking as a key concept. With regard to signed language, object marking is discussed in terms of both verbal and nominal strategies.

    Verbal strategies of object marking among sign languages include directional verbs, object handshape classifiers, and embodied perspective in signing. The first study investigates the use of directionality and object handshapes as object marking strategies in Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language (ABSL), Israeli Sign Language (ISL), and SSL. It is shown that the strategies generally display different alignments in terms of the types of objects targeted, which is uniform across languages, but that directionality is much more marginal in ABSL than in the other two languages. Also, we see that there is a connection between object marking strategies and the animacy of the object, and that the strategies, object animacy, and word order preferences interact. In the second and third studies, SSL is investigated with regard to the transitive–reflexive distinction. Here, we see that there are interactional effects between object handshapes and the perspective taken by the signer. This points to intricate iconic motivations of combining and structuring complex verb sequences, such as giving preference to agent focusing structures (e.g., agent perspective and handling handshapes). Furthermore, the use of space is identified as a crucial strategy for reference tracking, especially when expressing semantically transitive events.

    Nominal strategies include object pronouns and derivations of the sign PERSON. The fourth study provides a detailed account of the object pronoun OBJPRO in SSL, which is the first in-depth description of this sign. It is found that the sign is in widespread use in SSL, often corresponds closely to object pronouns of spoken Swedish, and is argued to be grammaticalized from the lexical sign PERSON. In the final study, the possible existence of object pronouns in other sign languages is investigated by using a sample of 24 languages. This analysis reveals that the feature is found mostly in the Nordic countries, suggesting areal contact phenomena. However, the study also shows that there are a number of derivations of PERSON, such as reflexive pronouns, agreement auxiliaries, and case markers. The use of PERSON as a source of grammaticalization for these functions is attributed to both semantic and phonological properties of the sign.

    This dissertation is unique in that it is dedicated to the topic of object marking in the signed modality. It brings a variety of perspectives and methods together in order to investigate the domain of object marking, cross-linguistically and cross-modally.

  • 3.
    Cooper, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A unified account of the Old English metrical line2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the verse design of Old English poetry in terms of modern phonological theory, developing an analysis which allows all OE verse lines to be described in terms of single metrical design.

    Old English poetry is typified by a single type of line of variable length, characterised by four metrical peaks. The variation evident in the lengths of OE metrical units has caused previous models to overgenerate acceptable verse forms or to develop complex typologies of dozens of acceptable forms. In this study, Metrical phonology and Optimality theory are used to highlight some aspects of the relationship between syntax, phonology and verse metrics in determining how sentences and phrases interact with the verse structure to create variation.

    The main part of the study is a metrical model based on the results of a corpus analysis. The corpus is centred on the OE poems Genesis and Andreas, complemented by selected shorter poems. A template of a prototypical line is described based on a verse foot which contains three vocalic moras, and which can vary between 2 and 4 vocalic moras distributed across 1 to 4 syllables. Each standard line is shown to consist of four of these verse feet, leading to a line length which can vary between 8 and 16 vocalic moras. It is shown that the limited variation within the length of the verse foot causes the greater variation in the length of lines. The rare, longer ‘hypermetric’ line is also accounted for with a modified analysis. The study disentangles the verse foot, which is an abstract metrical structure, from the prosodic word, which is a phonological object upon which the verse foot is based, and with which it is often congruent. Separate sets of constraints are elaborated for creating prosodic words in OE, and for fitting them into verse feet and lines. The metrical model developed as a result of this analysis is supported by three smaller focused studies.

    The constraints for creating prosodic words are defended with reference to compounds and derivational nouns, and are supported by a smaller study focusing on the metrical realisation of non-Germanic personal names in OE verse. Names of biblical origin are often longer than the OE prosodic word can accommodate. The supporting study on non-Germanic names demonstrates how long words with no obvious internal morphology in OE are adapted first to OE prosody and then to the verse structure. The solution for the metrical realisation of these names is shown to be patterned on derivational nouns.

    The supporting study on compound numerals describes how phrases longer than a verse are accommodated by the verse design. It is shown that compound numerals, which consist of two or more numeral words (e.g. 777 – seofonhund and seofon and hundseofontig) are habitually rearranged within the text to meet the requirements of verse length and alliteration.

    A further supporting study discusses the difference between the line length constraints controlling OE verse design and those for Old Norse and Old Saxon verse. Previous studies have often conflated these three closely related traditions into a single system. It is shown that despite their common characteristics, the verse design described in this study applies to all OE verse, but not to ON or OS.

  • 4.
    Di Garbo, Francesca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Gender and its interaction with number and evaluative morphology: An intra- and intergenealogical typological survey of Africa2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates interactions between gender and number and gender and evaluative morphology in a sample of 100 African languages, and provides a method for assessing the role that these interactions play in the grammatical complexity of gender systems. The dissertation is organised around three research foci.

    First, the dissertation surveys patterns of interaction between gender and number along the following dimensions: exponence, syncretism, indexation, correlations in type of marking, and gender assignment. The study provides evidence for the possibility that nominal features are organised in a relevance hierarchy. In addition, the study shows that animacy and lexical plurality play a crucial role in the distribution of special patterns of plural indexation. The study also shows that pervasive indexation systems in the language sample always involve both gender and number. Finally, the study shows how gender assignment can be used as a means for encoding variation in the countability properties of nouns and noun phrases.

    Second, the dissertation surveys patterns of interaction between gender and evaluative morphology in the languages of the sample. Two types of interactions are found. The study shows that the distribution of the two types depends on three factors: the type of gender system, the number of gender distinctions and the possibility of assigning a noun to more than one gender.

    Third, the dissertation investigates the role that interactions of gender and number and gender and evaluative morphology play in the absolute complexity of gender. The study proposes a metric for gender complexity and uses this metric to compute complexity scores for the languages of the sample. The results suggest that the gender systems of the language sample lean toward high complexity, that genealogically related languages have the same or similar complexity scores, and that the distribution of the outliers can often be understood as the result of language contact.

  • 5.
    Ericsdotter, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Articulatory-Acoustic Relationships in Swedish Vowel Sounds2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this work was to evaluate the performance of a classical method for predicting vocal tract cross-sectional areas from cross-distances, to be implemented in speaker-specific articulatory modelling. The data forming the basis of the evaluation were magnetic resonance images from the vocal tract combined with simultaneous audio and video recordings. These data were collected from one female and one male speaker. The speech materials consisted of extended articulation of each of the nine Swedish long vowels together with two short allophonic qualities. The data acquisition and processing involved, among other things, the development of a method for dental integration in the MR image, and a refined sound recording technique required for the particular experimental conditions. Articulatory measurements were made of cross-distances and cross-sectional areas from the speakers’ larynx, pharynx, oral cavity and lip section, together with estimations on the vocal tract termination points. Acoustic and auditory analyses were made of the sound recordings, including an evaluation of the influence of the noise from the MR machine on the vowel productions. Cross-distance to cross-sectional area conversion rules were established from the articulatory measurements. The evaluation of these rules involved quantitative as well as qualitative dimensions. The articulatory evaluation gave rise to a vowel-dependent extension of the method under investigation, allowing more geometrical freedom for articulatory configurations along the vocal tract. The extended method proved to be more successful in predicting cross-sectional areas, particularly in the velar region. The acoustic evaluation, based on area functions derived from the proposed rules, did however not show significant differences in formant patterns between the classical and the extended method. This was interpreted as evidence for the classic method having higher acoustic than physiological validity on the present materials. For application and extrapolation in articulatory modelling, it is however possible that the extended method will perform better in articulation and acoustics, given its physiologically more fine-tuned foundation. Research funded by the NIH (R01 DC02014) and Stockholm University (SU 617-0230-01).

  • 6.
    Ganuza, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Syntactic Variation in the Swedish of Adolescents in Multilingual Urban Settings: Subject-verb Order in Declaratives, Questions and Subordinate Clauses2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the use of word order variation, in particular the variable use of subject-verb inversion and non-inversion in main declarative clauses, among adolescents in contemporary multilingual settings in Sweden. The use of non-inversion in contexts that in standard Swedish require inversion is sometimes claimed to be characteristic of varieties of Swedish spoken among adolescents in multilingual urban areas. The present study includes a wide range of data, both spontaneous and elicited, and explores how common the use of non-inversion is among a relatively large group of participants in different contexts, and how the use of non-inversion is influenced by different demographic, linguistic and socio-pragmatic factors.

    The results show that non-inversions are used to a limited extent in all types of data in the studied population. Only certain individuals frequently employ non-inversions in some contexts. Further, no direct link is found between second language acquisition and the use of non-inversion in this study. Factors related to the issue of nativeness, for example participants’ reported age of onset of Swedish acquisition, only marginally explain the results. In general, examples of non-inversion are employed more extensively, and by more participants, in peer-peer interaction than with adults. The use of non-inversion appears to be part of some adolescents’ spontaneous language use in certain contexts. More importantly, however, the results suggest that some adolescents employ non-inversions as an active linguistic resource to express their identification with the multilingual environment and the different varieties of Swedish spoken there, to show solidarity with peers, to contest official school discourses, and to play around with linguistic stereotypes.

