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  • 1.
    Adler, Aleksandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Perifera kulturer i kontakt?: Indirekt översättning av hebreisk skönlitteratur till svenska2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following product–oriented study deals with translational norms operating in indirect translation of Hebrew literature into Swedish. The research was conducted as a contrastive study of Extra–linguistic Cultural References (ECR) based on Toury’s (1995/2012) coupled pairs and supplemented with Pedersen’s typology (2011). The material consisted of 3 x 136 coupled pairs excerpted from a collection of short stories written by an Israeli high–prestige writer Amos Oz and translated into Swedish through English. Both translations were carried out by high–prestige translators. The results suggest that indirect literary translation follows the adequacy norm in accordance with the hypothesis on high–prestige translation (Lindqvist 2002). The hypothesis on acceptancy norms operating in indirect translation is rejected. 

  • 2.
    af Sandeberg, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Engelskundervisningens betydelse för elever med dyslexi2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien belyser och diskuterar hur undervisning i engelska inom grundskola och gymnasium samt antagningsregler till högskola kan påverka möjligheten att utbilda sig i tekniska ämnen för personer med dyslexi. Studien belyser att det finns en hel del som tyder på att undervisningen i engelska i grundskola och gymnasium ofta inte är anpassad till de elever som har fonologiska svårigheter, och att detta kan få avgörande betydelse för deras framtid.

    I en första delstudie görs en enkätundersökning bland engelsklärare i grundskola och gymnasium för att se om de har goda möjligheter att undervisa elever med dyslexi. Undersökningen visar bland annat att det har funnits brister på lärarhögskolor när det gäller utbildningen om läs- och skrivsvårigheter/dyslexi.

    81 % av de 33 lärare som har engelska i sin utbildning svarar att de inte har fått kunskap om läs- och skrivsvårigheter/dyslexi som hjälper dem i undervisningen i engelska. Undersökningen visar också att flera kommuner inte ger lärarna den fortbildning de behöver och att många lärare upplever en vardag med tidsbrist, för få alternativa verktyg och för stora undervisningsgrupper.

    I en andra delstudie belyses framgångsfaktorer i engelska för elever med dyslexi. Fyra högskolestudenter som har dyslexi djupintervjuas, samtliga går fjärde året på utbildningen till civilingenjör. Två av studenterna har MVG i engelska B från gymnasiet och två har inte läst engelska B.

    I en tredje studie görs en jämförelse mellan gymnasiebetygen i engelska för 30 studenter med dyslexi på civilingenjörsprogrammet och en kontrollgrupp. Studien visar bland annat att det är 10 % av dyslektikerna som inte skulle ha kommit in på utbildningen på grundval av sina betyg om de hade sökt hösten 2010 när det är nya antagningsregler med högre språkkrav.

  • 3.
    Aktürk, Memet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Periphery Effects in Phonological Integration: Turkish suffixation of Swedish proper nouns by advanced bilinguals2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates how certain word-final Swedish rimes are integrated phonologically into Turkish by means of suffixation. Specific Swedish rimes have been selected for their unusual characteristics from the perspective of Turkish phonology such as vowel and consonant quantity as well as coda phonotactics. The data have been collected in an experiment, which involved the oral translation of a Swedish text including potential borrowings such as proper names and place names. The participants were advanced bilingual speakers of the standard varieties of Turkish and Swedish living in Stockholm. Two phonological properties of Turkish are relevant for this essay. Firstly, every word-final rime must have a vocalic, palatal and labial classification in order to be licensed for suffixation. Secondly, Turkish has a large and diverse periphery in its phonological lexicon due to faithful or partially faithful adaptation of a plethora of historical loanwords. The focus of the investigation is if the new borrowings are integrated into the core or into the periphery of the Turkish phonological lexicon or alternatively how faithful their integration is to the Swedish originals. In terms of resolving j-final coda cluster problems, the popular strategies are found to be palatalization, deletion and metathesis. The main body of data displays low faithfulness to the Swedish originals as well as an underutilization of the Turkish periphery. The participants are found to use the periphery of their phonological lexicon to a high degree for established words in Turkish but only to a limited extent when adapting new borrowings from Swedish into Turkish. This finding is explained by the fact that the structural and sociolinguistic conditions are not conducive to periphery maintenance in the present context in contrast to the historical context during the inflow of Arabic and Persian loanwords.

  • 4.
    Al Ansari-Imad, Ali
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A quantitative study on the application and comprehension of English connectors by Swedish L2 learners of English in upper secondary schools2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on L2 learners of English in Swedish upper secondary schools and their ability to comprehend and use connectors in a multiple-choice cloze procedure. Connectors are used in text to signal the text structure and make explicit the relation between text segments. A study by Geva (1992) suggests that with an increased proficiency, learners also improve their ability to comprehend text relations and the use of connectors. The present study applies the suggestions of Geva’s results in a Swedish context. English in Swedish upper secondary schools, is taught at three levels (designated English 5, 6, 7) with increasing difficulty and proficiency level requirements. This study tests the ability to comprehend the context and use the correct connector on pupils in the two mandatory courses (English 5 & 6). Similar to previous studies, the aim is to investigate the relationship between levels of English and the ability to use connectors. This empirical survey investigates the English 5 & 6 pupils’ success in applying the appropriate connector in relation to the level of English they are placed in, in order to analyze whether there is any perceived development, as is presupposed by the English curriculum. Furthermore, the study also aims to analyze what type of connectors the pupils excel at or struggle with and any factors that might affect pupils’ performance. The test consisted of three categories: adversative (6 questions), additive (5 questions), and causal connectors (4 questions), a total of 15 questions, with one point being awarded for each correct response. The results of the two groups were similar and a subsequent t-test revealed that there was no statistical significance between the two groups in any of the categories. This suggests that in the sample which was tested there is no proficiency increase in terms of connectors and comprehending inter-/intrasentential relationships. Furthermore, the results indicate that the pupils are more likely to correctly select the appropriate adversative and causal connectors, but struggled in selecting the additive connectors.

    Keywords: connectors, comprehension, intrasentential & intersentential relationships, teaching, coherence, cohesion

  • 5.
    Al Taai, Lamia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    A Comparison of Arabic Literature Translation into English and Swedish: Inverstigating Domestication in the Translation of Arabic Cultural Words - Imarat Yaqubyan as acase in point2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Imarat Yaqubyan is a contemporary Arabic novel that encompasses an intensive and variable Arabic culture; this study contains a survey in tables of cultural words, according to Newmark’s categories, “material culture”, “social culture”, “originations”, and  “gestures and habits”, as well as their correspondences in the English and the Swedish translated novel versions. In this tripled language study, Arabic, English and Swedish, I undertake a qualitative comparison between the translation strategies used by each translator of the English and Swedish versions. For this purpose I apply the taxonomy of translation strategies established by Pedersen, which is divided first into SL-oriented strategies categorized into “Retention”, “Specification” and “Direct Translation”, and secondly the TL-oriented that includes “Generalization”, “Substitution” and “Omission”, as well as the “Official Equivalent”. Through my analyses process, I link Newmark’s metaphors types, terminology and the seven procedures of translating metaphors with Pedersen’s strategies.  In this study, Pedersen’s SL and TL-oriented translation strategies are considered to correspond to Venuti’s terminology of domestication and foreignization. Conclusions are drawn about the use of domesticating strategies in certain cultural words categories of both English and Swedish versions. The study devises the term “False Domestication”.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Verbal contents of repetitions in Swedish child-directed speech2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Repetitions in child-directed speech (CDS) have been shown to vary over time, and are suggested to affect first language acquisition. Correlations between verbal contents of repetitions in CDS and children’s language development have been suggested. The verbal contents of repetitions in Swedish CDS have not yet been investigated.

