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  • 1.
    Aare, Kätlin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory patterns and turn-taking in spontaneous Estonian: Inhalation amplitude in multiparty conversations2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores the relationship between inhalation amplitude and turn-taking in spontaneous multiparty conversations held in Estonian. Respiratory activity is recorded with Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography. The main focus is on how inhalation amplitude varies between the inhalations produced directly before turn onset compared to the following inhalations within the same speaking turn. The results indicate a significant difference in amplitude, realised mainly by an increase in inhalation end lung volume values. One of the possible functions of this pattern is to signal an intention of taking the conversational turn. Another could be a phrasing or grouping function connected to lower inhalation amplitudes within turns.

  • 2.
    Aras, Elizabet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Early Opportunities for Quality Learning: A Comparative Study of Swedish Preschools' Language Practice2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish preschool is internationally known for its high quality. Children in Sweden are given early educational opportunities to learn and develop prior to their school start. The Swedish preschool activity should include an overall language developmental approach; however, studies show that the children's conditions for language instruction vary intra-nationally. While the Swedish preschool curriculum reflects on children's desire to learn, the preschool staff should be aware of their own practical theory in order to arrange for learning. Research show that early childhood education of high quality benefits children's future school results. Thus, this research aims at studying children's opportunities for quality learning and development in the Swedish preschool, by exploring the content of preschool teaching. The role of the preschool is to provide all children with an education of high quality. This study aims at investigating what quality can mean in terms of preschool language instruction. To generate an understanding of quality, the study focuses on the structure and process inputs in six public preschools and two municipalities. To provide insights about the preschools' practices, a qualitative approach has been used to conduct interviews with preschool heads and employees from education administrations, as well as questionnaires with preschool staff and observations of learning environments. As the quality inputs vary between the preschools and municipalities it affects the outputs of the children's language development. This research makes it evident that the outcomes are mainly dependent on the preschool staff's abilities and competences of implementing development.

  • 3.
    Aronsson, Jonas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    I dialog med tid och rum: Anföring, interpunktion och interjektioner i en kommenterad översättning av Yasutaka Tsutsuis ungdomsroman 時をかける少女 (Toki wo kakeru shoujo)2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master’s thesis consists of a translation from Japanese to Swedish of Yasutaka Tsutsui’s Toki wo kakeru shoujo (The girl who leapt through time), and a commentary of the translation process. The purpose is to examine which problems may arise when translating reported discourse, punctuation and interjections, and what strategies can be used to solve these problems. The translation is performed with an orientation towards acceptability and the target culture, to try and conform the text to the norms and expectations of the target culture.

  • 4.
    Axelsson, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    En kat ved navn pluskvamperfektum: En jämförande studie av de skandinaviska översättningarna av L'élégance du hérisson2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates to what extent the Scandinavian translators use the same methods when translating. The Danish, Norwegian and Swedish translations of the French novel L’élégance du hérisson are analyzed using Vinay and Darbelnet’s (1958/1977) methodology. In the present study the translators are also questioned about so called situational factors that might have influenced the translation process and its outcome. There is a major focus on the methods that are characterized by indirect translation, since these in a clear way indicate differences. Results show that the translators use the same methods in 42 % of the cases in the analyzed material. Results also show that the indirect translation methods are widely used in the Danish target text and it hence also distances itself the farthest from the source text, whereas the Norwegian target text is rich in litteral translation and closest to the source text.

  • 5.
    Benediktsdottir, Ásdis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Analysing a Harvest Moon: On the translation of role language in Bokujō Monogatari: Hajimari no Daichi for the Nintendo 3DS2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to introduce the concept of role language in translation in the context of video game localisation. There is very little written on the subject of role language in translation from Japanese to English, and none which pertains to role language in video games. There is also a seeming deficiency of reliable literature regarding the product of translation in video game localisation, analysing what was done and what effects it may have had on the finished product. By analysing the particular role language profiles of selected characters from Bokujō Monogatari: Hajimari no Daichi for the Nintendo 3DS, this thesis hopes to serve as a stepping stone towards a new area of video game localisation.

    Eight non-playable characters, four male and four female, were analysed to create their respective role language profiles. Four scenarios were chosen for each character: the first and last heart event, the love confession and the married life sequence. The translations of each of these scenarios were analysed, along with how the respective characters were linguistically portrayed.

    The study found that although many characters were found to retain most of their original linguistic profiling in translation, there were instances where misconception of the source text could have been a factor. The translations where this rather than a different linguistic profile altered the character’s perception, the translations were often ST-oriented. In translations where the characterisation had been unaltered, predominantly it seemed the result of a critical distance from the ST and willingness on the translator’s part to take creative liberties.

    Role language is an integral feature of Japanese popular fiction, and it would seem that the fictional realms of video games are no exception. Although this thesis has studied only a limited sample, it would not be entirely out of line to draw the initial conclusion that to take a step back from the source material and instead focus on conveying a perception of a character rather than follow the written script, seems to result in a character portrayal in the target text similar to that in the source text.

  • 6.
    Blanquet, Sarah Martine Dominique
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Puentes interculturales: Implicaciones de las creencias sobre la competencia intercultural de profesores en formación pertenecientes al máster MULTIELE2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Erasmus Mundus program for Teaching and Learning Spanish in Multilingual and International Contexts (MULTIELE), pre-service teachers from different backgrounds participate in academic stays in several universities located in different countries and complete their internships in an external context. This research paper seeks to analyze the beliefs of seven pre-service teachers regarding intercultural competence, taking into account their life experiences and the master’s program. Through the qualitative study of seven semi-structured interviews, results show a lack of definition in the concept of intercultural competence and its teaching, a tight link between life experiences and the conception of this competence and a need for theoretical training during the master’s program regarding this topic. The discussion and conclusions offer some proposals based on these observations and suggest further research lines. 

  • 7.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Revisiting Reduplication: Toward a description of reduplication in predicative signs in Swedish Sign Language2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the use of reduplication with predicative signs in Swedish Sign Language (SSL), and also the related phenomena doubling and displacement.

    Reduplication in SSL typically expresses plurality of events and/or referents, but may also express intensification, ongoing event or generic activity. There is a distinction between external and internal events with reduplication: external reduplication expresses some event happening over and over at different points in time and/or with different referents, and is associated with a frequentative/habitual reading; internal reduplication expresses some event consisting of several e.g. movements/actions and is associated with an ongoing reading. Only external expression seems to be applicable to stative constructions, as one would expect. The study also found a phenomenon not previously described: oral reduplication without manual reduplication. This process is found to have the ongoing functions with telic predicates, such that it focuses on the telic predicate as a single event in progress, and thus replaces the function of manual reduplication, which, with telic predicates, would instead express several events. The reading of reduplicated signs is associated with the semantics of the sign reduplicated, and it is also associated with the phonological citation form of the sign—monosyllabic signs tend to get pluractional reading; bisyllabic signs tend to get an ongoing reading. Also, the reading expressed by reduplication is connected to the presence/absence of oral reduplication.

    Reduplication generally does not occur in negative constructions. This study shows that inherently negative signs may be reduplicated, but reduplicated predicates are negated according to other strategies than for non-reduplicated predicates, thus reduplication has the largest scope.

    Doubling and displacement are both associated mainly with plural referents, and it is in this respect that they are related to reduplication, and they both occur frequently with reduplication.

