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  • 151.
    Bjarnadottir, Valgerdur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Oblique anticausative in Lithuanian: A comparative approachIn: Baltistica, ISSN 0132-6503, E-ISSN 2345-0045Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 152.
    Bjarnadóttir, Valgerdur
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    de Smit, Merlijn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Primary Argument Case-marking in Baltic and Finnic2013In: Baltu filologija, ISSN 1691-0036, Vol. XXII, no 1, 31-65 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 153.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Genetic Algorithms in the Brill Tagger: Moving towards language independence2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The viability of using rule-based systems for part-of-speech tagging was revitalised when a simple rule-based tagger was presented by Brill (1992). This tagger is based on an algorithm which automatically derives transformation rules from a corpus, using an error-driven approach. In addition to performing on par with state of the art stochastic systems for part-of-speech tagging, it has the advantage that the automatically derived rules can be presented in a human-readable format.

    In spite of its strengths, the Brill tagger is quite language dependent, and performs much better on languages similar to English than on languages with richer morphology. This issue is addressed in this paper through defining rule templates automatically with a search that is optimised using Genetic Algorithms. This allows the Brill GA-tagger to search a large search space for templates which in turn generate rules which are appropriate for various target languages, which has the added advantage of removing the need for researchers to define rule templates manually.

    The Brill GA-tagger performs significantly better (p<0.001) than the standard Brill tagger on all 9 target languages (Chinese, Japanese, Turkish, Slovene, Portuguese, English, Dutch, Swedish and Icelandic), with an error rate reduction of between 2% -- 15% for each language.

  • 154.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Predicting the N400 Component in Manipulated and Unchanged Texts with a Semantic Probability Model2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of computational linguistics, recent research has made successful advances in integrating word space models with n-gram models. This is of particular interest when a model that encapsulates both semantic and syntactic information is desirable. A potential application for this can be found in the field of psycholinguistics, where the neural response N400 has been found to occur in contexts with semantic incongruities. Previous research has found correlations between cloze probabilities and N400, while more recent research has found correlations between cloze probabilities and language models.

    This essay attempts to uncover whether or not a more direct connection between integrated models and N400 can be found, hypothesizing that low probabilities elicit strong N400 responses and vice versa. In an EEG experiment, participants read a text manipulated using a language model, and a text left unchanged. Analysis of the results shows that the manipulations to some extent yielded results supporting the hypothesis. Further results are found when analysing responses to the unchanged text. However, no significant correlations between N400 and the computational model are found. Future research should improve the experimental paradigm, so that a larger scale EEG recording can be used to construct a large EEG corpus.

  • 155.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Engdahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Anticipatory Looking in Infants and Adults2011In: Proceedings of EyeTrackBehavior 2011, 2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Infant language acquisition research faces the challenge of dealing with subjects who are unable to provide spoken answers to research questions. To obtain comprehensible data from such subjects eye tracking is a suitable research tool, as the infants’ gaze can be interpreted as behavioural responses. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the amount of training necessary for participants to learn an audio-visual contingency and present anticipatory looking behaviour in response to an auditory stimulus. Infants (n=22) and adults (n=16) were presented with training sequences, every fourth of which was followed by a test sequence. Training sequences contained implicit audio-visual contingencies consisting of a syllable (/da/ or /ga/) followed by an image appearing on the left/right side of the screen. Test sequences were identical to training sequences except that no image appeared. The latency in time to first fixation towards the non-target area during test sequences was used as a measurement of whether the participants had grasped the contingency. Infants were found to present anticipatory looking behaviour after 24 training trials. Adults were found to present anticipatory looking behaviour after 28-36 training trials. In future research a more interactive experiment design will be employed in order to individualise the amount of training, which will increase the time span available for testing.

