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  • 1.
    af Klintberg, Juli
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Akademiskt svenskt teckenspråk: En undersökning av akademiska kännetecken2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is to investigate the characteristics that may be considered in academic Swedish Sign Language and which in turn will help a larger number of students produce their essays in academic Swedish Sign Language. Recorded material from lectures, made by four deaf graduates and from the Sign Language corpus, where two deaf academics were also involved, and some randomly chosen in-formants, were investigated. The results from the academic Swedish Sign Language were compared to the characteristics that identify with the academic American Sign Language. There need to be more knowledge and research on this subject.

  • 2.
    Allertz, Frida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Att motivera och/eller manipulera: En begreppsutredande litteraturstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to theoretically investigate the concepts of the interpersonal actions 'to motivate' and 'to manipulate' and also to examine possible differences and similarities between the two. The method used is a conceptual review based on the Self-Determination Theory, related to the concept of motivation, and Machiavellianism, related to the concept of manipu-lation. The results show that 'to motivate', according to Self-Determination Theory, concerns influencing the intrinsic or extrinsic motivation, where intrinsic motivation is related to the feeling of self-determination, inner locus of causality, being or feeling competent and exercise activities for the pleasure of it, whilst extrinsic motivation is related to external locus of cau-sality, external pressure and engaging in activities for the purpose of reaching a goal or re-ward. 'To manipulate' is according to Machiavellianism based on the manipulator doing whatever it takes to reach a certain goal and gain something for himself with no regard of what methods being used. The comparative analysis showed that the crucial difference in how an behaviour is interpreted as either, or both, motivating and manipulative is based on who is doing the interpretation, what information she has and which aspects that are focused on.

  • 3.
    Almgren, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will focus on the actions taken by a translator to rid a children’s book of sexist content. First of all the sexist content in the book is located by studying the criticism (of sexist content) the book in question has received since it was published. By using the translation theory of shifts these actions will be exemplified and further discussed by the use of other translation theories.

    With the translator’s actions in focus certain translation strategies will be compared to the ones taken by the translator of the book. The shifts made in the translation will be located, presented and explained. Finally a discussion, of the problems occurring when editing a translation in order to change the effect on the reader and about the responsibilities of translators, will follow.

  • 4.
    Alp, Efrim Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Swedish Upper-secondary school students’ exposure to and acquisition of the English language2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this sociolinguistic essay was to investigate differences and similarities between how the English language is encountered and used in a suburban school compared to an inner-city school. Moreover, the primary material was collected with the use of a questionnaire, answered by 22 and 26 students between the ages of 16-19 years old from two upper-secondary schools. The results obtained from this study highlight that the students irrespective of their social backgrounds encountered and used the English language in similar ways. However, in relation to the acquisition of the language, the results highlighted that the students who came from a high socio-economic background had an advantage compared to their peers who shared an immigrant or migrant background in the sense that they to a higher extent came from an academic household which can be beneficial regarding language exposure and acquisition. Nevertheless, the differentiating factors behind that advantage were reduced to some extent by the role of social media.

  • 5.
    Alrup, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    ”Välj vego”: En argumentations- och legitimeringsanalytisk studie av Djurens Rätts webbtexter.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks språkliga strategier i tre webbtexter från den ideella organisationen Djurens Rätt. Djurens Rätt måste i sina texter möta kommunikativa utmaningar i form av en diversifierad målgrupp och att fylla olika syften, eller funktioner, i texterna. Dessa funktioner innebär dels att försöka väcka intresse hos mottagaren för innehållet i texterna och dels att försöka påverka mottagarens attityder till en djurvänlig livsstil. För att undersöka olika strategier använder jag mig av argumentationsanalys och legitimeringsanalys.

     

    Undersökningen visar på olika fynd, bland annat att Djurens Rätt i sina webbtexter arbetar mycket med auktoriteter, konsekvenser och exempel, men att de däremot inte arbetar med berättelser, explicita teser eller analogier. Dessa strategier verkar för att beroende av ämnet i den aktuella texten väcka mottagarens intresse eller påverka dennes attityder. Användningen av argument och legitimeringar beror på flera faktorer: ämnet, den tänkta målgruppen och den tänkta funktionen i den specifika texten. Djurens Rätt verkar även arbeta mycket med kunskap och förmedlingen av denna. Genom språket legitimeras denna kunskap, och att följa en vegansk kost.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Jenny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Läsning på olika nivåer: Läsguidesfrågornas påverkan på elevers läsförståelse och lässtrategier2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett vanligt sätt att arbeta med läsförståelse i skolan är att låta elever läsa en lärobokstext och svara på frågor om texten. I denna uppsats undersöker jag hur sådana läsguidesfrågor som ska fungera som stöd för läsförståelsen kan påverka elevernas läsförståelse och lässtrategier. Detta undersöker jag genom ett test där en högstadieklass får läsa en lärobokstext i historia från det digitala läromedlet Clio Online. Hälften av klassen får i samband med läsningen svara på textkontrollerande läsguidesfrågor, medan andra hälften får svara på inferensfrågor. Därefter får alla elever svara på enkätfrågor om textens svårighetsgrad och sina strategival under uppgiften samt kontrollfrågor som testar deras läsförståelse.

    Resultatet visar att eleverna som besvarar inferensfrågor ägnar längre tid åt uppgiften att läsa texten och besvara frågorna. Dessa elever visar en starkare metakognitiv medvetenhet, genom att färre av dessa elever överskattar sin egen förståelse av texten. Denna elevgrupp får också ett bättre totalresultat på kontrollfrågorna som testar deras läsförståelse. Detta indikerar att inferensfrågorna tycks styra eleverna till en djupare läsning och en bättre läsförståelse.

    Samtidigt får dock eleverna som besvarar textkontrollerande läsguidesfrågor ett bättre resultat på den kontrollfråga som efterfrågar en helhetsförståelse av texten. Fler i denna grupp anger dessutom som lässtrategi att de läste igenom hela texten snarare än att leta efter svaren i texten, vilket bör leda till en djupare läsning. Detta resultat verkar till viss del orsakas av att några av eleverna som får inferensfrågor tycks sakna antingen motivation eller förmåga att besvara dessa, och därmed inte blir hjälpta av dem i sin läsning. Resultatet kan också förklaras med att läsguidesfrågorna eleverna får vid ett tillfälle inte är det enda som påverkar deras läsning, utan de påverkas också av andra faktorer såsom motivation eller en vana vid vissa lässtrategier. Även elever som får frågor som leder dem mot en ytlig läsning kan alltså läsa på en djupare nivå, och tvärtom.

