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  • 151.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The insufficiency of error analysis1973In: Errata: Papers in error analysis, Lund: Gleerup , 1973, p. 29-35Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 152.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The insufficiency of error analysis1974In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 12, p. 185-192Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 153.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The languages of the multilingual: Some conceptual and terminological issues2010In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 48, no 2-3, p. 91-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on individual multilingualism and third language acquisition has expanded greatly in recent years. A theoretical correlate of this is the recognition of the fact that humans are potentially multilingual by nature, that multilingualism is the default state of language competence, and that this in turns has implications for an adequate theory of language competence, use and acquisition. Traditional SLA research usually treats all non-first language learners as L2 learners. The recent focus on L3 acquisition means that one has begun taking the complexity of multilingual learners’ language background into account. This gives raise to reflection about some of the currently used basic terminology in the field, in particular how the concepts first, second and third language are understood.

    These terms are used variably in the literature. One approach, the common practice of labelling a multilingual’s languages along a linear chronological scale as L1, L2, L3, L4 etc., is shown here to be untenable, being based on an inadequate conception of multilingualism. A different and arguably more satisfactory approach is based on the conventional dichotomy of L1 (established during infancy) versus L2 (added after infancy) and relates the notion of L3 to the presence of a more complex language background.

    The limitation to a three-order hierarchy involving the distinction between the concepts of L1, L2 and L3 is discussed and adopted as a working hypothesis, awaiting further research on this issue.

    Finally, the problems with the expressions first, second and third language have become more apparent with the emergence of research on L3 acquisition. Maybe the time is ripe to work for a change of these established terms? As possible replacements, primary, secondary and tertiary language are put forward for discussion.

    The paper stresses the need for reconsideration and clarification of the concepts L1, L2 and L3 from the point of view of multilingual language users and learners.

  • 154.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The learner's word acquisition attempts in conversation1998In: Perspectives on foreign and second language pedagogy: Esays presented to Kirsten Haastrup on the occasion of her sixtieth birthday / [ed] Albrechtsen, Dorte & Henriksen, Birgit & Mees, Inger M. & Poulsen, Erik, Odense: Odense Universitetsforlag, 1998, p. 177-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 155.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The learner's word acquisition attempts in conversation2009In: Processes in third language acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 86-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Third language acquisition2013In: The Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 644-648Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 157.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Utbildning av lärare i svenska som främmande språk1981In: Språkmöte: Svenska som främmande språk, Hemspråk, Tolkning / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Lund: LiberLäromedel , 1981, p. 96-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Über die deutsche Deutung des schwedischen Gravis-Akzents1972In: Germanistische Beiträge: Gert Mellbourn zum 60. Geburtstag am 21.5.1972 dargebracht von Kollegen und Schülern des Deutschen Instituts der Universität Stockholm / [ed] Lillebill Grähs, Anders Marell, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Tyska institutionen , 1972, p. 87-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 159.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grigonyté, Gintaré
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Non-Native Writers’ Errors – a Challenge to a Spell-Checker2014In: 1st Nordic workshop on evaluation of spellchecking and proofing tools (NorWEST2014), 2014, , p. 3Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spell checkers are widely used and if they do their job properly are also highly useful. Usually they are built on the assumption that the text to be corrected is written by a mature native speaker. However non-native speakers are in an even greater need of using spell checkers than native speakers. On the other hand current spell checkers do not take the linguistic problems of learners into account and thus they are poor in identifying errors and supplying the adequate corrections. There is a number of linguistic complexities specific to non-native learners that a spell-checker would need to handle in order to be successful.