  • 156.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Engdahl, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Tengstrand, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Preceding non-linguistic stimuli affect categorisation of Swedish plosives2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception is highly context-dependent. Sounds preceding speech stimuli affect how listeners categorise the stimuli, regardless of whether the context consists of speech or non-speech. This effect is acoustically contrastive; a preceding context with high-frequency acoustic energy tends to skew categorisation towards speech sounds possessing lower-frequency acoustic energy and vice versa (Mann, 1980; Holt, Lotto, Kluender, 2000; Holt, 2005). Partially replicating Holt's study from 2005, the present study investigates the effect of non-linguistic contexts in different frequency bands on speech categorisation. Adult participants (n=15) were exposed to Swedish syllables from a speech continuum ranging from /da/ to /ga/ varying in the onset frequencies of the second and third formants in equal steps. Contexts preceding the speech stimuli consisted of sequences of sine tones distributed in different frequency bands: high, mid and low. Participants were asked to categorise the syllables as /da/ or /ga/. As hypothesised, high frequency contexts shift the category boundary towards /da/, while lower frequency contexts shift the boundary towards /ga/, compared to the mid frequency context.

  • 157.
    Bjerva, Johannes
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Training in Anticipatory Looking Experiments with Adult Participants2011In: Proceedings of the 17th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Wai-Sum Lee & Eric Zee, 2011, 316-319 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of training necessary to trigger anticipatory looking was investigated in adults (n=16) using a simple testing paradigm, in order to create a baseline for studies on infants’ language acquisition. Participants were presented with training containing implicit associations between two syllables (/da/ and /ga/) and visual events displayed on different areas on the screen. The training series were periodically interrupted by test trials where a syllable was presented but no visual event was displayed. Significantly altered looking behaviour, as measured by participants’ first gaze fixation latency towards the Non-target area (where the visual event should not be expected), was found after 28-36 training trials.

  • 158.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    A Study of Simultaneous-masking and Pulsation-threshold Patterns of a Steady-state Synthetic Vowel: A Preliminary Report2006In: Working Papers 52 (2006): Proceedings from FONETIK 2006, Lund, June 7-9, 2006 / [ed] Ambrazaitis, G. & Schötz, S., Lund: Lund University, Centre for Languages and Literature , 2006, 13-16 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study will be a remake in part of Tyler & Lindblom "Preliminary study of simultaneous masking and pulsation-threshold patterns of vowels" (1982), with the use of today's technology. A steady-state vowel as masker and pure tones as signals will be presented using simultaneous-masking (SM) and pulsation-threshold (PT) procedures in an adjustment method to collect the vowel masking pattern. Vowel intensity is changed in three steps of 15 dB. For SM, each 15 dB change is expected to result in about a 10-13-dB change in signal thresholds. For PT, the change in signal thresholds with vowel intensity is expected to be about 3-4 dB. These results would correspond with the results from the Tyler & Lindblom study. Depending on technology outcome, further experiments can be made, involving representations of dynamic stimuli like CV-transitions and diphthongs.

  • 159.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effekten av fonologisk träning enligt Bornholmsmodellen på elevers språkliga medvetenhet i årskurs 12001Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport är en del av en longitudinell studie av psykolingvistisk ålder och språklig medvetenhet hos elever i årskurs 1 på två olika skolor i Vallentuna kommun. I studien har material från de tre senaste projektåren bearbetats. Syftet med undersökningen var att undersöka huruvida fonologisk träning enligt den s.k. Bornholmsmodellen under elevernas tid i 6-årsklass återspeglar sig i ökad språklig medvetenhet och högre psykolingvistisk ålder i årskurs 1. Vidare undersöktes om den fonologiska träningen kan ha påverkat barnens arbetsminne. Två typer av test användes: UMESOL för kartläggning av fonologisk medvetenhet och ITPA, ett standardiserat test av psykolingvistiska färdigheter. Resultaten visar att det finns ett klart samband mellan fonologisk träning enligt Bornholmsmodellen i förskolan och elevernas språkliga medvetenhet i grundskolan. Vidare visar resultaten att även om minnesträningen i Bornholmsmodellen inte direkt påverkat resultaten vid ITPA, så finns det ett starkt samband mellan minnestestet i ITPA och elevernas prestation vid UMESOL.