    The aim of this study was to examine the verbal contents of repetitions in Swedish CDS during the child’s first 2 years and possible changes in proportions of repetitions during the same time span. Verbal contents of repetitions in parents’ speech in 10 parent-child dyads as the children were 3, 6, 9, 12 and 24 months old were investigated focusing on word classes, sentence types and whole-constituent change. The results were compared to the children’s productive vocabularies at the age of 30 months. Possible occurrences of item-based constructions and frequent frames in the repetitions were also examined.

    The overall results revealed patterns concerning change in verbal contents in repetitions over time and correlations between verbal contents in repetitions and child language development. Two proposals were made: parents adjust the complexity of their speech to linguistic developmental stages of their children, and linguistic variation in the input increases as the child grows older.

  • 7.
    Balkstam, Eira
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Fonologisk utveckling i det svenska teckenspråket hos hörande andraspråksinlärare: Identifiering av aspekter, tecken och en- och tvåhandstecken2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the phonological development of hearing L2 learners has been investigated with regard to their ability to identify a sign's aspect structure, both partially and as a whole, and one- vs. two-handed signs. The results were compared to a control group of deaf first language speakers of Swedish sign language. There has previously been a limited number of studies focusing on the identification of signs. For this reason, a task that required no previous knowledge of Swedish Sign Language or linguistics was created for this study. The study is based on data from a quantitative and longitudinal investigation. In the identification of aspects, it is shown that place of articulation was the easiest to identify for both groups, followed by articulator, and lastly articulation, which was the most difficult to identify correctly. The L2 group performed better and could identify a higher number of correct lexical signs than the L1 group. However, both groups scored low results. A possible reason for this is that the test template is not explicit enough about articulation as a aspect. When identifying one- and two-handed signs, it is shown that one-handed signs are easier to identify than two-handed signs, across both groups. This corroborates previous research that shows that two-handed signs are phonologically and cognitively more complex than one-handed signs. Further research with a larger number of participants is encouraged in order to investigate other potentially influencing factors.

  • 8.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Genetic Algorithms in the Brill Tagger: Moving towards language independence2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The viability of using rule-based systems for part-of-speech tagging was revitalised when a simple rule-based tagger was presented by Brill (1992). This tagger is based on an algorithm which automatically derives transformation rules from a corpus, using an error-driven approach. In addition to performing on par with state of the art stochastic systems for part-of-speech tagging, it has the advantage that the automatically derived rules can be presented in a human-readable format.

    In spite of its strengths, the Brill tagger is quite language dependent, and performs much better on languages similar to English than on languages with richer morphology. This issue is addressed in this paper through defining rule templates automatically with a search that is optimised using Genetic Algorithms. This allows the Brill GA-tagger to search a large search space for templates which in turn generate rules which are appropriate for various target languages, which has the added advantage of removing the need for researchers to define rule templates manually.

    The Brill GA-tagger performs significantly better (p<0.001) than the standard Brill tagger on all 9 target languages (Chinese, Japanese, Turkish, Slovene, Portuguese, English, Dutch, Swedish and Icelandic), with an error rate reduction of between 2% -- 15% for each language.

  • 9.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effekten av fonologisk träning enligt Bornholmsmodellen på elevers tidiga läs- och skrivinlärning i årskurser 1 och 22002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I en longitudinell studie har elever i årskurs 1 och 2 på två olika skolor i Vallentuna kommun undersökts under tre på varandra följande projektår. Huvudsyftet med denna studie var att undersöka huruvida träning i fonologisk medvetenhet enligt den s.k. Bornholmsmodellen under elevernas tid i sexårsklass påverkar deras läs- och skrivinlärning. Tre typer av test användes, under årskurs 1 administrerades UMESOL för kartläggning av fonologisk medvetenhet och ITPA, för kartläggning av psykolingvistiska färdigheter. Under årskurs 2 kartlades elevernas läs- och skrivutveckling med UMESOL, ”läsning och skrivning”. I kontrast med tidigare forskningsresultat som pekade på en fördelaktig användning av Bornholmsmodellen under elevernas förskoleklassår, visade resultaten i denna studie inte på entydiga långsiktiga effekter för de elever som tränats fonologiskt enligt Bornholmsmodellen. Istället verkade den avgörande faktorn för elevernas läs- och skrivutveckling vara skoltillhörighet och pedagogisk ledning under dessa första skolår.

  • 10.
    Bohman, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Tycker du om dem här?: En sociolingvistisk undersökning av högskolestudenters attityder till olika former av språkbruk2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Borking, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Donaldson på Hellsingska: en komparativ fallstudie: Julia Donaldsons engelska bilderböcker i svensk översättning av Lennart Hellsing2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis looks at the translation of Julia Donaldson’s English picture books into Swedish by the Swedish children’s author Lennart Hellsing. The main aim of the study is to determine whether the translation of the original (source) texts involves the transference of Hellsing’s writing style into the translated (target) texts. Earlier research, carried out by Kåreland (2002), is employed in order to pinpoint Hellsing’s distinctive style as a writer. The style variables apparent in Hellsing’s own writing were thereby identified and these are applied to the analysed target texts in this case study. The theoretical framework is based on descriptive translation studies (DTS) and the use of Toury’s model (1995) for reconstructing translational norms allows the source texts (ST) and target texts (TT) to be put into a sociocultural context. By working within this framework a descriptive analysis is used to describe and compare the ST and TT and the concept of translation as a practice governed by certain translational norms at a certain moment in time and within a certain culture is applied. The findings show that Hellsing’s style as a writer can also be detected in his translations of Donaldson’s picture books. The results of this case study also indicate that the translation of these texts can be considered to be a target culture oriented practice.  

  • 12.
    Bornhöft, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Demokratiskt klarspråk: Demokratidiskursen i förarbetena till språklagens 11 paragraf2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen analyserar demokratidiskursen i de parlamentariska dokument som från och med 2002 ledde fram till språklagens stiftande 2009. Den gör detta utifrån teorifälten kritisk diskursanalys och systemisk-funktionell grammatik. 

    Materialet består av utdrag ur de parlamentariska dokumenten. Utdragen består av de tillfällen då vissa nyckelord knutna till demokrati används gällande området klarspråk. Metoderna ringar tillsammans in hur demokratidiskursen realiseras. De analytiska kategorierna är intertextualitet, rekontextualisering, auktorisering, värderingar, presuppositioner och satsrelationer. 

    Resultatet visar att demokratidiskursens roll är att verka legitimerande genom att ge tyngd och auktoritet åt klarspråksidealet. Den framställs vara något självklart gott som läsaren ska acceptera och den är så abstrakt att den inte hamnar i fokus. Demokrati framställs som på en skala där det svenska samhället kan bli mer demokratiskt. 