    Denna undersöknings begränsade omfattning gör att det inte går att dra några säkra slutsatser utifrån resultatet. Den försiktiga slutsats som kan dras är att för svåra inferensfrågor för eleven inte tycks hjälpa läsförståelsen, medan inferensfrågor på en lagom nivå tycks kunna leda till en djupare läsförståelse än textkontrollerande frågor.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Stereotypes of English in Hollywood Movies: A Case Study of the Use of Different Varieties of English in Star Wars, The Lord of the Rings and Transformers.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay deals with the use of linguistic stereotypes in Hollywood movies. It investigates whether attitudes towards English dialects found in studies on perceptual dialectology are reflected in the selected movies and discusses the notion of linguistic identity and how standard and nonstandard speech, respectively, are used symbolically to emphasize features of characters in eleven movies from three different movie series, namely The Lord of the Rings, Star Wars and Transformers, with a main focus on syntactic and phonological dimensions. The essay finds a correlation between standard speech and features of competence and wisdom, and nonstandard speech and features of solidarity, sociability and traits of stupidity and humor. Moreover, very specific perceptions of certain varieties of English are probably utilized as amplifiers of equally specific characteristics of some characters. The use of dialects and accents in these movies is probably intentional and not coincidental.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Language attitudes in the People’s Republic of China’s leading English-language newspaper, China Daily2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since time immemorial, various governments in China have attempted to promulgate writing reforms and speech reforms in order to unite the nation, mostly for political gain. The aim of this paper is to discover and analyze some language issues in the People’s Republic of China, specifically attitudes and comments on spoken usage of Putonghua (also called Modern Standard Chinese), Shanghai dialect, Cantonese and English by researching China Daily’s online newspaper article archive. A few valid articles could be retrieved and they uncovered that Putonghua, Shanghai dialect and Cantonese are all considered prestigious in different regions of the country; furthermore, English is gaining support rapidly, especially in corporate China.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Stina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Repetitioner i barnriktat tal under det första levnadsåret2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A high proportion of repetitions is one of the distinctive features of child-directed speech (CDS). Research has shown that the percentage of repetitions in CDS varies over time depending on the age of the child. In addition, it is suggested that repetitions in CDS correlate with child language development. The aim of the study was to investigate the possible variations over time in the percentage of repetitions in CDS during the child’s first year, and to try to find a connection between repetitions and the child’s language development. Repetitions in parent speech in ten parent-child dyads as the children were 3, 6, 9 and 12 months old were investigated quantitatively. Exact and varying self-repetitions and exact and varying repetitions of the child’s utterances were investigated and compared to the same children’s linguistic level at 18 months of age. The results showed that the percentage of exact self-repetitions was more than 30 percent lower at the age of 12 months than at 3, 6 and 9 months of age. The total percentage of repetitions of the child’s utterances increased more than four times from 3 to 12 months of age. A connection was found between the repetitions during the child’s first year and the child’s language development, indicating that a low percentage of exact self-repetitions at 6 to 9 months of age correlated with a high vocabulary at 18 months of age. A link between the expressive language of the child and the repetitions in parents’ speech was suggested.

  • 10.
    Andrea, Mogren
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    “It’s kinda intriguing”: A study of assertiveness and non-assertiveness in relation to gender stereotypes at a Swedish university2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The following study investigates if there are any differences in formulating questions and answers in an assertive or non-assertive way between the sexes that could be related to gender stereotypes. The material consists of audio-visual recordings, field notes and a transcription of the recordings, which were recorded and collected at a Swedish university. Four classes with a total of 71 students and four teachers where observed and recorded. The material was analysed and then sorted into categories of answers, questions, sex of the participant, participant role (i.e. student or teacher), assertiveness and non-assertiveness. The results show that although there are some differences between the sexes and different classes, these differences are not great enough to be related to gender stereotypes and are usually due to some circumstance related to the context of the present study instead.

  • 11.
    Anufrieva, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    “I have measured out my life with coffee spoons” – T.S. Eliot: A semantic analysis of selected metaphors in The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Metaphor is the most widely recognized and discussed type of trope. It has attracted the attention of analysts from various disciplines, e.g. philosophy, psychology, cognitive science, and literature. Research from these fields has shown that metaphors are ubiquitous and indispensable in our lives. It is not only literary discourse that is abundant with metaphors, but metaphors are also common in scientific discourse and even in our everyday language. Moreover, research from cognitive linguistics has shown that our thinking is metaphorical to a certain extent. Thus, if metaphors are so ubiquitous in our lives, how do we recognize them?

    In this paper selected metaphors from The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock by T.S. Eliot have been analyzed. These are metaphors from literary discourse; hence, the analysis was partly influenced by the genre and the specific, poetic context. The focus is on linguistic metaphors that can be identified in this poetic text, not on underlying conceptual metaphors. The aim of this paper has been to see how the metaphors in the poem are constructed and how the metaphorical part of the strings they occur in interacts with a seemingly literal part.

    According to the results of the analysis, the metaphorical constructions in the poem show a variety of modes of interaction among their constituents. Typically the metaphorical part of the poetic construction evokes a complex and directly perceptible phenomenon which serves as the basis for the understanding of the poetic persona’s feelings. Also the metaphors that describe the setting of the poem seem to be projections of the protagonist’s mood. Thus, the affective aspect of the metaphors is essential in the poem since it connects the metaphors to a network of meanings related to a prominent theme of the poem, namely the speaker’s paralysis and insecurity of himself, adding to the expressive complexity of the poem’s structure.

  • 12.
    Asgharirad, Saeideh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Applying Cognitive Linguistics to L2 Acquisiton: the Case of Over: An Experimental Approach to L2 Acquisition2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Many researchers have recently shown interest to Cognitive Linguistics and its potential intuitions for second language acquisition. There are several discussions and analysis (e.g., Tyler & Evans, 2003) regarding the complexity of interpreting the semantics of English prepositions and whether the distinct meanings associated with a single preposition are systematically related or not. Cognitive linguistics offers a promising analysis to L2 acquisition of prepositions, since it argues that the extended meanings associated with a single preposition are systematically related, and L2 speakers can learn them incrementally. Therefore, this study aims to explore the utility of using a cognitive linguistic based approach to evaluate the accessibility of Persian speakers of English to associated senses with the spatial preposition over. We offer an experimental approach in this study in which we use a cognitive linguistic based methodology to find out if the Persian speakers of English will make significant progresses in identifying the multiple senses of prepositions. Then, we discuss the reason why this approach can account the findings.

