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  • 151.
    Larsson, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Det är typ en rolig historia: Översättning av en amerikansk ungdomsbok med kommentar2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks de skevheter, diskrepanser och skillnader som kan uppstå vid en översättning . Källmaterialet som ligger till grund för uppsatsens översättning är en amerikansk ungdomsbok av Ned Vizzini, It’s Kind of a Funny Story (2006). Den teoretiska bakgrunden bygger på bland annat Tourys termer acceptability (acceptans) och adequacy (adekvans) och strategier från Vinay och Darbelnet används vid översättningsarbetet.

  • 152.
    Larsson, Tove
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A corpus-based study of anticipatory it patterns in university student writing: The role of nativeness and student levels2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The anticipatory it pattern has been found to serve as a means for writers not only to present propositional content in an objective way, but also to achieve a range of different rhetorical purposes. Indeed, its usefulness in academic writing has been confirmed in previous studies (e.g. Thompson, 2009). One of the rhetorical functions of the pattern is as a hedging device. Since it has been shown that appropriate use of hedges and the anticipatory it pattern may pose considerable difficulty for apprentice writers (e.g. Hewings & Hewings, 2002; Hyland & Milton, 1997), a more detailed study of “anticipatory it hedging” would be of particular interest for EAP teaching. The present study aims to investigate university students’ use of the anticipatory it pattern in general and as a hedging device by comparing non-native speaker (NNS) to native speaker (NS) use of the pattern and by investigating the use of the pattern across two NNS student levels. Swedish and British student essays from the Stockholm University Student English Corpus (SUSEC) were investigated for this purpose.

    The results from the comparison of the NS and NNS groups show that the NS students used the anticipatory it pattern significantly more frequently. With regards to function, a statistically significant tendency to use the pattern to hedge claims rather than to make strong claims was found in the NS data. The analysis of “anticipatory it-hedges” with regards to modal verb and linking verb usage shows that the NNS students generally made less frequent use of the different types of “anticipatory it-hedges” and relied more heavily on a smaller set of types. The comparison of the two Swedish student levels shows that there was no statistically significant difference in frequency of use of the pattern. The only statistically significant difference found in terms of function was the more frequent use of the pattern to express difficulty found in the first-term student data. Moreover, an analysis of “anticipatory it-hedges” in terms of modal and linking verb usage revealed that no general development in use was found across the student levels. Taken together, the findings of the study would then suggest that nativeness, contrary to what has been reported in previous studies (cf. Römer, 2009), appears to be an important factor along with other factors such as general language proficiency and expertise in academic writing. Then, in orders to help NNS students further develop their proficiency in academic writing, it would seem that greater emphasis ought to be put on teaching students to use the pattern in an appropriate and varied way.

  • 153.
    Lautin, Julia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Grammatical gender in Hindukush languages: An areal-typological study2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the mountainous area of the Greater Hindukush in northern Pakistan, north-western Afghanistan and Kashmir, some fifty languages from six different genera are spoken. The languages are at the same time innovative and archaic, and are of great interest for areal-typological research. This study investigates grammatical gender in a 12-language sample in the area from an areal-typological perspective. The results show some intriguing features, including unexpected loss of gender, languages that have developed a gender system based on the semantic category of animacy, and languages where this animacy distinction is present parallel to the inherited gender system based on a masculine/feminine distinction found in many Indo-Aryan languages. 

  • 154.
    Leback, Annika
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Women swearing: A study of selected swearwords in the British National Corpus (BNC)2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    A number of writers have argued that swearing is typical of ‘male language’. However, recent studies (Hughes 1992, Stapleton 2003, McEnery 2006) show that women also swear, although with rather different patterns than men. Hughes (1992) studied swearwords among lower working-class women and Stapleton (2003) studied swearwords among both men and women from a middle-class background. This essay aims to continue these studies by selecting swearwords from the two articles and investigating these in the spoken texts in the British National Corpus (BNC). The research issues for this project are: (i) to investigate the use of selected swearwords by women compared to men in spoken language in the BNC; and (ii) to investigate whether the choice of swearwords is influenced by the social class of the women speakers in the BNC.

    The first part of the essay reviews the relevant literature on the topic, before proceeding to present the results of the investigation into BNC data. The data for this study was collected in the spoken texts in the BNC where fourteen swearwords are analysed with reference to the gender of the speakers and social class of the female speakers. The results show that men swear clearly more than women in the spoken texts in the BNC. However, when it comes to investigating the social class of the female speakers, only tentative inferences can be made because of the large number of missing values for ‘social class’ in the BNC corpus.

  • 155.
    Lebenswerd, Patric Joshua
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Distinctive features in Jewish Swedish: A description and a survey2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the contemporary speech used by Swedish Jews, and places it in the context of the most recent understandings in Jewish interlinguistics. Jewish Swedish derives most of its non-Swedish components from the main Jewish liturgical languages, Hebrew and Aramaic, in addition to the foremost ancestral language Yiddish. These components have provided Jewish Swedish with lexical, morpho-syntactic, phonological and semantic features, which distinguish it from Standard Swedish. The thesis, additionally, contains a survey, investigating the correlations between a number of socio-religious factors, and inter- communal variation in use of distinguishing features. The study reveals a great deal of variation between different age groups, social groups, religious groups, men and women, in terms of word knowledge and usage. This study will hopefully contribute to the field of contemporary Jewish linguistics, and the general understanding of speech used by minority communities.

  • 156.
    Lebenswerd, Patric Joshua
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    The Yiddish Imprint in Modern Hebrew Phonology: Tracing the regional Yiddish dialect(s) that founded Modern Hebrew phonology2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that the native phonology of Modern Hebrew is derived from Yiddish phonology, specific of the regions from which the great majority of those involved in the Hebrew language revival emigrated, at the turn of the 20th century. This is evident from the striking similarities in their consonantal inventories, phonotactics and phonological rules. The regional Yiddish dialects that correspond best with Modern Hebrew phonology are situated in the mid-east speech territory, mainly the Ukraine and its surrounding areas. The study provides new data on Modern Hebrew voicing assimilation in sandhi, as well as new phonological parallels between Yiddish and Modern Hebrew.