  • 160.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Effekten av fonologisk träning enligt Bornholmsmodellen på elevers tidiga läs- och skrivinlärning i årskurser 1 och 22002Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I en longitudinell studie har elever i årskurs 1 och 2 på två olika skolor i Vallentuna kommun undersökts under tre på varandra följande projektår. Huvudsyftet med denna studie var att undersöka huruvida träning i fonologisk medvetenhet enligt den s.k. Bornholmsmodellen under elevernas tid i sexårsklass påverkar deras läs- och skrivinlärning. Tre typer av test användes, under årskurs 1 administrerades UMESOL för kartläggning av fonologisk medvetenhet och ITPA, för kartläggning av psykolingvistiska färdigheter. Under årskurs 2 kartlades elevernas läs- och skrivutveckling med UMESOL, ”läsning och skrivning”. I kontrast med tidigare forskningsresultat som pekade på en fördelaktig användning av Bornholmsmodellen under elevernas förskoleklassår, visade resultaten i denna studie inte på entydiga långsiktiga effekter för de elever som tränats fonologiskt enligt Bornholmsmodellen. Istället verkade den avgörande faktorn för elevernas läs- och skrivutveckling vara skoltillhörighet och pedagogisk ledning under dessa första skolår.

  • 161.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lingvistiska och interaktiva aspekter på barn-vuxen kommunikation ur ett patologiskt perspektiv2005In: Konferensrapport från Tionde Nordiska Barnspråkssymposiet, Gävle 2005, Gävle: Högskolan i Gävle , 2005, 32-38 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Som en del av pågående forskning vid fonetiklaboratoriet, SU, utförs månatligen inspelningar med syfte att studera interaktionen i en mor-barndyad, där barnet har ett medfött produktions- och perceptionshandikapp. En pojke, född med Hemifacial Mikrosomia, vilket innebär partiellt försämrad hörsel, undersöks under åldrarna 8-30 månader. Syndromet inbegriper bl a avsaknad av vänster ytteröra, kind- och okben. Barnet har sondmatats via näsan upp till ca 8 månaders ålder. Studien är inriktad på pojkens språkliga och kommunikativa utveckling och på föräldrarnas samspel med honom. För att undersöka hur representationer av barnets tidiga ord kan utvecklas hos ett handikappat barn görs dels analyser av barnets vokalisationer, joller och tal och dels analyser av moderns lingvistiska struktur, timing och turtagning, repetitioner och strategi att anpassa sig till barnets uppmärksamhetsfokus. Audio- och videoinspelningar används för att samla in data på förälder-barn interaktionen och barnets vokalisationer. Eyetracking mäter barnets ögonrörelser vid presentation av audiovisuella stimuli. SECDI formulär används regelbundet för att undersöka utvecklingen av barnets lexikala produktion. Preliminära analyser tyder på generella ökade interaktiva åtgärder från föräldrarna. För att underlätta kommunikation och språklig utveckling har föräldrarna bl a introducerat tecken som stöd (TSS).

  • 162.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Koponen, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Assessing the significance of Tallal's transform2002In: TMH-QPSR 44: Proceedings Fonetik 2002, 141-144, Stockholm, Sweden, 2002, 141-144 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The perceptual significance of enhancing amplitude contrasts at the onset of formant transitions in CV-syllables and of reducing the “speaking” tempo was studied with a group of normally developing school children. Natural and synthetic speech stimuli were used in the perception experiments. A total of 83 children, second and third graders, were tested on their ability to discriminate between CV syllables presented in pairs. The results indicate that the children’s discrimination performance resisted acoustic manipulations of both the natural and synthetic stimuli. Neither spectral nor timing manipulations rendered significant differencesin discrimination results.

  • 163.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Influence of pre-school phonological training on early reading and writing abilities2003In: 15th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences (ICPhS) 2003, 2003, 2846-2848 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports a study of the possible impact of pre-school phonological training on first and second graders' reading and writing abilities. Two public schools in the Stockholm metropolitan area were selected. The children were divided in two groups, depending on whether or not they had participated in a phonological training program in their last pre-school year. The children's linguistic and literacy development was followed during their first two school years. Psycholinguistic profiles (ITPA) were obtained for all the first grade children, along with an assessment of their phonological awareness. In the second grade, the children were reassessed to map their reading and writing abilities. Although the results suggested an initial advantage in general linguistic awareness for the children enrolled in the phonological training program, that advantage seems to be quickly overshadowed by social and personal factors such as continuity in the pedagogical leadership and attended school.