     

  • 13.
    Assadi, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Bäste Den det vederbör: En studie av artighet i skriftliga klagomål till en svensk myndighet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna undersökning analyseras hur artighetsstrategier och ansiktshot realiseras med Brown & Levinsons artighetsteori som grund. Materialet består av sextio skriftliga klagomål som Stockholms stads trafikkontor tagit emot mellan åren 1977 och 2017. De har skickats in via brev, mejl, mobilapplikationen Tyck till samt Stockholms stads webbplats. Syftet är att se vilka strategier som används för att uttrycka ansiktshot, men också för att kringgå dem. Resultatet visar att det förekommit olika tendenser vad gäller hur skribenterna uttrycker både artighetsstrategier och ansiktshot. Det tidiga materialet präglas av fler modala verb som signalerar lägre förpliktelse samt passiva verb och nominaliseringar för att utelämna mottagaren. Över tid ökar förekomsten av kritik och fler skribenter både ifrågasätter och nedvärderar trafikkontorets arbete. Mot slutet av mätperioden blir meddelandena dock opersonligare med färre aktörer och värderingar. 

  • 14.
    Awaiko Westin, Carina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Perceptions of English accents in Sweden: L1 Swedish university students' attitudes towards the Nigerian Standard English and the General American English accents2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Language attitude studies have shown that different accents carry different status and peoples’ way of speaking gives rise to judgments of their character. However, there is little known about the effects different Standard English varieties have in Sweden. This study will investigate how L1 speakers of Swedish perceive and judge the speakers of the Nigerian Standard English and General American English accents in terms of credibility and how familiarity contributes to the listener’s judgment of these accents. A modified verbal-guise technique comprising stimulus recordings and questionnaires was used. 91 participants responded to a questionnaire containing 6 questions soliciting their perceptions of the target accents and their speakers. It was hypothesized that the participants’ familiarity to the GenAm accent as well as the high status of the accent in relation to the NSE accent would make the GenAm accent to be judged favorably compared to the NSE accent. The findings indicated that the GenAm accent was favored compared to the NSE accent. However, the findings did not support familiarity as a determining factor for the favorable judgments of the GenAm accent.

  • 15.
    Bark, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Adversativa och deskriptiva betydelserelationer i svenskt teckenspråk2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how adversative and descriptive semantic relations is marked in sentences and how signs and non-manual signals are used to mark these important relations in Swedish Sign Language. Different areas of this study are highlighted because they are significant and may influence how we select sign and non-manual signals in sentences of sign language: sign space, non-manual signals and word sequence that can vary. It is shown that both sign and non-manual signals that mark the two semantic relationships depend on the context of the sign language text. When one uses markers for semantic relations, the signs are being used in its basics forms. There can also be phonological variants of one sign. Clear markers with the non-manual signals for meaning relationships are eye gaze, raised or furrowed eyebrows, and eyes that are widened or squinting. Placement of signs in the space can be regarded as a marker.

  • 16.
    Barra Oliveros, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    La oferta en la correspondencia comercial : Actos y actividades de cortesía en español y en sueco2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En esta monografía se analiza contractivamente el uso de la cortesía en una selección de Cartas Comerciales de Oferta (CCO) en español y sueco. Se trata de identificar las similitudes y diferencias en el modo de realizar Actos de Cortesía (AC) y en cómo éstos se distribuyen y aplican en el proceso de redacción de un texto de oferta. Partimos del concepto de acto de habla y de actividades de imagen para clasificar la producción de cortesía lingüística. Se ha incorporado un breve marco teórico que nos entrega datos básicos sobre los estudios y teorías en el ámbito de la cortesía desde el punto de vista pragmático. Basados en un número específico de cartas comerciales de oferta (diez en español y diez en sueco)  hemos analizado, en encabezamientos, cuerpos centrales y cierres, los procedimientos o estrategias empleados y a partir de allí hemos clasificado los actos de cortesía lingüística que se han producido. Defendemos la hipótesis de que los actos de cortesía son expresiones centrales en la composición de este tipo de texto y que su presencia posibilita la presentación y venta del producto. Las diferencias entre las cartas suecas y las españolas dan indicios de estilos comunicativos propios, donde lo más característico sería la orientación relativa hacia lo temático en el caso sueco y hacia lo personal, en el español. Los resultados muestran también que al comparar las cartas hispanas con las suecas se ponen de manifiestos similitudes y diferencias tanto en la cantidad como en la frecuencia, en lo referente a las fórmulas de tratamiento y también  en cuanto a la estrategia general de oferta. Por otra parte nuestro trabajo nos ha permitido distinguir entre distintos tipos de cortesía que se agrupan dependiendo de los objetivos de quien produce el texto.

  • 17.
    Bartkowiak, Paulina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finish, Dutch and German.
    Język polonijny w Szwecji: Przeskok kodowy w rozmowach na temat pracy2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Berglund, Jonny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Construction Grammar Approach to the Phrase2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay adopts a construction grammar approach to the linguistic pattern why don’t you. It argues that the pattern can have two different senses: an interrogative sense and a suggestive sense. Further it argues that the suggestive sense is a construction similar to the definition of a construction described by construction grammar theory.

    In other words, the linguistic pattern why don’t you can have a specific underlying semantics that cannot be reached by an examination of its formal pattern.

  • 19.
    Bergman, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    La distinción entre préstamo y cambio de código en un discurso electrónico2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    En el presente estudio se pretende investigar la posibilidad de distinguir los préstamos de los elementos de cambio de código en un discurso electrónico entre jovenes bilingües de sueco-español, a través de un modelo de frecuencia elaborado por Myers-Scotton. También la posible co-existencia de las palabras analizadas en ambas lenguas será averiguada. El material bajo estudio consiste en conversaciones entre bilingües jóvenes de sueco/español en el foro facebook. En dichas conversaciones la alternancia entre las dos lenguas es muy frecuente, con el uso de cambio de código y préstamos. La hipotesis consiste en la convicción de que sí será posible encontrar préstamos a través de la aplicación del modelo, dado que el discurso electrónico probablemente no se distinguirá tanto de un discurso oral o escrito. Además, creemos que los préstamos encontrados con alta probabilidad serán co-existentes con las palabras en la lengua original. El análisis muestra que existe una cantidad de préstamos en el discurso investigado, y además que son co-existentes en todos los casos estudiados menos uno. El estudio también da indicios de que el modelo no es completamente fiable; el límite mínimo de frecuencia debería ser aumentado.

  • 20.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Predicting the N400 Component in Manipulated and Unchanged Texts with a Semantic Probability Model2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of computational linguistics, recent research has made successful advances in integrating word space models with n-gram models. This is of particular interest when a model that encapsulates both semantic and syntactic information is desirable. A potential application for this can be found in the field of psycholinguistics, where the neural response N400 has been found to occur in contexts with semantic incongruities. Previous research has found correlations between cloze probabilities and N400, while more recent research has found correlations between cloze probabilities and language models.