  • 157.
    Legge, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A Survey of The Linguistic Landscape of Stockholm University2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There is a great prevalence of English in Swedish society, education as well as the research community. Recently, Stockholm University has revised its language policy in order to promote parallel use of Swedish and English. With this background, the current thesis aims to survey the linguistic landscape of Stockholm University in order to find out if there are any patterns that can be observed within it. Some inspiration was drawn from previous research into linguistic landscapes. The main discussion points of the current thesis are the linguistic landscape of Stockholm University, the relation between top-down and bottom-up signs as well as the relation between language use and language policy in light of the data gathered. In order to analyse and discuss this, data was gathered on two separate occasions in the form of signs placed into different categories. The first set of data was gathered in February and March of 2013 and the second set of data was gathered in October of 2015. There are visible patterns in the data, especially when making comparisons over time.

    Generally, Swedish is the most prevalent language in the linguistic landscape of Stockholm University, the lowest instance being just over 70%, but this prevalence shows a small decrease along with an increase in English and mixed language items going from 2013 to 2015. Also, mixed and English items are more common in bottom-up signs than they are in top-down signs. These English and mixed signs also increase or decrease locally from 2013 to 2015. There was also a local anomaly in that there was one area with a majority of bottom-up signs when the other areas had a majority of top-down signs. Given that this survey was explorative in its nature, it is difficult to draw many firm conclusions based upon the discussion points. However, it appears that there is a difference between language practices and the language policy documents at Stockholm University. The communications policy appears more close to reality however. Swedish also appears to be the language associated with power at said university.

  • 158.
    Legge, Nils
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Who is the teacher?: An investigation of upper secondary school students’ pronunciation of English and the possible underlying reasons2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish school pupils are taught English from a very young age. Many speak English at a very high level thanks to this and also thanks to readily available television programmes in English, mostly from America but also from Britain. Some, including Marko Modiano argue that the English spoken in Sweden could be a new variety. There is some evidence in support of this in the form of previous studies showing to what degree American and British English is mixed by Swedes. The present study aims at exploring if there are any recurring patterns in the way Swedish upper secondary school students mix American and British English as well as possible underlying reasons. This was done by recording 32 informants at an upper secondary school in Stockholm while reading a list of words and sentences designed to elicit phonetic markers that separate American English from British English. The data from the recordings is complemented by a short questionnaire. Here the informants are asked about their preference for English varieties and what they believe the preference of English varieties is for their teacher, the school, their textbooks as well as what they watch on television and if they have ever been or would like to go to an English speaking country. Concerning whether or not the informants mix American and British English or not, the results clearly show that most believe they do, although most of them seem to favour American English on the whole. There seems to be an overall tendency to use rhotic /r/ and there were some differences between male and female informants. Looking at the results of the present study compared to previous studies there is a connection in that formal text types like word lists elicit more British English than less formal text types do. Concerning what they watch on television, nearly all informants watch American television shows and this could be, in part, responsible for the tendency to favour the American variety. Regarding other influences, there was some uncertainty, especially when they were asked what they believed was preferred in the textbooks and by their teachers. Though it seems most believe that British English is preferred over American English except for the school in general where most believe that both varieties are preferred equally.

  • 159.
    Leirvåg, Tanja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Översättningsprocessen vid översättning av fasta fraser hos professionella och icke-professionella översättare: En empirisk undersökning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Processen vid översättning av fasta fraser har hittills inte skänkts mycket uppmärksamhet inom den processorienterade översättningsvetenskapen. Denna deskriptiva studie försöker bidra med empiriskt material angående vissa aspekter av översättningsprocessen vid översättning av svenska fasta fraser till tyska. I undersökningen med sex tvåspråkiga försökspersoner, varav tre yrkesverksamma översättare och tre personer utan översättningserfarenhet, användes en kombination av en produktbaserad metod och processinriktade metoder som skrivloggning med Translog och retrospektion för att finna ut vilka översättningsstrategier vid översättningen av idiom och andra fasta fraser som väljs, på vilka vägar försökspersonerna kommer fram till sina slutliga val och om det kan skönjas några skillnader mellan yrkesöversättarna och lekmännen. Resultaten visar bl.a. att det var vanligast att översätta med parafrasering samt med en målspråksfras med liknande betydelse och liknande eller olik form, och att försökspersonerna kom fram till sina slutliga val med enbart få provisoriska skriftliga motsvarigheter, men genom en del längre överväganden kring betydelse och stil. Angående skillnader mellan de två testgrupperna framträder rätt tydligt att yrkesöversättarna överlag var försiktigare med användningen av direkta frasmotsvarigheter än de oerfarna deltagarna, men använde sig av parafrasering i mycket större utsträckning, samt att funderingar kring stilnivå, målgrupp och textfunktion i denna grupp var mera utpräglade.

  • 160.
    Lilja, Sebastian
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Översättning enligt normer: En kommenterad översättning av en IT-text2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is comprised of an annotated translation of an English IT-text into Swedish. The source text is the installation manual for the software SDL Trados Studio 2014 and the thesis also contains a text analysis of the source text. The goal of the translation has been to use norms in the target culture and thus move the translation toward acceptability. The thesis therefore discusses norms based on Toury's (1995) framework.

    The thesis also contains an empirical study of the translation of three different IT-texts. The study shows that, when it comes to the specific norms investigated in the study, Swedish translations of IT-texts are guided by norms in both the source culture and the target culture.

  • 161.
    Linda, Nilsson
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    Att återge Hamlet: Översättningsnormer och strategier vid teateröversättning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats ämnar göra ett nedslag i svensk teateröversättning för den svenska teaterscenen. Teateröversättning är ett relativt outforskat forskningsfält generellt, men i synnerhet råder det en avsaknad av studier som fokuserar på svenska teateröversättningar. I detta syfte har undersökningen valt att analysera William Shakespeares, Hamlet, genom att analysera ett urval av svenska Hamletuppsättningar och tillhörande metatexter återskapas de strategier och normer som översättaren inkorporerar vid nyöversättning från den engelska källtexten till den svenska måltexten.

    Tre spelversioner av Hamlet från produktioner i Dramatens regi åren 1974 i översättning av Allan Bergstrand, 1986 i översättning av Britt G. Hallqvist och 2008 i översättning av Ulf Peter Hallberg utgör studiens material. Vidare har en variabelanalys genomförts där variablerna strykning, textindelning, pronominalbruk och bildspråk analyserats, både på makrotextuell nivå och mikrotextuell nivå. Resultatet visar att spelversionerna skiljer sig något åt när det kommer till strategier och textuella normer. Hamlet från 1974 tenderar att vara mer adekvansinriktad medan Hamlet från 1986 och 2008 tenderar att vara mer acceptansinriktade. Studien fann även att ingen av de undersökta spelversionerna lever upp till rådande normer när det kommer till mottagande.

