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  • 1.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Influences of Form and Function on Spatial Relations: Establishing functional and geometric influences on projective prepositions in Swedish2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is concerned with projective prepositions, which express the relation between two objects by referring to a direction in three-dimensional space. The projective prepositions have been regarded as expressing simple schematic relations of a geometric nature. A theory of the apprehension of projective relations can account for their meanings when they express strictly geometric relations. However, many studies have shown that the appropriateness of the prepositions also depends on the functional relation between the objects and that a number of functional factors influence the comprehension of English prepositions. This experimental study investigates if the acceptability of the Swedish prepositions över, under, ovanför and nedanför are influenced by functional factors as well, and whether acceptability judgments about över and under are more sensitive to functional influences than judgments about ovanför and nedanför, as has been shown for the corresponding English prepositions over and under, and above and below, respectively. It also investigates how the shapes and the parts of the related objects influence their functional interaction, and how the acceptability of the prepositions is in consequence influenced by the shapes of the objects. It was found that the theory of apprehension can indeed account for the acceptability of the prepositions when the relation between the objects is strictly geometric. It was further found that acceptability judgments about them are influenced by functional factors in a similar manner to the corresponding English prepositions when the objects are functionally related, although judgments about under and nedanför are not differentially influenced by these factors. Furthermore, the shapes and the parts of both of the related objects influence acceptability judgments about the prepositions in predictable manners. An extension of the theory of apprehension is suggested which can account for the functional influences indicated in the present study.

  • 2.
    Kowalik, Richard
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Case and case alignment in the Greater Hindukush: An areal-typological survey2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns languages in the Greater Hindukush, the area in northern Afghanistan and Pakistan, where a total of about 50 languages are spoken. The thesis’ topic is case systems and case alignment systems of nouns in an areal-typological perspective. This is investigated by using a representative sample. The grammatical relations of S, A and P, and the cases marking these, are investigated. The three attested alignment systems are accusative, ergative and split, and are clearly geogra-phically distributed, which indicates that their status is areal-typological. Based on the sample, there seems to be a tendency for the languages in the Greater Hindukush to exhibit split align-ment systems built on tense-aspect. Most languages employ accusative alignment in imperfect-tive, and ergative alignment in perfective tense-aspects. A compa­rison with a worldwide sample (WALS) is only partly possible, as this sample uses more categories than accusative, ergative and split, but the present sample supports the results in those categories which can be compared. A predominant pattern in core case syncretism is observed, with an opposition of the nomi­native singular versus the nominative plural and the oblique in both numbers.

  • 3.
    Lebenswerd, Patric Joshua
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Distinctive features in Jewish Swedish: A description and a survey2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the contemporary speech used by Swedish Jews, and places it in the context of the most recent understandings in Jewish interlinguistics. Jewish Swedish derives most of its non-Swedish components from the main Jewish liturgical languages, Hebrew and Aramaic, in addition to the foremost ancestral language Yiddish. These components have provided Jewish Swedish with lexical, morpho-syntactic, phonological and semantic features, which distinguish it from Standard Swedish. The thesis, additionally, contains a survey, investigating the correlations between a number of socio-religious factors, and inter- communal variation in use of distinguishing features. The study reveals a great deal of variation between different age groups, social groups, religious groups, men and women, in terms of word knowledge and usage. This study will hopefully contribute to the field of contemporary Jewish linguistics, and the general understanding of speech used by minority communities.

  • 4.
    Lindblom, Camilla
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Negation in Dravidian languages: A descriptive typological study on verbal and non-verbal negation in simple declarative sentences2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years the typology of negation has been much described and discussed. However, focus has mainly been on standard negation. Studies on non-verbal negation in general and comparative studies covering the complete domain of non-verbal negation in particular are less common. The strategies to express non-verbal negation vary among languages. In some languages the negation strategy employed in standard negation is also used in non-verbal negation. Several researchers have argued that languages express negation of non-verbal predications using special constructions. This study examines and describes negation strategies in simple declarative sentences in 18 Dravidian languages. The results suggest that the majority of the Dravidian languages included in this study express standard negation by the use of a negative suffix while non-verbal negation is expressed by a negative verb. Further distinctions are made in the negation of non-verbal predications in that different negation markers are used for attributive and existential/possessive predications respectively.

  • 5.
    Nordén, Anton Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Epistemic modality in Ghanaian Pidgin English2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the expression of epistemic modality in a corpus of Ghanaian Pidgin English (GhaPE). The epistemic expressions are manually identified and thereafter distinguished from each other in terms of grammatical status and their indication of different epistemic and evidential notions. 7 different elements are found, ranging from 1 pre-verbal marker, 1 adverb, 2 particles and 3 complement-taking predicates. The results indicate, in line with existing research, that to differentiate between usage properties of individual modal expressions it may be necessary to subdivide them in terms of not only epistemic but also evidential meanings. Moreover, a functional parallel between the GhaPE particle abi, the Swedish modal particle väl and the Spanish adverbs a lo mejor and igual is demonstrated, with respect to their simultaneous function of expressing epistemic probability and asking the hearer for confirmation. Finally, the results suggest, contrary to previous accounts, that the pre-verbal marker fit may indicate epistemic possibility without the addition of a preceding irrealis marker go. It is proposed that future researchers should make use of bigger corpora in order to arrive at a more ample conception of both individual modal categories and their interrelations.