  • 13.
    Collantes, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Scrutinizing the use of online data: A critical study of the use of online forum texts in research2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has given researchers a convenient and accessible tool for collecting data. It enables researchers to find natural occurring language that gives them the opportunity to save time and partake of various advantages the Internet has to offer. Web forums are deep and complex message boards occupied by online communities. These web forums are a rich source for collecting naturally occurring language that can be used for various sorts of research. Several researchers have shown that these web forums have a generous amount of advantages when used as data (Yates, 1996; Hsiung, 2000; Joinson, 2001; Im & Chee, 2006; Newhagen & Rafaeli, 2006; Misoch, 2015). However, it is equally important to understand the nature of the flaws that web forum texts as data may have. The notion of anonymity and the overrepresentation of a certain demographic groups may mislead incautious researchers collecting data from web forums.

    This paper aims to analyse several research articles which uses web forum texts as data within two different disciplines, health and social care and linguistics, in addition to classifying them as either high-stakes or low-stakes research. The goal is to investigate how researchers handle possible limitations and risks of such data. Initial results showed that high-stakes are more thorough when discussing and reporting concerns regarding their data. Evidently, health and social care high-stakes research articles reported more concerns than linguistics research articles. Several recommendations based on these results were made in the end of the paper for researchers to use when conducting research based on web forum texts.

  • 14.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Mapping articulatory parameters on formant patterns: From articulations to acoustics non-stop2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional way of estimating the formant frequencies from articulatory data presupposes knowledge of how the vocal tract cross-sectional area varies for a given articulatory shape (Fant 1960/1970). Accordingly, in order to derive the formant pattern of a given articulation, the three-dimensional shape of the vocal tract (VT) needs to be known. In the past cross-sectional areas have typically been derived by means of ‘d-to-A rules’ that use the mid-sagittal cross-distance d at each point along the VT to produce a corresponding cross-sectional area A. X-ray and MRI data have been used to calibrate such rules (Heinz & Stevens 1964, Sundberg et al. 1987, Ericsdotter 2005). Although this procedure has produced many useful results it is time consuming and laborious. It is speaker-specific. It presupposes access to information on the three-dimensional shape of the VT, which is not experimentally readily accessible. Such observations raise the question whether sufficiently accurate alternative approaches can be developed. Is it possible to go straight from articulatory data to formant frequencies without having to construct a cross-sectional area function? If such methods could be developed it would have many uses both in phonetics and practical applications.

    This paper reports an attempt to map the time variations of selected articulatory parameters from X-ray profiles directly on the formant tracks using multiple regression analysis. Preliminary results for F1 indicate that multiple regression analysis can indeed be useful for making such predictions. The prospects of extending the present analyses to other formants are discussed.

  • 15.
    Couturier Kaijser, Vilma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Metaphorical uses of verbs of animal sounds in Swedish2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animals often act as source domain is metaphorical shifts. In European languages, there are often several lexicalised verbs for specific sounds with a prototypical animal as subject. These verbs of animal sounds and their metaphorical meanings have been studied cross-linguistically, which have made it possible to create a classification of situations that tend to be expressed by animal metaphors. There are many verbs of animal sounds in Swedish, but their metaphorical uses are not investigated. The present study investigates the metaphorical use of verbs of animal sounds in Swedish blog text and news text. The classification is used as a starting point for analysing occurrences of 13 Swedish verbs. The study seeks to answer which situations can be expressed by the Swedish verbs, which different situations can one and the same verb express metaphorically, and how did the typological classification suit the Swedish data? The results showed that the verbs often have human subjects, and different verbs varies in the range of metaphorical uses they possess. Three types of changes were made to the classification to suit the Swedish data: situations were moved, situations were added, and situations were removed.

  • 16.
    Damberg, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Den magiska kritan: En kommenterad översättning från japanska till svenska av Abe Kōbōs novell 魔法のチョーク (Mahou no chooku).2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay consists of a translation from Japanese to Swedish of the short story The Magic Chalk (魔法のチョーク) by Abe Kōbō and an accompanying commentary focusing on three categories of words or expressions that might pose a problem to translators of Japanese. These categories are cultural specific concepts, onomatopoeia and western loanwords.

    Since Abe Kōbō is an award-winning, internationally acclaimed author and the norm when translating such authors is to be source text oriented, I have chosen to translate using a adequacy-oriented strategy. In other words, I have tried to keep the original author's style and stay true to the source text as much as possible without making the target text sound unnatural. 

  • 17.
    Elf, Tora Isabella
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Análisis de infra y sobretraducción entre sueco y español: Un análisis lingüístico contrastivo basado en las novelas La casa de los espíritus de Isabel Allende y Simon och ekarna de Marianne Fredriksson y sus traducciones respectivas al español y al sueco2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    Resumen

    El tema del presente estudio se ubica dentro de la traductología y trata en particular los fenómenos de sobretraducción (ST) y infratraducción (IT), términos que significan una adición de información (ST) y una reducción de la información original en forma de una generalización del texto fuente (IT). Estos dos fenómenos pueden surgir por falta de isomorfismo entre los idiomas implicados en el proceso de traducción, cuando la idiosincrasia divergente de dos idiomas obliga al traductor a usar diferentes estrategias para poder expresar con la mayor equivalencia posible el mensaje del TF, en el texto meta (TM). El español, al igual que los idiomas románicas en general, se caracteriza por estructuras léxicas, dicho en terminos muy generales, menos complejas que los idiomas germánicos como el sueco y esta diferencia es uno de los aspectos que complica el trabajo del traductor. Siempre, al traducir un texto a cualquier idioma, ocurre un cambio y una pérdida inevitable del significado original, en uno o varios de los niveles sintáctico, semántico y pragmático de estructura, porque no existe isomorfismo absoluto entre dos idiomas. Por lo tanto una generalización es lo esperado de cada traducción. El objetivo de este estudio bidireccional es averiguar si dichas estructuras diferentes de los dos sistemas lingüísticos afectan la tendencia a ST o IT en las respectivas traducciones y hemos llevado a cabo el análisis mediante un corpus que consiste en las 30 primeras páginas de las dos obras La casa de los espíritus de Isabel Allende (1982) y Simon och ekarna de Marianne Fredriksson (1985), y sus respectivas traducciones. El resultado muestra, de acuerdo con la hipótesis, una tendencia a una mayor cantidad de ST en la traducción del español al sueco, y, de IT en la traducción del sueco al español.

  • 18.
    Engström, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Från Mister Yummy till Herr Mums: Översättning med kommentar: bildspråk i en novell av Stephen King2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with the translation of a short story written by Stephen King. Prerequisites for the selected translation principle were polysystem theory, descriptive translation studies, intended audience, and the result of a style analysis of the source text in which an abundance of imagery was clear. An analysis of the imagery in the target text found that a predominantly adequacy-oriented translation strategy was used and that Stephen King's status in the target culture can be viewed as high rather than low. Problems during the translation process were mainly associated with the translation of imagery.

  • 19.
    Eriksson, Freya
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Gesture-speech combinations in child language: Form, function, and how they relate to language acquisition2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates children's production of gesture-speech combinations and how they relate to language acquisition. 16 children were observed at seven age points (0;9, 1;0, 1;3, 1;6, 1;9, 2;0 and 3;0), and their gesture-speech combinations were classified into the categories complementary, supplementary and discourse combinations. The results show that the production of gesture-speech combinations over time follows different patterns in children with high, average and low productive vocabulary. Furthermore, the amount of gesture-speech combinations produced at four age points predicted productive vocabulary at the age of 2;6, and the amount produced at the age of 1;6 predicted sentence complexity at 3;0. The use of complementary gesture-speech combinations at three age points was also linked to productive vocabulary. The age of onset of supplementary gesture-speech combinations predicted sentence complexity at 3;0, while the age of onset of discourse gesture-speech combinations predicted productive vocabulary at 2;6. The results support previous research suggesting that complementary and supplementary gesture-speech combinations play an important role in child language acquisition. Additionally, the results of the present study suggest that discourse gesture-speech combinations are also connected with language development.