  • 162.
    Lindahl, Carolina
    Stockholms universitet, Juridiska fakulteten, Juridiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English in the Swedish Legal System and University Law Programme2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a critical overview of the current use of English within legal education and the legal profession in Sweden. In addition, it attempts to characterize attitudes towards the use of English within Swedish law practice. The paper will make use of information obtained from a selection of law firms, the Swedish National Courts Administration and the Swedish Public Office of Prosecution. It will also make use of comments and information from a selection of professionals and other bodies such as the European Commission, the Swedish Language Council and the Swedish Bar Association.  The central aim of this essay is to present a clear picture of the extent to which English is actually used within current Swedish legal practice. It directly addresses the question of whether the level of English that Swedish law graduates are exposed to in their legal studies adequately provides them with the skills required by the professional legal world.

    It is claimed that there is an apparent miscommunication between legal education and its corresponding profession, which is creating a very unfortunate situation for students. In addition, it is suggested that redesigning the Swedish law programme, as a response to the demands of English within the Swedish legal profession, is necessary to properly prepare students for legal practise in Sweden. The law programme must function as a platform for theoretical growth as well as the future, practical success of students. Striving for excellence among students should not be restricted to the theoretical aspect of a subject but must include the ability of students to put their theoretical knowledge to practical use. It is argued that English is a needed supplement in the successful practise of law in Sweden and as such must be an integrated part of the legal education program.

  • 163.
    Lindblom Carlsson, Christian
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Polite conversational implicature in male and female language2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Gender equality is a greatly debated topic in modern society, with the linguistic discipline of language and gender being a substantial part of it. Based on the research on female language by Lakoff (1975), as well as the Gricean co-operative principle and its maxims (Grice 1975), this research investigates the relationship between conversational implicature, politeness and gender. In conversational implicature it is possible to imply more than what is expressed and thereby violate/flout the maxims of the co-operative principle. A reason for an utterance to imply more than what is being said may stem from an intention to be polite. Historically, politeness has been seen as more common in female language (Lakoff 1975). In order to investigate if that claim is true in modern and more gender equality-driven society, an empirical study was conducted in London, United Kingdom, on 12 native English speakers who were born after the publication of Lakoff’s findings on female language. The participants were divided into 2 female-female, 2 male-male and 2 female-male groups. The findings were diverse. Some male participants displayed instances of indirect, polite language, while some female participants used rough, impolite language, both flouting the co-operative principle. Both genders adhered to the co-operative principle, as well as flouted it. In conclusion, the recordings show that there is no strict adherence to female and male language for any of the genders. 

  • 164.
    Lindell, Klara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A standard case of subtitling.: A comparative analysis of the subtitling of Scrubs and House M.D. with a focus on medical terminology.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Toury’s first law of translation states that translation of all kinds entails standardisation and, moreover, that the more peripheral the status of a text is, the more standardised its translation will be. As such, the purpose of this essay was to investigate to what extent this holds true in the Swedish translations of the two US television hospital shows Scrubs and House M.D. Though they are both hospital shows, House M.D. – considering its unprecedented genre hybridity and unusual plot structure – is a less mainstream and, as such, more peripheral example of a hospital show than Scrubs, which is more mainstream and, consequently, has a more central position within this genre. The object of study concerned the genre-specific register shared by the two shows – i.e. the medical terminology – which was extracted together with its Swedish subtitles and analysed, mainly in terms of coupled pairs. The analysis consisted of identifying which translation strategies had been adopted in the transfer of terminology and, moreover, what these strategies had entailed in terms of semantic increase, decrease, or correspondence between the original texts and their translations. From this it was concluded that both texts were indeed standardised and, additionally, that House M.D. – as the more peripheral of the two texts – had undergone a more extensive standardisation than Scrubs – being the text holding a more central status.

  • 165.
    Lindell, Klara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Amerikanska på svenska: En kommenterad översättning av ett utdrag ur Bill Brysons populärvetenskapliga språkhistoria Made in America2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis comprises a translation from English to Swedish followed by a commentary. The source text (ST) of the translation consists of the second chapter of Made in America (1998), a popularised language history by Bill Bryson. The commentary includes an analysis of the ST and the target text (TT), as well as a discussion of the translation process as a whole, and of the translation strategies applied in order to solve the translation problems of the ST. The theoretical framework of the thesis is based on Toury’s notion of norms (1995), from which the following principle for translating is conceived: to transfer the ST information as faithfully as possible but with the modifications necessary to accommodate the source language competence level of the TT readers, which is estimated to be relatively low. As such, the principle for translating is mainly characterised by adequacy, but leans towards acceptability. In the concluding section of the commentary, the TT is deemed to be consistent with this principle since it constitutes an adequate text with evident traits of acceptability.

  • 166.
    Lindmark, Carolina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Hungrig som en gnu och snäll som en karamell: En korpusstudie över nutida liknelser i svenska bloggtexter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien kartlägger vanliga adjektivliknelser i svenska bloggtexter ur två aspekter, vilka adjektiv och substantiv som förekommer tillsammans i konstruktionen ADJEKTIV som en/ett SUBSTANTIV samt deras grad av konventionalisering. Tidigare forskning visar att liknelser är svårdefinierade, vilket tas upp i bakgrunden. Materialet är hämtat från fem korpusar med svensk bloggtext. Resultaten visar att de vanligaste adjektivliknelserna föredrar att knyta an till ett eller några substantiv. Däremot finns det visst utrymme för produktivitet. Studien är en preliminär kartläggning över hur pass konventionaliserade liknelserna är. Möjliga källor för uppkomst av liknelserna diskuteras i diskussionen. Resultaten belyser även att det finns en ytterligare dimension i definitionen av liknelser utöver kontinuumet mellan bokstavlighet och figurativitet, nämligen en distinktion mellan exaktare måttangivelse och figurativitet.