  • 7.
    Gustafson-Capková, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Integrating Prosody into an Account of Discourse Structure2005Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis a study of discourse segmenting is carried out, which investigates both segment boundaries and segment content. The results are related to discourse theory. We study the questions of how the prosody and the text structure influence subjects' annotations of discourse boundaries and discourse prominence. The hypothesis was that the annotations would be influenced by the discourse type.

    Two studies were carried out. 1) a study of boundary annotation, 2) a study of prominence annotation. All studies were made on four different discourse types, scripted and spontaneous monologue and scripted and spontaneous dialogue. In addition the annotations were carried out under two different conditions 1) based on transcripts alone and 2) based on transcripts together with access to the speech signal.

    The results indicate that the boundary annotations were less dependent on the speech signal than the prominence annotations. It seems that subjects have segmented on the basis of the text structure, while prominence to a great extent was annotated on the basis of the prosody. In the case of boundary markings the boundary context in terms of parts of speech differs across speaking styles, which is not the case for the prominences. A separate study of segment intentions was also made, and it was found that the interpretation of a specific intention, questions, seems to be arrived at primarily on the basis of the text structure. However, in some cases also the prosody affects the annotations.

    The picture that emerges indicates a distribution of labour between text structure and prosody, governed by the principle of economy. In cases where the boundaries were less well definied, as in e.g. spontaneous monologue, the pattern of the prominences was clearer. In cases where the boundaries were more clearly indicated, as in read aloud text, the prominences were less clearly communicated.

    The findings were interpreted within Grosz and Sidner's (1986) discourse theory. It is suggested that differences in the segmenting strategy originating from the interaction of text structure and prosody can be expressed as differences in the contributions from the different components of discourse suggested in the framework of Grosz and Sidner (1986).

  • 8.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The language learning infant: Effects of speech input, vocal output, and feedback2009Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis studies the characteristics of the acoustic signal in speech, especially in speech directed to infants and in infant vocal development, to gain insight on essential aspects of speech processing, speech production and communicative interaction in early language acquisition. Three sets of experimental studies are presented in this thesis. From a phonetic point of view they investigate the fundamental processes involved in first language acquisition.

    The first set (study 1.1 and study 1.2) investigated how linguistic structure in the speech signal can be derived and which strategy infants and adults use to process information depending on its presentation. The second set (study 2.1 and study 2.2) studied acoustic consequences of the anatomical geometry of the infant vocal tract and the development of sensory-motor control for articulatory strategies. The third set of studies (study 3.1 and study 3.2) explored the infant's interaction with the linguistic environment, specifically how vocal imitation and reinforcement may assist infants to converge towards adult-like speech.

    The first set of studies suggests that structure and quality of simultaneous sensory input impact on the establishment of initial linguistic representations. The second set indicates that the anatomy of the infant vocal tract does not constrain the production of adult-like speech sounds and that some degree of articulatory motor control is present from six months of age. The third set of studies suggests that the adult interprets and reinforces vocalizations produced by the infant in a developmentally-adjusted fashion that can guide the infant towards the sounds of the ambient language. The results are discussed in terms of essential aspects of early speech processing and speech production that can be accounted for by biological general purpose mechanisms in the language learning infant.

     

  • 9.
    György-Ullholm, Kamilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Same Mother Tongue - Different Origins: Implications for Language Maintenance and Shift among Hungarian Immigrants and their Children in Sweden2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates intergenerational language transmission amongst Hungarian immigrants, using in-depth interviews and participant observation as the main methods. The analysis examines the experiences of parents and their school-aged children in 61 families living in Sweden´s two main cities, Stockholm and Göteborg.

    The sample families were separated into four groups, based on two pre-contact factors, namely (1) the parents´ linguistic environment and (2) their social identity prior to migration. Three of the four groups turned out to be comparable in size and serve as the focus groups of the study. Group 1 comprises families in which one or both parents are former majority members from monolingual parts of Hungary. Group 2 comprises families in which one or both parents are former majority members from Hungary, but in contrast, these parents grew up in bilingual areas, being exposed to other languages in their childhood settings. Group 3 comprises families in which often both parents grew up as members of a vital ethnic minority in bilingual or multilingual settings in Transylvania (Romania).

    It was hypothesised that the parents´ childhood experiences would have an effect on their ways of raising children in a migrant situation, which, in turn, will affect children´s bilingualism as well as the group´s maintenance chances. The results of the statistical analysis confirm the hypothesis and show significant differences between the focus groups in a number of factors, e.g. marriage pattern, religious engagement, cultural orientation, children’s opportunities to meet other group members, and language awareness. Most importantly, the investigation revealed broad variation in language use norms among the sample families, especially for family and group internal communication. This, together with the poor demographic conditions of the group, seriously threatens group cohesion. The prospects for Hungarian language maintenance in Sweden are therefore seen as limited.

  • 10.
    Hatzopoulou, Marianna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Acquisition of reference to self and others in Greek Sign Language: From pointing gesture to pronominal pointing signs2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation explores the emergence of the linguistic use of pointing as first- and non-first-person pronoun in Greek Sign Language. Despite the similarity in form between the pointing gesture and pronominal pointing signs, children acquiring sign language pass through the same stages and acquire personal pronouns at about the same age as children acquiring spoken language. According to Petitto (1984, 1987, 1994), the transition to pronominal pointing in American Sign Language is characterised by: (a) a period of discontinuity in which children avoid using pointing directed towards persons, and (b) the occurrence of reversal errors before the acquisition of first and second-person pronouns.

    The present study offers additional evidence on the acquisition of personal pronouns through the investigation of: (a) the manner and the age at which pronominal pointing signs are acquired by a child exposed to Greek Sign Language, (b) the use of other signs for reference to persons and self, and (c) the existence of reversal errors in the child’s early use of pointing. Data consist of video-recorded spontaneous interaction between a deaf boy and his family every fortnight from the age of 12 to 36 months. Thirty hours of the child’s communicative behaviour have been transcribed and all sequences that included pointing were analysed in terms of reference and function.

    This study confirms that language modality plays a restricted role in language acquisition. The time and the frequency of occurrence of pronominal pointing signs correspond to the general developmental pattern observed in the acquisition of ASL. However, there are also important differences: (a) common nouns and proper names are used for reference to others before the acquisition of pronominal pointing, but to a limited extent (b) the existence of only one erroneous pointing sign indicates that the deaf child, from the beginning, uses pronominal signs correctly, and (c) there is no evidence of discontinuity in the transition from the early communicative pointing gesture to pronominal pointing signs.

  • 11.
    Helgason, Pétur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Preaspiration in the Nordic languages: synchronic and diachronic aspects2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Preaspiration—the production of glottal friction at the juncture of a vowel and a consonant—appears to be typologically rare but is an areal linguistic feature of Northwestern Europe. This study contains a survey of the known geographical spread of preaspirated stops, their phonological distribution and phonetic expressions in some Nordic dialects. The study also suggests a reconstruction of the phonetics of the Proto-Nordic stop contrasts based on synchronic data as well as a more general framework of historical sound change.

    Following an introduction (Chapter 1), Chapter 2 deals with the definition and typology of preaspiration presenting a global overview of the known geographical spread of preaspiration. The apparent rarity of preaspiration is considered. Proposed, perceptually based explanations of this rarity are evaluated.

    Chapter 3 offers a fairly detailed account of the known areal spread of preaspiration in Europe. Stop systems of several dialects in which preaspiration occurs are analysed in terms of voicing conditions. These analyses are based mainly on descriptions provided in the dialectological literature.

    Chapter 4 presents data on durational variation and other phonetic patterns of stop production in Central Standard Swedish, Tórshavn Faroese, Gräsö Swedish and Western Åland Swedish. The results reveal a greater degree of phonetic variation than has been assumed to date. In particular, speakers of Central Standard Swedish are shown to use preaspiration as a regular feature in their voiceless stop production.

    In Chapter 5, finally, the results of the data analysis are used in an attempt to reconstruct the phonetic expression of stop contrasts in Proto-Nordic. It is argued that Proto-Nordic stop production was largely similar to the stop production of today’s Central Standard Swedish. As regards phonological structure, however, the Proto-Nordic stop contrasts appear to have been largely preserved in all dialects considered. This conclusion is found to be compatible with an expansion/contraction (E/C) model of historical sound change.