  • 164.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    On Linguistic and Interactive Aspects of Infant-Adult Communication in a Pathological Perspective2005In: Proceedings, FONETIK 2005 / [ed] Eriksson, A & Lindh, J., Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik , 2005, 55-58 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a preliminary report of a study of some linguistic and interactive aspects available in an adult-child dyad where the child is partially hearing impaired, during the ages 8 - 20 months. The investigation involves a male child, born with Hemifacial Microsomia. Audio and video recordings are used to collect data on child vocalization and parent-child interaction. Eye-tracking is used to measure eye movements when presented with audio-visual stimuli. SECDI forms are applied to observe the development of the child's lexical production. Preliminary analyses indicate increased overall parental interactive behaviour. As babbling is somewhat delayed due to physical limitations, signed supported Swedish is used to facilitate communication and language development. Further collection and analysis of data is in progress in search of valuable information of the linguistic development from a pathological perspective of language acquisition.

  • 165.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Potential relevance of general purpose mechanisms to the onset of language: Audio-visual integration of ambient language in pathological perspective2005In: ESF Research Conference on Brain Development and Cognition in Human Infants: From Action to Cognition, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Björklund, Ylva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Att hantera referenser: En jämförande fallstudie med särskilt fokus på teckenspråksanvändare med sen inlärning av sitt förstaspråk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Med denna jämförande studie vill jag se och jämföra hur tre individer med olika språklig bakgrund och olika förutsättningar att lära svenskt teckenspråk hanterar referenser i en narrativ berättelse. Med särskilt fokus på en döv informant som lärt sig teckenspråk först i vuxen ålder och i jämförelse med en döv med tidig inlärning av teckenspråk som förstaspråk samt en hörande som lärt sig teckenspråk som andraspråk som vuxen har jag tittat på teckenspråkets olika sätt att referera. De tre informanterna har återberättat samma korta filmklipp vilket underlättat en någorlunda rättvis jämförelse. Syftet är att se vilka likheter och skillnader de har i referenshanteringen. Filmerna har transkriberats i ELAN för att sedan plocka ut de olika sätten att referera och jämföra dem inbördes. Resultatet visar på både skillnader och likheter mellan de tre informanterna. Resultatet bekräftar till viss del tidigare forskning och visar att det finns relevant referensmarkering särskilt i de imiterande delarna, i modifierade verb och i blickvridning och kroppsvridning.

  • 167.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    An analysis of polyadic lingua franca speech: A communicative strategies framework2014In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 66, 122-138 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on an analysis of the communicative strategies (CSs) used by speakers in spoken lingua franca English (ELF) in an academic setting. The purpose of the work has primarily been to outline the CSs used in polyadic ELF speech which are used to ensure communication effectiveness in consequential situations and to present a framework that shows the different communicative functions of a number of CSs. The data comprise fifteen group sessions of naturally occurring student group-work talk in content courses at a technical university. Detailed qualitative analyses have been carried out, resulting in a framework of the communication strategies used by the speakers. The methodology here provides us with a taxonomy of CSs in natural ELF interactions. The results show that other than explicitness strategies, comprehension checks, confirmation checks and clarification requests were frequently employed CSs in the data. There were very few instances of self and other-initiated word replacement, most likely owing to the nature of the high-stakes interactions where the focus is on the task and not the language. The results overall also show that the speakers in these ELF interactions employed other-initiated strategies as frequently as self-initiated communicative strategies.