  • 167.
    Lindmark, Carolina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Nouns on fire in Mainland Scandinavian: A lexico-typological study of selected nouns referring to FIRE in Danish, Norwegian (Bokmål) and Swedish2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The current study investigates the use of a selected group of nouns in the domain of FIRE in written Mainland Scandinavian languages, i.e. Danish, Norwegian (bokmål) and Swedish. The main goal is to capture the semantic features of the nouns by examining typical situations where they occur, following the frame-method for lexical studies by Rakhilina & Reznikova (2016). The nouns are examined in terms of their combinatorial patterning in compounds with other nouns, in trigrams and in figurative use. The synchronic data is drawn from corpora, lexica and first speaker intuition. Four parameters are formulated, which seem to play a role in the lexical use among the fire words, in the three languages. The nouns are structured according to the parameters and each lexeme displays combinatorial pattern revealing semantic restrictions. The selected ‘fire nouns’ are fairly similar, but differ in terms of semantic load most prominently among the lexemes that refer to controllable fires. The lexemes relevant for the parameter of ‘subcomponents of fire processes’ display an asymmetry, which needs to be studied further. The scope of the current study also includes two lexemes in Swedish that semantically have not been possible to disentangle. On the whole, at least the controllability of the fire is lexically encoded, possibly because that property is crucial for survival.

  • 168.
    Lindmark, Carolina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Oh chale: Two stance-taking strategies in Ghanaian Pidgin English2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A common assumption is that language is used for conveying factual information, but linguistic forms also serve a way to communicate pragmatic features, such as speakers’ intentions and mental state. This study describes and analyses two strategies for stance-taking in GhaPE, more specific the use of discourse particles and complement-taking predicates. Such grammatical resources have been identified in the literature to play important functions in signalling how the speaker evaluates and positions him/herself and the addressee with respect to objects of discourse. The analysis and discussion of forms is informed by Du Bois’ (2007) ‘stance triangle’, which has proved to be a useful analytical device for investigating stance from a dialogical perspective. GhaPE is at times anticipated as fairly simple both by scholars and in the community where it is spoken. This thesis is thus an attempt to display aspects of the richness of the language.

  • 169.
    Lindström, Mathias
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Automatic Segmentation of Swedish Medical Words with Greek and Latin Morphemes: A Computational Morphological Analysis2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Raw text data online has increased the need for designing artificial systems capable of processing raw data efficiently and at a low cost in the field of natural language processing (NLP). A well-developed morphological analysis is an important cornerstone of NLP, in particular when word look-up is an important stage of processing. Morphological analysis has many advantages, including reducing the number of word forms to be stored computationally, as well as being cost-efficient and time-efficient. NLP is relevant in the field of medicine, especially in automatic text analysis, which is a relatively young field in Swedish medical texts. Much of the stored information is highly unstructured and disorganized.

    Using raw corpora, this paper aims to contribute to automatic morphological segmentation by experimenting with state-of-art-tools for unsupervised and semi-supervised word segmentation of Swedish words in medical texts. The results show that a reasonable segmentation is more dependent on a high number of word types, rather than a special type of corpora. The results also show that semi-supervised word segmentation in the form of annotated training data greatly increases the performance.

  • 170.
    Lundberg, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Lag Time: Skillnader mellan erfarna och oerfarna tolkar?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en studie som undersökt om det går att kartlägga någon skillnad mellan erfarna och oerfarna tolkar när det gäller deras lag time (eftersläpning). Lag time är tidsspannet från det att tolken hör talarens yttrande till dess att tolken själv producerar motsvarande yttrande. Tidigare forskare (t ex Cokely, 1992  och McDermid, 2014) har sett att detta påverkar resultatet av tolkningen och därför är detta intressant att undersöka närmare utifrån ett erfarenhetsperspektiv. I studien spelades tre erfarna och tre oerfarna tolkar in när de tolkade ett delvis förskrivet rollspel. Efter inspelningen analyserades materialet genom att i olika segment kontrollera med tidtagarur hur långt efter talaren tolken producerade ett yttrande liknande originaltalets. Resultatet visade att det inte var någon genomgående större skillnad mellan erfarna och oerfarna tolkar i deras lag time. I denna grupp var det istället individuella variationer.  Däremot upptäcktes det att det är svårt att identifiera hur man definierar och mäter lag time.

  • 171.
    Lundell, Ida
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    ‘LOL’, ‘OMG’ and Other Acronyms and Abbreviations: A study in the creation of initialisms2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Marchand (1969) claims that abbreviations and acronyms, which are also known as ‘initialisms’, are used to create “names of new scientific discoveries, trade-names, names of organizations, new foundations or offices, but occasionally, and chiefly in American English, personal and geographical names are also coined in this way” (Marchand, 1969: 452). However, initialisms that originate from netspeak, such as ‘LOL’, are different from the initialisms Marchand (1969) describes. These initialisms are not names of organizations or scientific discoveries; rather, they describe everyday things or phases. This kind of initialism is a new phenomenon that seemingly did not exist before the Internet, and the aim of this essay is thus to examine whether Internet has given us increased opportunities for this type of word formation. A corpus of informal English was created for this study and ten initialisms were extracted from that corpus. These initialisms were then examined in the Corpus of Contemporary American English. The data from the COCA showed that people do form and use this kind of initialism, albeit they do it very infrequently. Furthermore, the corpus data showed that these items are used in all different genres that exist in the COCA, except for academic writing. The data found in this study indicates that people seem create a new kind of initialism, and that people therefore have new opportunities to use this kind of word formation. However, the data is too sparse to draw any definite conclusions from it.

  • 172.
    Lundgren, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Prestige & Power: Swedish upper-secondary students' choice and attitudes towards spoken English2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The variety of English adopted by upper-secondary students has changed over the years, as have their attitudes towards those varieties. This essay examines both what variety of English upper-secondary students’ aim for in their spoken English as well as their attitudes towards two of the most common varieties. The examination involved 28 upper-secondary students and focused on their attitudes towards British and American English, while also investigating their media exposure and educational English exposure to determine their effect on varietal aims and attitudes. The results indicate a trend among upper-secondary students where aim for a spoken English resembling American English, but then contrasts that with a clear attitudinal preference for British English. These results are then put into the context of the students’ media and educational exposure of English, where certain patterns emerge, especially between the positive influence of educational exposure and attitudinal preferences.