  • 160.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Karolinska institutet.
    Articulatory re-setting in the articulation of new languages1993In: Studies presented to Claes-Christian Elert on the occasion of his seventieth birthday: Studies presented to Claes-Christian Elert on the occasion of his seventieth birthday / [ed] Eva Strangert , Mattias Heldner, Peter Czigler, Umeå: University of Umeå, Department of Phonetics , 1993, p. 61-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Re-setting the basis of articulation in the acquisition of new languages: A third language case study2009In: Processes in Third Language Acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 74-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Re-setting the basis of articulation in the acquisition of new languages: A third-language case study2005In: Introductory Readings in L3, Stauffenburg Verlag, Tübingen , 2005, p. 11-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Lindberg, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Josefson, Ingela
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Studium av ett invandrarsvenskt språkmaterial1983Report (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Håkansson, Gisela
    Lunds universitet .
    Martin, Maisa
    Universitetet i Jyväskylä.
    Cognitive and functional aspects of second language development1999In: Multiple languages - multiple perspectives: Texts on language teaching and linguistic research / [ed] Päivi Pietilä & Olli-Pekka Salo, Jyväskylä, 1999, p. 55-82Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Possessiva konstruktioner i svenskan i ett kombinerat språktypologiskt och andraspråkligt perspektiv2002In: Forskning i nordiske sprog som andet- og fremmedsprog: Rapport fra konference i Reykjavik 23-25 maj 2001, 2002, p. 64-83Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 166.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Adnominal possession: combining typological and second language perspectives2002In: Typology and second language acquisition / [ed] Anna Giacalone Ramat, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2002, p. 125-179Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 167.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Olsson, Leif-Jöran
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för svenska, Språkbanken.
    Arbeta med ASU-korpusen: Partiell bruksanvisning till ITG:s användargränssnitt. Version 2010-11-16.2010Report (Other academic)
  • 168.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Anaforiska processer i svenskan i invandrarperspektiv1976In: Nysvenska studier, ISSN 0345-8768, Vol. 55-56, p. 213-226Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Anaforiska processer i svenskan i invandrarperspektiv - några utgångspunkter1976Report (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Felanalys och språktypologi.: Orientering om två delstudier i SSM-projektet1977Report (Other academic)
  • 171.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Forskning kring svenska som målspråk: Två forskningsöversikter: 1. Grammatik och ordförråd (Åke Viberg)2. Fonologi (Björn Hammarberg)1984Report (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Platshållartvånget, ett syntaktiskt problem i svenskan för invandrare1979Report (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reported speech in Swedish and ten immigrant languages1975Report (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reported speech in Swedish and ten immigrant languages1976In: Papers from the Third Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, Hanasaari, October 1-3, 1976, Turku: Academy of Finland , 1976, p. 131-148Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 175.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The place-holder constraint, language typology, and the teaching of Swedish to immigrants1977In: Studia linguistica, ISSN 0039-3193, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 106-131Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Williams, Sarah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    A study of third language acquisition1993In: Problem, process, product in language learning: Papers from the Stockholm-Åbo Conference, 21-22 October 1992 / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Stockholm: Stockholm University, Department of Linguistics , 1993, p. 60-70Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 177.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A review of Arbib, M. A. 2012. How the Brain got Language: the mirror system hypothesis. Oxford University Press: Oxford2013In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 36, p. 91-96Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 178.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Adjectives and clausal complementation2012In: Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax, ISSN 1100-097X, Vol. 89, p. 37-67Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 179.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Evaluative adjectives and relative clauses2012In: Discourse and Grammar: a festschrift in honor of Valéria Molnár / [ed] Brandtler, J., D. Håkansson, S. Huber and E. Klingvall, Lund University , 2012, p. 265-280Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Heinat, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Finiteness in Swedish2012In: Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax, ISSN 1100-097X, Vol. 90, p. 81-110Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 181.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Long object shift and reflexives2010In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 67-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short communication is concerned with long object shift of reflexives in Swedish. Only 3rd person reflexives can shift across their antecedent. For some reason this is possible even if the antecedent is 1st or 2nd person as well, but certain requirements on the antecedent are necessary. This paper shows that neither a purely syntactic nor a purely semantic analysis can account for all the facts. Instead the best analysis seems to be one that makes use of Bonet's (1995) post-syntactic morphological processes: feature delinking, feature erasure and feature insertion.