  • 168.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Attitudes towards English in university language policy documents in Sweden2015In: Attitudes towards English in Europe: English in Europe, Volume 1 / [ed] Andrew Linn, Neil Bermel, Gibson Ferguson, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, 115-138 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents a discourse analytic study of the existing language policy documents from nine Swedish universities with regard to attitudes towards English. The discourse of the language policy documents has been studied carefully to investigate how the use of English is mentioned, what main themes it occurs in and what these themes seem to indicate with regard to attitudes towards the use of English in Swedish higher education. Four main themes for English emerge from the results of the investigation: 1) English as an important language that one is required to be proficient in; 2) English is here to stay, but it needs to be used alongside the local language Swedish and other languages where possible, aiming for parallel language use; 3) English poses a threat to Swedish (and other languages); and finally 4) English used in such university settings needs to be plain, comprehensible and intelligible. The theme with the strongest presence in the documents overall is theme 2, which is also explicitly stated in the rules, regulations and guidelines in these documents. Although there are few explicit instances of theme 3 in the data, the strong presence of theme 2 reveals the underlying attitudes in the documents: Swedish as an academic language is under threat and therefore must be “maintained”, “promoted” and “protected”. The results suggest that, despite the everyday language practices (as defined by Spolsky 2004) of the individuals in these higher education settings and which language they need for their everyday tasks, the use of English seems to be encouraged only if it occurs with the local language Swedish.

  • 169.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as a lingua franca and the international university: Language policy rhetoric and ground reality2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 170.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as a lingua franca in higher education: Implications for EAP2011In: Ibérica, ISSN 1139-7241, E-ISSN 2340-2784, no 22, 79-100 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The last decade has brought a number of changes for higher education in continental Europe and elsewhere, a major one being the increasing use of English as a lingua franca (ELF) as the medium of instruction. With this change, RAP is faced with a new group of learners who will need to use it predominantly in ELF settings to communicate with speakers from other first language backgrounds. This overview paper first discusses the changes that have taken place in the field of EAP in terms of student body, followed by an outline of the main findings of research carried out on ELF These changes and the results of recent ELF research have important implications for EAP instruction and testing. It is argued here that EAP needs to be modified accordingly to cater for the needs of this group. These revolve around the two major issues: norms and standards for spoken English and target use. If the aim of EAP instruction and testing is to prepare speakers for academic settings where English is the lingua franca, the findings of ELF research need to be taken into consideration and then integrated into EAP curriculum design and testing, rethinking norms and target use. The norms and standards used by EAP instruction must be based on this realistic English, and educational resources should be deployed more realistically, including the usage of ELF, thereby validating the pluralism of English. This paper argues that any practice that excludes this perspective would be reducing EAP qualitatively and quantitatively.

  • 171.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as a Lingua Franca in the business domain (BELF)2016In: Investigating English in Europe: Contexts and Agendas: English in Europe, Volume 6 / [ed] Andrew Linn, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, 89-92 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 172.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English as an academic lingua franca: An investigation of form and communicative effectiveness2013Book (Refereed)
  • 173.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Exploring ELF: Academic English Shaped by Non-native Speakers2013In: English Language Teaching, ISSN 1916-4742, E-ISSN 1916-4750, Vol. 67, no 4, 494-497 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Investigating English as a lingua franca in applied science education: Aims, methods, findings and implications2012In: Current Trends in LSP Research. Aims and Methods / [ed] Petersen, M.; Engberg, J., Bern: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012, 163-186 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 175.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Language ideology or language practice?: An analysis of language policy documents at Swedish universities2014In: Multilingua - Journal of Cross-cultural and Interlanguage Communiciation, ISSN 0167-8507, E-ISSN 1613-3684, Vol. 33, no 3-4, 335-363 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents an analysis and interpretation of language policy documents from eight Swedish universities with regard to intertextuality, authorship and content analysis of the notions of language practices and English as a lingua franca (ELF). The analysis is then linked to Spolsky's framework of language policy, namely language practices, language beliefs, values (and ideology), and language planning or management (Spolsky 2004). The results show that the language policy documents refer heavily to official documents that have as their primary aim to protect and promote the Swedish language (e. g., the Language Act 2009), which appears to have been the point of departure for the language policy work in these settings, reflecting their protectionist stance towards the local language, Swedish. Little focus is put on actual language practices in these policy documents. The description of language practices is often limited to the description of the existing situation, based on concerns about Swedish losing ground as a result of the widespread use of English. Similarly, the notion of ELF is used primarily for description of the existing situation without sufficient guidance as to how students and staff in these university settings are to use English in their everyday practices. These results bring to the fore the question of what the purpose of university language policy documents should be with reference to a speech community's everyday practices. It is suggested here that university language policy documents would benefit from taking research on actual language practices as their starting point and base their work on research on language practices, striving to provide guidance on local choices made for communicative effectiveness.