  • 8.
    Camps Navajas, Mercè
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Estudio cualitativo de actitudes lingü.sticas: comparación entre estudiantes de bachillerato en Suecia con el español como lengua de herencia o como lengua extranjera2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has been, mainly since the decade of the 70ies a receptor of Spanish-speaking immigrants. Today, Spanish is the most popular modern language in Swedish schools. Thus, we find ourselves in a context characterized by the convergence of Spanish linguistic heritage —from 2nd and 3rd generations of immigrants— and the student’s interest to learn the language. This study is placed within this social circumstances and it aims to locate and analyse the attitudes towards linguistic variation of two groups of students of Spanish as a foreign language in a high-school (gymnasium) in the metropolitan area of Stockholm, one of which is formed by speakers of Spanish as a heritage language. We will therefore focus on the relationship between the interaction of different factors —mainly extralinguistics— and the profile of each subject. We will also take into account the how the academic context may have influenced these attitudes. In relation to the context, we would like to clarify that the students arecurrently enrolled in either Paso 5 (steg 5) or Paso 6 (steg 6) levels, according to the Swedish school system, which, according to the Marco Común Europeo de Referencia par alas Lenguas, corresponds to B1-B2 and B2 levels, respectively. In order to identify these factors and make sure that the results are representative of the attitudes of the subjects, we have decided to combine three methodologies: adirect one (qualitative interview), and two indirect ones (the matched-guise technique and the linguistic self-portraits). The results have showed that the idiosyncrasy of each subject is decisive in relation to the attitudes he shows. However, we determine that the attitudes of the students in the heritage language group are based on identity issues and linguistic pride, whereas motivation when learning the foreign language is the basis for the foreign language group’s attitudes.

  • 9.
    Cárcamo García, Marina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Las actitudes y creencias de aprendientes brasileños de ELE hacia las variedades diatópicas del español: El caso de las formas de tratamiento2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, diatopic language variation gains importance in the teaching of Spanish as a foreign language, due to the geographic situation of Brazil between Spanish America and as a result of its economic and cultural relations, on the one hand, with the other Latin American countries, whose official language is Spanish, and on the other hand, with Spain. This paper focuses on the study of attitudes and linguistic beliefs towards diatopic varieties of Spanish by Brazilian students of Spanish as a Foreign Language (SFL), since such attitudes and beliefs play an important role in motivating students to learn, and therefore, in their acquisition level of the foreign language. Apart from systematically studying the perceptions and attitudes regarding the diatopic varieties of Spanish, this study seeks to specifically investigate attitudes towards the forms of address in Spanish (tú, vos, usted, vosotros and ustedes), because it is a variable linguistic topic, both geographically and stylistically. Furthermore, it studies the relationship between language proficiency of the students, their academic profile and their contact with speakers of varieties of Spanish as well as the general attitudes that they have towards Hispanic varieties. Based on empirical data, the discussion considers implications for teaching of SFL in a context where Spanish is conceived as a pluricentric language. To investigate all these variables, a questionnaire was distributed to 60 Brazilian students enrolled in the Spanish courses of the Language Learning Centre at the University of Campinas, who also follow their undergraduate and posgraduate studies at the same university. Using both direct and indirect observation techniques regarding attitudes, and quantitative and qualitative analysis, the paper concludes that there is a preference for the Latin American varieties compared to the Peninsular varieties amongst Brazilian students of Spanish. These results are different from the ones presented in previous research in this area. In the case of attitudes towards the forms of address in Spanish, the results show that there is no correspondence of these attitudes with the general attitudes towards diatopic varieties, since vos, which is exclusively characteristic of the Latin American varieties, is conceived as one of the least used and most unnecessary forms in Spanish.

  • 10.
    Damberg, Victor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Returning Loanwords: Translation of Western Loanwords in Japanese to English2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although the similarities between the English language and the Japanese language are few, the two have influenced each other profoundly in the last century. The category of words called gairaigo in the Japanese language mostly consist of loanwords from Western languages – in particular English. But what happens when translators translate these originally English words in Japanese back to English? This thesis sought to examine what kind of local strategies Japanese-to-English translators use when translating gairaigo, if these strategies vary depending on the text type and whether or not there is a correlation between the local strategies and the word class of the gairaigo. Three different kinds of texts were examined; a novel, several newspaper articles and an operation manual. By comparing the source texts with their corresponding target texts, it was possible to determine six different local strategies used to translate gairaigo – omission, returning, transposition, modulation, equivalence and paraphrase.

  • 11.
    Dankis, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Subtitling the Internet: An investigation into subtitles for dynamic media2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis will examine interlingual subtitles for online media. The research takes place within the descriptive translation studies paradigm. The source material consists of subtitles for a selection of webcasts found on the video sharing platform YouTube. The analysis will examine how the original dialogue has been translated as well as the form that the subtitles are presented in. An analysis of norm governed subtitles for television programs that follow established subtitling norms will also be made for comparison. Online media and broadcast media are divided into a dynamic and static category respectively in order to treat webcasts as an individual form of media. Dynamic media is defined as digital media created for the Internet, and static media is defined as media created for televised broadcasts. The results do not include qualitative assessments but have shown that subtitles for webcasts do not follow subtitling norms and display a wide range of unconventional approaches. The determining factor that illustrates the nature of webcast subtitles is attributed the diverse group of people writing them. 

  • 12.
    De Matos Lundström, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Los aspectos pragmáticos en manuales suecos de español como lengua extranjera: Su contribución al desarrollo de la competencia pragmática en el bachillerato2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to try to determine to what extent and in what way four Swedish textbooks on Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) treat pragmatic aspects, as well as to evaluate the potential and relevance of the metapragmatic information and activities related to pragmatic aspects provided by the textbooks, for the development of pragmatic awareness and competence in Spanish. This study parts from the notion of pragmatic competence as a skill of knowing how to create and understand meanings in interaction effectively (Thomas, 1995), which in intercultural interaction probably requires extra-linguistic knowledge more than language skills (cf. Bravo, 2005). The hypothesis postulated at the beginning of the study was that the manuals would not fully explain why certain language is being used in certain contexts, that the pragmatic content would be scarcely varied and rather difficult to assimilate and that the exercises would not be designed primarily to develop a pragmatic competence. To some extent it can be said that the hypothesis is confirmed: the manuals could have been more comprehensive in terms of the topics covered, they could also have varied and explained those issues further. Despite the fact that there seems to be an effort to incorporate extra-linguistic information and communicative activities, the results indicate that there is a lack of emphasis on or progression on how to treat these issues. For example, there are no didactic models or suggestions in the teacher’s guide, nor is additional information provided elsewhere; usually the metapragmatic information is not combined with any activities, and the activities that aim to develop communicative skills are not combined with further metapragmatic information.

  • 13.
    Dicle, Ramazan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Location events in bilingual Danish and Turkish language contact: A comparative analysis of location events in Danish, Turkish and bilingual use of the two languages2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Location events can be mainly described as the relationship setting up the location of a particular object(s) in relation to the other object(s). Location events are akin to motion events whose typology is well studied in the literature especially in the work of Talmy (1991, 2000), but differ from them in that ‘motion events’ focuses on the motion, while location events focuses on the spatial relationships between the Figure, object that is being located, and the Ground, object(s) that conform to the location of the Figure. Languages express these locative relationships differently. This study analyzes how two typologically different languages, Turkish and Danish, express the location events and how bilingual speakers of these two languages express location events in both Danish and Turkish. The study utilizes quantitative and qualitative tools to analyze the data gathered from the picture based elicitation from the monolingual and bilingual speakers. The study suggests that language contact in bilingual Turkish and Danish has a major role in the operating typology of the two languages and in the encoding of the spatial relationships in location events.