  • 182.
    Heinat, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Meaning and the Lexicon2011In: Linguist List, ISSN 1068-4875, no 22, article id 616Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Heinat, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of The Oxford Handbook of Compounding2010In: Linguist List, ISSN 1068-4875, no 21, article id 368Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 184.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Swedish evaluative relative clauses2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 185.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vilka faktorer påverkar grammatikalitet, Grammatikfestival Göteborgs universitet2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 186.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Klingvall, Eva
    Lund University.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Agreeing passives in Finnish2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 187.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Klingvall, Eva
    Lund University.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    How do things get done? On non-canonical passives in Finnish2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 188.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Evidence for a Finnish Personal Passive, the 24th Annual meeting of the Linguistic Association of Great Britain, University of Leeds2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 189.
    Heinat, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Gradient Well-formedness of Finnish Passive Constructions2013In: Proceedings of the 24th Conference of Scandinavian Linguistics / [ed] Tirkkonen, J. and Anttikoski, E., Joensuu, Finland: University of Eastern Finland Press , 2013, p. 59-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 190.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Gradient Well-Formedness of Finnish Passive Constructions 24th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics. University of Joensuu.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 191.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    How do things get done: on non-canonical passives in Finnish2013In: Non-canonical passives / [ed] Alexiadou, A. and Schäfer, F., Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 213-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 192.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Using gradient acceptability judgments to investigate syntactic constructions, Grammatik i focus, Lunds universitet2010In: Grammatik i focus, Lunds universitet, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 193.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wiklund, Anna-Lena
    Restrictions on RC Extraction: Knowing men who sell flowers and escaping them2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 194.
    Hunley, Keith
    et al.
    University of New Mexico.
    Dunn, Michael
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reesink, Ger
    Terrill, Angela
    Radboud University.
    Inferring Prehistory from Genetic, Linguistic, and Geographic Variation2007In: Genes, Language, and Culture History in the Southwest Pacific / [ed] Friedlaender, Jonathan S, New York: Oxford University Press , 2007, p. 141-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 195.
    Hunley, Keith
    et al.
    Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Dunn, Michael
    Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reesink, Ger
    Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Terrill, Angela
    Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Healey, Meghan E.
    Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Koki, George
    Human Genetics, Institute for Medical Research, Goroka, Papua New Guinea.
    Friedlaender, Françoise R.
    Independent Researcher, Sharon, Connecticut, United States of America.
    Friedlaender, Jonathan S.
    Department of Anthropology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Genetic and Linguistic Coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia2008In: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 4, no 10, article id e1000239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain). There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast, global patterns may emphasize more ancient demographic events, including population splits associated with the early colonization of major world regions.

  • 196. Hyman, Larry M.
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, MariaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Linguistic Typology: The Unabashed Typologist: A Frans Plank Schubertiade: 21st Anniversary Issue in Honour of Frans Plank2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 197. Hyman, Larry M.
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Lahiri, Aditi
    Nichols, Johanna
    The unabashed typologist: A Frans Plank Schubertiade2017In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 21, p. 1-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Incremental syntactic prediction in the comprehension of Swedish2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehenders need to incrementally integrate incoming input with previously processed material. Constraint-based and probabilistic theories of language understanding hold that comprehenders do this by drawing on implicit knowledge about the statistics of the language signal, as observed in their previous experience. I test this prediction against the processing of grammatical relations in Swedish transitive sentences, combining corpus-based modeling and a self-paced reading experiment.

    Grammatical relations are often assumed to express role-semantic (e.g., Actor and Undergoer) and discourse-related (such as topic and focus) functions that are encoded on the basis of a systematic interplay between morphosyntactic (e.g., case and word order), semantic / referential (e.g., animacy and definiteness) and verb semantic (e.g., volitionality and sentience) information. Constraint-based and probabilistic theories predict that these information types serve as cues in the process of assigning functions to the argument NPs during language comprehension. The weighting, interplay and availability of these cues vary across languages but do so in systematic ways. For example, languages with fixed word orders tend to have less morphological marking of grammatical relations than languages with less rigid word order restrictions. The morphological marking of grammatical relations is also in many languages restricted to NP arguments which are non-prototypical or marked in terms of semantic or referential properties, given their functions (overt case marking of objects is, e.g., restricted to personal pronouns in English and Swedish). I first assess how these factors affect constituent order (i.e. the order of grammatical relations) in a corpus of Swedish and then test whether comprehenders use the statistical information contained in these cues.