  • 176.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Morphosyntactic Variation in Spoken English as a Lingua Franca (ELF): Revisiting linguistic variety2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is now well-known that in ELF settings, we have complex language contact situations with high linguistic heterogeneity. The linguistic diversity present in ELF settings naturally manifests itself in several areas, including variation in morphosyntactic use. While the conventional wisdom has been that non-standardness is associated with a speaker’s L1, ELF research has shown repeatedly that this variation is not (solely) due to speakers’ L1 backgrounds (e.g. author, 2013a and 2013b; Ranta, 2013), and that there are too many non-standard forms shared by a wide spectrum of L1s that may be considered commonalities. ELF research has revealed several processes of syntactic variation in ELF usage, such as reducing redundancy (e.g. ‘not marking the plural on the noun’, author 2013a), and creating extra explicitness (e.g. ‘unraised negation’ in author 2013a; see Schneider, 2012 for an overview of the processes of variation). When it comes to morphology, similar trends have been observed (author, 2013a), namely non-standard word forms with semantic transparency (e.g. discriminization, levelize), analytic comparatives (e.g. more narrow), and non-standard plurals (e.g. how many energy). The present paper focuses on morphosyntactic variation in 15 hours of naturally-occurring speech from a Swedish higher education setting and reports research conducted by the author (2013a, b and in preparation) where s/he approaches variation in ELF with reference to the World Englishes (WE) paradigm, Second Language Acquisition (SLA) and creole studies. Included in the discussion are other ELF studies on grammatical variation (e.g. Ranta, 2013). Following major studies that problematize variation and variability in ELF usage (e.g. Ferguson, 2009; Schneider, 2012; Seidlhofer, 2009), the present paper aims to offer new perspectives on the theoretical construct of ‘variety’. The paper also argues that WE and ELF paradigms have much to gain from each other (see Seidlhofer, 2009) while addressing the sociolinguistic realities of the world today.

  • 177.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Morphosyntactic variation in spoken English as a lingua franca interactions: Revisiting linguistic variety2018In: Routledge Handbook of English as a Lingua Franca / [ed] Jennifer Jenkins, Will Baker, Martin Dewey, Abingdon: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 178.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Peer assessment of spoken lingua franca English in tertiary education in Sweden: criterion-referenced versus norm-referenced assessment2013In: Of Butterflies and Birds, of Dialects and Genres: essays in Honour of Philip Shaw / [ed] Johannesson, N. L., Melchers, G., Björkman, B., Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, 109-123 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 179.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD adviser and student interactions as a spoken academic genre2016In: The Routledge handbook of English for Academic Purposes / [ed] Ken Hyland, Philip Shaw, Routledge, 2016, 348-361 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 180.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD supervision meetings in an English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) setting: linguistic competence and content knowledge as neutralizers of institutional and academic power2017In: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 6, no 1, 111-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper investigates PhD supervision meetings, using material from naturally occurring speech of ten hours by PhD supervisors and students who all use English as a lingua franca (ELF) for research purposes. The recordings have been transcribed in their entirety, with conversation analytical procedures and additional ethnographic interviews with the PhD supervisors. The present paper is a follow-up to the two previous studies by the author (in European Journal for Applied Linguistics 3[2], 2015, and The Routledge Handbook of English for Academic Purposes, 2016) and focuses on linguistic competence and content knowledge as factors possibly mitigating the power asymmetry present in the interactions. The findings show no observable power asymmetries manifested in the interactions or in the interview responses by the supervisors. The analyses showed that the supervisors’ and the students’ level of linguistic competence seemed very similar, which was further supported by the supervisors’ self-reports of their own English and their informal evaluations of their students’ levels of proficiency. When it comes to content knowledge, the students overall showed very good command of their subjects, disciplinary conventions and their projects in general, further supported by their supervisors’ evaluations in the interview data. Based on these findings, it is suggested here that in ELF interactions of this particular type where the speakers have similar levels of linguistic competence and content knowledge, power asymmetries become less visible.