  • 12.
    Henning, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    La construcción de la imagen social en dos pares adyacentes: Opinión-acuerdo/desacuerdo y ofrecimiento-aceptación/rechazo: Un estudio de la conversación familiar sueca y española2015Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to conduct a contrastive analysis on a corpus of Swedish and Spanish family conversations with respect to two adjacency pairs: opinion-agreement/disagreement (OADs) and offer-acceptance/rejection (OARs). On one hand, from a structural perspective, based on the methodology of Conversation Analysis, one of the objectives is to observe how (dis)preferred turns of the OADs and OARs are managed by the interlocutors. On the other hand, from a functional perspective, based on the methodology of Sociocultural Pragmatics, the intention is to study how face is constructed and how politeness is managed by the family members when expressing OADs and OARs.

    The structural analysis of OADs and OARs shows that the majority of agreements and acceptances follow the rules for preferred turns proposed by orthodox conversation analysts, i.e. they appear directly after the first part of the adjacency pair (opinion or offer), and they are brief and unambiguous. However, the structural analysis also reveals that 70% (Swedish corpus) and 72% (Spanish corpus) of the disagreements as well as 64% (Swedish corpus) and 70% (Spanish corpus) of the rejections have a tendency to not follow the proposed rules for dispreferred turns, i.e. they are not delayed or accompanied by hesitations, justifications, etc. and nor are they evaluated as dispreferred by the participants. This indicates that social perspective, especially face, has to be considered when deciding what is considered (dis)preferred.

    The functional analysis of the OADs indicates that the majority of the disagreements in both Swedish (68%) and Spanish (79%) corpus are not mitigated, but rather are expressed in a fairly direct manner. Swedes tend to avoid disagreements, and therefore we expected to find a major difference between the two groups. One explanation could be that family members enjoy close relationships, and therefore the Swedes feel free to express their disagreements. As for the impact on the family members face, in both groups, it is both autonomy face and affiliation face that are influenced when OADs are expressed. As for agreement, for example, it is usually autonomy face that is affected. We interpret this as a way for the participants to show that both speakers and listeners have valuable opinions that deserve to be both voiced and commented on. This reveals the more discursive (rather than ritual) nature of OADs.

    In addition, the functional study of OARs shows that acceptances and rejections in both corpora are expressed using both ritual and attenuating politeness according to the norms required by the situation. Concerning the impact on face, autonomy face has different requirements in the two cultures: in the Swedish conversations, it is important to offer food without insisting several times, and in the Spanish corpus, it is important to offer food more than one or two times, and there is also a tendency to refuse the offer several times before accepting it. Therefore, according to one’s situational role, one has to know how to both give and receive offers, which points to the more ritual nature of OARs.

    Finally, we want to emphasize that by adding a social perspective to the structural one, we can interpret the meaning of the conversations in a way that provides a broader understanding of what is being said as participants express OADs and OARs.

  • 13.
    Höglund, Mikko
    University of Tampere.
    “Self-discipline strategies were easy to design but difficult to adhere to”: A Usage-Based Study of the Tough Construction in English2014Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Probabilistic and Prominence-driven Incremental Argument Interpretation in Swedish2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates how grammatical functions in transitive sentences (i.e., `subject' and `direct object') are distributed in written Swedish discourse with respect to morphosyntactic as well as semantic and referential (i.e., prominence-based) information. It also investigates how assignment of grammatical functions during on-line comprehension of transitive sentences in Swedish is influenced by interactions between morphosyntactic and prominence-based information.

    In the dissertation, grammatical functions are assumed to express role-semantic (e.g., Actor and Undergoer) and discourse-pragmatic (e.g., Topic and Focus) functions of NP arguments. Grammatical functions correlate with prominence-based information that is associated with these functions (e.g., animacy and definiteness). Because of these correlations, both prominence-based and morphosyntactic information are assumed to serve as argument interpretation cues during on-line comprehension. These cues are utilized in a probabilistic fashion. The weightings, interplay and availability of them are reflected in their distribution in language use, as shown in corpus data. The dissertation investigates these assumptions by using various methods in a triangulating fashion.

    The first contribution of the dissertation is an ERP (event-related brain potentials) experiment that investigates the ERP response to grammatical function reanalysis, i.e., a revision of a tentative grammatical function assignment, during on-line comprehension of transitive sentences. Grammatical function reanalysis engenders a response that correlates with the (re-)assignment of thematic roles to the NP arguments. This suggests that the comprehension of grammatical functions involves assigning role-semantic functions to the NPs.

    The second contribution is a corpus study that investigates the distribution of prominence-based, verb-semantic and morphosyntactic features in transitive sentences in written discourse. The study finds that overt morphosyntactic information about grammatical functions is used more frequently when the grammatical functions cannot be determined on the basis of word order or animacy. This suggests that writers are inclined to accommodate the understanding of their recipients by more often providing formal markers of grammatical functions in potentially ambiguous sentences. The study also finds that prominence features and their interactions with verb-semantic features are systematically distributed across grammatical functions and therefore can predict these functions with a high degree of confidence.

    The third contribution consists of three computational models of incremental grammatical function assignment. These models are based upon the distribution of argument interpretation cues in written discourse. They predict processing difficulties during grammatical function assignment in terms of on-line change in the expectation of different grammatical function assignments over the presentation of sentence constituents. The most prominent model predictions are qualitatively consistent with reading times in a self-paced reading experiment of Swedish transitive sentences. These findings indicate that grammatical function assignment draws upon statistical regularities in the distribution of morphosyntactic and prominence-based information in language use. Processing difficulties in the comprehension of Swedish transitive sentences can therefore be predicted on the basis of corpus distributions.

  • 15.
    Jonsson, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Temporal and co-varying clause combining in Austronesian languages: Semantics, morpho-syntax and distributional patterns2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates combined clause constructions for ten distinct semantic relations in a cross-section of Austronesian languages. The relations are of a temporal or co-varying nature, the former commonly expressed in English by such markers as when, then, until, etc. and the latter by if, so, because, etc. The research falls into three main sections.

    First, the study provides an overview of the semantic domain covered by the relevant relations in the Austronesian languages. Several subdistinctions are found to be made within the relations investigated. The study also explores polysemic relation markers, and a number of patterns are identified. The most common pattern is the overlap between open conditional and non-past co-occurrence relations, for which many Austronesian languages employ the same relation marker.

    Second, the study develops a morpho-syntactic typology of Austronesian clause combining based on three parameters related to features common to clause combining constructions. The typology divides the constructions into five different types that are ranked with regard to structural tightness. Some additional constructions, cutting across several types, are also discussed; in particular, asymmetric coordination, which involves the use of a coordinator to connect a fronted topicalized adverbial clause to the rest of the sentence.

    Finally, the study explores the distributional patterns of the morpho-syntactic types across the semantic relations, as well as across three geographical areas in the Austronesian region. In the former case, a clear correlation is found between posteriority and result relations on the one hand and looser structural types on the other. The distribution of types across the Austronesian region reveals few differences between the areas, although two tendencies could be detected: the Oceanic languages tend to employ slightly looser morpho-syntax, while the Formosan and Philippine languages employ slightly tighter morpho-syntax.

  • 16.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    Stockholm University.
    Grammaticalizing the definite article: a study of definite adnominal determiners in a genre of spoken Finnish2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Kirchmeyer, Nathalie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    Étude de la competence textuelle des lectes d’apprenants avancés. Aspects structurels, fonctionnels et informationnels2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Kiso, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Tense and aspect in Chichewa, Citumbuka and Cisena: A description and comparison of the tense-aspect systems in three southeastern Bantu languages2012Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation describes and compares the tense-aspect systems found in three southeastern Bantu languages, viz. Chichewa, Citumbuka and Cisena. For each language, an in-depth description of the tense-aspect categories and their use is given based on the analysis of different sources of data: audio recordings of arranged conversations and narratives, questionnaires in which native speakers of Chichewa, Citumbuka and Cisena translated English sentences into their own language, and parallel corpora of Biblical texts as well as direct elicitation and consultation sessions.

    The description provides evidence of dialectal variation in the tense-aspect systems in each language that has not been described systematically before. Furthermore, it discusses specific diachronic changes, such as the development of the present progressive marker -ku- into a present tense marker in Chichewa.

    Remoteness distinctions in the past and future tenses, which are common across Bantu, are also found in the three languages under investigation here. The use of these categories is studied in detail and a certain extent of flexibility in their use is observed. For some varieties of Chichewa, a remoteness distinction is even found for past imperfective forms referring to habits or continuous events in the past, a distinction that has not been described previously.

    Further emphasis is placed on the comparison of tense-aspect markings in negated as opposed to affirmative clauses. In all three languages, the perfect marker -a- is only found in affirmative clauses while a past tense marker or a particular form only found in clauses of this type, a negative perfect marker, occurs in the corresponding negative.

    The comparison of the three tense-aspect systems shows that the overall design of the systems and the distinctions that are made in the three languages are, despite certain differences, rather similar while the markers that express these distinctions differ across languages in many respects.