    Corpus study. The distribution of SVO and OVS orders conditional on semantic / referential (e.g., animacy and givenness), morphosyntactic (e.g., case) and verb semantic (e.g. volitionality) information was calculated on the basis of 16552 transitive sentences, extracted from a syntactically annotated corpus of Swedish. Three separate mixed logistic regression models were fit to derive the incremental predictions that a simulated comprehender with experience in Swedish would have after seeing the sentence up to and including the first NP (model 1), the verb (model 2), or the second NP (model 3). The regression models provide separate estimates of the objective probability of SVO vs. OVS word order at each point in the sentence. This information was used to design stimuli for a self-paced reading experiment to test whether comprehenders draw on this objectively present information in the input.

    Self-paced reading experiment. 45 participants read transitive sentences that varied with respect to word order (SVO vs. OVS), NP1 animacy (animate vs. inanimate) and verb class (volitional vs. experiencer).  By-region reading times were well-described by the region-by-region shifts in the probability of SVO vs. OVS word order, calculated as the relative entropy. For example, reading times in the NP2 region observed in locally ambiguous, object-initial sentences were mitigated when the animacy of NP1 and its interaction with the verb class bias towards an object-initial word order, as predicted by the constraint-based and probabilistic theories.

  • 199.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Influences of Form and Function on Spatial Relations: Establishing functional and geometric influences on projective prepositions in Swedish2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is concerned with projective prepositions, which express the relation between two objects by referring to a direction in three-dimensional space. The projective prepositions have been regarded as expressing simple schematic relations of a geometric nature. A theory of the apprehension of projective relations can account for their meanings when they express strictly geometric relations. However, many studies have shown that the appropriateness of the prepositions also depends on the functional relation between the objects and that a number of functional factors influence the comprehension of English prepositions. This experimental study investigates if the acceptability of the Swedish prepositions över, under, ovanför and nedanför are influenced by functional factors as well, and whether acceptability judgments about över and under are more sensitive to functional influences than judgments about ovanför and nedanför, as has been shown for the corresponding English prepositions over and under, and above and below, respectively. It also investigates how the shapes and the parts of the related objects influence their functional interaction, and how the acceptability of the prepositions is in consequence influenced by the shapes of the objects. It was found that the theory of apprehension can indeed account for the acceptability of the prepositions when the relation between the objects is strictly geometric. It was further found that acceptability judgments about them are influenced by functional factors in a similar manner to the corresponding English prepositions when the objects are functionally related, although judgments about under and nedanför are not differentially influenced by these factors. Furthermore, the shapes and the parts of both of the related objects influence acceptability judgments about the prepositions in predictable manners. An extension of the theory of apprehension is suggested which can account for the functional influences indicated in the present study.

  • 200.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Influences of form and function on the acceptability of projective prepositions in Swedish2008In: Spatial Cognition and Computation, ISSN 1387-5868, E-ISSN 1573-9252, ISSN 1387-5868, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 193-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Projective prepositions express the relation between two objects by referring to a direction in space and have traditionally been regarded as expressing purely geometric relations. Recent studies have shown that the appropriateness of English and Spanish projectives also depends on functional relations between objects. This study investigates if the acceptability of the Swedish projectives över, under, ovanför and nedanför are influenced by functional factors as well, and whether över and under are differentially influenced by function than ovanför and nedanför, as has been shown for their English cognates. It also investigates how the shape and parts of the related objects influence their functional interaction, and thereby the acceptability of the prepositions. This is done with respect to the predictions of the AVS-model, a model of the perceptual processes underlying the apprehension of projectives, which takes both the geometric and the functional relation between objects into account. It was found that acceptability judgments about the prepositions are influenced by function as their corresponding English and Spanish prepositions. The acceptability of över was more sensitive to function than ovanför, whereas under and nedanför were not differentially influenced by function, as has been shown for Spanish. It was further found that the shape and parts of both of the related objects influence acceptability regions associated with the prepositions in predictable ways, as functional interactions between objects largely depend on their parts. The results finally show that the AVS-model needs to be further developed in order to account for the form and function of the located object.

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