  • 181.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD supervisor and supervisee interactions as a spoken academic genre: Genre features, power issues and linguistic competence2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 182.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD supervisor-PhD student interactions in an English-medium Higher Education (HE) setting: Expressing disagreement2015In: European Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 2192-953X, Vol. 3, no 2, 205-229 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the latest figures, the increase in English-taught programs in European Higher Education (HE) has been tremendous at a growth rate of 500% since 2002 (Wächter and Maiworm 2014). In all these HE institutes, English serves as the main lingua franca for students and staff. The present paper reports from such a HE setting in Sweden and focuses on how disagreement is expressed in PhD supervisor-PhD student supervision meetings, a spoken genre largely neglected in the study of spoken academic discourse. The material comprises digitally-recorded, naturally-occurring speech adding up to approximately seven hours, all by PhD supervisors and students from different L1 backgrounds, who all use English as a lingua franca. All recordings have been transcribed, and the instances of disagreement have been analysed by a mixed-methods approach, drawing on Conversation Analysis (CA). The results show, first of all, that the PhD students directly construct disagreement with their supervisors on content-related advice despite the academic and institutional power asymmetry present in these interactions. The supervisors, on the other hand, seem to indirectly construct disagreement with their students. It is suggested here that linguistic competence and content knowledge may be two factors mitigating the power asymmetry. Also, the expression of disagreement does not seem to be perceived as confrontational by either the supervisors or students. On the contrary, disagreement seems to be typical of this spoken genre in this setting, implying that it may even be a “preferred second” turn in this spoken genre with reference to the enculturation of the PhD student into the academic community.

  • 183.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    PhD supervisor-supervision interactions in an English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) setting: genre features and ways of expressing disagreement2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 184.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Policies in the European Higher Education Arena2016In: Investigating English in Europe: Contexts and Agendas: English in Europe, Volume 6 / [ed] Andrew Linn, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2016, 145-152 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 185.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Pragmatic strategies in English as an academic lingua franca:  Ways of achieving communicative effectiveness2011In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, no 4, 950-964 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper will report the findings of a study that has investigated spoken English as a lingua franca (ELF) usage in Swedish higher education. The material comprises digital recordings of lectures and student group-work sessions, all being naturally occurring, authentic high-stakes spoken exchange, i.e. from non-language-teaching contexts. The aim of the present paper, which constitutes a part of a larger study, has been to investigate the role pragmatic strategies play in the communicative effectiveness of English as a lingua franca. The paper will document types of pragmatic strategies as well as point to important differences between the two speech event types and the implications of these differences for English-medium education. The findings show that lecturers in ELF settings make less frequent use of pragmatic strategies than students who deploy these strategies frequently in group-work sessions. Earlier stages of the present study (Björkman, 2008a, Björkman, 2008b and Björkman, 2009) showed that despite frequent non-standardness in the morphosyntax level, there is little overt disturbance in student group-work, and it is highly likely that a variety of pragmatic strategies that students deploy prevents some disturbance. It is reasonable to assume that, in the absence of appropriate pragmatic strategies used often in lectures, there is an increased risk for covert disturbance