  • 6.
    Persson, Minna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Tempus och aspekt i pidginisering: En studie av sju pidginspråk och deras källspråk2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that pidgin languages are similar in their marking of tense and aspect. This study wishes to answer three questions: 1) are there similarities in the marking of tense and aspect in pidgins, 2) are there similarities between the source languages and the pidgins they result in, and 3) does the development of tense aspect marking in pidgins follow the general patterns of grammaticalisation observed in other languages. Two quite different approaches are used to analyse the languages. Firstly the concept of grams is used, that is, a representation of a grammatical category in a specific language, e.g. the perfect in Swedish. Secondly the theory of prominence is used, i.e. that a particular language tends to grammaticalise one of the categories tense or aspect (or mood) rather than the other. The study looks at a sample of seven pidgin languages from around the world and compares them with regards to their marking of tense and aspect. Furthermore the tense-aspect systems of the source languages (lexifiers and substrates) of these pidgins are studied. Regarding the first question, the most obvious similarity is the fact that there is very little grammaticalised marking of tense and aspect at all. A pattern can also be discerned were a pidgin uses either a marker for perfective aspect or for past tense and that future/present markers are grammaticalised at a later stage. As for the similarities between the source languages and the pidgins, the pidginisation process has yielded languages with less grammaticalised forms than the source languages. All gram types found in the pidgins can also be found in their lexifiers. The patterns of grammaticalisation of tense and aspect markers follow universal patterns that have been described in typological studies. The semantic change of inherited or borrowed markers follow general patterns as do the innovations in the pidgin itself.

  • 7.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    From left to right and back again: The distribution of dependent clauses in the Hindukush2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In complex clause constructions, the dependent clause can either precede or succeed the main clause. In a study on a selection of Indo-Aryan languages spoken on the Indian subcontinent (Hook 1987), a gradual transition between pre- and postposing languages was found, when moving from the southeast to the northwest in the area. In their relative vicinity in the Hindukush area, a sub-group of Indo-Aryan languages are spoken, commonly known by the tentative term “Dardic”. These languages are said to mainly have the dependent clause preceding the main clause (left-branching), and that this feature is shared by the neighbouring languages. This would mean a breach with the continuum described by Hook. In the present comparative study on the Dardic languages spoken in northern Pakistan, complex clauses of adverbial and complement types were studied in an attempt to confirm this proposition. The languages were found to have two competing branching structures where the indigenous, dominating left-branching structure possibly is being challenged by an imported right branching pattern, especially in complement clauses, possibly due to Persian or Urdu influence. A similar transition between more left-branching languages towards languages with a higher degree of right branching structures were found when moving from east to west in the geographical area studied.

  • 8.
    Ståhl, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Folke vs Henry: En jämförelse av förståelse mellan syntetisk och mänsklig uppläsning av sammanhängande texter2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I en studie som kan vara den första i Sverige i sitt slag har vuxna testpersoner med och utan synnedsättning fått lyssna till texter som lästs upp med antingen unit selection-syntesen Folke eller en mänsklig röst. Genom förståelsefrågor till varje text har det undersökts om en syntetisk uppläsning av sammanhängande text ger en sämre förståelse än en mänsklig uppläsning. Genom testet har också faktorer som ansträngning samt korrelation med längd, svårighetsgrad och vana av syntetiskt tal undersökts. Testet visar att för relativt enkla texter som inte är längre än ca 700 ord eller inte har en uppläsningstid på mer än ca fem minuter så ger en syntetisk uppläsning inte någon påvisbar försämring i förståelse. Resultat och analys visar dock att det vid längre texter än så kan finnas en skillnad i förståelse mellan de två uppläsningssätten samt att det kan finnas en korrelation med textens längd och svårighetsgrad. Testpersonernas subjektiva uppfattning och det kvantitativa resultatet visar också delvis att syntetiska uppläsningar är mer ansträngande än mänskliga. Dock behöver ytterligare studier genomföras för att bekräfta en försämrad förståelse och större ansträngning.

  • 9.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Discourse Markers in Dardic Languages: Palula ba and ta in a comparative perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates discourse markers in Dardic languages (Indo-Aryan; Pakistan), focusing on the discourse markers ba and ta in Palula in comparison with other languages of the region, particularly Dameli in which two markers with the same form and similar functions have been observed. The results showed that Palula ba functions as a topic-marker, in addition to other functions, whereas ta only signals subsequence, except in an adversative construction ta... ba. In Dameli, both ba and ta function as topic-markers, in addition to other functions such as ta marking subsequence, and the ta... ba construction functions similarly to Palula. Interestingly, Kalasha and Gawri showed some similarities, as both have a topic-marker surfacing as ta and tä respectively, which can be used in the adversative constructions ta... o and tä... i respectively, both of which have another marker as the second element. No other language in the sample was found to have a construction similar to the ta... ba construction nor a marker similar in form and function to ba, but all have a subsequence marker resembling ta. These results indicated that the Palula markers ba and ta are part of an areal phenomenon encompassing at least the Chitral, Panjkora and Swat valleys, where Palula originally only had the Shina subsequence marker and later adapted the Dameli system into the language.

  • 10.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Skarp, vass och sharp – semantiska relationer hos tre perceptionsadjektiv2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
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