  • 173.
    Luzhkova, Elena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Ongoing Semantic Change in Seven Swedish Words: A questionnaire-based study2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The lexical semantics of a language is an area of linguistics that has many important implications for the life of modern society. It is important to understand how language change works and why this change occurs. Thus the aim of the work described in the thesis was to examine how six Swedish words, fett, fräsch, fräck, grym, häftig, and tajt are used by five different age groups of Swedish people in Uppsala region. To accomplish the aim of the study an appropriate questionnaire was compiled and used by the author. The questionnaire asked for information about the respondents as well as about the usage of each studied word. Analogous previous studies of the ongoing semantic change are reported in literature, frequently in regard to the words from English language. My results show that most of the chosen words are used differently by different age groups. Some words change their usage only slightly while other words experience larger metamorphose. The investigated words do not change their meaning completely, however some meanings do become more or less frequent. The results also show that the usage of the words does not always correlate to their dictionary definitions. Overall it can be concluded that semantic change for the considered words is a gradual ongoing process.

  • 174.
    Lyxell, Tommy
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Token blend i svenskt teckenspråk: Hur teckenrummet används av programledare i ett tv-program2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur programledare i ett tv-program för teckenspråkiga ungdomar använder sig av token blend i svenskt teckenspråk. Det teoretiska ramverket för studien är mental space theory som hämtats från kognitiv lingvistik och har vidareutvecklas för teckenspråk av den amerikanske lingvisten Scott Liddell. Inom denna teori är man bland annat intresserad av att studera hur det tomma området framför kroppen kan ge mening i teckenspråket.

    Studien visar att bruket av token blend är vanligt i redaktionella texter som presenteras i ett tv-program. Stödanteckningar på skriven svenska tycks inte påverka bruket av token blend. Frekvensen av token blend är jämförbar med en sakprosatext som framförs utan skrivet manuskript. Däremot är blicken riktad mot kamerorna och knappast alls mot token, vilket annars är vanligt i spontant språkbruk.

  • 175.
    Löfstrand, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    En jämförelse mellan ord för ansiktsuttryck på svenska och mandarin: En intervju- och korpusbaserad studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen har användningen och betydelsen av ett utvalt antal översättningsekvivalenter av ord och fasta uttryck som betecknar ansiktsuttryck på svenska och mandarin studerats. Uppgiften närmades genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med modersmålstalare av svenska och mandarin, samt genom en korpusbaserad kollokationsundersökning. Analysmetoden Natural Semantic Metalanguage har använts för att beskriva det inre sinnestillståndet hos personer när de handlar på de sätt som orden och uttrycken beskriver, samt vilka känslor och tankar som tillskrivs dessa personer av dem som bevittnar handlingarna. Vissa intressanta skillnader mellan översättningsekvivalenterna har observerats.

  • 176.
    Manoukian, Dory
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The use of profanity in spoken language: A study on swearing habits amongst men and women2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates five profane words (damn, shit, fuck, bitch, and crap) concerning their function and who uses them the most. Two social factors are taken into consideration, age and gender. Prior research shows inconclusiveness regarding which gender uses profanity the most. However, studies show that both genders tend to use more foul language in single-sex conversations. The methodology selected for this paper is corpus linguistics, using the British National Corpus as the primary source to obtain data. With restrictions on both gender and age, a pattern emerged regarding the profane use. Further, all occurrences are categorized as either an auxiliary, abusive, expletive, or other. The results show that in four of the words, males out-swear females. In one word the use is rather similar with a marginal difference for the male group. Regarding the interlocutor’s gender, both males and females tend to swear more in single-sex conversations. Further, the results show that younger people tend to use foul language far more than old people. Finally, the functions of the words vary in the results; however, according to the findings, young speakers tend to use more abusive expressions than older ones do. The rest of the functions are rather similarly used.

  • 177.
    Mardanbigi, Sonja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Metonymic and metaphorical extensions of English heart and their Swedish translation equivalents2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Metonymic and metaphorical extensions of English heart and their Swedish translation equivalents

    Sonja Mardanbigi

    Abstract

    This study explores the usage of English heart in figurative expressions. English is rich in both metonymic and metaphorical expressions making use of the concept heart to speak of emotional issues. The aims of this study have been to investigate how English heart corresponds to Swedish hjärta in figurative uses in the English-Swedish Parallel Corpus. Thus, it has been of interest to see what the translation equivalents are for heart and what the distribution of non-literal equivalents of heart are. A debate has arisen in recent years concerning the interaction between metaphor and metonymy which has given rise to the term metaphtonymy (Goossens 1995). Therefore, it was of interest to examine to what extent metaphor and metonymy were involved in heart In order to accomplish these aims, the translations have been categorized according to Niemeier’s (2000) four categories and the metaphor HEART IS CENTER. These have been set up because each of them shows a different degree of connection between metaphors and metonymies. The results of this research suggest that in the majority of the examples heart was rendered by hjärta. In the examples where hjärta was not used, translators used a variety of lexemes, many of which were only used once. In addition it is shown that categories which have the strongest characteristics of metaphor and metonymy tended get more uniform translations.

     

    Keywords: metaphor, metonymy, metaphtonymy, corpus, translation, cross-linguistic perspective, heart, hjärta, English, Swedish  

     

     

  • 178.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Fundamental frequency as basis for speech segmentation modeling2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the relevance of fundamental frequency in speech segmentation models intended to simulate infants. Speech from three different conditions (infant-directed speech to 3- and 12-month-olds, and adult-directed speech) was segmented based on fundamental frequency information, using a variant of the dpn-gram segmenting technique (highlighting similar segments as lexical candidates). The spectral distance between segments that were found based on fundamental frequency similarity was calculated, and compared to the spectral distance between segments that were found using transcription as basis for segmentation, as well as to the spectral distance between randomly paired segments from the same speech materials. The results show the greatest within-condition difference in speech directed to 3-month-olds, in which segmenting based on fundamental frequency similarity generated segment pairs with smaller spectral distance than did transcription-based segmentation or random segment pairs. Speech directed to 12-month-olds resulted in a somewhat smaller difference when using fundamental frequency data compared to when using transcriptions. For adult-directed speech, no difference was found in spectral distance between pairs generated by the different bases for segmentation. Neither segmenting speech by highlighting similar segments as lexical candidates, nor using fundamental frequency as basis for segmentation is optimal for a speech segmentation model intended to simulate 12-month-olds or adults. These groups are more likely to segment speech based on their already present or growing linguistic experience than on acoustic similarity only. However, for a model simulating a 3-month-old infant, the present segmentation procedure and its basis for segmentation are more plausible. When modeling speech segmentation in an infant-like manner it is important to take into account both that the cognitive abilities of infants develop rapidly during the first year of life, and that some aspects of their linguistic environment vary during this period.