  • 186.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Questions in academic ELF interaction2012In: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 1, no 1, 93-119 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 187.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Review of David Deterding, Misunderstandings in English as a Lingua Franca. An Analysis of ELF Interactions in South-East Asia. 2015In: Journal of English as a Lingua Franca, ISSN 2191-9216, E-ISSN 2191-933X, Vol. 4, no 2, 385-389 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 188.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Review of Philippe Van Parijs Linguistic Justice for Europe and for the World2013In: International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, ISSN 0269-8595, E-ISSN 1469-9281, Vol. 26, no 3, 354-359 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    So You Think You Can ELF: English as a Lingua Franca as the Medium ofInstruction2010In: Hermes - Journal of Language and Communication Studies, ISSN 0904-1699, E-ISSN 1903-1785, Vol. 45, 77-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 190.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The grammar of English as a lingua franca2013In: The Encyclopedia of Applied Linguistics / [ed] Chapelle, C., Oxford/UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 191.
    Björkman, Beyza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The pragmatics of English as a lingua franca in the international university: Introduction2011In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, no 4, 923-925 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 192.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Svenskt teckenspråkslexikon2008Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 193.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Ryttervik, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Tecken inom idrott2011Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 194.
    Björkstrand, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Bäckström, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Jonsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gunnarsson, Magnus
    TeckLex: En förenklad visning av Svenskt teckenspråkslexikon2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 195.
    Blanquet, Sarah Martine Dominique
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Puentes interculturales: Implicaciones de las creencias sobre la competencia intercultural de profesores en formación pertenecientes al máster MULTIELE2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Within the Erasmus Mundus program for Teaching and Learning Spanish in Multilingual and International Contexts (MULTIELE), pre-service teachers from different backgrounds participate in academic stays in several universities located in different countries and complete their internships in an external context. This research paper seeks to analyze the beliefs of seven pre-service teachers regarding intercultural competence, taking into account their life experiences and the master’s program. Through the qualitative study of seven semi-structured interviews, results show a lack of definition in the concept of intercultural competence and its teaching, a tight link between life experiences and the conception of this competence and a need for theoretical training during the master’s program regarding this topic. The discussion and conclusions offer some proposals based on these observations and suggest further research lines. 

  • 196.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    An interview with Britt-Louise Gunnarsson: Parallel language use in academic and professional communication2011Other (Other academic)
  • 197.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    From percentage to prediction: University students meeting a parallel language of visuals and numerals2011In: Ibérica, ISSN 1139-7241, E-ISSN 2340-2784, no 22, 123-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A less-frequently discussed parallel-linguistic issue is the parallel language of visuals and numerals: the diagrams, tables, models, mathematical signs and different symbols that students have to deal with in their reading and writing. Texts are multimodal, that is they are constructed with visual objects and different sign systems as well as writing. For new students, it can be difficult to grasp how visuals and numerals can have different meanings in different contexts, such as academic disciplines. For teachers, the disciplinary use of the visuals and numerals is often so ingrained that they may have difficulty seeing the problems that students face. Drawing on the theoretical framework of social semiotics and the neo-Vygotskian perspective, this article shows how new students of economics in Sweden encounter a multimodal academic literacy. The article also discusses some of the difficulties relating to this situation and arguesfor a raised awareness among teachers in order to scaffold students intoacademic, visual literacies.

  • 198.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Byding, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Orden vi älskar med: Blädderordbok om kärleksrelationer2016Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Språk och ord spelar stor roll i kärleksrelationer. Hur sätter vi ord på lust och behov? Vad kallar vi varandra? Orden fångar känslorna och utvecklar dem. Det här är en ovanlig ordbok som sätter igång samtal mellan älskande och en dialog inom dig själv. Här finns fakta, funderingar och fina citat. Och inte minst intervjuer om psykologi, teater, transaktivism, nätdejting, hjärnforskning och språkforskning.

  • 199.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Johansson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Sannholm, Raphael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Fasta regler för fri kommunikation2017In: Nio-fem: tidskrift om arbetsliv & profession, ISSN 2001-9688, no 2, 20-23 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag jobbar många hemma eller på resande fot, och allt färre har ett fast skrivbord. Hur påverkar det förutsättningarna för kommunikationen? Hur ser kommunikationen ut jämfört med arbetsplatser där man fortfarande har eget skrivbord? I den här artikeln tar några språkvetenskapliga forskare från Stockholms universitet upp aktuella fynd från olika forskningsprojekt om kommunikation i arbetslivet.

  • 200.
    Blåsjö, Mona
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Josephson, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Möten i domäner: Uppsatsarbete i styrda strukturer2017In: Kampen om texten: Examensarbetet i lärarutbildningen / [ed] Per-Olof Erixon, Olle Josephson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 127-152 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
1234567 151 - 200 of 2151
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