    This essay attempts to uncover whether or not a more direct connection between integrated models and N400 can be found, hypothesizing that low probabilities elicit strong N400 responses and vice versa. In an EEG experiment, participants read a text manipulated using a language model, and a text left unchanged. Analysis of the results shows that the manipulations to some extent yielded results supporting the hypothesis. Further results are found when analysing responses to the unchanged text. However, no significant correlations between N400 and the computational model are found. Future research should improve the experimental paradigm, so that a larger scale EEG recording can be used to construct a large EEG corpus.

  • 21.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effekten av fonologisk träning enligt Bornholmsmodellen på elevers språkliga medvetenhet i årskurs 12001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en del av en longitudinell studie av psykolingvistisk ålder och språklig medvetenhet hos elever i årskurs 1 på två olika skolor i Vallentuna kommun. I studien har material från de tre senaste projektåren bearbetats. Syftet med undersökningen var att undersöka huruvida fonologisk träning enligt den s.k. Bornholmsmodellen under elevernas tid i 6-årsklass återspeglar sig i ökad språklig medvetenhet och högre psykolingvistisk ålder i årskurs 1. Vidare undersöktes om den fonologiska träningen kan ha påverkat barnens arbetsminne. Två typer av test användes: UMESOL för kartläggning av fonologisk medvetenhet och ITPA, ett standardiserat test av psykolingvistiska färdigheter. Resultaten visar att det finns ett klart samband mellan fonologisk träning enligt Bornholmsmodellen i förskolan och elevernas språkliga medvetenhet i grundskolan. Vidare visar resultaten att även om minnesträningen i Bornholmsmodellen inte direkt påverkat resultaten vid ITPA, så finns det ett starkt samband mellan minnestestet i ITPA och elevernas prestation vid UMESOL.

  • 22.
    Björklund, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Att hantera referenser: En jämförande fallstudie med särskilt fokus på teckenspråksanvändare med sen inlärning av sitt förstaspråk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med denna jämförande studie vill jag se och jämföra hur tre individer med olika språklig bakgrund och olika förutsättningar att lära svenskt teckenspråk hanterar referenser i en narrativ berättelse. Med särskilt fokus på en döv informant som lärt sig teckenspråk först i vuxen ålder och i jämförelse med en döv med tidig inlärning av teckenspråk som förstaspråk samt en hörande som lärt sig teckenspråk som andraspråk som vuxen har jag tittat på teckenspråkets olika sätt att referera. De tre informanterna har återberättat samma korta filmklipp vilket underlättat en någorlunda rättvis jämförelse. Syftet är att se vilka likheter och skillnader de har i referenshanteringen. Filmerna har transkriberats i ELAN för att sedan plocka ut de olika sätten att referera och jämföra dem inbördes. Resultatet visar på både skillnader och likheter mellan de tre informanterna. Resultatet bekräftar till viss del tidigare forskning och visar att det finns relevant referensmarkering särskilt i de imiterande delarna, i modifierade verb och i blickvridning och kroppsvridning.

  • 23.
    Bogren, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Swedish Students’ Perceptions of and Attitudes toward Stereotypical Gender Images in Speech2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research conducted within the linguistic subdiscipline of language and gender was carried out as early as in the 1970’s, when Lakoff (1975) identified nine main traits for female language. Based on Lakoff’s research, this project investigates Swedish students’ attitudes to and perceptions of gender stereotypes in speech. The aim of this study is to examine the attitudes and perceptions of the participants and to investigate if there has been a change in the way a speaker interprets a speech act in comparison to the 1970’s. A survey was carried out in order to be able to identify and elicit the attitudes and perceptions of stereotypical gender speech of the participants. The survey was based on the traits that Lakoff (1975) found to be typical for female speech. The survey consisted of a first part where the participant had to identify the gender of the speaker and a second part where the participants were asked about typical gender stereotypes in speech acts. The main finding was that Swedish students have a negative attitude toward filing individuals in categories based on their gender. In addition, it was found that the participants have unconscious prejudices toward both men and women based on learnt gender patterns. In conclusion, this study has shown the pattern that there has been an attitude change toward gender stereotypes since the 1970’s. However, it revealed that the students in Sweden participating in the study have a tendency to unconsciously apply gender stereotypes when interpreting a speech act. 

  • 24.
    Bohm Fiederling, Inga-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English in Swedish product packages: An exploratory study of how English is used in product packages sold in the dairy section in Swedish retail2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the use of English in the texts of product packages sold in Swedish retail. This includes looking at the proportion of English of the packages of four brands God Morgon, Froosh, Oatly and Wellness, as well as exploring what moves are most likely to be in English and furthermore, what cultural values are conveyed by the texts. The most significant findings are that the proportion of English varies among both between and within the brands, depending on the specific niche the products have. Furthermore, in line with previous studies, English is mainly found in the attention-grabbing moves such as headlines and leads, whereas Swedish is more frequent in the copy which serves a more explanatory and detailing function. This is true except for the texts of the brand Oatly, with the main copy also in English. The cultural values conveyed by the texts, finally, both support previous findings, but it may be suggested that some of the values, such as nature and morality, have just recently begun to be associated to English.

  • 25.
    Bouveng, Anne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Awareness of English varieties among Swedish secondary school pupils2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay reports on a study concerning awareness of English varieties among Swedish secondary school pupils. The aim is to find out whether Swedish secondary school pupils are aware of the differences between English varieties as regards pronunciation, spelling and vocabulary. In addition, the study aims at finding out whether pupils believe in preferences in their environment for any particular variety and what might be influencing their own preferences of English varieties.

     

    The study is questionnaire-based and the respondents are all pupils in two 8th grade classes in Stockholm. The pupils seem to believe that they are aware of the differences between varieties, although only a little more than half of the respondents claim that this includes differences in vocabulary. High recognition is claimed for Indian, Scottish and Australian English.

     

    As to preferences, British and American English dominate. Possible influences may be English textbooks claimed by the pupils to prefer mainly British English. Even English teachers are believed to have preferences mainly for British English but also American English. To the extent that friends are believed to have a preference, it is for American English. Less strong influences seem to come from the Internet, parents and school. The pupils seem to be exposed to English varieties to some extent, but apparently receive little explicit teaching which could increase awareness of English varieties.