  • 179.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Infants' ability to form verb-action associations2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Four- to eight-month-old infants (n=56) were examined on their ability to acquire verb meaning. In a visual preference procedure they were tested on their ability to form verb-action associations by detecting the correlation between auditory speech stimuli and actions presented in short movie clips on a screen. If associations were formed, they were expected to significantly modify their looking behavior after exposure, looking closer to the target than during baseline. Instead of measuring total looking time as response, distance to target was the chosen measure. Eight-month-olds as well as a reference group of adults acquired the verb-action associations. Thus, eight months is the youngest age at which verb meaning acquisition could be demonstrated so far.

  • 180.
    Markovic, Biljana
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Self-presentation in the asynchronous communication on Facebook in Kenya and Uganda2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Flows of languages, cultural forms and people both in real and virtual space are consequences of globalization. The mobility of people in the virtual sense is facilitated through the Internet, where one of the most popular ways of communication and self-presentation is currently through Facebook. This research focuses on analyzing the orthographic and lexical strategies in self-presentation on Kenyan and Ugandan Facebook profiles, trying to see whether the forms reflecting the East African variety of English are present in asynchronous communication and whether there is appropriation of other varieties and registers. This was done through a reiterative process of reading 10 Kenyan and 10 Ugandan Facebook profiles, comparing the findings with online data on informal sociolinguistic situations in Uganda and Kenya such as YouTube videos and comments, blogs and newspaper articles and through informal conversations with some Kenyans and Ugandans. The results showed that the local forms as described in the literature are used on Facebook and that there are forms unaccounted for in the literature but whose presence was confirmed in the online data and the informal conversations. Appropriation of American English and hip hop and Rastafari languages was found in the sample. It was inferred that English has several usages in the sample, which serve to express the neutral, the local and the appropriated meanings in the asynchronous communication on Facebook and that those meanings are used strategically for the creation of the desired identities.

  • 181.
    Marra, Anton
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Communicative strategies in BELF negotiations: A qualitative study on misunderstandings and communicative strategies in BELF telephone negotiations2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper focuses on exploring the usage of communicative strategies (CSs) by business professionals who use business English as a lingua franca (BELF) in telephone negotiations. The purpose of the study is also to analyze the occurrence of misunderstanding and non-understandings. The data consists of nine naturally-occurring spoken ‘buy-sell’ negotiations between business professionals from seven different countries around Europe and Asia.  The negotiations summed up to 1 hour and 30 minutes of recorded material. The transcripts of these negotiations were analyzed in detail by using the qualitative method ‘conversation analysis’ (CA). The results show that business professionals use CSs as pre-empting measures to prevent misunderstanding. In addition, CSs in the present data appear to be used to create cooperativeness and subsequently reach successful communication. The present study also found two scenarios where communicative breakdown occurred but were subsequently repaired through ‘clarity requests’, ‘confirmation checks’ and repetition. Lastly, the present paper recognizes that previous knowledge of the other party is an effective aspect in keeping upbeat negotiations and reaching mutual understanding.

  • 182.
    Marttinen Larsson, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    El trabajo delante suyo: Un estudio diacrónico y diatópico de la variación en el uso de las locuciones adverbiales locativas2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo investigar el uso de la construcción morfosintáctica adverbio locativo + pronombre posesivo (“delante suyo”), que alterna con la normativamente recomendada adverbio locativo + [preposición de + pronombre personal] (“delante de él”). El estudio proporciona un panorama de su distribución histórica y geográfica, un tema que anteriormente no ha sido abordado con profundidad en trabajos lingüísticos. El material analizado consiste en los tres corpus principales de la lengua española (CORDE, CREA y CORPES XXI), que en su conjunto aportan alrededor de 424 000 000 de formas, a partir de los cuales se ha construido una base de datos consistente con las ocurrencias de las construcciones en cuestión. Se ha partido de la hipótesis de que, en el caso del uso del posesivo, se trata de un fenómeno muy extendido por todo el ámbito hispánico y que, más recientemente, ha ido difundiéndose, compitiendo así con la construcción preposicional. Con base en el banco de datos elaborado, y considerando estudios anteriores que aluden al fenómeno, se ha logrado comprobar que la forma posesiva se registra en casi todo el mundo hispánico, pero que presenta una tradición de uso más larga en España – país donde se ha originado – y Argentina, siendo el último país el que presenta la frecuencia de uso más alta.

  • 183.
    Marttinen Larsson, Matti
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Un acercamiento variacionista al estudio de las locuciones adverbiales locativas: El caso de las construcciones del tipo "delante mío"2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El presente trabajo abarca el estudio de la variación en las construcciones adverbiales locativas. Esta variación se manifiesta en dos niveles: (1) la alternancia entre la construcción estándar ADVERBIO + preposición de + PRONOMBRE PERSONAL (por ejemplo, delante de mí), y su variante normativamente no recomendada ADVERBIO + PRONOMBRE POSESIVO (por ejemplo, delante mío); y (2) la alternancia entre la construcción posesiva con el sufijo -o (por ejemplo, delante mío), y la construcción posesiva con el sufijo -a (por ejemplo, delante mía), variante normativamente aún más disuadida. El objetivo fue estudiar estas dos variables lingüísticas y sus posibles predictores sociolingüísticos. Con esta finalidad, se han analizado datos provenientes de Twitter. La recolección de datos se llevó a cabo en febrero del 2017. Se recogieron 2357 observaciones de construcciones adverbiales locativas de 21 países de habla hispana (incluyendo los Estados Unidos), de las cuales 1006 eran de la variante posesiva. En cuanto a la variación entre construcciones preposicionales y posesivas, se clasificaron los datos según cuatro variables independientes: el género (o sexo) del tuitero, la procedencia geográfica del tuit, el tipo de adverbio precedente y el número gramatical del referente. Con relación al uso del sufijo -a del posesivo, las observaciones fueron clasificadas según dos variables adicionales: la vocal final del adverbio y el género del referente gramatical. Se ha construido un modelo estadístico de regresión logística que mide el efecto de las variables independientes investigadas sobre el uso de (1) la construcción con el posesivo y (2) la construcción con el posesivo del sufijo -a respectivamente. Referente a (1), la alternancia en los complementos, el análisis revela que la zona dialectal del tuitero, el tipo del adverbio precedente y el número gramatical son los factores estadísticamente significativos para predecir el uso de la construcción posesiva. En lo que concierne a (2), la alternancia en los sufijos del posesivo, los datos apuntan a que tanto la zona dialectal del tuitero como el género del referente gramatical condicionan el uso del posesivo con la desinencia -a