  • 19.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Emergence of words: Multisensory precursors of sound-meaning associations in infancy2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents four experimental studies, carried out at the Phonetic laboratory, Stockholm University, on infants’ ability to establish auditory-visual sound-meaning associations as a precursor of early word acquisition. Study I reports on the effect of linguistic variance on infants’ ability (3- to 20-months) to establish sound-meaning associations. The target-words embedded in phrases, based on an artificial language, were presented along with visually displayed puppets. Study II investigates the role of attribute type on infants’ ability (3- to 6-months) to establish sound-meaning associations. Two-word phrases, based on the same artificial language as in Study I, were presented along with visually displayed geometrical objects. The words implicitly referred to the color and shape of the objects. Study III examines infants’ ability (12- to 16-months) to predict phonetic information. The subjects were tested on their ability to associate Swedish whole words and disrupted words to familiar objects. Study IV investigates infants’ ability (6- to 8-months) to detect concurrence and synchrony in speech and non-speech. The infants were exposed to Swedish speech sounds presented with corresponding articulatory events, the sound of hand-clapping presented with synchronized hand-clapping movements, and the sound of hand-clapping presented with synchronized articulatory events. The results picture the subject as sensitive to distributional properties of auditory and visual information (Study I and II) but still unable to predict phonetic information, in the beginning of the second year of life (Study III). The infants’ conceptual behavior is outlined as a general-purpose perceptual process influenced by perceptual salience (Study IV). These results are related to a working hypothesis based on the Ecological theory of language acquisition (Lacerda & Sundberg, 2006), and Lindblom (Lindblom, 1990; Lindblom & Lacerda, 2006).

  • 20.
    Krull, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Acoustic Properties as Predictors of Perceptual Responses: a Study of Swedish Voiced Stops1988Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In speech recognition algorithms and certain theories of speech perception the interpretation of the signal is based on " distance scores " for comparisons of the signal with stored references; in these theories, perception is seen as a product of stimulus and experience. The aim of the present thesis is to evaluate such distance measures by investigating the perceptual confusions of the Swedish voiced stops [b,d,q,g] in systematically varied fragments of vowel-consonantvowel stimuli providing 25 vowel contexts for each consonant. To what extent can perceptual identifications be accounted for in terms of the acoustic properties of  the stimuli? Short stimulus segments following stop release, chosen to elicit perceptual confusions, constituted the main material for this investigation. The resulting confusions were shown to form a regular pattern depending mainly on the acute/grave dimension of the following vowel. The acoustic distances calculated were based partly on formant frequencies at the consonant-vowel boundary, partly on filter-band spectra. B oth models provided distance measures which revealed regular patterns related in their essentials to the confusions. However, the predictive capacity of both models was improved by including the dynamic properties of the stimuli in the distance measures. The highest correlation between predicted and observed percent confusions, r=.85, was obtained with the fOlmant-based model. The asymmetries in the listeners' confusions were also shown to be predictable given acoustic data on the following vowel and were included in the calculations.

  • 21.
    Kuwano Lidén, Mitsuyo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies.
    Deictic Demonstratives in Japanese, Finnish and Swedish: First and Third Language Perspectives2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis is twofold. Firstly, it investigates the actual, native use of spatial-deictic demonstratives in Japanese, Finnish and Swedish. Secondly, it investigates and elucidates the interlanguage of Finnish-speaking and Swedish-speaking learners of Japanese regarding their use of Japanese spatial-deictic demonstratives in the light of respective native use and, in comparison to the descriptions of demonstratives in the teaching materials used. Thus, the present study deals with analyses of two sets of empirical data: data produced by native-speaking informants (L1 data) and data produced by language learners (L2 data). These were elicited by Discourse Completion Tasks (DCTs) designed, collected and analyzed using both quantitative and qualitative methods by the author.

    The results showed that the actual use of demonstratives by the native informants was not always in accordance with the way described in grammars. The typological similarities between Japanese and Finnish were in this study not reflected in the native use of demonstratives, and some uses were not solely based on the spatial relations between the referent, the speaker and the addressee, but rather on social-interactional factors. The main findings regarding the learner data revealed some differences in the usage rate of the demonstratives between the two Finnish-speaking groups and the one Swedish-speaking learner group studied. There were, however, no particular differences found between them regarding the type of demonstrative used. It is suggested that these differences are first and foremost connected both with the teaching materials used and the more or less heterogeneous linguistic environment in which the learners reside, and only thereafter with the typological similarities or differences between their respective native languages, Finnish and Swedish, and the target language, Japanese.

    It is further argued that the learners’ use of the different Japanese demonstratives, that is the type of demonstrative used, could be explained in terms of familiarity with the grammar. That is, when the situations used in the DCTs were exemplified in teaching materials and were familiar to them, the learners seemed to use Japanese demonstratives as they are described in the teaching materials and as the native Japanese speakers use them. When the situations used in the DCTs were not exemplified in the teaching materials, the learners seem to rely more on their native language. The results, thus, suggest that the learners’ interlanguage is influenced by the grammar of the target language known to the learners, but also by the number of languages (or varieties) that the learners have contact with at the time of learning.

    The results of the present study have implications for the teaching of Japanese in at least two ways. Firstly, the importance of grammar instruction must be emphasized since its effect on the learners’ language is apparent. Secondly, the contents of teaching materials should be revised on the basis of the native speakers’ actual use of the grammar.

  • 22.
    Kvist Darnell, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Pseudosamordningar i svenska: särskilt sådana med verben sitta, ligga och stå2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of pseudo-coordination in Swedish, a common phenomenon in Swedish and other Scandinavian languages, formally a regular verb (phrase) coordination [V1 CONJ V2] but with some special characteristics: the verb in V1 is a) taken from a restricted set of verbs; b) semantically weak; and c) typically contributes aspectual or modal properties to the construction as a whole. An example is Anton sitter och läser, lit. ‘A. sits and reads’, i.e. ‘Anton is reading’.

    Various criteria have been suggested to identify these constructions as a category distinct from other verb coordinations: single event interpretation; a single phrasal accent; different behaviour of object extraction and the scope of negation, etc. These criteria prove less useful when applied to authentic text, most importantly as they do not unambiguously tell pseudo-coordinations from other verb coordinations. In this thesis, it is suggested that it is the relation between the two verbs that is crucial. This hypothesis is tested in Study 1.

    In Study 1, 15310 verb coordinations in a tagged corpus (Parole) were investigated. 4281 of these had a potentially pseudo-coordinating verb in V1, and were classified for the relation between V1 and V2. Among the 3881 cases of actual pseudo-coordinations, the verb relations were BACKGROUND and GOAL DIRECTION. These relations were not found in regular coordinations with potentially pseudo-coordinating verbs in V1, which provides us with a criterion to identify pseudo-coordination in text.

    In Study 2, the relation criterion was applied to the verbs sitta ’sit’, ligga ’lie’, and stå ’stand’, studied in a corpus of news text (Press 97). Constructions were classified with respect to animacy of subject, type of V2 verbs, and relative frequency and position of adverbials. The V1 verbs were found to form a coherent category but also exhibited interesting differences, both from each other and from their uses outside pseudo-coordination, along all parameters investigated.

  • 23.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Effects of peripheral auditory adaptation on the discrimination of speech sounds1987Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates perceptual effects of discharge rate adaptation in the auditory-nerve fibers.

    Discrimination tests showed that brief synthetic stimuli with stationary formants and periodic source were better discriminated when they had an abrupt as opposed to a gradual onset (non-adapted vs adapted condition). This effect was not observed for corresponding stimuli with noise source.

    Discrimination among synthetic /da/ stimuli (abrupt onsets) was worse than among /ad/ stimuli when the respective onset and offset frequencies of the second formant (F2) were varied. Similar results were obtained for /ba/ and /ab/. The low discrimination rate in consonant-vowel stimuli (CV) was explained in terms of sensory smearing of spectral information due to rapid formant transitions. Discrimination improved when the smearing effect was reduced by holding the onset formant pattern over a certain period of time of about 1 6ms. The relatively high discrimination score for the VC stimuli was explained by residual masking; extending the VC offset did not improve discrimination.

    Discrimination of place of articulation in CV syllables was examined in the light of sensory smearing. Two continua of /bu-du/ and /ba-da/ utterances were used in discrimination and identification experiments. It was observed that the discrimination peak for /Cu/ was displaced from the /b/-/d/ boundary, towards a flat F2 transition, suggesting that optimal place discrimination is related to the stability of the auditory representations generated at onset. This result is discussed in relation to current views of categorical perception.

  • 24.
    Lemmouh, Zakaria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The Relationship among Vocabulary Knowledge, Academic Achievement and the Lexical Richness in Writing in Swedish University Students of English2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aims of the thesis are: to explore the development of Swedish university students’ vocabulary knowledge, size and depth and vocabulary use (i.e. lexical richness) in their written output, to examine the relationship between these, their relationship to examination grades, and to investigate how these relationships develop over time.