  • 26.
    Bovin, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Occupational titles and supposed gender-neutrality: A corpus-based diachronic study on gender-neutral occupational titles in American English2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, some occupational titles have been explicitly marked for the gender of the group dominating the occupation. For example, in male-dominated occupations, titles often end with -man. However, since the second-wave feminist movement, several of the previously gender-biased titles have been supplemented by new, gender-neutral titles. Previous research has shown a discrepancy between researchers regarding the implications of these new titles. Some argue that the gender-neutral titles are only used for female referents, whereas others claim that gender-neutral titles, especially for male- dominated occupations, tend to still presuppose maleness. In the present paper, a corpus-based study is conducted on a few selected occupational titles. The aim is to investigate whether the gender-neutral alternatives have increased in usage over time, and whether the gender-biased ones have decreased. In addition, the study aims at examining whether the gender-neutral forms tend to be used primarily for women or men. The present study is corpus-based, examining the particular terms in the TIME Magazine Corpus. The results of the study show that there has been an increase of the gender-neutral forms since their introduction to English, and that they are primarily used when there is no explicit gender referencing. Proposed explanations for these results are that it may depend on the type of work involved in the selected occupations, as well as them being male-dominated. Furthermore, the results indicate that the gender- neutral terms are opted for when gender is either unknown or irrelevant for the context. 

  • 27.
    Bowin, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effekten av talarformanten och F0's styrka på otränade röstbedömare2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Speech and voice is governed by complicated processes, where a variety of different functions are used in its production and perception. Speech and voice differs in many ways from the objective measurable acoustic speech signal. The intensity of the fundamental frequency, F0, and what is called the speaker formant are two parameters that affect how voice is perceived. The purpose of the study was to investigate if the varied intensity of F0 and with or without speaker formant affect what stimuli untrained voice assessors like the most. To do so, a synthetic /a/ was created, formed by formant frequencies for Swedish vowels (Fant, 1959), varied with with or without speaker formant, and seven different intensities of the fundamental frequency, creating a total of 14 stimuli. Twelve women and eight men were asked to listen to and grade the stimuli, from the /a/ that was liked the most to the one that was liked the least. The expectations of the study were confirmed, the variation of the intensity of F0 and with or without speaker formant, did affect which stimuli the listeners preferred, and also confirmed that men and women preferred different stimuli. The two /a/’s with the weakest and the /a/ with the strongest intensity of F0, were least liked. The four /a/s with varying intensity of F0 in between, were liked approximately the same. If men and women ratings were studied separately from one another, the result differed. Women preferred stimuli with speaker formant more than the ones without, whereas men more appreciated stimuli with strong intensity of F0. If the study was the be retested and the results would be confirmed, further tests would be of interest to do, to investigate if the differences of preferences affect how speech is perceived and interpreted. 

  • 28.
    Brandström, Felicia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Intertextuality as a politeness strategy: A qualitative study of the use and function of intertextuality in the television series Suits2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the use and function of intertextuality in the television series Suits, and examines the interplay between intertextuality and politeness. Intertextuality allows a text to incorporate other texts and to draw upon connotations that belong to those texts. Politeness theory offers a tool to analyse the pragmatic use of language in social interaction. Analysing occurrences of intertextuality from the first episode of the television series, the paper explores in what ways the fictional characters use intertextuality and for what purposes. It explores if, and how, intertextuality can be used as a politeness strategy. Findings suggest that intertextuality is used for three main purposes, and functions as characterisation and as a means to establish and/or maintain social relations. Detailed analyses of instances of intertextuality propose that intertextuality can be used as a politeness theory, but only in certain ways. The paper discusses these findings and offers a possible explanation for why intertextuality is only used in this restricted way.

  • 29.
    Bysell, Lina Emilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    En revolutionerande översättning: En översättningsteoretisk uppsats om att översätta en skildring av det ryska inbördeskriget2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay covers the translation of a fictional prose text from Russian to Swedish, the source text being the first chapter of Aleksey Tolstoy’s Chmuroe utro (Bleak Morning), the third part of his trilogy Choždenie po mukam (The Ordeal). A commentary of this translation is provided, where the linguistic abstractions encountered throughout the process are documented.

    My methodology attempts to emulate that of Eugene Nida and his principle of “Dynamic Equivalence”. This procedure is addressed in the commentary, as I explain how utilisation of Nida's theories can assist in overcoming the numerous peculiarities inherent to translation.

    I also deal with the issue regarding the first two books of the trilogy, which have already been translated into Swedish by another translator. In my work, I explain how and why I have chosen to relate to the earlier translation. 

  • 30.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Grammatisk finithet i trumaí2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Traditionellt har tempusböjning och person-/numeruskongruens på verb varit de starkaste kriterierna för finithet. Det har dock visat sig vara svårapplicerade kriterier för många språk och finithet på satsnivå – huruvida en sats är självständig eller ej – har blivit en viktig fråga för definitionen.

    Uppsatsen syftar till att beskriva och analysera finithetsfenomenet utifrån språket trumaí.

    Det tycks finnas flera fenomen som är tecken på en finithetsdistinktion i trumaí, framför allt -n/-e-klitikan som markerar 3Abs på verbet vid absolutivargumentets frånvaro, samt FT-partiklarna som har en tempusfunktion. För imperativ verkar det vara så att imperativpartiklarna har en intern distribution baserad på person och animathet hos absolutivargumentet, vilket kan tolkas som att det finns en argumentkongruens frikopplad från den semantiska inkorporeringen av andraperson som subjekt. Gällande finithet på satsnivå finns det i trumaí både finita och infinita satser som kan fungera som bisatser. I strukturer där verbet beter sig prototypiskt är satsen finit, medan andra strukturers verb tycks ha rört sig mot att bete sig nominellt, varpå satsen fungerar annorlunda och är infinit.

  • 31.
    Cabraja, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The effects of video games on the receptive vocabulary proficiency of Swedish ESL students2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Playing video games is an activity that takes up an increasing amount of children’s and adolescent’s spare time. While some previous studies have highlighted the negative aspects of video games, little research has been carried out on the linguistic learning opportunities that video games present. This study primarily investigates if Swedish second language learners of English can increase their vocabulary proficiency in English with the use of video games. In order to answer the research questions, two quantitative data elicitation methods are used: a questionnaire which aims to gather attitudinal and behavioral data, and a Vocabulary Levels Test which elicits data about the participants’ receptive vocabulary proficiency. The participants consist of 25 students at an upper secondary school in Stockholm. The results show that participants who played video games scored higher on the Vocabulary Levels Test, indicating a higher receptive vocabulary proficiency. Furthermore, the results show that participants who played moderate to frequent amounts of time performed better in the Vocabulary Levels Test than infrequent players. The results also show that video games emphasizing co-operation and communication are preferable to use for vocabulary acquisition. Additionally, the study discusses if video games could be integrated into the Swedish upper secondary school system.