  • 184.
    Martín Peña, María Elena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Los pronombres átonos.: Complejidad y usos divergentes.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    Debido a que estudios sobre la adquisición del Español como Lengua Extranjera (E/LE) en Suecia señalan que el aprendizaje de los pronombres de complemento directo (CD) y complemento indirecto (CI) resulta difícil al estudiante causándole problemas en la comprensión y producción; y debido a que esos pronombres átonos son introducidos en etapas iniciales del aprendizaje a pesar de la complejidad de los pronombres átonos del sistema casual general del español en el programa de E/LE en Suecia.

    Para eso, se hace explícita la descripción del uso de los pronombres átonos con el objetivo de ilustrar la complejidad en la adquisición (aprendizaje y uso) de ellos. En el espectro de la complejidad además de la función y característica se describen factores extrínsecos a nivel diatópico y a nivel diastrático. Se examina en el corpus cómo los apartados de explicación gramática referente a los pronombres átonos están diseñados y presentados. El método del trabajo es entonces descriptivo y lingüístico basado en teorías cognitivas sobre la adquisición de segundas lenguas, Mitchell & Myles (1998) así como en el rol del input en el aprendizaje y la enseñanza de la gramática en el E/LE, Cadierno (1995).

    A pesar de la introducción temprana de dichos elementos debido al uso frecuente de ellos en el español se encuentra que los libros de textos y manuales analizados no reflejan la complejidad descrita en el marco teórico. La distribución y uso de los pronombres átonos en el corpus no es conforme al sistema etimológico o sistema casual general del español, es decir, se mezclan diferentes sistemas. Por otra parte esos sistemas o usos divergentes son escasamente presentados al estudiante.

  • 185.
    Matz, Henriette
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    De som (som) vi använder: En korpusstudie av optionellt ’som’ i svenska objektsrelativsatser2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats behandlar förekomsten av den optionella subjunktionen som i svenska objektsrelativsatser. Sökningar gjordes i en svenskspråkig korpus för att hitta objektsrelativsatser med och utan som. Resultaten undersöktes mot bakgrund av två hypoteser gällande processningseffektivitet och tillgänglighet hos referenter. I båda fallen styrktes dessa hypoteser. Som tycks vara mer frekvent i relativsatser där många ord skiljer matrissatsens korrelat från relativsatsens finita verb vilket stödjer principen Maximize On-line Processing som formulerats av Hawkins och som grundar sig i teorier kring processningseffektivitet. Som tycktes också vara mer frekvent i relativsatser där det inbäddade subjektet var i hög grad tillgängligt, i fråga om pronominell och animat status hos referenten.

  • 186.
    Melin, Andreas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Det här makes no sense!: An explorative study about a group of native Swedish speaker’s attitudes towards code switching2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of Sociolinguistics, this study investigates a group of native Swedish speaker’s attitudes towards code switching. The data were gathered by using an online questionnaire inspired by Dewaele & Wei’s (2014) survey investigating attitudes towards code switching. The data sample consists of responses from 34 participants in total from two generations and 204 answers were given. In addition to the questionnaire, interviews with four participants were conducted. The findings from the questionnaire reveal that code switching is generally accepted by the participants, but also that the younger generation has a more positive attitude towards code switching. However, the interviews reveal some differences in contrast to the questionnaire. Further, the results imply that a change might be undergoing in attitude towards code switching in the older generation. The findings are important for further research.

  • 187.
    Melin, Susanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Thanks! You look rather dashing yourself.: A contrastive pragmatics investigation of Singaporean and American compliment responses2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Set within the framework of the newly established field of variational pragmatics (Schneider and Barron, 2008), this study investigates pragmatic variation between two different regional varieties of English, namely American English and Singaporean English. Specifically, the speech act of compliment responses is compared. The data were collected through written discourse completion tasks (DCT) and responses were analysed and coded using an adapted version of Holmes’ (1988) categorization system for compliment responses (CRs). The CRs come from a total of 40 participants and a total of 320 compliment responses were analysed. The DCT was supplemented by an introspective-recall with six participants. The findings demonstrate that the preferred strategy for both groups is in the order of accept, evade and reject. Even so, the Singaporeans use more reject strategies and less accept strategies than the Americans do. Further, the Americans employ more combination strategies than the Singaporeans. The Singaporeans however, employ more non-verbal and paralinguistic cues than the Americans. The results also show differences in the two varieties’ attitudes to and perceptions of compliment responses. In addition, the study suggests that compliments in Singapore might be undergoing a change. The findings are particularly important for pedagogical purposes.

  • 188.
    Meza, Rodrigo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    El uso de los sustantivos abstractos/concretos y de los verbos de movimiento en hablantes no nativos de español muy avanzado2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    La presente investigación estudia el uso de los sustantivos abstractos/concretos y de los verbos de movimiento en hablantes no nativos de español muy avanzado.

    En este estudio, nosotros creemos que el input comprensible, la interacción y la frecuencia con que se utiliza la lengua meta son factores importantísimos para poder adquirir, desarrollar y afianzar el uso de las categorías que nos interesa estudiar.

    A partir de estas premisas, es posible pensar que un hablante no nativo (HNN) muy avanzado de una L2 debería tener un nivel idiomático muy parecido al de un hablante nativo (HN) dentro de los campos donde se da la interacción, pero ¿Qué sucede cuando un HNN es sometido a pruebas que disminuyen el efecto de estos factores? ¿Deberían, entonces, existir diferencias significativas en los recursos léxicos utilizados por ambos grupos (HNNs en relación a HNs)? Así, y a grandes rasgos, el objetivo principal de nuestra investigación es poder determinar cuándo los HNNs no alcanzan el nivel de ocurrencias presentado por los HNs.