  • 14.
    Dietrich, Jelscha Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    La influencia interlingüística en el aprendizaje de español como tercera lengua de aprendices brasileños2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports the findings of a study that examined the type of cross-linguistic influence (CLI) present in the oral speech production of Brazilian university students of L3 Spanish with L2 English. The study was guided by two research questions: the first asked which background language (L1 vs. L2) would be activated as source of CLI. The second addressed the effect of the proficiency factor and self-perceived proficiency as well as learner external factors such as prior foreign language learning experience and stays abroad in a Spanish speaking country on the amount and type of CLI. The speech production samples were elicited by means of a picture story telling task. The data obtained were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively. The results suggest that the amount of CLI decreases with increasing proficiency. At the same time, learners with prior foreign language experience and / or with stays in Spanish.speaking countries tend to transfer less than learners without these experiences. With respect to the type of CLI, the overall trend shows a decrease of form-based CLI as the proficiency level in the target language increases. Regarding the meaning-based CLI, the results suggest an increase in occurrence as proficiency increases. 

  • 15.
    Eriksson, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Effects of conventionality and proficiency in metaphor processing: A response time study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Some researchers that work with metaphor theory claim that metaphors and figurative language are understood and processed just as easily as literal language. However, as this thesis will explore in detail, other research indicates that such is not always the case. That is, if the category of metaphor is further subcategorized into conventional and non-conventional metaphor, the scope will change because of the fact that it is possible to argue that non-conventionalized metaphors require a more conscious path of processing. In order to explain this alternative path, there are two primary approaches to language processing worth introducing: implicit and explicit. These approaches vary in required attention and speed of processing. With regards to conscious effort, these approaches are rather similar to the way in which we process conventionalized and non-conventionalized metaphors. Conventional metaphors are processed more quickly and easily than non-conventional ones. Hence, the claim that all metaphors are similarly processed may not always be true. Furthermore, an individual’s level of proficiency presumably correlates with speed in language processing. However, if non-conventional metaphor requires a more deliberate path of processing, this thesis assumes that the processing of this type of metaphor will be relatively unaffected by proficiency level, thus causing informants to process them in similar manners. In this thesis, 24 non-native speakers (NNS), categorized into intermediate proficient and advanced proficient, and seven native speakers (NS) were tested with an RT-test on subjective metaphor comprehension. Results were compared using mean response times and standard deviations, as well as looking at correlations and coefficient of variation. The results showed a distinct difference in processing speed with conventional metaphors being processed significantly faster. Moreover, the findings indicate that conventional metaphor processing speed seems to be predicted by proficiency, whilst non-conventional processing speed is not. The RT differences remained relatively consistent in both conventional and non-conventional metaphor processing, but when taking correlations, variance and coefficient of variation into consideration, the findings indicate that these other factors help level out the differences in non-conventional metaphor processing in more subtle ways than simply by RT’s.

  • 16.
    Galantini, Nicolò
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language policies and early bilingual education in Sweden: An ethnographic study of two bilingual preschools in Stockholm2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This research aims to shed light on language policies and early bilingual education in Sweden. It highlights the main language policies developed by Sweden while framing them within a European perspective, thus comparing the “national” language policies to the “international” language policies, stressing differences and similarities. More specifically, it analyzes the language policies and guidelines related to bilingual education created by the Council of Europe and afterwards applies the same procedure to the Swedish ones. Furthermore, this study investigates the language practices of children and teachers in two bilingual/multilingual settings. In order to do this, the research was framed as a sociolinguistic ethnography and was carried out using observations, interviews and audio-recordings in order to achieve triangulation wherever possible. Interview and observational data were analyzed thematically while interactional data was analyzed to establish the purposes for which different languages were used by participants. In conclusion, this study might give an idea of how appropriate the Swedish language policies are while stressing the need to revise and implement those policies that might affect the success of early bilingual/multilingual preschool education in Sweden. 

  • 17.
    Gijswijt, Katrijn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Processing Dutch: A study on the acquisition of Dutch as a second language using Processability Theory as a framework2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate within the field of Second Language Acquisition (SLA) discusses the possibility of universal developmental stages in the interlanguage of second language learners. Processability Theory (PT) is one of the theories that enhances this way of thinking about second language acquisition. The belief is that learners go through the same stages of development when learning a new language. An ongoing process in PT is the construction of these developmental stages for individual languages, but today there is still much work needed in this area. The purpose of this thesis is to construct the developmental stages for Dutch, based on an error analysis of second language learners’ interlanguage. The data was collected from Swedish students learning Dutch on a university level. The students were interviewed once per month, and three times in total, so that no developments in their interlanguage could be missed. The data is processed according to the emergence criterion, resulting in developmental tables of the learners’ progress. The result of these interviews provides for the outline on how one acquires Dutch, and together with a grammatical analysis of Dutch word order procedures and morphology, a developmental hierarchy for the acquisition of Dutch according to PT is constructed.

  • 18.
    Gustafsson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Motivation in L2 and L3 learning: A comparative study of Finnish students learning English and Swedish as compulsory school subjects1990Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Motivation has long been recognised to function as a crucial part in language learning. Nonetheless, the linguistic complexity of simultaneous L2 learning as well as L3 learning has been largely overlooked in motivational studies and only a few researchers, such as Dörnyei and his associates (2005) as well as Henry (2011; 2012; 2014), have conducted studies concerning the issue and point to the need of more research in the field. The current study investigates motivation in simultaneous foreign language learning, focusing on Finnish high school students learning English and Swedish as compulsory subjects in school. The study compares the students’ motivation to learn the two target languages and attempts to find explanation to the appearing differences by analysing the collected data in terms of Dörnyei’s (2005) Motivational Self System, which includes the concepts of ideal L2 self, ought-to L2 self and L2 learning experience. Twelve 14-year-old high school students in Åbo area participated in completing a questionnaire and five of these students were asked to take part in a focus group interview. The questionnaire and interview results show generally a more positive attitude towards learning English in all the investigated motivational dimensions in comparison to Swedish. Ought-to L2 self and ideal L2 self were found to be important elements forming the students’ motivation to learn English, ideal L2 self being the stronger motivator of the possible selves. However, the students’ motivation to learn Swedish is merely dominated by ought-to self, and it appears the main factors causing the students’ demotivation to learn Swedish is the difficulty of the language, learning experience as well as lack of instrumentality and contact with the language. Unlike shown in previous research, the current study found the dominating ideal-self in English and ought-to self in Swedish to cause highly similar levels of learning success in the languages, despite the difference in strength of the possible selves in English and Swedish.  

  • 19.
    Hagander, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Surf and turf, builder’s mug och Jaffa cakes: Översättningsstrategier vid svensk undertextning av kulturspecifika referenser i anglofona matlagningsprogram2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Food, language and culture are closely linked and cooking shows are peppered with culturally specific references. Culturally specific references are defined as “any reference to a cultural entity which, due to its distance from the target culture, is characterized by a sufficient degree of opacity for the target reader to constitute a problem” (Mailhac in Ranzato 2015:54) and can be things such as measurements (pints), brands (Tabasco), and dishes (surf and turf) to name a few. This study focuses on the translation of culture specific references in cooking shows. Since most of the cooking shows translated into Swedish are in English, the material for this study consists of 21 cooking shows in English and their Swedish translations. This study will look at the shows 3 good things, Save with Jamie, David Rocco’s Dolce Vita, Kitchen Hero and The Great British Bake off. By constructing a corpus and analyzing the culturally specific references, the norms regarding translation strategies for the translation of culturally specific references in cooking shows have been mapped out, and compared to the results of a well known study on primetime TV by Pedersen (2011). These were categorized in accordance with Pedersen’s taxonomy (2011:76). The results showed that the norms were very similar to those of primetime TV, with the exception of some domain-specific norms. Language influences how we see the world. Thus, the way culturally specific references are translated from one culture into another is important because it affects how cultures are viewed and interpreted, at least within the food community. 