  • 32.
    Caliolo, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, French and Italian.
    Non skrattare!: Tipologie di errori nella produzione orale di bambini italo-svedesi2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [it]

    This thesis examines the different typologies of morphosyntactic and lexical errors committed in speaking by bilingual Swedish-Italian children, 7-9 years old, having Swedish as first dominant mother tongue and Italian as first weak mother tongue. Furthermore, this work tries to assess if performance or competence errors are committed. Stated by Green, the bilinguals’ languages are organized in separate subsystems that can be activated to different extents. For the speakers analyzed here, the frequency of use of Swedish implies their predilection for this language, whose ease of access causes a predominance of the Swedish language system over the Italian one. According to the Competition Model, by improving the knowledge of Italian, the subjects adopt the linguistic structures that they gradually acquire and the transfers from the dominant to the weak L1 gradually decrease. The collection of data has been carried out taking into account the theories defining code-switching, code-mixing and slips of the tongue. As expected, the results show that performance errors are prevalent in children with a good knowledge of Italian, especially in the morpho-lexical field (terms not occurring automatically during the production and often drawn from Swedish). On the other hand, competence errors prevail in children with a poor knowledge of Italian: having a very weak ability of normative control and being subject to a very strong interference and mixture with Swedish at every level, they often borrow terms or sentences not occurring in Italian from the dominant language.

  • 33.
    Canfora, Iraima
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    El pronombre sujeto en la interlengua (sueco L2) de un grupo de hispanohablantes2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    La presente investigación estudia la omisión del pronombre sujeto en la interlengua de un hablante nativo de español (L1) en el proceso de adquisición del sueco como (L2). La posibilidad de que un hispanohablante omita el pronombre sujeto, aceptado en español que es una lengua de sujeto nulo, a la hora de adquirir una L2 que no admite tal omisión, es una de las interrogantes a las que trataremos de dar respuestas, sobre todo si esta omisión se debe a transferencias de la L1 (lengua materna), en el caso que se compruebe que eso sí ocurre. Una hipótesis que nos planteamos es si el aprendiz que cuenta ya con conocimientos previos de la estructura gramatical de una lengua que no admite el pro-drop, comete menos el error de omisión del pronombre sujeto. Nuestro propósito es demostrar lo antes dicho mediante un estudio con aprendices hispanohablantes. Concluido el mismo, los resultados obtenidos muestran que aún sin tener otra lengua extranjera (LE), como por ej. el inglés, no necesariamente se omite el sujeto, a causa, como teníamos la creencia, de una sobregeneralización de reglas.

  • 34.
    Careborg, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att ta sig vatten över huvudet: En studie om idiomförståelse ur ett tvåspråkighets- och andraspråksperspektiv2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur väl tvåspråkiga elever i årskurs 9 behärskade vanligt förekommande idiomatiska uttryck i skrivet språk. Tre faktorer som enligt tidigare studier visat sig påverka idiomförståelse är; semantisk transparens, om uttrycket står i en kontext samt tidigare kännedom om uttrycket. Läsförmågan kontrollerades med ett standardiserat avkodnings- och läsförståelsetest, och idiomförståelsen testades utifrån ett test med 45, främst transparenta frekventa idiomatiska uttryck, isolerade respektive i en kontext. Resultaten visade att typ av tvåspråkighet och nivå på läskunnighet påverkade idiomförståelsen. De successivt tvåspråkiga med svenska som andraspråk klarade inte av att använda kontexten vid tolkningen i lika hög grad som de simultant tvåspråkiga och successivt tvåspråkiga med svenska som förstaspråk. Däremot presterade båda grupperna bäst vid tolkningen av idiomatiska uttryck som de hade kännedom om sedan tidigare. Enligt utvecklingsmodellen, global elaboration model (GEM) börjar utvecklingsprocessen för figurativ kompetens i 8 årsåldern hos enspråkiga barn. Enligt resultaten i denna studie kunde successivt tvåspråkiga med svenska som andraspråk i årskurs 9 jämföras med enspråkiga barn i 7-8 årsåldern, medan gruppen med simultant tvåspråkiga och successivt tvåspråkiga med svenska som förstaspråk, kunde jämföras med enspråkiga barn mellan 9-12 år.

  • 35.
    Carlberg, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att förstärka sinnelag och sinnesstämning: En korpusstudie av förstärkande förled hos svenska adjektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is no description in the Swedish grammar regarding how adjectives can be reinforced with prefixes, also known as intensifiers. Research shows that this phenomenon have recieved greater attention in other languages. The purpose of this study was to describe and map the use of prefix reinforcements, and see if any patterns or rules could be found. The quantitative research is based on statistical data collected from informal blog texts in two Swedish corpora. Adjectives on two types of mood, solid and temporary, as well as positive and negative, were investigated. The results showed that some types were more inclined to take reinforcements than others. Temporary adjectives took on more than solid ones, negative more than positive, as well as the short and frequent adjectives where more often reinforced than the longer and uncommon ones

  • 36.
    Colliander, Martha-Paula
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Hen: mer än ett ord på tre bokstäver: En korpusbaserad studie om distributionen av olika funktioner hos pronomenet hen i sociala medier 2012-20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a corpus-based study, which aims to investigate both the distribution and function of the pronoun hen in social media platforms, during the time period 2012-2017. Since 2012, the year when a broad debate sparked regarding the use of hen, the pronoun has increasingly been incorporated into the Swedish language. By using the search-tool Korp, and the collection of texts provided by Språkbanken, 186 occurrences of hen have been analyzed. These occurrences were extracted from various social media corpora, specifically Bloggmix, Familjeliv, Flashback and Twittermix. The data were tagged into eight different categories: Könsöverskridande (Non-gender), Anonymising and Unknown-sex, Indefinite and generic, Meta, Nominalised, Non-human, Unclear and Other. The results show that the dominant function of hen are the anonymized- and unknown-hen, comprising up to 47% of all cases. Also, the second most prominent function is the Generic-hen, with a total of 28%. Finally, the function Meta-hen, covers about 13% of all occurrences. These result indicate that the pronoun is debated less in social media compared to results from previous studies where Meta-hen proved to be the dominant use in previous years (Ledin & Lyngfelt, 2013: 168). Instead it is more common to use hen in order to anonymize, for example, or when it is not possible to comment on the gender identity of a person when the sex is unknown, and that it is more common to generalize in different contexts instead. Moreover, it can be noted that the use of hen had increased on both Bloggmix and Familjeliv until 2016. Conversely, the data shows that its use on Flashback fluctuated over time, and showed a constant decline on Twittermix.

  • 37.
    Couturier Kaijser, Vilma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Omöjlig, olycklig, oönskad: O-prefigerade adjektiv och particip i svensk blogg- och nyhetstext2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Affixal negation of adjectives occur in several Indo-European languages. Previous studies show recurring patterns: the affixed stem is derived and has a positive value. The affixation creates a negative antonym. This corpus-based study examines the prefix o- in modern Swedish. The form and value of prefixed stems are investigated. The results of this study show that 91.5 % of the 563 most frequent prefixed words have a derived stem and many are deverbal. Among the 100 most frequent words, the stems have a positive value. Asymmetry in the use of the prefix occurs. 11.2 % of the study’s prefixed stems do not have a non-prefixed form. 48 of the 100 most frequent words belong to the semantic type HUMAN PROPENSITY.