  • 20.
    Frey, Vanessa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Outer Circle Englishes in the Expanding Circle Classroom: A Qualitative Study on Swedish Teachers’ Attitudes towards Singapore English Accents2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The English language has become more globalised, with different varieties and accents being used around the world. English is no longer merely Received Pronunciation (RP); it is equally as central in countries that belong to what is known as the ‘Outer Circle’ in the context of World Englishes and the Three Circles model (Kachru, 1992a). Citizens of these countries often speak multiple languages and some use English as their first language, although it does not always completely resemble the English used within the ‘Inner Circle’ (the United Kingdom, for example). One of these countries is Singapore, where English has become the official language and is also used as a lingua franca (ELF). While Standard Singapore English is used in formal settings, the local Singlish is more common in everyday situations and most Singaporeans can switch between the two depending on their surroundings (Melchers & Shaw, 2011). These accents are, however, not commonly recognised in Sweden, and less so in a teaching context. In the core content of the subject English 5 in Swedish upper secondary schools it is stated that teaching should incorporate “the spread of English and its position in the world” (Skolverket, 2011, p. 3). Nevertheless, the instructional focus tends to be on the culture and traditions of English-speaking countries instead of language use. Therefore, the present study will investigate teachers’ attitudes towards Outer Circle Englishes and, more specifically, Singapore English. The aim is to answer research questions regarding what attitudes English teachers in Swedish upper secondary schools have towards Outer Circle Englishes, attitude differences regarding teaching experience, and what these teachers can do to incorporate these Englishes in their teaching. The respondents include three experienced and three newly graduated English teachers who all teach in Swedish upper secondary schools. The study has a qualitative approach where the data was collected through semi-structured interviews. To examine Singapore English, the respondents also listened to two audio clips of Singapore English speakers and discussed these accents as well as their attitudes towards them. The results show that teachers from both groups need more knowledge regarding Outer Circle Englishes to acquire a more positive attitude towards these to, in turn, portray this positivity onto their students when discussing the English varieties that exist in the world. The study concludes by suggesting that Outer Circle Englishes need to be explicitly incorporated in the teacher education programme at university for these to be more accepted in the English classroom.

  • 21.
    Gomes, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Investigating the tonal contours of Sawi nouns: A contrastive analysis with established tonal features of Palula2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores whether or not tonal contours are a contrastive feature in Sawi nouns. It aims to provide evidence towards the claim that Sawi has lost contrastive tones and provide a basis from which further research into how the use of qualitative vowel differences may have replaced the pitch accent system still found in Sawi’s closest relative, Palula. This was done through the analysis of a corpus of Sawi nouns with a computer program that visually stylizes prosodic and tonal features in audio samples of the language. This corpus was then analyzed for trends within itself as well as compared to known trends in the Palula lexicon. The findings support the original hypothesis that Sawi nouns do not have contrastive pitch accents, as found in Palula; and that further research may reveal a regular or semi-regular tonal contour accentuating the final mora of each noun.

  • 22.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Syntaktisk struktur i svenskt teckenspråk hos hörande andraspråksinlärare: – En analys av ordföljd, bisatser och användning av verb2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här studien har den syntaktiska strukturen hos två grupper L2-inlärare med olika teckenspråkskunskaper undersökts. Deras resultat har jämförts med en kontrollgrupp döva förstamålstalare. Resultatet visar att L2-grupperna i stort sett använder samma ordföljd (SVO) som kontrollgruppen vilket kan bero på facilitering (positiv transfer) från svenskan som också är ett SVO-språk. Vidare verkar L2-grupperna vilja uttrycka ett verb två gånger i en sats – en så kallad verb-sandwich. Användningen av verb-sandwich minskar med tiden, och istället ökar de seriella verben – flera semantiska verb efter varandra. Resultatet visar också att ju större teckenspråkskunskaper man har, desto fler subjektlösa satser uttrycks. Med tiden blir många av referenterna i återberättelserna implicita i takt med att L2-deltagarna lär sig behärska constructed action. Vad gäller bisatserna tycks de adverbiella bisatserna utvecklas först hos L2-inlärarna, men användningen av dem minskar efterhand. Med tiden utvecklas även objektsbisatserna. Till sist utvecklas de relativa satserna som är svåra för L2-gruppen att lära sig eftersom man måste behärska de icke-manuella signalerna. Gruppernas bisatsutveckling jämfördes slutligen med en annan undersökning som studerade L2-inlärare av talad modalitet. Även här var ordningen av bisatsutvecklingen adverbiella bisatser>objektsbisatser>relativa satser.

  • 23.
    Hengameh, Moadeli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Attitudes and experiences in Parallel Languages at the department of History of Religion2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Attitudes and experiences in Parallel Languages at the department of History of Religion

    Hengameh Moadeli

     

    Abstract

    The purpose of this case study is to obtain deeper knowledge about students´ and teachers´ beliefs and attitudes towards the arrangement of using two languages for study at university level in one humanities field. This case study was conducted through semi-structured interviews with ten students and two teachers at the Department of History of Religion at Stockholm University.

    Our findings show that the majority of students perceive using two languages in one field as positive and that the (perceived) long-term benefits of being more proficient in English outweigh the immediate problems of more time-consuming reading. Both subject groups described using English as a medium in of education as a natural part of studying at a university and knowing academic English was perceived as a fundamental part of being a student. Although the teachers stated that the motivation behind using English textbooks was not to enhance the students’ language proficiency, most students believed that the advantage they could get from using English textbooks was to become more proficient in English or at least more familiar with academic English. One feature of this case study is to show the impact of having an inadequate knowledge of academic English which is rooted in insufficient training in the upper-secondary school system.

     

     

     

    Key words: Internationalization, attitudes and beliefs, Parallel languages, English textbooks, Department of History of Religion

  • 24.
    Henriksson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Self-regulation and the motivation to achieve: A quantitative study on the effects of self-regulation strategies and motivation on learning English at an upper secondary school in Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish National Agency for Education recently begun explicitly promoting teaching through self-regulation strategies in national steering documents intended for teachers, following a number of other countries world wide (Skolverket, 2012; LGY 11; Dalland & Klette, 2016). The goal of self-regulation strategies is for the students to take control of their own learning process, and though there is research on the benefits of self-regulation strategies and motivation, these ideas are based on abstract concepts and biological processes in the brain, that are very difficult to measure (Zimmerman, 1990; Hattie, 2012; Simpson & Balsam, 2016; Schumann, 2004). As such, more research on these strategies is warranted, and little has been done to evaluate their effects on Swedish upper secondary school students. Consequently, the purpose of this study was to attempt to operationalize the theoretical concepts of self-regulation strategies in order to calculate the correlation between students perceived usage of self-regulation strategies, and English performance, with a special focus on motivation. This was done by operationalizing motivation and self-regulation strategies into six variables based on previous research, and then surveying 40 English 05 (year one) students at Enskilda Gymnasiet upper secondary school in Stockholm, and then running correlation tests with their grades from a grammar test the week after the survey, as well as with their overall grade from the previous year. The results showed almost no statistically significant correlations between the students´ grades, and the students self-reported usage of self-regulation strategies. The exception was a statistically significant positive correlation between high levels of intrinsic motivation and good grades. The causes of these results are not specified within the parameters of this research project, however, it could be that there simply were no correlations between the perceived usage of self-regulation strategies and performance due to the strategies not having an effect on performance, or because the strategies were not being used properly. However, it could also be that the operationalizing of the variables in the questionnaire did not generate accurate levels of usage of these strategies. Either way, the results of this essay stress the need for further research that evaluates the effect of self-regulation strategies and motivation on learning English. 