  • 20.
    Harnafi, Amina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    El uso del valenciano, la actitud hacia la lengua y la destreza escrita: Un estudio sociolingüístico sobre el dominio del valenciano de jóvenes alicantinos2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The young people of Alicante live in society where two languages, Castilian and Valencian, coexist. The Valencian language is used by young people from Alicante in both formal and informal settings. Young speakers of Valencian feel a linguistic identification with the language, which is governed by social norms. Bilingual identification could, therefore, be influenced by and influence linguistic competence. The purpose of this study is to examine in which situations and contexts Valencian is used with the aim of evaluating the relationship between the degree of bilingualism, language attitude and level complexity, accuracy and fluency (CAF) in the written Valencian of young people of Alicante. We hypothesized that Valencian has, for the young generation of Alicante, a social function and the attitude towards the language is positive, which in turn is reflected in writing skills. To test our hypothesis we have used a questionnaire of social habits, a diagnostic test in Valencian and two essays, written in Castilian and Valencian. With the participation of 59 young Alicantinos, we conclude that Valencian is used in both formal and informal settings, that the attitude towards the language is positive and that it is considered important to master and preserve the Valencian language. In addition, the participants have proficiency in the Valencian written language, showing complexity and fluency in written expression. On the other hand, their accuracy is higher in Castilian. It has also been seen that the linguistic identification of the participants is relatively correlated to linguistic competence. 

  • 21.
    Hayakawa Thor, Masako
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Thinking and seeing for speaking: The viewpoint preference in Swedish/Japanese monolinguals and bilinguals2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    “Linguistic relativity” has been studied for a long time. Many empirical studies have been conducted on cross-linguistic differences to find support for the influence of language on thought. This study proposes viewpoint (defined as the point from which the conceptualizer sees and construes the event) as a cross-linguistic difference, and explores whether the linguistic constraint and preference of subjective/objective construal can affect one’s cognitive activity as viewpoint. As Japanese is a subjectivity-prominent language whereas Swedish is not, data elicited from monolingual adolescences (aged 12-16) in Japan and Sweden were compared. A set of tasks which consisted of non-verbal tasks (scene-visualisation) and verbal tasks (narrative of comic strips) was performed in order to elicit the participants’ viewpoints. The same set of tasks was assigned to simultaneous Swedish-Japanese bilingual adolescences in Sweden. The bilinguals took the set of non-verbal and verbal tasks twice, once in Swedish and once in Japanese. The results demonstrated a clear difference between the monolingual groups both in the non-verbal and verbal tasks. The Japanese monolinguals showed a higher preference for subjective viewpoint. The bilinguals’ viewpoint preference had a tendency to fall between that of monolinguals of both languages. This finding indicates that the bilinguals’ viewpoint preference may be influenced by both languages. This study demonstrates for the first time that the speaker’s viewpoint can be affected not only in verbal tasks but also in non-verbal tasks. The findings suggest that a language may influence the speaker’s way of construing events. It is also implied that the influences from different languages in bilinguals can be bidirectional. However, the influence does not seem to be all or nothing. Regardless of the language, one’s event construal is more or less the same. Nevertheless, the findings indicate that the linguistic subjectivity in a language tends to counteract the universal construal.

  • 22.
    Hultgren, Annie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    An Analysis of Rhetorical Devices, with the Focus on Schemes and Repetition, in the Two Speeches “We Shall Fight on the Beaches” and “Invasion of France” by Winston Churchill2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This investigation analyzes two speeches, namely “We Shall Fight on the Beaches” and “Invasion of France”, by Winston Churchill from a semantic point of view. The main focus is on the intra-linguistic components. The aim of this study is to find what kinds of rhetorical devices are used in both speeches, if the rhetorical devices are similar or different when comparing the two speeches, analyze what function the prominent figures of speech have in the speeches, and lastly what the general rhetorical effect of the devices chosen is. This was done by looking at the factually descriptive, the interpersonal, the affective, the poetic, and the textual function. Note that (language) function and (language) meaning are synonymous in this work. Another theoretical framework includes classical rhetoric.

    In “We Shall Fight on the Beaches”, the following was discovered in the poetic meaning. The first characteristic was the use of coordinating two words that are from the same lexical field. The second is about building up a factual scenario in the sentences. The third aspect is about repetition, including parallelism. The last characteristic is the schematic phonological features found throughout the speech, with alliteration as the most noticeable feature.

    In “Invasion of France”, quite similar rhetorical strategies were found. Within the poetic meaning, the use of coordinating two words from the same lexical field was used. The use of repetition, especially the use of verbatim, was also found. The most prominent trope found was the noticeable instances of metaphor.

    Different kinds of rhetorical devices were found in the four other language functions and in classical rhetoric in both speeches. Mostly, they had similar functions and patterns. On the whole, the devices containing potential of rhetorical force used in the speeches make the speeches more coherent, reasonable, smooth, and ultimately more persuasive. All rhetorical aspects contribute in some way to making the speech more convincing, perhaps especially the parallelistic schematic repetitions, which was the main focus of this study.

    Note: italicised words are used to highlight terminology or examples of Churchill’s speech throughout the essay.

  • 23.
    Johansen, Josef
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Es femenino ponerse crema: Adjetivos que denotan género analizados desde la perspectiva contrastiva entre las variantes peninsular y mexicano del español y el sueco2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an analysis of adjectives that denote gender from a contrastive perspective between two varieties of Spanish, namely those of Spain and Mexico, and Swedish. It’s a study of electronic corpuses where usage and meaning of a number of adjectives is analysed by means of concordances and compared between these linguistic regions. The types of potential usage included in these lexical unities can be separated in two major categories: relational usage – that relates a concept indicated in context with one of the genders; and stereotypical usage – that relates the indicated concept with a set of characteristics that form the gender stereotypes. There are also contexts where these usages mix and include both stereotyped characteristics and forms of associating a concept with any of the genders. The study also includes an analysis of the stereotypes to which we refer in making use of these expressions. Language based differences have been encountered principally in the relational usage where Spanish has a tendency to use adjectives in more differentiated contexts, whereas, in Swedish, meaning is dominated by relational usage to indicate gender of a referent. The stereotypical usage is strikingly similar as these words function as poles on an antonymic scale of gender that derivate from the dichotomy that constitutes social gender relations.

  • 24.
    Johansson, Lina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Vem i hela världen säger så?: Normer vid översättning av könskodad dialog i manga2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates norms in translation of gender stereotype language. Gender Studies has for many years claimed that gender stereotypes in language not only maintain gender stereotypes but also reinforce them. Because of this feminist translation theorists stress the importance of being aware of what stereotypes translation can and do transfer between cultures. In this essay the gender stereotypes that are dealt with are the ones of characters in Japanese comics, so called manga. With a methodology from Translations Studies, coupled pairs, it compares Japanese source texts with Swedish target texts. The results shows that almost all of the gender stereotype language in the source texts has been omitted in the target texts. Even though this makes the language less stereotype, it does not make all of the characters less stereotype. One character is even more stereotype in the target text than in the source text. This probably shows that the omissions are not a choice made by the translator to reduce stereotypes. The reason for the omissions seems instead to be that it is a norm in translation of manga to omit a certain amount of the character specific language.