    The second part of this study investigates the antonymic relationship between prefixed and non-prefixed words. The prefixed word often has a more general and abstract meaning when there is no direct antonymic relationship. The prefixed word may also have an older meaning, which is no longer used today. This study shows no clear patterns in differences in generality and abstractness in meaning between the prefixed word and the lexical antonym to the non-prefixed word.

  • 38.
    Dahl, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    "Uno nunca sabe lo que se puede encontrar": Las construcciones impersonales con referencia humana en la traducción española de la novela negra Det som inte dödar oss de David Lagercrantz2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El pronombre man es muy usado en sueco, tanto en lengua escrita como en lengua hablada. Es un pronombre indefinido que puede referirse a una persona o a varias y que puede tanto incluir como excluir al hablante. En esta tesina vamos a estudiar cómo se traduce man al español peninsular ya que no existe un pronombre equivalente que valga para todas las ocasiones. El análisis de una traducción del género de la novela negra que contiene muchos diálogos nos permite ver si existen diferencias entre la traducción de la narración y de los diálogos. Además, comparamos las varias construcciones usadas para traducir el pronombre man con los resultados de estudios recientes sobre el uso de las construcciones impersonales en el español peninsular hablado.

  • 39.
    Dahlberg, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Tre svenska myndigheters strategier för termöversättning till spanska och franska2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Målet med denna uppsats är att undersöka vilka strategier som tre svenska myndigheter använder vid översättning av femton systematiskt utvalda termer, från svenska till spanska och franska. Arbetet grundar sig därtill i Niskas och Frøilis (1992) sex strategier för termöversättning, anpassade för detta arbetes praktiska tillämpning: direkt/ungefärlig motsvarighet; översättningslån; parafrasering; direktlån; nybildning; och översättningsdubblett. Därutöver ställs hypotesen att antalet rotmorfem i en term inverkar på vilken strategi som används för dess översättning. Resultaten visar att fem av Niskas och Frøilis strategier, närmare bestämt alla utom nybildning, används för termöversättningarna. De totala resultaten avslöjar att den största andelen av dem använder direkt/ungefärlig motsvarighet, följt av översättningslån och parafrasering som har ungefär jämnstora andelar, vartefter översättningsdubblett och direktlån har betydligt mindre andelar, varav den förras är större än den senares. Hypotesen visar sig inte kunna bekräftas. Vad beträffar värdet av resultaten poängteras att variation i översättningsstrategier försvårar förståelsen av de spanska och franska måltexterna, vilket i sin tur motverkar det enkla, vårdade och begripliga språk i myndigheters kommunikation som svensk lagstiftning strävar efter.

  • 40.
    Dandache, Rayan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English borrowings on South Korean TV: A study of how English borrowings are utilized in South Korean television programs2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    English has been utilized as a donor language for lexical borrowing of loanwords for a long time, by many different languages. One of those languages is Korean: and despite the importance of the English influence on the Korean language, few have researched what word class the loanwords within the language belong to and if the lexical borrowing goes through any changes. The purpose of the present study was to establish what type of lexical borrowings occur in Korean television programs and what processes the lexical borrowings go through before settling within the borrowing language and how these results would relate to studies in other languages. The results showed a strong tendency for English nouns to be borrowed regardless of the genres of the different programs analysed for this study. Loanwords was the most common borrowing type with 493 followed by loanshifts with 31. Loanblends were very uncommon with only 3 found, suggesting further research or a different approach. The results were also compatible with findings in other languages.

  • 41.
    David, Jonas Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Den komplexa språksituationen hos en flerspråkig talare: En fallstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to explore and analyse the complex language situation and use of a multilingual person. The examined person is called Frida. Already at a young age she had acquired more than two languages and today she has been in relevant contact with around seven languages. This study wanted to connect to the theories and models, which are presented in today’s research on Second and Third Language Acquisition. The study was entirely based on Frida’s self reports according to the following criteria: her background of language acquisition, her proficiency levels and her attitudes and perception towards her own language situation and languages in general. These criteria had been worked out with the help of guided qualitative interviews and a self-assessment grid for the language skills. The results approved that Frida’s language use and situation is affected by the interaction of an amount of multifactorial components, which occur in a multilingual context. This analysis of Frida’s language background, her language use, attitudes and awareness gave an insight into how the underlying mechanisms of multilingualism work.

  • 42.
    Dervisevic, Melisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Comparative Study of Possible Early Bilingual Advantages in EFL Writing2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project involved a quantitative study of written proficiency in the English Language of early balanced bilingual Bosnian/Swedish learners of English as a Foreign Language (EFL). 15 early bilingual Bosnian/Swedish EFL learners were recruited for the study and matched with their respective control groups of intermediate-advanced EFL learners (15 speakers of Bosnian as their first language (L1) and 15 speakers of Swedish as their L1). Prior to the experimental task, the participants and their respective controls were asked to self-assess their linguistic skills on a 6-point Likert scale, then they were instructed to write a reflective text in English without prior preparation about the most significant invention of the 20th century. The written data were analyzed in L2 Syntactic Complexity Analyzer and TL software programs respectively. Data analysis involved measures of syntactical and lexical complexity, specifically t-units and type token ratio. It was found that the participants’ written data were characterized by superior type token ratio values as well as by superior T-units scores.

  • 43.
    Drangert, Lisette
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Longitudinella förändringar av yttranden inom variationsmängder i barnriktat tal: En korpusstudie av yttrandetyper och verb2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Variation sets are a feature in child-directed speech characterized by successive utterances in which the adult speaker repeats and reorders their message with a constant intent. The aim of this study was to investigate variation sets over time in speech directed to children in the ages 7-33 months. The purpose was to study which types of utterances that dominates the variation sets at different ages, and which utterance-types that tend to co-occur within the variation sets. Furthermore intent was studied as well as change in verb tense in these variation sets. A script was written to categorize types of utterances with data from a corpus consisting of child directed speech. A quantitative research was performed on the results based on four different age groups.

    The complexity of the utterances within variation sets was shown to grow with the increasing age of the children. Furthermore a noticeable difference was observed in the intent of the adult speaker, correlating with the age of the child, and also a decrease in use of interjection combined with yes/no- questions and complex utterances the older the children were. A suggested interpretation of the result was that the adult tend to take both sides of the conversation when the children are young as opposed to when they speak to older, more verbal, children that can provide the answer themselves. 