  • 25.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Influences of Form and Function on Spatial Relations: Establishing functional and geometric influences on projective prepositions in Swedish2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is concerned with projective prepositions, which express the relation between two objects by referring to a direction in three-dimensional space. The projective prepositions have been regarded as expressing simple schematic relations of a geometric nature. A theory of the apprehension of projective relations can account for their meanings when they express strictly geometric relations. However, many studies have shown that the appropriateness of the prepositions also depends on the functional relation between the objects and that a number of functional factors influence the comprehension of English prepositions. This experimental study investigates if the acceptability of the Swedish prepositions över, under, ovanför and nedanför are influenced by functional factors as well, and whether acceptability judgments about över and under are more sensitive to functional influences than judgments about ovanför and nedanför, as has been shown for the corresponding English prepositions over and under, and above and below, respectively. It also investigates how the shapes and the parts of the related objects influence their functional interaction, and how the acceptability of the prepositions is in consequence influenced by the shapes of the objects. It was found that the theory of apprehension can indeed account for the acceptability of the prepositions when the relation between the objects is strictly geometric. It was further found that acceptability judgments about them are influenced by functional factors in a similar manner to the corresponding English prepositions when the objects are functionally related, although judgments about under and nedanför are not differentially influenced by these factors. Furthermore, the shapes and the parts of both of the related objects influence acceptability judgments about the prepositions in predictable manners. An extension of the theory of apprehension is suggested which can account for the functional influences indicated in the present study.

  • 26.
    Jevring, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    I Perceive, Therefore I Produce?: A Study on the Perception and Production of Three English Consonantal Sounds by Swedish L2 learners2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study set out to investigate the relationship between perception and production of English / tʃ, dʒ/ and / ʒ / by native speakers of Swedish learning English in secondary

    school. The aim was to find out if Flege’s Speech Learning Model (SLM) (1995) and Major’s Ontogeny Phylogeny Model (OPM) (2001) are suitable to describe young learners’ L2 phonological attainment. To test perception, an identification task containing Nonwords with target sounds in initial, medial, and final position was constructed and tested on 17 school students. Three speaking tasks were carried out to test the participants’ production of the phonemes in initial, medial and final position. All participants also completed a questionnaire with questions regarding exposure and motivation. Six students were chosen for deeper analysis.

    The results show that both the SLM and the OPM can be used to describe young learners L2 phonology acquisition. Similar sounds were found to be harder to produce and more affected by L1 transfer, which corroborates both the SLM and the OPM. Marked sounds were affected more by universals, which was suggested by the OPM. Desire to have a native accent and reported use of the L2 seems to have effect on L2 phonology acquisition, as well. However, the relationship between all these factors is complex and the results from this study are merely suggestive. 

  • 27.
    Jurkowski, Cassandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Lexical Field Analysis of Culture-Specific Vocabulary Items in Australian English: With an Examination of Comparable Word Senses in American and British English2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay presents a study of culture-specific vocabulary in Australian English (AusE) in the lexical fields of living spaces and family relations. It also examines how the senses of the chosen words used by AusE speakers correspond to comparable word senses used by British English (BrE) and American English (AmE) speakers respectively. The empirical material for the essay was collected through questionnaires filled in by native AmE, BrE and AusE speakers. 95 questionnaires were completed in total with 65 AusE, 20 BrE and 10 AmE informants taking part. Further interviews were carried out via telephone with 10 speakers from each English variety. A lexical field analysis was then carried out on the nouns apartment, flat and unit in the lexical field of living spaces and the word olds in the lexical field of family relations. These nouns are discussed in terms of sense relations, attitudinal meaning and figures of speech.

    Answers from the questionnaires and interviews revealed significant differences between the informants of each English variety as regards the use and the senses of the nouns being analysed. For example, for the English translation of the Swedish word lägenhet, AmE speakers would normally use apartment, while BrE speakers would normally use flat and AusE speakers use unit. BrE and AusE speakers also use apartment as a word for a living space but associate it with higher standards of living. AusE speakers further tend to associate flat with lower standards of living. Syntagmatic sense relations also show differences as regards how the studied lexical items in the lexical field of living spaces are used in word combinations.

    Words used in place of parents also showed differences among the three English varieties. The AusE speakers hardly use the word folks as much as the BrE speakers and especially not as much as the AmE speakers. The AusE speakers in this study are more likely to use olds, which is a word that demonstrates the use of mockery in Australian culture. Olds can be best understood as a figure of speech. It is a straightforward example of metonymy, but also has metaphoric and hyperbolic qualities.

    Generally, this study shows how there are distinct differences between the informants of each English variety, even though all informants are native English speakers. Reasons for these differences include geographical location and cultural differences. Australians, for example, are known for their witty sense of humour.

  • 28.
    Järnefelt, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Examining transfer and prototypes in L1 Swedish learners of Spanish: The case of aspect: The simple present and the present progressive2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is focused on the transfer accounts and the prototype accounts, and examines aspect through looking at L1 Swedish learners of Spanish who are at early stages of acquisition. The prototype accounts postulate that adult learners will acquire the most prototypical forms of a grammatical feature first, and then, as proficiency increases, less prototypical features, called extended meanings, will be acquired incrementally (Shirai & Andersen, 1995, Geeslin & Fafulas, 2012). The transfer accounts claim that all grammatical features of the L1 will transfer at initial stages, and that this will either facilitate or impede acquisition, depending on if there are structures that are realized differently or similarly in the L1 and in the L2 (Kellerman, 1979, Gass & Ard, 1984, Schwartz & Sprouse, 1996, Gabriele et al., 2015). The study uses the stimuli and experiment used in Gabriele et al. (2015), a study that tested L1 English learners of Spanish and found evidence that support the transfer accounts. Results from the present study shows positive evidence of L1 transfer, which is taken as support for the transfer account. The results are not compatible with the prototype accounts. A finding of a marginal difference might be indicative of L2 transfer, which is also taken as evidence for the transfer accounts. 

  • 29.
    Keidel Fernández, Alejandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Qualitative differences in L3 learners' neurophysiological response to L1 versus L2 transfer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the present study, the influence of morphosyntactic aspects of L1 and L2 on L3 comprehension is investigated using ERP (Event-Related Brain Potentials). The study examines the processing of verb and gender agreement incongruences in Spanish by native Swedish speakers that are fluent in English and learning Spanish, in comparison to a control group of native Spanish speakers. The study investigates the relevance of morphosyntactic transfer from L1 and/or L2 to L3, as well as language processing in third language acquisition. Language acquisition is considered as an individual process, different in acquisition of the first, second and third language. EEG (Electrocephalograpy) had been used in the present study to examine the processing of verb and gender agreement. Different views on L3 learning have been shown in previous studies according to whether L1 or L2 have a stronger influence on the acquisition of L3.