  • 25.
    Kazemi, Ruholla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Yod Variation in Australian English: A Sociolinguistic Investigation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In various post-consonantal environments, the palatal glide /j/ has been subject to variation and change since the late 17th century. Retention, coalescence, and deletion of the glide respectively account for various pronunciations of the word due [dju:], [dʒu:], and [du:] in different dialects of English. Research in this area has often focused on internal motivations. However, the external motivations that regulate the practice of glide variants in the speech of different segments of communities have been a relatively recent area of investigation. Among other dialects, Australian English is one of the major varieties that has not been formally assessed in this area. Hence, the aim of this thesis has been to investigate possible associations between the glide variants and their emergence in the speech of 48 speakers of Australian English. The audio data for this study were 12 tokens pronounced by the speakers in wordlist, sentences, and a story, and were extracted from the AusTalk Corpus (Burnham, Cox et al., 2011). The results for separate analysis of social variables seem to indicate that the spread of different glide variants in the speech of speakers are mainly conditioned by age. The combination of the social variables shows that glide retention is most frequent in the speech of higher educated old individuals. By contrast, glide deletion seems to be almost non-existent in their speech while more frequent in the pronunciations of the young. Overall, glide coalescence is the most present and has the strongest stylistic consistency in the speech of individuals. Further details and possible reasons behind these observations are discussed in the work that follows.

  • 26.
    Kedziora, Beata
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Wikis in teaching and learning a foreign language: A case study of wiki usage in the course Academic reading and writing for teacher candidates2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of universities are providing the current generation of students, the socalled ‘digital natives’ (Prensky, 2001) - with more flexible and innovative language learning environments through the use of free Web 2.0 tools, such as wikis, blogs, social networking, Second Life and podcasting. However, still relatively little is known about wikis in the context of teaching English for Academic Purposes. My project aims to fill this research gap. I applied a case study strategy, where three groups of students attending a course Academic reading and writing for teacher candidates were examined. This paper demonstrates how the wiki software was employed in the course to encourage teacher candidates to proof-read and edit their own and others’ texts in order to be more accurate in academic writing. The present case study applied several research methods, including analysis of the texts written by students on the wiki and chat-room comments, an interview with the teacher of examined groups and a student questionnaire. The analysis of peer revisions was carefully conducted with a particular focus on: the variations in the way that students corrected each others’ texts, types of revised language issues, and the extent to which the teacher candidates were correcting accurately. My findings show that the students paid close attention to sentence structure (e.g. clauses, punctuation), fixing sentence problems (e.g. parallelism, choppy and stringy sentences), inflection and academic style. It is noteworthy that most of these languages issues were discussed in class. Considerably less attention was given by students to questions like paragraph structure and content. The accuracy of students’ revisions varied depending on the type of corrected language issue. The general impression of employing the wiki in this course was favourable. Many of the teacher candidates admitted that they would like to utilize the wiki tool in their future teaching courses.

  • 27.
    Kjellander, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Beauty and the Blend: Implications of Cognitive Constraints and Word Class Distribution in Lexical Blending2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis investigates underlying principles and usage-based aspects of lexical blending. In a corpus study examining the lexical items, or matrix words, republican, liberal, and vegetarian it was found that there were three cognitive constraints influencing their potential to form blends. Mapping of a prefixation schema onto the lexical item republican was shown to fuel blend formation. Neighborhood effects and morphological lexicalization, on the other hand, were observed to have a negative influence on the possibility to form blends from the terms liberal and vegetarian. Also, an examination of word class distribution in the matrix words and their blend and compound derivatives showed that the patterns of the blends were less consistent than the compounds. These findings point to an important duality in the derivative blends. While they operate in an interplay with regular morphological processes they are at the same time creatively elaborated in use. Therefore blends exhibit a fundamental aspect of language, which is phrased as the dynamic interrelatedness between socio-pragmatic motivation and schematization, or pattern-finding. This positions blending not in the margin, but at the centre of studies on language development.

  • 28.
    Knuchel, Dominique
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A comparative study of egophoric marking: Investigating its relation to person and epistemic marking in three language families2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Egophoric marking as a potentially categorical expression in language is conceived of as a binary semantic contrast that marks an event as either involving one of the speech act participants (egophoric), or as one that does not (non-egophoric). Prima facie, the egophoric marking pattern resembles person indexing and has been interpreted as such. However, it appears that what is marked does not simply correspond to indexing the speech act roles of speaker and addressee. Rather, egophoric marking appears to encode the speech participant’s respective access to events/information in terms of ‘involvement’ and is therefore more akin to epistemic categories, such as evidentiality.

    This thesis presents a comparative study of egophoric marking on the basis of data from descriptions of relevant languages from the Barbacoan (South America), Nakh-Daghestanian (Caucasus) and Tibeto-Burman (Himalaya) language families. The study covers grammatical and functional properties, as well as diachronic aspects of egophoric marking systems. The findings are discussed in relation to typological studies on person and evidentiality in order to determine similarities and differences between egophoric marking and these associated categories. 

  • 29.
    Kurnik, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Bilingual Lexical Access in Reading: Analyzing the Effect of Semantic Context on Non-Selective Access in Bilingual Memory2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Recent empirical studies about the neurological executive nature of reading in bilinguals differ in their evaluations of the degree of selective manifestation in lexical access as implicated by data from early and late reading measures in the eye-tracking paradigm. Currently two scenarios are plausible: (1) Lexical access in reading is fundamentally language non-selective and top-down effects from semantic context can influence the degree of selectivity in lexical access; (2) Cross-lingual lexical activation is actuated via bottom-up processes without being affected by top-down effects from sentence context. In an attempt to test these hypotheses empirically, this study analyzed reader-text events arising when cognate facilitation and semantic constraint interact in a 22 factorially designed experiment tracking the eye movements of 26 Swedish-English bilinguals reading in their L2. Stimulus conditions consisted of high- and low-constraint sentences embedded with either a cognate or a non-cognate control word. The results showed clear signs of cognate facilitation in both early and late reading measures and in either sentence conditions. This evidence in favour of the non-selective hypothesis indicates that the manifestation of non-selective lexical access in reading is not constrained by top-down effects from semantic context.

  • 30.
    Lange, Noa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Distance and visibility in Gawri demonstratives2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of demonstratives in Gawri [ISO 639-3: gwc] (Hindukush Indo-Aryan, HKIA), based on field data collected in Islamabad, Pakistan during the winter of 2016–2017. Previous studies of HKIA languages report systems of third-person pronouns with a three-way demonstrative contrast – two terms distinguishing between proximal and distal referents, and one used with accessible referents out of sight. Gawri, by contrast, exhibits a five-term system of demonstrative determiners, which is separate from its personal pronouns. This study investigates the deictic meaning, pragmatic use, and syntactic function of each demonstrative in Gawri as well as a comparative sample of four Indo-Aryan languages. The purpose is to assess differences in reference to accessible and inaccessible entities, and whether Gawri’s invisible term is viable in an exophoric (situational) context. A modified version of Wilkins’ (1999) demonstrative questionnaire was used to elicit data from seven speakers. Results indicate that Gawri’s invisible demonstrative is functionally exophoric on at least two discrete distances from the deictic center, while it is restricted to accessible referents in other HKIA languages. A reanalysis of Gawri’s demonstrative system is proposed, which reduces its number of terms to two within each of the parameters of distance and visibility.