    The results showed that over one year of university studies stronger links between the two dimensions of vocabulary knowledge, size and depth are established. No relationship was found between informants’ vocabulary size and lexical richness. However, a modest relationship was found between depth and the lexical richness of student essays. Furthermore, there was a modest relationship between vocabulary knowledge and academic performance. A weaker significant, relationship was found between lexical richness of student essays and academic performance as reflected in the course grade. However, the study did not show evidence of a relationship between lexical richness and essay grade, which seems to indicate that lexical richness, is not an essential criterion in teachers’ assessment of essays.

    In regard to the development of the informant’s vocabulary knowledge, there was a significant growth in their productive size and depth of vocabulary knowledge after both one and two terms. The informants’ receptive size was found to only develop over two terms of study. Moreover, they produced lexically richer essays in their second term than in their first term of study.

    The results of the study are discussed in light of the effect of similar learning experience at university and the onset vocabulary ability of the informants. Moreover, the findings are discussed from the perspective of pedagogical implications and vocabulary assessment.

  • 25.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Towards a grammatical description of Palula: An Indo-Aryan language of the Hindu Kush2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation is intended to provide a grammatical description of the Indo-Aryan language Palula, spoken by approximately 10,000 people in Chitral District in Pakistan’s North-West Frontier Province. No study with the scope and detail of the current work has been presented in the past for this little-known language, and it is one of only a few in-depth studies available for languages in the immediate surrounding of the Hindu Kush region.

    The analysis is based on original data primarily collected during the period 1998-2006, mainly in the form of recorded texts but supplemented by questionnaires, notes of observed language use and the elicitation of word lists and paradigms. The field work has been conducted in close cooperation with native speakers and their communities.

    The description covers phonology, morphology, syntax and a range of the most important topics within each of these sub-disciplines, but it is not meant to be an exhaustive reference grammar. Some topics have been given greater prominence in the work, as they have particular importance to the language, whereas others have been covered more summarily. Suggestions for further research that should be undertaken are given throughout the study.

    The approach chosen is theory-informed rather than theory-driven, but an underlying framework of linguistic typology and non-formalism is assumed. Diachronic development is taken into account, particularly in the area of morphology, and comparisons with other languages and references to areal phenomena are included insofar as they were motivated and available.

  • 26.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Topics in the grammar of Kuot, a non-Austronesian language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes certain areas in the grammar of the little-known Kuot language, spoken by some 1,500 people in New Ireland Province in Papua New Guinea. Kuot is an isolate, and is the only non-Austronesian (Papuan) language of that province. The analyses presented here are based on original data from 18 months of linguistic fieldwork.

    The first chapter provides an overview of Kuot grammar, and gives details of earlier mentions of the language, and of data collection and the fieldwork situation. The second chapter presents information about the prehistory and history of the area, the social system, kinship system and culture of Kuot speakers, as well as dialectal variation and prognosis of survival of the language. Chapter three treats Kuot phonology, with particular emphasis on the factors that govern allophonic variation, and on the expression of word stress and the functions of intonation. Word classes and the criteria used to define them are presented in Chapter four, which also contains a discussion of types of morphemes in Kuot. The last chapter describes in some detail the class of nouns in Kuot, their declensions, non-singular formation, and the properties of grammatical gender.

    Appendices give the full set of person-marking forms in Kuot, a transcription of a recorded text with interlinear glossing and translation, the Swadesh 100-word list for Kuot, and diagrams of kin relations and terminology

  • 27.
    Lindström, Therese
    University of Sheffield.
    The history of the concept of grammaticalisation2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis discusses the history and meaning of the term and concept called grammaticalisation. Linguists usually ascribe the coinage of the term grammaticalisation to Antoine Meillet (1866-1936), who allegedly played a vital role in the history of grammaticalisation. It is also widely acknowledged that grammaticalisation was in some way 'revived' during the 1970s, and that Talmy Givón had an important role in this, as demonstrated by the popularity of the saying 'Today’s morphology is yesterday’s syntax' (taken from one of his articles). I show that Meillet wrote little about grammaticalisation and that he hardly ever used this word, and possibly did not mean for it to be viewed as a term / label. Moreover, the paper in question (Meillet, 1912) is basically a general introduction to a concept which he sees as a continuation of a notion with a long history. In addition, I prove that there are no clear links between Meillet and Givón’s work in the early 1970s. Despite the general acceptance that Meillet coined grammaticalisation, my thesis proves that it could have been coined more than once, and that it does not always mean the same thing to all users. I show that sometimes the term is accompanied by examples which others have used to illustrate lexicalisation, a term which some employ for a process that is seen as the opposite of grammaticalisation. I therefore advocate careful use of our definitions of terminology and concepts, and insist that we should define our notions, instead of letting examples do the work of illustration and definition. Finally, I question whether it is true that grammaticalisation is unidirectional. I research the history of the view that grammaticalisation is a unidirectional process. Grammatical relations can be expressed by different means – e.g. word order, content words becoming grammatical markers, or parts of words being given a function. I believe all these should be compared, in order to improve our knowledge of how languages change and why. I claim that they all represent sub-processes of a superordinate category which I have labelled supergrammaticalisation.

  • 28.
    Livijn, Peder
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    En perceptuell och akustisk studie av svenskans koronaler i ett dialektperspektiv2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this dissertation is to contribute to a typology of the Swedish language as it was spoken in the entire Swedish speaking area around the year 2000. Specifically, the plan is to base this typology solely on different pronunciations of the four coronal consonants /t, d, n/ and /l/. The idea is then to draw borders between dialects based on the perceptual and acoustical properties of these different pronunciations and to compare these new borders between dialects with the ones drawn by traditional dialectology. As this is an experimental study it is of interest to see whether the measured data that has been acquired here will conflict with or support earlier typologies based on other methods. The idea is also to compare this work with other, modern typologies of the Swedish language and see if the borders drawn between dialects in this work are also present when totally different features of the language are examined. Two such typologies are for instance Shaeffler’s (2005) typology based on Swedish quantity data and Leinonen’s (2010) typology based on Swedish vowel quality data. The interesting thing then is to see if it is possible to recreate a map of the Swedish dialect distribution from data that is comparable to the picture of traditional dialectology. This dissertation shows that we can indeed make a kind of typology for the Swedish language based on the perceptual and acoustical properties of the four coronals /t, d, n/ and /l/ alone and that this typology corroborates some of the traditional dialectology findings but also reveals new regional distributions of sounds that puts the idea of what constitutes a dialect in a new and somewhat different perspective. It is also shown that the articulatorily motivated and acoustically verified method of analysis developed and used in this series of studies reliably can be used to analyse large bodies of language data like this.

  • 29.
    Lubińska, Dorota
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Förstaspråksattrition hos vuxna: Exemplet polsktalande i Sverige2011Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is concerned with adult L1 attrition in the case of highly-educated long-term Polish immigrants in Sweden. The study sheds light on two classical issues pertaining to L1 attrition, namely what happens to a fully developed mature language system in an immigrant context, and why it happens. Specifically we aim to answer the following questions: (1) Are Polish speakers in Sweden different from comparable individuals in Poland with respect to (i) judgement and use of a number of Polish linguistic features (se keywords below), and (ii) hesitation phenomena, i.e. ability to be quick and easy and linguistic insecurity? (2) Is the variation in linguistic results dependent on how often and in what context the Polish language is used and/or which attitudes the individuals have towards it as well as how long they have been living in Sweden? One of the main contributions of the study regards methodology. The data is analysed in three steps: an initial focus on group comparisons shifts to the analysis of individual results in relation to the variation observed in the comparison group, and finally to a holistic view of the attrition effects or their absence. It is suggested that in studies on adult L1 attrition, where the effects are expected to be relatively cosmetic, the range of the linguistic behaviour in the comparison group as a reference point as well as a holistic perspective on individual results gives a more truthful picture of the attrition process. In addition the study shows that attrition effects are present in some individuals (60 %) to a different degree. The most common effect overall is linguistic insecurity followed by the overuse of 1st person pronouns as explicit subjects and to a lesser degree by the overuse of 3rd person pronouns. Surprisingly there is a scanty effect on the other hesitation phenomenon, i.e. the ability to be quick and easy. No or limited effects are observed in other structural areas which basically supports previous findings on L1 adult attrition. Finally, the presence versus absence of the attrition effect can not be straightforwardly related either to language use, attitudes or length of residence, with one exception being linguistic insecurity.

  • 30.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Teckenspråk i taktil form: Turtagning och frågor i dövblindas samtal på teckenspråk1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study focuses on turn-taking and questions in conversations between deaf-blind persons using tactile sign language, i.e. communicating by holding each others hands, and how sign language utterances change in the tactile mode when the nonmanual signals characteristic of turntaking and interrogative sentences in (visual) sign language are not used. The material consists of six video-recorded conversations (four with deaf-blind pairs and two where one person is deaf and one is deaf-blind). Parts of the material, viz. 168 sequences with questions and answers, has been transcribed and analyzed.