    Regarding native like processing of language, the study showed that L3 learners process language differently in comparison with native like speakers. In particular, adjective agreement engender a specific brain reaction (a P300) in L3 learners only and not in L1 speakers. Verb agreement, on the other hand, do not engender the P300 in any of the of the groups. The P300 effect is related to strategic processing of language, which leads to the possibility of considering that the morphosyntactic transfer of their first language (Swedish) to the third language is processed in a less automatic mode than L2 (English). 

  • 30.
    Kjellberg, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Blind andraspråksinlärares talperception och talproduktion2004Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Koponen, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Assessing the Relevance of Prosodic and Phonotactic Cues on Parsing the Speech Stream by Young Language-Learners2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study about how one-year-old Swedish-learning infants presumably use probabilistic information, such as prosody and phonotactic regularity, in segmentation of speech. The variables studied were the Swedish tonal word accents I & II and the distributional regularities of within-word and between-word consonant clusters in Swedish infant-directed speech. The results – which were not as clear-cut as the results obtained in earlier experiments on English-learning infants – suggest that 12-month old Swedish infants might be sensitive to prosodic cues to word boundaries: in experiment 1, altering the phonotactics of the stimuli reversed the infants’ preference for word accent types. However this was not confirmed in experiment 2, instead there was a general preference for listening at the accent II words. The results also suggest that 12-month old Swedish infants might not use phonotactic cues to word boundaries to the extent as expected: in experiment 1 and 2, altering the word accent types did not reverse the infants’ preference for phonotactics. Instead, both in experiment 1 and 2, there was a general preference for listening at the within-word stimuli. When compared with earlier research these findings indicate that infants, besides being able to integrate multiple statistical cues to word boundaries, might early in life be assisted by pattern-recognition in speech segmentation.

  • 32.
    Koponen, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effects of Target-Word Frequency Rate on Sound-Meaning-Connection in Five to Fifteen Month-Old Swedish Infants1999Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of manipulating target-word frequency rate and target-word phrase position on sound-meaning-connection in five to fifteen month old Swedish infants. Three different test conditions, each one of them a film showing objects and corresponding phrases made of randomly generated artificial words, were designed. The structure of the first, high variability test condition included context-dependent information and the structures of the second and the third, low variability test conditions were characterised by frequent nonsense target-word rate, target-words occurring in phrase final position. The aim of the artificial input language was to ensure the novelty of test material, and to simulate the type of learning situation - when the semantic content of words is arbitrary - facing young infants in the beginning of language learning. Analysis of informants looking behaviour, prior to, and after exposure to the objects and the corresponding audio input, were performed. Results showed that the structure of high variability test condition and the structure of low variability test conditions were associated with significant between-group differences. This finding indicates that the nonsense phrases in low variability test conditions managed to 'explain' the objects just like semantically meaningful phrases do. When compared with past research, these findings seem to suggest that experience-dependent mechanisms may support, besides word segmentation, even more complicated aspects of language learning, such as acquisition of syntax.

  • 33.
    Lange, Noa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Demonstrative contrasts in Hindukush Indo-Aryan2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hindukush Indo-Aryan (HKIA) is a disputed subgroup of Indo-Aryan languages spoken within a linguistically diverse area stretching from northeastern Afghanistan, across northern Pakistan to northwestern India, principally covering the mountainous region of Hindukush–Karakoram–Western Himalaya. A noteworthy feature of some of these languages is a three-way demonstrative system, or three deictic terms used by speakers to direct one another’s attention to referents at different distances in their environment. It has been suggested that the distinguishing feature of one such demonstrative in HKIA is its referents’ remote distance from the interlocutors, or their absence from the environment altogether. The purpose of this study is two-fold: first, it is to more closely examine the demonstrative systems of a sample of HKIA languages on the basis of fieldwork data; secondly, it is to compare the data to previous accounts of the systems, as well as to the demonstrative systems of other languages spoken in the region. The results provide evidence that two demonstratives in HKIA are distance-contrastive, and one is invisibility-contrastive vis-à-vis the other two. Such a three-term system is moreover shown to be present in languages of the area that span across three other genealogical families, which suggests that the feature may be areally influenced.

  • 34.
    Larsson, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Det är typ en rolig historia: Översättning av en amerikansk ungdomsbok med kommentar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines the discrepancies and differences that occur when translating an American youth novel into Swedish. The novel in question is It’s Kind of a Funny Story (2006) by Ned Vizzini. The theories used for analysis are based on previous research from, among other, Toury and his terms acceptability and adequacy, and the strategies used during the translation were presented by Vinay and Darbelnet.

  • 35.
    Larsson, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A corpus-based study of anticipatory it patterns in university student writing: The role of nativeness and student levels2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The anticipatory it pattern has been found to serve as a means for writers not only to present propositional content in an objective way, but also to achieve a range of different rhetorical purposes. Indeed, its usefulness in academic writing has been confirmed in previous studies (e.g. Thompson, 2009). One of the rhetorical functions of the pattern is as a hedging device. Since it has been shown that appropriate use of hedges and the anticipatory it pattern may pose considerable difficulty for apprentice writers (e.g. Hewings & Hewings, 2002; Hyland & Milton, 1997), a more detailed study of “anticipatory it hedging” would be of particular interest for EAP teaching. The present study aims to investigate university students’ use of the anticipatory it pattern in general and as a hedging device by comparing non-native speaker (NNS) to native speaker (NS) use of the pattern and by investigating the use of the pattern across two NNS student levels. Swedish and British student essays from the Stockholm University Student English Corpus (SUSEC) were investigated for this purpose.

    The results from the comparison of the NS and NNS groups show that the NS students used the anticipatory it pattern significantly more frequently. With regards to function, a statistically significant tendency to use the pattern to hedge claims rather than to make strong claims was found in the NS data. The analysis of “anticipatory it-hedges” with regards to modal verb and linking verb usage shows that the NNS students generally made less frequent use of the different types of “anticipatory it-hedges” and relied more heavily on a smaller set of types. The comparison of the two Swedish student levels shows that there was no statistically significant difference in frequency of use of the pattern. The only statistically significant difference found in terms of function was the more frequent use of the pattern to express difficulty found in the first-term student data. Moreover, an analysis of “anticipatory it-hedges” in terms of modal and linking verb usage revealed that no general development in use was found across the student levels. Taken together, the findings of the study would then suggest that nativeness, contrary to what has been reported in previous studies (cf. Römer, 2009), appears to be an important factor along with other factors such as general language proficiency and expertise in academic writing. Then, in orders to help NNS students further develop their proficiency in academic writing, it would seem that greater emphasis ought to be put on teaching students to use the pattern in an appropriate and varied way.

  • 36.
    Lebenswerd, Patric Joshua
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Distinctive features in Jewish Swedish: A description and a survey2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the contemporary speech used by Swedish Jews, and places it in the context of the most recent understandings in Jewish interlinguistics. Jewish Swedish derives most of its non-Swedish components from the main Jewish liturgical languages, Hebrew and Aramaic, in addition to the foremost ancestral language Yiddish. These components have provided Jewish Swedish with lexical, morpho-syntactic, phonological and semantic features, which distinguish it from Standard Swedish. The thesis, additionally, contains a survey, investigating the correlations between a number of socio-religious factors, and inter- communal variation in use of distinguishing features. The study reveals a great deal of variation between different age groups, social groups, religious groups, men and women, in terms of word knowledge and usage. This study will hopefully contribute to the field of contemporary Jewish linguistics, and the general understanding of speech used by minority communities.