  • 31.
    Larsson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Så sjung, bara sjung!: initiala och operationella normer i sångboksöversättningar av Astrid Lindgrens visor via multimodal analys av text, bild och musik.2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to analyse which initial and operational norms that were used in the German translation of pages from a songbook written by Astrid Lindgren. The models that are used are taken from Franzon (2009), Franzon (2016) and van Meerbergen (2010). The research questions concern musical rhythm, rhetorical methods within the text, the interaction level between images and text and the reader. The purpose is also to see how active or passive the main characters in the books are portrayed. The results show that translations of describing songs with long verses tend to become shorter and very changed compared to translations of songs with short verses and with a less describing nature. The interaction level with the reader is mostly low in both source and target texts and images. The main characters are also more active in the German translations than in the Swedish originals.  

  • 32.
    Legge, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Survey of The Linguistic Landscape of Stockholm University2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great prevalence of English in Swedish society, education as well as the research community. Recently, Stockholm University has revised its language policy in order to promote parallel use of Swedish and English. With this background, the current thesis aims to survey the linguistic landscape of Stockholm University in order to find out if there are any patterns that can be observed within it. Some inspiration was drawn from previous research into linguistic landscapes. The main discussion points of the current thesis are the linguistic landscape of Stockholm University, the relation between top-down and bottom-up signs as well as the relation between language use and language policy in light of the data gathered. In order to analyse and discuss this, data was gathered on two separate occasions in the form of signs placed into different categories. The first set of data was gathered in February and March of 2013 and the second set of data was gathered in October of 2015. There are visible patterns in the data, especially when making comparisons over time.

    Generally, Swedish is the most prevalent language in the linguistic landscape of Stockholm University, the lowest instance being just over 70%, but this prevalence shows a small decrease along with an increase in English and mixed language items going from 2013 to 2015. Also, mixed and English items are more common in bottom-up signs than they are in top-down signs. These English and mixed signs also increase or decrease locally from 2013 to 2015. There was also a local anomaly in that there was one area with a majority of bottom-up signs when the other areas had a majority of top-down signs. Given that this survey was explorative in its nature, it is difficult to draw many firm conclusions based upon the discussion points. However, it appears that there is a difference between language practices and the language policy documents at Stockholm University. The communications policy appears more close to reality however. Swedish also appears to be the language associated with power at said university.

  • 33.
    Lilja, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Översättning enligt normer: En kommenterad översättning av en IT-text2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is comprised of an annotated translation of an English IT-text into Swedish. The source text is the installation manual for the software SDL Trados Studio 2014 and the thesis also contains a text analysis of the source text. The goal of the translation has been to use norms in the target culture and thus move the translation toward acceptability. The thesis therefore discusses norms based on Toury's (1995) framework.

    The thesis also contains an empirical study of the translation of three different IT-texts. The study shows that, when it comes to the specific norms investigated in the study, Swedish translations of IT-texts are guided by norms in both the source culture and the target culture.

  • 34.
    Linda, Nilsson
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Att återge Hamlet: Översättningsnormer och strategier vid teateröversättning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis seeks to touch upon Swedish theatre translations produced for the Swedish stage. Theatre translation is generally an relatively unchartered field, but there is particularly a lack of studies focused on Swedish theatre translation. For this reason this thesis has chosen to analyse William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. By analysing a selection of Hamlet productions and corresponding metatexts this thesis recreates strategies and norms incorporated in a retranslation of the English source text into a Swedish target text.Three stage versions of Hamlet, all productions of Dramaten from the years 1974, translated by Allan Bergstrand, 1986, translated by Britt G. Hallqvist, and 2008, translated by Ulf Peter Hallberg, were selected for this purpose. In addition, the following variables where investigated: reduction, textual structure, pronouns and imagery. This analysis was conducted both on a macro texual level and a micro textual level. The study shows that the stage version of Hamlet 1974 tends to be more adequate while the stage versions from 1986 and 2008 tend to be more acceptable when it comes to strategies. The thesis also found that none of the investigated stage versions fulfilled the expectancy norms of the audience.

  • 35.
    Lindell, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    Amerikanska på svenska: En kommenterad översättning av ett utdrag ur Bill Brysons populärvetenskapliga språkhistoria Made in America2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis comprises a translation from English to Swedish followed by a commentary. The source text (ST) of the translation consists of the second chapter of Made in America (1998), a popularised language history by Bill Bryson. The commentary includes an analysis of the ST and the target text (TT), as well as a discussion of the translation process as a whole, and of the translation strategies applied in order to solve the translation problems of the ST. The theoretical framework of the thesis is based on Toury’s notion of norms (1995), from which the following principle for translating is conceived: to transfer the ST information as faithfully as possible but with the modifications necessary to accommodate the source language competence level of the TT readers, which is estimated to be relatively low. As such, the principle for translating is mainly characterised by adequacy, but leans towards acceptability. In the concluding section of the commentary, the TT is deemed to be consistent with this principle since it constitutes an adequate text with evident traits of acceptability.

  • 36.
    Lindmark, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Nouns on fire in Mainland Scandinavian: A lexico-typological study of selected nouns referring to FIRE in Danish, Norwegian (Bokmål) and Swedish2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates the use of a selected group of nouns in the domain of FIRE in written Mainland Scandinavian languages, i.e. Danish, Norwegian (bokmål) and Swedish. The main goal is to capture the semantic features of the nouns by examining typical situations where they occur, following the frame-method for lexical studies by Rakhilina & Reznikova (2016). The nouns are examined in terms of their combinatorial patterning in compounds with other nouns, in trigrams and in figurative use. The synchronic data is drawn from corpora, lexica and first speaker intuition. Four parameters are formulated, which seem to play a role in the lexical use among the fire words, in the three languages. The nouns are structured according to the parameters and each lexeme displays combinatorial pattern revealing semantic restrictions. The selected ‘fire nouns’ are fairly similar, but differ in terms of semantic load most prominently among the lexemes that refer to controllable fires. The lexemes relevant for the parameter of ‘subcomponents of fire processes’ display an asymmetry, which needs to be studied further. The scope of the current study also includes two lexemes in Swedish that semantically have not been possible to disentangle. On the whole, at least the controllability of the fire is lexically encoded, possibly because that property is crucial for survival.

  • 37.
    Markovic, Biljana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Self-presentation in the asynchronous communication on Facebook in Kenya and Uganda2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Flows of languages, cultural forms and people both in real and virtual space are consequences of globalization. The mobility of people in the virtual sense is facilitated through the Internet, where one of the most popular ways of communication and self-presentation is currently through Facebook. This research focuses on analyzing the orthographic and lexical strategies in self-presentation on Kenyan and Ugandan Facebook profiles, trying to see whether the forms reflecting the East African variety of English are present in asynchronous communication and whether there is appropriation of other varieties and registers. This was done through a reiterative process of reading 10 Kenyan and 10 Ugandan Facebook profiles, comparing the findings with online data on informal sociolinguistic situations in Uganda and Kenya such as YouTube videos and comments, blogs and newspaper articles and through informal conversations with some Kenyans and Ugandans. The results showed that the local forms as described in the literature are used on Facebook and that there are forms unaccounted for in the literature but whose presence was confirmed in the online data and the informal conversations. Appropriation of American English and hip hop and Rastafari languages was found in the sample. It was inferred that English has several usages in the sample, which serve to express the neutral, the local and the appropriated meanings in the asynchronous communication on Facebook and that those meanings are used strategically for the creation of the desired identities.