    The analysis shows that deaf-blind signers use their hands in two different conversation positions. In the monologue position both the signer's hands are held under the hands of the listener, whereas in the dialogue position both participants hold their hands in identical ways: the right hand under the other person's left hand and the left hand on top of the other person's right hand. It is described how the two positions affect the structure of one- and twohanded signs and how back channeling, linguistic as well as non-linguistic (with different kinds of tapping), is used in the two positions.

    The analysis shows that differences in the vertical and the horizontal planes are used in turn-taking regulation. Using four different conversational levels the signer can signal e.g. turn change by lowering his/her hands from the turn level to the turn change level at the end of his/her turn. The horizontal plane is devided into three different turn zones. The turn holder uses his/her own turn zone close to the body and finishes the turn by moving the hands to the joint zone midway between the interlocutors or into the listener's zone.

    The analyzed utterances function as questions, yes/no-questions (82) as well as wh-questions (55). It is hypothesized that yes/no-questions are marked with the manual signal extended duration of the last sign of the utterance, one of the interrogative signals of visual signing, but this was only true for 46 % of the yes/no-questions in the material. Since extended duration of the last sign also signals turn change in e.g. statements it is not regarded as an interrogative signal. Additional markers of yes/no-questions are among others the sign INDEX-adr ('you') with its variant INDEX-adr-long, used as a summons signal, and repetitions of signs or sentences. As for the wh-questions a majority are made with a manual wh-sign. Generally, if there are no interrogative signals the context and the content of the utterance will account for its interpretation as a question.

    To avoid misunderstandings, questions and non-linguistic signals are used in checking turns, where the signer requests back channeling or the listener requests repetition or clarification.

     

  • 31.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Allmän språkvetenskap /General linguistics Helsingfors universitet.
    Clausal negation: A typological study2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Milani, Tommaso M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language testing and citizenship: a language ideological debate in Sweden2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Namei, Shidrokh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The bilingual lexicon from a developmental perspective: a word association study of Persian-Swedish bilinguals2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Naseh Lotfabbadi, Leyla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Disagreement in agreement: a study of grammatical aspects of codeswitching in Swedish/Persian bilingual speech2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Neuser, Hannah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Source Language of Lexical Transfer in Multilingual Learners: A Mixed Methods Approach2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The study reported in this thesis investigates the source language of lexical transfer in multilingual learners using a mixed methods approach. Previous research has shown that the source language of crosslinguistic influence can be related to factors such as proficiency, recency/exposure, psychotypology, the L2 status, and item-specific transferability. The present study employed a mixed methods approach in order to best serve the particularities of each of the five factors under investigation. Multinomial logistic regression was emloyed to test the predictive power of the first four factors, thereby addressing the issue of confounding variables found in previous studies. A more exploratory qualitative analysis was used to investigate item-specific transferability due to the lack of prior empirical studies focusing on this aspect. Both oral and written data were collected, offering an analysis of modal differences in direct comparison. The results show a significant effect of proficiency and exposure, but inconsistent patterns for psychotypology. Most importantly, in this study of lexical transfer, a significant L1 status effect was found, rather than an L2 status effect. In addition, the statistical model predicted the source language of transfer better in the spoken than in the written mode. Finally, learners were found to assess, as well as actively improve, an item’s transferability in relation to target language norms and constraints. All of these findings contribute to our understanding of lexical organization, activation, and access in the multilingual mind. 

  • 36.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Out of Africa: African influences in Atlantic creoles2000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Perder, Emil
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    A Grammatical Description of Dameli2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation aims to provide a grammatical description of Dameli (ISO-639-3: dml), an Indo-Aryan language spoken by approximately 5 000 people in the Domel Valley in Chitral in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province in the North-West of Pakistan. Dameli is a left-branching SOV language with considerable morphological complexity, particularly in the verb, and a complicated system of argument marking. The phonology is relatively rich, with 31 consonant and 16 vowel phonemes.

    This is the first extensive study of this language. The analysis presented here is based on original data collected primarily between 2003-2008 in cooperation with speakers of the language in Peshawar and Chitral, including the Domel Valley. The core of the data consists of recorded texts and word lists, but questionnaires and paradigms of word forms have also been used. The main emphasis is on describing the features of the language as they appear in texts and other material, rather than on conforming them to any theory, but the analysis is informed by functional analysis and linguistic typology, hypotheses on diachronical developments and comparisons with neighbouring and related languages.

    The description is divided into sections describing phonology, morphology and syntax, with chapters on a range of individual subjects such as particular word classes and phrase types, phonological and syntactical phenomena. This is not intended to be an exhaustive reference grammar; some topics are only touched upon briefly while others are treated in more detail and suggestions for further research are given at various points throughout the work.

  • 38.
    Philipsson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Interrogative Clauses and Verb Morphology in L2 Swedish: Theoretical Interpretations of Grammatical Development and Effects of Different Elicitation Techniques2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines direct and subordinate questions, as well as verb morphology in L2 Swedish, from a developmental perspective. The study is cross-sectional, containing data from Iraqi Arabic, Persian and Somali adolescent learners representing three different levels of proficiency. The data are analysed on the basis of two theories: The Markedness Differential Hypothesis and Processability Theory. Data elicited through four different techniques are examined with the aim of examining the possible impact of different data types on the results. The different elicitation techniques used in the study are: oral production, written production, grammaticality judgement and a receptive skills task. Two of the elicitation techniques, written production and grammaticality judgement, include all three structures in focus in the study, whilst the oral production and the receptive task is centred on direct questions.

    The results suggest that there are implicational relationships regarding the order in which the grammatical structures are acquired. On the whole, predictions based on the two theories used as a basis for the analyses find support in the material. Having a wide scope for predictions at the morpho-syntactical level, the results meet the claims in particular of Processability Theory. The predictions and the results do not contrast the two theories with each other. A comparison of the different data types clearly indicates that the grammaticality judgement task substantially diverges from the other data types providing less consistent data and exhibiting trends that are in conflict with the data obtained through the three other elicitation techniques.

  • 39.
    Plüddemann, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language policy from below: Bilingual education and heterogeneity in post-apartheid South Africa2013Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis on bilingual education, with its foci on linguistic heterogeneity and language policy 'from below', covers the first 15 years in the officially multilingual new South Africa. The post-apartheid era has seen South Africa's pro-multilingual Constitution and the language-in-education policy for schools being sidelined in favour of an English-oriented mindset. The subversion of the policy's additive bi/multilingual intent in favour of a replacive 'English-as-target-language' approach indexes a collusion between the political class and the African-language speaking majority, and has been accompanied by systemic underachievement. While the linguistic market beyond school is not necessarily unified in its monolingual habitus, choices for the poor are constrained by a lack of alternatives. Within the implementational spaces afforded by the policy environment, groups such as Project for the Study of Alternative Education in South Africa (PRAESA) have attempted to demonstrate an alternative approach that valorised mother-tongue-based bilingual education. These alternative education initiatives (1995-2009) form the substance of the five published pieces in the present portfolio, capped by the summative thesis. They were written while the author was still a member of PRAESA, and collectively address topics such as language policy initiatives 'from below', the role of surveys in gauging language behaviour and creating language awareness, a multilingual training of trainers programme for southern Africa, a bilingual teacher in-service programme foregrounding different teacher identities in relation to policy realisation, and a classification system for schools by language medium that factors in mother tongues while making allowance for linguistic heterogeneity. The thesis reflects critically on the prevailing monoglossic language ideology informing these studies, and suggests the need for a heteroglossic approach oriented to language as a resource.

  • 40.
    Quartararo, Geraldine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Evidencialidad indirecta en aimara y en el español de La Paz: Un estudio semántico-pragmático de textos orales2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation investigates the expression of the indirect evidential subdomain in two languages in contact, i.e. the northern variety of Central Aymara and the variety of Spanish spoken in La Paz (Bolivia).

    For this aim, the study uses first-hand data collected in La Paz and El Alto (Bolivia) during 2014 and 2015. Data was elicited through: the “Family Problems Picture” task (San Roque et al. 2012), formulated by the members of the Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics and created specifically for the activation of cognitive categories such as evidentiality and mirativity; the “Pear Story” designed for Wallace Chafe, professor at the University of California, to collect narrative texts that show how humans perceive, elaborate and verbalize experience; and, finally, personal narratives, traditional narratives and interviews. Thirty-three recordings (12h 48’) of 48 Spanish-Aymara bilingual speakers (17 males, age range: 18-64) were fully transcribed and annotated. The resulting corpus consists of 33 transcriptions of which 14 are in Aymara (c. 19 154 words), whereas 19 are in Spanish (c. 46 245 words).