  • 37.
    Leirvåg, Tanja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    Översättningsprocessen vid översättning av fasta fraser hos professionella och icke-professionella översättare: En empirisk undersökning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The process in translating idioms and other fixed expressions has not yet been given much attention in process oriented translation studies. In this study involving three professional translators and three bilingual participants without any training or experience in translation, types and frequency of chosen translation strategies, the ways in which the participants arrived at their final choices, as well as possible differences between the two groups of participants were investigated, using a combination of product and process oriented methods such as keystroke logging with Translog and retrospection. Results indicate that paraphrasing and translation with an expression with similar meaning and similar or different form are the strategies most frequently used in both groups, and that there are only few occurrencies of preliminary versions in the writing process, but quite many examples of negotiation of meaning and style as expressed in the verbalizations. Compared with the novices the professional translators tended to be more cautious in their use of idiomatic equivalents and to consider aspects like target group or style and function of the target text more carefully.

  • 38.
    Lindahl, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English in the Swedish Legal System and University Law Programme2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a critical overview of the current use of English within legal education and the legal profession in Sweden. In addition, it attempts to characterize attitudes towards the use of English within Swedish law practice. The paper will make use of information obtained from a selection of law firms, the Swedish National Courts Administration and the Swedish Public Office of Prosecution. It will also make use of comments and information from a selection of professionals and other bodies such as the European Commission, the Swedish Language Council and the Swedish Bar Association.  The central aim of this essay is to present a clear picture of the extent to which English is actually used within current Swedish legal practice. It directly addresses the question of whether the level of English that Swedish law graduates are exposed to in their legal studies adequately provides them with the skills required by the professional legal world.

    It is claimed that there is an apparent miscommunication between legal education and its corresponding profession, which is creating a very unfortunate situation for students. In addition, it is suggested that redesigning the Swedish law programme, as a response to the demands of English within the Swedish legal profession, is necessary to properly prepare students for legal practise in Sweden. The law programme must function as a platform for theoretical growth as well as the future, practical success of students. Striving for excellence among students should not be restricted to the theoretical aspect of a subject but must include the ability of students to put their theoretical knowledge to practical use. It is argued that English is a needed supplement in the successful practise of law in Sweden and as such must be an integrated part of the legal education program.

  • 39.
    Lindmark, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Oh chale: Two stance-taking strategies in Ghanaian Pidgin English2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common assumption is that language is used for conveying factual information, but linguistic forms also serve a way to communicate pragmatic features, such as speakers’ intentions and mental state. This study describes and analyses two strategies for stance-taking in GhaPE, more specific the use of discourse particles and complement-taking predicates. Such grammatical resources have been identified in the literature to play important functions in signalling how the speaker evaluates and positions him/herself and the addressee with respect to objects of discourse. The analysis and discussion of forms is informed by Du Bois’ (2007) ‘stance triangle’, which has proved to be a useful analytical device for investigating stance from a dialogical perspective. GhaPE is at times anticipated as fairly simple both by scholars and in the community where it is spoken. This thesis is thus an attempt to display aspects of the richness of the language.

  • 40.
    Lundgren, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Prestige & Power: Swedish upper-secondary students' choice and attitudes towards spoken English2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The variety of English adopted by upper-secondary students has changed over the years, as have their attitudes towards those varieties. This essay examines both what variety of English upper-secondary students’ aim for in their spoken English as well as their attitudes towards two of the most common varieties. The examination involved 28 upper-secondary students and focused on their attitudes towards British and American English, while also investigating their media exposure and educational English exposure to determine their effect on varietal aims and attitudes. The results indicate a trend among upper-secondary students where aim for a spoken English resembling American English, but then contrasts that with a clear attitudinal preference for British English. These results are then put into the context of the students’ media and educational exposure of English, where certain patterns emerge, especially between the positive influence of educational exposure and attitudinal preferences.

  • 41.
    Mardanbigi, Sonja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Metonymic and metaphorical extensions of English heart and their Swedish translation equivalents2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Metonymic and metaphorical extensions of English heart and their Swedish translation equivalents

    Sonja Mardanbigi

    Abstract

    This study explores the usage of English heart in figurative expressions. English is rich in both metonymic and metaphorical expressions making use of the concept heart to speak of emotional issues. The aims of this study have been to investigate how English heart corresponds to Swedish hjärta in figurative uses in the English-Swedish Parallel Corpus. Thus, it has been of interest to see what the translation equivalents are for heart and what the distribution of non-literal equivalents of heart are. A debate has arisen in recent years concerning the interaction between metaphor and metonymy which has given rise to the term metaphtonymy (Goossens 1995). Therefore, it was of interest to examine to what extent metaphor and metonymy were involved in heart In order to accomplish these aims, the translations have been categorized according to Niemeier’s (2000) four categories and the metaphor HEART IS CENTER. These have been set up because each of them shows a different degree of connection between metaphors and metonymies. The results of this research suggest that in the majority of the examples heart was rendered by hjärta. In the examples where hjärta was not used, translators used a variety of lexemes, many of which were only used once. In addition it is shown that categories which have the strongest characteristics of metaphor and metonymy tended get more uniform translations.

     

    Keywords: metaphor, metonymy, metaphtonymy, corpus, translation, cross-linguistic perspective, heart, hjärta, English, Swedish  

     

     

  • 42.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Fundamental frequency as basis for speech segmentation modeling2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the relevance of fundamental frequency in speech segmentation models intended to simulate infants. Speech from three different conditions (infant-directed speech to 3- and 12-month-olds, and adult-directed speech) was segmented based on fundamental frequency information, using a variant of the dpn-gram segmenting technique (highlighting similar segments as lexical candidates). The spectral distance between segments that were found based on fundamental frequency similarity was calculated, and compared to the spectral distance between segments that were found using transcription as basis for segmentation, as well as to the spectral distance between randomly paired segments from the same speech materials. The results show the greatest within-condition difference in speech directed to 3-month-olds, in which segmenting based on fundamental frequency similarity generated segment pairs with smaller spectral distance than did transcription-based segmentation or random segment pairs. Speech directed to 12-month-olds resulted in a somewhat smaller difference when using fundamental frequency data compared to when using transcriptions. For adult-directed speech, no difference was found in spectral distance between pairs generated by the different bases for segmentation. Neither segmenting speech by highlighting similar segments as lexical candidates, nor using fundamental frequency as basis for segmentation is optimal for a speech segmentation model intended to simulate 12-month-olds or adults. These groups are more likely to segment speech based on their already present or growing linguistic experience than on acoustic similarity only. However, for a model simulating a 3-month-old infant, the present segmentation procedure and its basis for segmentation are more plausible. When modeling speech segmentation in an infant-like manner it is important to take into account both that the cognitive abilities of infants develop rapidly during the first year of life, and that some aspects of their linguistic environment vary during this period.

  • 43.
    Meza, Rodrigo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    El uso de los sustantivos abstractos/concretos y de los verbos de movimiento en hablantes no nativos de español muy avanzado2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    La presente investigación estudia el uso de los sustantivos abstractos/concretos y de los verbos de movimiento en hablantes no nativos de español muy avanzado.

    En este estudio, nosotros creemos que el input comprensible, la interacción y la frecuencia con que se utiliza la lengua meta son factores importantísimos para poder adquirir, desarrollar y afianzar el uso de las categorías que nos interesa estudiar.