  • 38.
    Marttinen Larsson, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Un acercamiento variacionista al estudio de las locuciones adverbiales locativas: El caso de las construcciones del tipo "delante mío"2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis studies the morphosyntactic variation in adverbial locative phrases in Spanish. This variation occurs at two levels: (1) the alternation between the standard construction ADVERB + the preposition de + PERSONAL PRONOUN (as in delante de mí) and the normatively nonstandard construction ADVERB + POSSESSIVE PRONOUN (as in delante mío); (2) the alternation between the possessive construction with the suffix -o (as in delante mío), and the possessive construction with the suffix -a (as in delante mía), the last variant being normatively highly discouraged. The goal of this study was to investigate these two linguistic variables and their possible sociolinguistic predictors. The data was obtained by API searches of Twitter data in February of 2017 and yielded material from 21 Spanish-speaking countries (including the US). 2357 tweets containing the constructions of interest were gathered, of which 1006 were possessive constructions. Concerning the alternation between constructions with prepositions and possessives, the data was coded according to four independent variables: the gender (or sex) of the Twitter user, the location of the user, the type of adverb used in the phrase, and the grammatical number of the referent. As to the use of the suffix -a with possessives, two additional variables were coded for, the final vowel of the preceding adverb and grammatical gender of the referent. A statistical model was constructed in order to measure the effect of the independent variables on the use of (1) the possessive construction, and (2) the possessive construction with the suffix -a, respectively. The results of the first analysis indicate that the geographical region of the Twitter user, as well as the preceding adverb and the grammatical number of the referent, were statistically significant in predicting the use of the possessive construction. Furthermore, with regards to the variation in the suffix of the possessive pronoun, the analysis supports the view that the geographical region of the user and the grammatical gender of the referent are predictors that condition the use of the possessive pronoun with the suffix -a

  • 39.
    Melin, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Thanks! You look rather dashing yourself.: A contrastive pragmatics investigation of Singaporean and American compliment responses2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Set within the framework of the newly established field of variational pragmatics (Schneider and Barron, 2008), this study investigates pragmatic variation between two different regional varieties of English, namely American English and Singaporean English. Specifically, the speech act of compliment responses is compared. The data were collected through written discourse completion tasks (DCT) and responses were analysed and coded using an adapted version of Holmes’ (1988) categorization system for compliment responses (CRs). The CRs come from a total of 40 participants and a total of 320 compliment responses were analysed. The DCT was supplemented by an introspective-recall with six participants. The findings demonstrate that the preferred strategy for both groups is in the order of accept, evade and reject. Even so, the Singaporeans use more reject strategies and less accept strategies than the Americans do. Further, the Americans employ more combination strategies than the Singaporeans. The Singaporeans however, employ more non-verbal and paralinguistic cues than the Americans. The results also show differences in the two varieties’ attitudes to and perceptions of compliment responses. In addition, the study suggests that compliments in Singapore might be undergoing a change. The findings are particularly important for pedagogical purposes.

  • 40.
    Migura García, Begoña
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies, Spanish.
    Elige tu propia aventura, ¿nudo gordiano para el tratamiento holístico de la expresión escrita?: Una experiencia de escritura narrativa creativa en Español como Lengua Extranjera, a través de trabajo cooperativo con wikis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this research is to uncover the potential that lies within the explorative genre of hyperfiction entitled Choose Your Own Adventure (CYOA), approached from the student’s final production, and its significance for the development of writing competency in Spanish as a Foreign Language (ELE). As our target sample population, we have chosen a multicultural and plurilingual group of 18 students from the University of Stockholm, all of whom have acquired at least a B2 level of the Common European Framework of References for Languages (CEFR) in communicative competence. This study has carried out qualitative-quantitative research that, in a correlative manner, encompasses the study of the writing process, the final written product, and the impact of the task over the affective component of every participant. The project required the control group to create a cooperative composition of a fairy tale by means of a wiki, and the experimental group to CYOA; all of which was based on the hypothetical opposition between a lineal compositional exercise and a recursive one. Results indicate that the non-sequential structure of hypertextual fiction leads to a recursive writing process. Consequentially, this has an impact on the creation of a better product, especially when related to textual properties of adaptation, coherence and cohesion. Within the affective sphere, the composition of a CYOA could constitute an activity that, due to its novelty, has a positive effect on the learner’s motivation and on his or her sense of self-efficacy generated by the successful resolution of the task.

  • 41.
    Morales Ruiz, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Competencia sociopragmática en aprendientes de ELE: Un estudio cualitativo sobre factores incidentes en el aula de bachillerato2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the past decades many investigations have discussed the role of pragmatic research in language teaching. Moreover, this discussion has also pointed out how pragmatics can influence in the pedagogical work (Bardovi-Harlig, 1996). The aim of this qualitative study is to identify factors in classroom settings that influence sociopragmatics competence (SPC) in Spanish foreign language learners. In an attempt to better understand these factors within the Swedish education system, this study tested 54 high school students of level B1-B2 according to the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR). Students' SPC was obtained by language samples provided through elicitation questions. In other hand, data related to the influence of factors in classroom settings in SPC were obtained through in-depth interviews. The results obtained by comparing students' SPC with factors in the classroom context display that teachers' role and their didactics approaches appear with greater importance for the students SPC. From the students perception it was also inferred that students with greater SPC level present positive perception to sociopragmatics‟ contents in the classroom. However, students with lower level show negative perception for the regarding content. Therefore, the factors focused on the role of language teachers emerge with higher positive influence to learners‟ SPC.

  • 42.
    Moreno, Rosa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    La interferencia interlingüística en la producción oral de jóvenes suecos de ELH: "Después el perrito se comió un corvito"2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the ocurrence of interlangual influence in the oral production of young Swedish HL speakers of the Chilean variety of Spanish. The Study is guided by two research questions. The first question inquires into the sources language(s) influences in ILL (Swedish L2 vs. English L3). The second question focuses on the factors that determine the incidence of ILL. The data were elicited by means of a narrative task and an interview. A questionnarie was also used to gather sociolinguistic information from the participants. The results suggest that the Swedish L2 was the main source of influence in ILL against English L3, which did not play an important role. In addition to this, it was found that the occurrence of ILL was determined by various linguistic factor. 

  • 43.
    Narin, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Phonological features of Yazghulami: A field study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Yazghulami is a South-East Iranian language spoken in the Pamir area of Tajikistan by about 9000 people. This study gives an account of the phonology of the language by describing contrastive segments and their distribution and realizations, as well as describing suprasegmental features such as syllable structure and stress patterns. Field research was carried out in a community of Yazghulami speakers in Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan, by recording, transcribing and annotating spoken language. Yazghulami is analyzed as having 8 vowel phonemes of which one pair contrasts in length, and 36 consonant phonemes with a considerable display of palatal, velar and uvular phonemes, of which a set of three labialized plosives and three labialized fricatives is found. The syllable structure of Yazghulami allows for clusters of no more than two consonants in the onset and two in the coda; clusters in both positions do not occur in one and the same syllable. The stress generally falls on the last syllable of a word, although when nouns are inflected with suffixes, the stress instead falls on the last syllable of the stem. With these results, a foundation for further efforts to develop and increase the status of this endangered language is laid.

  • 44.
    Nilsson, Jorunn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Rollspråk i dubbning och undertextning: En analys av rollspråket i den japanska undertextningen och dubbningen av en svensk barnfilm2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Japan so called role language, i.e. stereotypical language associated with a certain type of character, frequently occurs in material for children such as children’s films. Role language is a fairly new area of research but despite this, there are a few studies dealing with role language in literary translation, subtitling and dubbing into Japanese. However, few or none of these examine how role language influences characterisation in the subtitles and dubbing of the same film.