    The dissertation is built around four research questions.

    First, the dissertation shows the functions of the forms identified in the data in both languages. The study identifies for each form both evidential and non-evidential functions. Indirect evidential functions are systematically analyzed and classified by combining Willett’s (1988) and Aikhnvald’s (2004) classifications. The analysis shows evidential functions of forms that have not been previously studied as such, i.e. digamos and diciendo in Spanish and sañani and sapxi in Aymara, but it also reveals unnoticed evidential functions for previously described forms.

    Second, the dissertation provides a clear view of the relationship between the evidential and the epistemic modal domain involved in the use of the forms identified. Two types of correlation are found. Both languages, indeed, show forms that only point out the way in which speakers acquired information and forms where the two domains overlap.

    Third, the dissertation investigates speakers’ epistemic stance, in terms of commitment, towards information involved in the use of the evidential forms identified. The study shows that the forms which convey merely evidential information express mainly a medium-high commitment degree, whereas the forms in which the distinction between the evidential and the epistemic modal domain is blurred indicate a low degree of commitment.

    Forth, the dissertation sheds light on the relationship between the expressions of the indirect evidential subdomain in the two languages. The study proposes a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the evidential types and subtypes in both languages. The results show a high degree of convergence between the two languages, suggesting also situations of influence of one language on the other.

  • 41.
    Renner, Lena F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The magic of matching – speech production and perception in language acquisition2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the relationship between speech production and speech perception in the early stages of phonological and lexical acquisition. Previous studies have mainly focused on independent investigations of speech production and perception abilities in language acquisition. This thesis connects the individual speech production capacities to the child's perception and is organized around three major studies: Study I explores methodological alternatives such as the combination of EEG and eye-tracking in different Swedish participant groups: adults, 17-month-olds, and 24-month-olds. Visual and auditory stimuli, as well as the connection between word production and word perception are explored. Study II investigates phonological capacities in terms of consonant inventory, percentage of correctly pronounced words, segmental errors, as well as phonological templates in relation to vocabulary size in a group of Swedish 18-month-olds. Study III studies the influence of the children's individual phonological and lexical capacities in speech production on their word recognition in a group of Swedish toddlers with a productive vocabulary size above 100 words.

    The general results show that children accept mispronounced word forms as appropriate word candidates when the word forms are related to their individual word production. The occurrence of segmental errors increases with vocabulary size, and phonological templates are more likely to be observed in children with a productive vocabulary size above 100 words. The results thus indicate an influence of the individual child's production on word recognition, and a relationship between phonological capacities and lexical knowledge. These insights contribute to theoretical debates in linguistics regarding the abstractness of phonological word form representations and reveal a closer relationship between production and perceptual abilities in toddlers than what has previously been shown.

  • 42.
    Riad, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Structures in Germanic Prosody: A diachronic study with special reference to the Nordic languages1992Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study provides a reconstruction of the development of the Germanic stress and syllabification system (as reflected in Gothic and Proto-Nordic) up to the completion of the quantity shift in Late Old Swedish. By means of current prosodic theory it is established that a domain of two moras wordinitially is present at all stages of development, in Gothic, Old English and Proto-Nordic as well as in Modem Swedish. It is argued that this domain is the linguistic instantiation of word minimality, referred to as the bimoraic condition. The bimoraic condition is interpreted over different prosodic categories - the prosodic word, the foot and finally the main-stress syllable - at different language stages. This development reflects the transition from a quantity system permitting light and overlong syllables to a system where the main-stress syllable is obligatorily heavy. Various prosodically conditioned changes and processes take place in the early Germanic dialects. New explanations are proposed for several of them in terms of prosodic theory. The vowel/glide alternation (Sievers’s law) in Gothic is derived from regular syllabification of the archiphonemes III and /U/. Syncope in Proto-Nordic (corresponding to high vowel deletion in Old English) is analysed as mora-deletion in metrically weak positions. Vowel shortening and nasal loss are also analyzed as mora-deletion following destressing under stress clash. The long-standing problem of delayed syncope (in Proto-Nordic) or absence of syncope (in Old English) in light stems is explained as a minimal word effect. The deletion rule in the so called second syncope period in Proto-Nordic is a case of vowel deletion (not mora-deletion). The patterning known as vowel balance is analyzed as the result of interaction between the general trend of reduction and the development of a particular balance prosody. In balance prosody one main-stress position (a unipositional foot) dominates two light syllables. This prosody is directly reflected as level stress on the surface. Rules that relate directly to the metrical configuration of balance are vowel strengthening (läsa > läså ’to read’), and vowel levelling (läså > låså). The latter rule is rendered as parametrized projection of features onto the stress unit, and the vowel patterns of vowel levelling are thereby given a principled description. Finally, the quantity shift in Old Swedish is discussed in detail. Balance - argued to be a Scandinavian innovation - is shown to be directly linked to the quantity shift. The loss of balance necessarily leads to the implementation of the quantity shift. Moreover, it is argued that the particular Central Scandinavian lengthening pattern involving both vowel and consonant lengthening (in roughly complementary contexts) is due to the (former) presence of balance. Finally, the theory predicts that the Modem Swedish quantity system emerging after the quantity shift depends on distinctive consonant quantity, rather than distinctive vowel quantity.

  • 43.
    Roug-Hellichius, Liselotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Babble, grunts, and words: a study of phonetic shape and functional use in the beginnings of language1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study follows in the tradition of those seeking to understand linguistic behavior from a cognitive and socio-biological perspective (Bates, Benigni, Bretherton, Camaioni and Volterra 1979, Lindblom 1992, Hauser 1996) by tracing the development of a non-linguistic vocal behavior in relation to communicative and early lexical advances. More specifically the study focuses on the occurrence of what are termed ìcommunicative gruntsî and their functional relationship to adult based word use in one Swedish boy from 11 to 19 months of age. The findings are based on audio and video recordings made bi-weekly in the childís home. The recordings have been subject to auditory and acoustic analysis of the childís vocal output and coding of co-occurring manual and visual gestures.

    The auditory results indicate that there is a progressive use of grunts over the first months of the second year of life and an increase in communicative grunts (as defined by co-occurring communicative gestures) prior to the onset of context-flexible word use. The auditory findings are corroborated by the results of the acoustic analysis where a shift in fundamental frequency, first and second formant frequency and utterance duration co-occurs with the onset of use of communicative grunts. Based on these findings it is concluded that there is a functional relationship between the use of words and the use of communicative grunts. Further, as the functional shift of the grunt co-occurs with changes in the phonetic domain, the communicative grunts are understood as adaptations to the articulatory and perceptual constraints governing speech communication.

    Two interpretations are provided to account for the significance of the communicative grunt to lexical development. The cognitive approach suggests that the functional relationship between words and communicative grunts holds as an index of cognitive readiness for adult based word use. The experiential approach suggests that the communicative grunt contributes to a representational reorganization allowing for the emergence of denotative word use in the child. Taking advantage of the different foci of the two interpretations, a third amalgamated view proposes that both motor advantages and internally defined conceptual functions may be relevant to an understanding of the phenomenon. It is thus suggested that the significance of the behavior may be that it provides the child with a vehicle by which conceptual content may be expressed, prior to the mastering of appropriate adult vocal forms.

  • 44.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Speech perception, phonological sensitivity, and articulation in early vocabulary development2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception, articulation, and word learning are three major tiers of language development in young children, integrating perceptual and productive language abilities. Infant speech perception precedes speech production and is the basis for native language learning. In speech production, children refine their articulation skills beginning with their first vocalic utterances until they reach adult performance level. The third tier describes children’s vocabulary development from their first words to their established receptive and productive lexicon after the vocabulary spurt. Speech perception, articulation, and word learning interact at the level of lexical representations.

    By investigating the relationship between the attention to phonological detail in speech and word learning, the degree of phonological detail in the lexical representations can be inferred. This relationship can be described by two models: the vocabulary-driven and phonology-driven model. The vocabulary-driven model proposes that the structure of the lexicon influences attention to phonological detail in speech perception, and this model is consistent with the Lexical Restructuring Model. On the other hand the phonology-driven model proposes that vocabulary increases as a result of increased attention to phonological detail in speech.

    To infer the phonological specifications of lexical representations of words in 2½- to 3-year-olds, the variables vocabulary, phonological sensitivity, language-specific speech perception and articulation accuracy were tested in a longitudinal study with 60 participants. For these variables, new measures were developed, adapted, and tested. It was found that phonological sensitivity at 30 months predicted vocabulary at 33 months, but not the opposite. This supports the prediction of the phonology-driven model. However, in an augmented version of the vocabulary-driven model that included all variables, articulation at 30 months was found to predict phonological sensitivity at 33 months. These results are discussed in the light of the Lexical Restructuring Model, and the interaction of speech perception, articulation skills, and lexical representations, and suggestions for future research are offered.