    A partir de estas premisas, es posible pensar que un hablante no nativo (HNN) muy avanzado de una L2 debería tener un nivel idiomático muy parecido al de un hablante nativo (HN) dentro de los campos donde se da la interacción, pero ¿Qué sucede cuando un HNN es sometido a pruebas que disminuyen el efecto de estos factores? ¿Deberían, entonces, existir diferencias significativas en los recursos léxicos utilizados por ambos grupos (HNNs en relación a HNs)? Así, y a grandes rasgos, el objetivo principal de nuestra investigación es poder determinar cuándo los HNNs no alcanzan el nivel de ocurrencias presentado por los HNs.

     

  • 44.
    Moser, Elena Vera
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Answers to Polarity Questions: A Typological Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Polarity questions, i.e. questions that demand as an answer either an affirmation or a denial (e.g. yes or no), are considered to be an universal language feature. Different strategies to answer polarity questions have been observed across languages. Sadock & Zwicky (1985) identified three systems of answer strategies: yes/no systems, agree/disagree systems and echosystems. Other studies have attested languages exhibiting a mix of these types (i.a. Floydet al. 2016, Holmberg 2016). Sadock & Zwicky (1985) do not offer any statements about the frequency distribution of the language systems, nor do they explain what kind of sample was used for their analysis. The aim of this study is to fill this gap. Specifically, the goals are to investigate the validity of the typology offered in Sadock & Zwicky (1985) and to establish some estimates about the cross-linguistic frequency of the types identified during this investigation. The data are collected through consultation of reference grammars and elicitation by means of a questionnaire.

  • 45.
    Nerelius, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Plain Language in the EU: Impact of Plain Language in Drafting and Translation of Different Types of EU Legislation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay assesses the impact of plain language campaigns in EU legislation. Different types of legislation as well as legislation with different intended recipients are analysed. The analysis includes calculating a LIX index score and complementing the index data with data from the texts. The data derives from textual parameters associated with plain language. The distinction between the recipient and the actual reader of legislation in the EU will also be discussed as the general public is asserted by the EU to be the reader of legislative acts. It is, however, shown in this essay that the general public is not the reader of legislative acts directed to them.

    The hypothesis in this essay is that there has been an impact of plain language in legislative acts in the EU over time, as a result of plain language campaigns in the EU. We may also see a difference in the impact of plain language between specific types of legislation and between legislation directed to different intended recipients. A specialist audience may be considered to have a higher competence of the register of law compared to the general public. However, as the results from the analysis are inconclusive we cannot see any coherent impact of plain language in the texts analysed in this essay. The analysis also suggests that using textual features associated with plain language is not an effective tool to use to assess improvement in terms of readability and impact of plain language over time. The different textual parameters do not cohere.

    In addition to the above, the impact of plain language in relation to translation in the EU is discussed. Plain language could perhaps enable more accurate and efficient translation to multiple languages, which is important in the EU’s multilingual environment. Consequently, by making an original language version of legislation less complex, the quality of translations may be improved. The qualitative analysis regarding plain language in translation suggests that a short, non-complex sentence in combination with the use of high frequency words enables a more natural translation in the Swedish language versions. The analysis also suggests some changes seen over time in relation to plain language in the translation process.

  • 46.
    Neubauer, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Neue Wörter -alte Ideen: Die Reproduktion nationalsozialistischen Sprachgebrauchs in den Parteiprogrammen der Nationaldemokratischen Partei Deutschlands und der Sverigedemokraterna2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Nilsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Target Langauge in the Primary Classroom: Teachers' beliefs and practices2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In spite of a monolingual norm in foreign language teaching during the last decades studies throughout the world show that teachers’ target language use varies significantly. This study sets out to examine to what extent the target language (TL) is used with young language learners and how this use correlates to teachers’ beliefs about foreign language teaching and first language (L1) inclusion. Moreover the paper discusses functions for L1 use and strategies used by teachers to support comprehension in the TL. Lesson observations and qualitative interviews were performed with four Swedish primary school class teachers. Despite the prevailing idea of exclusive TL use three of the four teachers do not subscribe to this approach and find L1 inclusion necessary. An emerging theme is the impact of teachers’ beliefs and how these are shaped by personal experience and/or education. L1 is legitimized in order to support comprehension and prevent pupils’ frustration. To varying degrees the L1 is used, mostly to facilitate learning but also for classroom management. The data suggests that teachers are well aware of their language use although they lack awareness and professional language to describe and be articulate about strategies they employ.

  • 48.
    Nordén, Anton Harry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Epistemic modality in Ghanaian Pidgin English2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the expression of epistemic modality in a corpus of Ghanaian Pidgin English (GhaPE). The epistemic expressions are manually identified and thereafter distinguished from each other in terms of grammatical status and their indication of different epistemic and evidential notions. 7 different elements are found, ranging from 1 pre-verbal marker, 1 adverb, 2 particles and 3 complement-taking predicates. The results indicate, in line with existing research, that to differentiate between usage properties of individual modal expressions it may be necessary to subdivide them in terms of not only epistemic but also evidential meanings. Moreover, a functional parallel between the GhaPE particle abi, the Swedish modal particle väl and the Spanish adverbs a lo mejor and igual is demonstrated, with respect to their simultaneous function of expressing epistemic probability and asking the hearer for confirmation. Finally, the results suggest, contrary to previous accounts, that the pre-verbal marker fit may indicate epistemic possibility without the addition of a preceding irrealis marker go. It is proposed that future researchers should make use of bigger corpora in order to arrive at a more ample conception of both individual modal categories and their interrelations.

  • 49.
    Ottersten, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Andraspråksinlärares användning av olika verbtyper i det svenska teckenspråket2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Second language learners use special grammatical rules when learning a new language. There are many theories that explain how to do it. The interim language hypothesis and the performance analysis are the underlying theories for this study. Verb is one of the word classes in the Swedish language and one distinctive feature with verb is that you can express different tenses. In sign language you can use verb in lexical signs or classifiers, in both non modified or modified forms. Earlier research (for example Stenberg 2009) focused on the errors second language users made and found out that simplification is the most frequent category. This thesis studies how the informants use verb. They use primarily lexical signs as a verb but after more hours of teaching they use different polysynthetic categories. Verbs complexity seems to changes from lexical sign too modified lexical sign and the polysynthetic signs are the most difficult one, likewise the study of German sign language. There is general similarity’s to interim language hypothesis.

  • 50.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Frequency, Form, and Distribution of Illocutionary Speech Acts in Swedish Parent-Child Interaction2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, young children’s development of speech acts was examined. Interaction between six Swedish-speaking parents and their children was observed. The frequency, form and distribution of speech acts in the output from the parents were compared with the frequency, form and distribution of the children’s speech acts. The frequency was measured by occurrences per analysed session. The aim of the analysis was to examine if the parent’s behaviour could be treated as a baseline for the child’s development. Both the parents’ and the children’s illocutionary speech acts were classified. Each parent-child dyad was observed at four different occasions, when the children were 1;0, 1;6, 2;0, and 2;6 years of age. Similar studies have previously shown that parents keep a consistent frequency of speech acts within a given time span of interaction, though the distribution of different types of speech acts may shift, depending on contextual factors. The form, in terms of Mean Length of Speech Act in Words (MLSAw), were correlated with the longitudinal result of the children’s MLSAw. The distribution of the parents’ speech acts showed extensive individual differences. The result showed that the children’s MLSAw move significantly closer the MLSAw of their parents. Since the parent’s MLSAw showed a wide distribution, these results indicate that the parent’s speech acts can be treated as a baseline for certain aspects of the children’s development, though further studies are needed.

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