    This thesis analyses the Japanese subtitling and dubbing of the Swedish children’s film Du är inte klok, Madicken and finds that both versions use role language in a similar way to simplify characterisation and emphasize the femininity of female characters through the use of feminine sentence-final particles, pronouns, verb forms and interjections etc.

  • 45.
    Norden, Anton Harry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Selected topics in the grammar of Français Tirailleur: A corpus study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This corpus-based study describes some grammatical and lexical features of Français Tirailleur (FT), a pidgin spoken in the French colonial army from the mid-1800’s to the 1950’s. By examining the largest corpus available of the language, this study aims to (1) discern hitherto undescribed or strengthen previous claims about grammatical and lexical features of FT, (2) compare these features with its lexifier language and (3) identify changes over time. The corpus has been manually part-of-speech tagged and all noun phrases have been marked up. The results include a description of the form and function of the FT noun phrase, covering (pro)nouns and their modifiers as well as noun phrases with an embedded prepositional phrase. Furthermore, the apparent diachronic development of the expression même chose is analyzed, along with examples of circumlocution. FT is shown to differ from French in several respects, e.g. in substituting the demonstrative determiners ce(t)/cette with ça, but no signs of substrate influence are found. Contrary to intution about the simplex nature of pidgins, FT appears to follow French in placing certain adjectives before the noun, while postposing others. There remain several interesting aspects to explore in the grammar of FT, among them the elusive, multi-functional items ya and yena. Our further understanding of pidgins would benefit from more data and cross-linguistic comparison.

  • 46.
    Oletic, Aleksandra
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Evaluative language in student reflections: A corpus-based study of online forum contributions2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the widespread use of English in higher education, there are many genres and registers that students need to master (e.g. Hood, 2010; Hyland, 2004; Hüttner, 2008; Kuteeva, 2012). Previous research on evaluation in academic writing has largely focused on expert genres such as research articles or graduate student writing. This paper aims to address the gap in research on student genres by providing a corpus-based analysis of a collection of student writing. The methodology consists of a textual analysis of evaluative language in student writing on data collected from students’ forum comments and reflections posted on Stockholm University’s online learning platform. The theoretical framework for the analysis of evaluative language draws primarily on the theoretical frameworks for the study of evaluative language inspired by Systemic Functional Linguistics. The dataset is labelled for instances of evaluation that express a positive, negative or neutral attitude of the writer. The types of evaluation are categorized into judgments of acceptability, difficulty, expectedness, goodness, importance, interestingness, and usefulness. Overall, the results indicate that students tend to evaluate positively in order to express a positive attitude within all categories of entities found in the data. However, differences exist between evaluations within different categories in terms of the expressed writer’s attitude. In their evaluations limited to discussions within specific research approaches, students tend to limit their evaluation to expressions of a positive or negative attitude. On the other hand, evaluations of theoretical concepts contain a more balanced distribution of attitude types and tend to be contextualized or paired with support in the discourse. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis of individual instances of evaluation shows that it can serve different communicative purposes depending on its form and position in the discourse. Finally, a connection can be drawn between the types of evaluation and the selection of writer’s voice, showing that students assume a range of voices in order to cope with the demand to perform evaluation at different levels of experience.

  • 47.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Iamitives: Perfects in Southeast Asia and beyond2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores grammatical markers with meanings similar to the English perfect tense and words like already, as found in numerous languages across the world, and perhaps especially in languages of Southeast Asia, with the aim of describing the main function of these markers. Such items have previously been treated as belonging to the same category as the perfects of European languages but are tentatively termed "iamitives" in this study (from Latin iam 'already') since they differ from perfects in many respects. The investigation focusses on the semantic and pragmatic factors that determine the use of iamitive-like markers in Indonesian/Malay, Thai, Vietnamese and Mandarin Chinese, based on questionnaire data obtained through work with native speakers of the languages, with additional data coming from a number of languages spoken in other parts of the world. The results highlight the differences and similarities that can be found between iamitives, perfects and 'already', and explicates a number of conditions that are crucial for the use of iamitives, notably involving notions such as change-of-state and speaker expectations

  • 48.
    Olsson, Linus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Form and function of reduplicated nouns in Japanese2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the form and function of reduplication in nouns in Japanese. Three main areas were investigated: meaning, morphosyntactic behavior, and register. The study was conducted with informants participating in meetings which were audio recorded. The informants were asked to describe a number of reduplicated nouns belonging to three categories: concrete nouns, abstract nouns, and nouns relating to time. A number of pseudo forms were also included to see if similar patterns could be observed in nouns that did not belong to the regular lexicon. The results were analyzed for possible patterns relating to meaning, morphosyntactic behavior, and register across the three noun categories. Primarily two patterns were observed: 1. the reduplicated forms of concrete nouns tended to have a meaning of plurality and maintain their noun status, and 2. the reduplicated forms of nouns relating to time tended to acquire a sensation of extended time and frequency, and change word class into adverbs. These patterns were not observed as strongly among the pseudo forms. In addition to these patterns, other phenomena were observed among the reduplicated nouns that could not be categorized as belonging to specific patterns and should be investigated in further studies.

  • 49.
    Quevedo, Marta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The influence of semantic context on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in extemporaneous foreign accented Swedish speech2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bilingualism is nowadays a worldwide phenomenon due to different factors such as migration, education or political and geographical reasons. These factors have led to both individual and social bilingualism, which favor an increase of communicative encounters between native and non-native speakers of a certain language.

    The above situation has contributed to a growth of studies on second language acquisition. Some of these studies have focused on native speakers’ perception and understanding of the non-native speech. More specifically, perception and effectiveness of communication through the analysis of three dimensions; accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility. Although these three constructs have been intensively studied, little is known about the effect of semantic context on them. To our knowledge, just two studies have analyzed the effect of semantic context on native speakers’ judgments of the three dimensions by using read material. Therefore, this thesis extends the research on the influence of semantic context over these three dimension when the auditory stimulus corresponds to spontaneous non-native speech.

    In this thesis, the results on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility tasks of 40 native Swedish speakers are presented. The findings showed that listeners’ perceived comprehensibility of the non-native speech is affected by the use of additional contextual information. That is, the listeners who were provided with additional visual information perceived the non-native speech as significantly easier to understand than those listeners who did not receive the extra contextual support. Furthermore, the results showed that accentedness and comprehensibility perception of the listeners is influenced by their actual understanding of the non-native speech.

    Finally, this thesis proves the difficulty of studying the effect of semantic context on listeners’ response to accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility when using spontaneous non-native speech. The results indicate that more research on how semantic context influences the perception of extemporaneous non-native speech is needed.

  • 50.
    Rosenqvist, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Att översätta slang: En jämförelse av översättningen av slanguttryck i John Greens Paper Towns till svenska och nederländska.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigates how slang and spoken language markers in English in the Young Adult novel Paper Towns by John Green have been translated into Dutch and Swedish. An analyse of the expressions found in the first chapter of the novel, based on the method created by Lambert and van Gorp (1985), shows the translation strategies and the underlying translational norms. The results of the analysis of the preliminary data of the translations points towards adequate translation strategies. At a micro level, the results indicate more acceptable translation strategies regarding the translation of slang and spoken language markers, with slightly more source-orientation in the Dutch translation.

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