  • 44.
    Drapsa, Mindy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    En kartläggning av kalendariska termer i svenskt teckenspråk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kartläggningen av kalendariska tecken som semantisk domän i det svenska teckenspråket grundar sig på en pågående tjeckisk teckenspråkstypologisk studie. Parametrar som kartläggningen fokuserar på är bokstaverade tecken, sammansatta tecken, sifferinkorporering och tecken som placeras utmed tidslinjer.

    Datainsamlingen sker via en enkätundersökning med videointervjuer, samt från svenskt teckenspråkslexikon. Tecknen från svenskt teckenspråkslexikon sorteras vidare i tabeller med presentation och diskussion. Det framgår att bokstaverade tecken tillämpas mest när det gäller kalendermånader och veckodagar. Både sammansatta tecken och sifferinkorporering förekommer hos ett par kalendariska tecken. Tidslinjer tillämpas hos teckenexempel i tidsenheter samt veckodagar med ett visst tillägg.

  • 45.
    Duff, Shawn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Relative clause formation in King Alfred's translation of Gregory's Pastoral Care2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, relative clauses in King Alfred’s Old English translation of Gregory the Great’s Pastoral Care were examined using relative frequency as a tool to determine whether or not certain factors influenced the choice of relativization strategy. These factors include antecedent case, antecedent gender, antecedent number, distance, animacy, noun phrase type, case of relativized NP, and syntactic function.

    The method involved gathering together all the occurrences of relative clauses using the Old English corpus and a Modern English translation. This process was not unproblematic as the correct translation from Old English to modern English sometimes was left to the discretion of the translator. Some clauses that were initially thought to be relative clauses were, in fact, not relative clauses. The components of each of the clauses were then examined and categorized after any problematic examples were discarded. Relative frequencies for each of the categories were calculated and chi-square tests were performed to check the reliability of the results.

    The results of this paper were compared to another paper which did somewhat similar research to determine if the findings were consistent although that paper did not look at as many factors as this paper.

  • 46.
    Eklund, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    La diferencia cultural entre Suecia y España con respecto a las organizaciones económicas: Los factores culturales que se deben tener en cuenta al establecer un negocio en España2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El propósito de esta investigación es identificar los factores culturales de los suecos y los españoles, en su encuentro dentro de una organización, que pueden intervenir en el establecimiento económico en España. Estudios anteriores han identificado la problemática de los encuentros culturales dentro de las organizaciones, y postulan que en realidad existen diferencias culturales claras entre las naciones, que pueden conducir a un resultado económico negativo. Los participantes de la investigación ya están familiarizados con el concepto principal del estudio, la cultura organizacional, puesto que son estudiantes de negocios. Estos respondieron a una encuesta, llevada a cabo tanto en español como en sueco, que trata de medir las actitudes, y el promedio obtenido por la importancia que pone el encuestado en cada afirmación, entre un intervalo de uno hasta cinco, de los participantes. Según las respuestas de 67 participantes, podemos responder a la pregunta de investigación, es decir, que sí existen diferencias culturales entre los suecos y los españoles hoy en día. En este trabajo se sacan además conclusiones acerca de cuáles de éstas pueden impedir un establecimiento económico exitoso en España.

  • 47.
    Eklås Tejman, Claudia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Automatisk citatidentifiering för nyhetstext på svenska2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The strategies for marking quotations in Swedish differ from most other European languages. Since most systems for quotation identification are developed for English, there was a need for a quotation identification system specifically adapted for Swedish. A gold standard of 100 quotes from SUC 3.0 and 206 quotes from unformatted, web crawled news data was compiled to analyse the syntactic structures and marking patterns of Swedish quotation. A rule based system for quotation identification based on the patterns was developed. It achieved an F-score of 0.79 for the raw news data that contained the gold standard quotes and was able to identify 13 of 19 marking patterns. It could not determine whether the quotes ended after the reporting phrase or not, since the raw text data lacked formatting for most common way to mark the end of a quote in Swedish.

  • 48.
    Engdahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Tremänning eller syssling: Automatisk sökning i bloggar efter ordisoglosser i Sverige2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Ibland används i två dialekter olika ord för samma sak. Syftet med denna studie är att visa vad somkan automatiseras i sökandet efter ord-isoglosser. Detta undersöks genom att skriva och utvärdera ettprogram som genom att analasyera bloggtext söker efter ordisoglosser i Sverige. En isogloss är engeografisk gräns mellan två olika språkliga egenskaper, till exempel prosodi eller betoning, eller som idetta fall ord. Programmet mappar skribentens kommun till orden från bloggtexterna i en databas. Lagttill detta låter programmet användaren söka efter antingen hur vanligt ett ord är i Sveriges kommunerjämfört med riksgenomsnittet; eller vilket av två olika ord som är vanligast inom varje kommun, enligtett två-sidigt proportionstest. Resultatet av de gjorda sökningarna skrevs till en fil och plottades sedanmanuellt. Utvärderingen visar att programmet kan hitta några ordisoglosser mellan kommuner, och attkartorna i viss utsträckning stämmer överrens med de resultat som Parkvall (Parkvall, 2011; Parkvall,2012) påvisar. Detta indikerar att programmet är en bra början för liknande studier. Förbättringar avprogrammet är att användaren tillåts använda reguljära uttryck för att få bort ambuigitet.

  • 49.
    Engström, Paul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    What does it mean to be 'manly'?: A corpus analysis of masculinity in the 19thcentury2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to examine how the word manly was used during the 19thcentury. Using the Corpus of Historical American English (COHA) it looks atcollocates, the spread across registers and semantic meaning, in order to gain a betterunderstanding of the word and its usage. Due to this term’s connotations with gender,the findings will finally be discussed in relation to Gender Performativity andMasculinity Theory.

  • 50.
    Ericsson, Tina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    "It is certain that it can be argued a million times over" - expressions of epistemic modality in L1 and L2 writing2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This corpus-based study analyzes different types of epistemic markers used in argumentative essays by University students. More specifically it compares Swedish L2 writers and English L1 writers. The scope of the analysis covers epistemic modal verbs, lexical verbs and adverbs. A number of markers are counted to see which expressions are preferred by L1 and L2 writers respectively and if the frequency rates differ between the two groups. Further, it discusses whether the non-native writers use epistemic markers appropriate to an academic register, and an attempt is made to see whether the L1 and L2 writers show similar patterns of ‘committing’ to and ‘distancing’ themselves to their arguments. The results reveal a few notable differences between the Swedish and English writers. A tendency is seen among the L2 writers to ‘overuse’ certain expressions, particularly in the category of lexical verbs. Compared to the native writers, the L2 writers display higher frequency rates when it comes to markers that are most commonly found in spoken conversation. Further the L2 writers seem to display more ‘writer visibility’ than the L1 writers do, which could perhaps be due to differences in writing culture. The findings also suggest that Swedish L2 writers, even on a relatively advanced level, may have difficulties in mastering modal expressions in English.

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