  • 45.
    Schönström, Krister
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Tvåspråkighet hos döva skolelever: Processbarhet i svenska och narrativ struktur i svenska och svenskt teckenspråk2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines the language proficiency of school-aged deaf pupils from a bilingual perspective. The first aim of the study is to investigate the Swedish L2 skills of the pupils. This includes testing the validity of the Processability Theory on deaf learners of Swedish as an L2. The second aim is to investigate whether there is a correlation between proficiency in Swedish and Swedish Sign Language (SSL) as suggested in earlier research on deaf bilingualism.

    This study is cross-sectional and contains data from 38 pupils (grades 5 and 10) from a school for deaf and hearing-impaired pupils in Sweden. The data consists of retellings of a cartoon in written Swedish and of free stories in SSL. For the first part of the study, the Swedish data has been analyzed according to Processability Theory (PT).  For the second part of the study, narrative structure in both the Swedish and SSL data has been analyzed. As a theoretical framework, Labov’s narrative model is applied.

    The results show that there is an implicational order in the informants’ development of Swedish following the predicted grammatical learning order described by PT. The results therefore suggest that PT is a valid theory also for deaf learners of L2 Swedish.

    The conclusions regarding SSL proficiency suggest that more research about sign language as such is needed to get a deeper understanding of SSL proficiency. The results show that one narrative component of Labov’s model - Evaluation - is an important component in SSL proficiency.

    The results from the comparative analysis show that there is a positive statistical correlation between some Swedish and SSL variables used in this study, suggesting that skills in Swedish correlate with skills in SSL. This means that a well-developed sign language is important for the deaf to learn any written language as a second language.

  • 46.
    Simper-Allen, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    "Cut and Break"-beskrivningar i svenskt teckenspråk: Barns och vuxnas avbildande verbkonstruktioner2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies on children’s acquisition of depicting verbs in signed languages have chiefly studied the use of classifiers in verbs of motion and location, particularly the order in which the different classes of handshape are acquired. The age of the children in these studies have ranged from age three to thirteen, and an important finding has been that classifier constructions are not fully acquired until early adolescence. Most of these studies have used an elicitation tool to investigate the production and comprehension of classifiers, but have not provided any adult target norms of the test items when scoring children’s achievement.

    The present dissertation provides a detailed description of both adults’ and children’s verb constructions in descriptions of cutting and breaking events in Swedish Sign Language (SSL), specifically focusing on the number of hands used in signing, handshape category and hand activity, which has not been previously described for any sign language. As part of this study, 14 deaf adults (ages 20–72) and 11 deaf children (2;1–6;6) of deaf parents, all native-users of SSL, performed a task that involved describing 53 video clips of cutting and breaking events. The clips show an event in which an actor separates material, either with the aid of a tool or without. Additionally, some clips show an entity separating by itself without an actor being involved.

    The adults described the events with depicting verb constructions that are produced with two hands. The analysis of the handshapes produced three categories: substitutor, manipulator and descriptor. The most frequent construction in the description of events without a tool was two acting manipulators (depicting a hand handling an object), whereas in descriptions of events with a tool the combinations were acting substitutor or manipulator with a non-acting manipulator. The acting hand referred to the tool and the non-acting manipulator to the affected entity. In descriptions of events without an actor, either two substitutors or two manipulators were used. In addition to depicting verb constructions, the descriptions also contained resultative complements, i.e. signs carrying information about the result of the activity being carried out. The complements were either lexical signs or some form of depicting verb construction. Similar observations have not been noted for any other signed language.

    In the manner of the adults, the children used depicting verb constructions in descriptions of cutting and breaking events (681 tokens), but they also used pointing and lexical signs (64 tokens). Nearly half of the verb constructions that were used by the children corresponded to the adult target forms. The majority of the constructions describing events without a tool corresponded to the adult target forms using two acting manipulators, even among the youngest informants. In events with a tool, only a third of the constructions corresponded to the adult target forms (emerging at 4;8 – 5;0); the remaining two-thirds were deviating constructions in terms of number of hands, handshape category and hand activity. Resultative complement are sparsely used by children (57 tokens), the most chosen type of complement being lexical signs.

    Pervasive features of children’s constructions were the addition of contact between the hands and a preference for substitutors, something not found in adults’ constructions. These features were elucidated within the framework of Real Space blending theory, with the study showing that children first use visible blended entities and that invisible blended entities do not emerge until 4;8–5;0.

  • 47.
    Spenader, Jennifer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Presuppositions in spoken discourse2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Thorén, Bosse
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The priority of temporal aspects in L2-Swedish prosody: Studies in perception and production2008Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreign accent can be everything from hardly detectable to rendering the second language speech unintelligible. It is assumed that certain aspects of a specific target language contribute more to making the foreign accented speech intelligible and listener friendly, than others. The present thesis examines a teaching strategy for Swedish pronunciation in second language education. The teaching strategy “Basic prosody” or BP, gives priority to temporal aspects of Swedish prosody, which means the temporal phonological contrasts word stress and quantity, as well as the durational realizations of these contrasts. BP does not prescribe any specific tonal realizations. This standpoint is based on the great regional variety in realization and distribution of Swedish word accents. The teaching strategy consists virtually of three directives:

    · Stress the proper word in the sentence.

    · Stress proper syllables in stressed words and make them longer.

    · Lengthen the proper segment – vowel or subsequent consonant – in the stressed syllable.

    These directives reflect the view that all phonological length is stress-induced, and that vowel length and consonant length are equally important as learning goals. BP is examined in the light of existing findings in the field of second language pronunciation and with respect to the phonetic correlates of Swedish stress and quantity. Five studies examine the relation between segment durations and the categorization made by native Swedish listeners. The results indicate that the postvocalic consonant duration contributes to quantity categorization as well as giving the proper duration to stressed syllables. Furthermore, native Swedish speakers are shown to apply the complementary /V: C/ - /VC:/ pattern also when speaking English and German, by lengthening postvocalic consonants. The correctness of the priority is not directly addressed but important aspects of BP are supported by earlier findings as well as the results from the present studies.

  • 49.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    On Vowels : Spectral Features, Related Aspects of Production and Sociophonetic Dimensions1983Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first and major part of this thesis deals with spectral features of vowels and with the distinction of phonetic information from personal and transmittal information also conveyed to listeners by speech sounds. The results of perceptual experiments with synthetic vowels whose fundamental and first formant were varied in frequency suggested that the smaller tonotopical distances between formants (< 6 Bark) are invariant in phonetically idenctical vowels produced by male and female speakers of several languages. It is further investigated how partials are resolved in the process of timbre perception. Previous experiments by other researchers suggest an effective bandwidth close to three Bark. In similar experiments, though using different stimuli, this result could not be replicated. A re-analysis of some other experimental results gave, among other details, effective bandwidths roughly proportional to frequency in the range below 600 Hz. Due to contextual effects, the general validity of this result is in question. The non-uniform sex-differences in formant frequencies are shown mainly to be consequences of an anatomical development in accord with the perceptual condition of invariant phonetic qualities.

    The second part of the thesis, Vocalism in Eastern Central Bavarian, represents a case study of the realization of sociophonetic dimensions in speech. In the chosen group of dialects some phonological rules lead to a richly shadowed vowel system. The application of these rules is investigated with respect to dialectal, sociolectal, speaker age, and speech tempo variation.

  • 50.
    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Language - mirror of culture: a case study on language socialization with Finns living in Finland and Sweden, and Swedes living in Sweden2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to compare language socialization, i.e. how to use language and how to socialize children to use language, in three cultural groups: Finns living in Finland and Sweden and Swedes living in Sweden. Since language socialization is assumed to result in a conversational style, this was studied from different angles. The participants consisted of 20 families in each group with a target child, aged 9-13 years. The empirical data was collected by video recording a mealtime conversation with each family. The video recordings were transcribed by using the CHAT system. The analyses of data demonstrated cultural variations in interaction between Finns and Swedes. The Swedes displayed a higher involvement style than the Finns in different ways. The Swedes produced more talk and they had shorter inter-turn pauses. They elicited talk using more varied syntactic forms which also were somewhat more implicit than the forms used by Finns. The Swedish preference for negotiating and even arguing in immediate responses to negative comments provided a further difference. The Finns spoke mainly about facts, and did not leave an opening for discussion. The groups also differed from one another by showing different social norms and values. The Swedes commented more on moral and ethic issues whereas the Finns commented more on table manners. On the whole, a comparison of two neighbor countries indicated different conversational styles which are assumed to arise from different socialization styles. The cross-cultural comparison of Finns in two communities displayed a strong SwedishFinnish conversational adherence to the Finnish style. The children showed conversational congruity with the parents in each group. The findings indicated that Finnish and Swedish children in meeting each other, for example, in a classroom might have different conversational abilities when contributing to conversations.

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