     

  • 189.
    Migura García, Begoña
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier, Avdelningen för spanska.
    Elige tu propia aventura, ¿nudo gordiano para el tratamiento holístico de la expresión escrita?: Una experiencia de escritura narrativa creativa en Español como Lengua Extranjera, a través de trabajo cooperativo con wikis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo de la presente investigación es el de aproximarse al potencial que el género de hiperficción explorativa Elige tu propia aventura (ETPA), abordado desde la producción, puede tener de cara al desarrollo de la competencia escritora en ELE. Como muestra, se ha tomado a un grupo multicultural y plurilingüe de 18 estudiantes de la Universidad de Estocolmo, con una competencia comunicativa mínima en español de B2 marco. Se ha llevado a cabo un análisis cualitativo-cuantitativo que, de forma correlativa, abarcaba el estudio del proceso de composición, del producto alcanzado y del impacto de la tarea sobre el componente afectivo de los participantes. La investigación asignó al grupo de control, la composición cooperativa de un cuento tradicional a través de una wiki, y al experimental, la de un ETPA; todo ello en base a una hipotética oposición entre un ejercicio compositivo lineal y uno de tipo recursivo, respectivamente. Los resultados parecen sugerir que, efectivamente, la estructura no secuencial de la ficción hipertextual propicia un proceso de composición marcado por la recursividad que repercute en la consecución de un mejor producto, en especial, con relación a las propiedades textuales de adecuación, coherencia y cohesión. En lo afectivo, la composición de un ETPA también parece constituir una actividad que, por su novedad, incide positivamente en la motivación de los aprendientes y en un sentimiento de autoeficiencia generado por la resolución exitosa de la tarea.

  • 190.
    Morales Ruiz, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Competencia sociopragmática en aprendientes de ELE: Un estudio cualitativo sobre factores incidentes en el aula de bachillerato2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    Durante las últimas décadas se han llevado a cabo una serie de discusiones con respecto al rol que deben ocupar los estudios pragmáticos en la enseñanza de lenguas y sus implicaciones en la labor pedagógica (Bardovi-Harlig, 1996). En este sentido, el presente estudio cualitativo tiene por objetivo identificar factores que inciden en la competencia sociopragmática (CSP) en la enseñanza ELE (Español como Lengua Extranjera) dentro de un contexto escolar sueco, con estudiantes de bachillerato de nivel B1-B2 según el Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las lenguas (MCER). La medida de la CSP de los estudiantes se obtiene a través de las muestras de lenguaje proporcionados por actividades de elicitación mediante cuestionarios, mientras que los datos relacionados a los factores de incidencia en el aula se obtienen a través de entrevistas de profundización. Comparamos los niveles de CSP de los estudiantes con los factores de aula y los resultados obtenidos indican que el rol del profesor y su elección didáctica tienen mayor incidencia en la CSP de sus alumnos. Con respecto a las percepciones de los estudiantes, se observa que aquellos estudiantes con mayor nivel de CSP tienen una percepción positiva hacia estos contenidos, mientras que aquellos con niveles más bajos demuestran una visión negativa. Se concluye que existen, en efecto, factores positivos de incidencia en la CSP dentro de un contexto formal de enseñanza, principalmente centrados en el rol del profesor.

  • 191.
    Moreno, Rosa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    La interferencia interlingüística en la producción oral de jóvenes suecos de ELH: "Después el perrito se comió un corvito"2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El presente estudio investiga la influencia interlingüística a nivel léxico en la producción oral de jóvenes suecos de ELH, hablantes de la variedad chilena. Dos preguntas de investigación guían este trabajo. La primera pregunta examina el origen de las lenguas fuentes de influencias de ILL (Sueco L2 vs Inglés L3). La segunda pregunta se enfoca en los factores que determinan la incidencia de la ILL. Los datos fueron elicitados a través de una tarea narrativa y una entrevista. Asimismo, se utilizó un cuestionario para recabar información sociolingüística de los participantes. Los resultados indican que el sueco L2 fue la lengua fuente de mayor influencia en la ILL, frente al inglés L3 que no tuvo un rol muy importante. Se encontró, además, que la ocurrencia de la ILL vino determinada por varios factores lingüísticos. 

  • 192.
    Mårtensson, Kajsa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Identifiering av svenska fragment: har kontexten någon betydelse?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning om identifiering av fragment och ordigenkänning visar att resultaten ökar om deltagare har sett orden de ska identifiera tidigare eller om ordfragmenten presenteras i sin rätta kontext. I den här studien undersöktes påverkan av kontexten vid identifiering av svenska fragment genom att använda primingparadigm. Svenska talare blev indelade i två grupper, Priming och Kontroll och testades med online-enkäter. I Priming fick deltagarna läsa en text och sedan fylla i fragment från texten medans deltagarna i Kontroll endast fyllde i fragmenten. Resultaten visade motsatsen till tidigare forskning. Deltagarna i kontrollgruppen presterade bättre och lyckades identifiera fler korrekta fragment än de deltagare som fick läsa orden i en komplett text innan de blev ombedda att fullfölja fragmenten. En möjlig orsak till detta kan vara att texten var för lång vilket ledde till en frustration hos deltagarna som hämmade dem från att få ett bra resultat. Resultaten visade även att män, överlag lyckades identifiera fler korrekta fragment än vad kvinnor kunde. Detta kan bero på faktorer som koncentration eller förmåga att komma ihåg detaljer. Vid identifiering av verb och substantiv visade det sig vara enklare att identifiera verb när de presenterades i isolation och substantiv när de presenterades i sin rätta kontext. Detta stämmer överrens med tidigare forskning som visade att verb och substantiv är representerade på olika platser i hjärnan och påverkas därför annorlunda vid processning. Vidare forskning med fler deltagare uppmuntras för att kunna undersöka ytterligare aspekter som kan ha påverkat resultatet.

  • 193.
    Möller, Mirjam
    Stockholms universitet. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Vowel Harmony in Bale: A study of ATR harmony in a Surmic language of Ethiopia2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    ATR, advanced tongue root, is a phonological feature among vowels. As vowels assimilate to share the same value of that feature, they display ATR harmony. This is a common phenomenon among many African languages. ATR harmony is examined in this paper as manifested across morpheme boundaries wihin nouns in a Surmic language of Ethiopia called Bale. The data presented was collected at a workshop on ATR harmony held by SIL International in Mizan Teferi, Ethiopia, 2009. The vowel system in Bale displays a nine vowel inventory with a feature dominance of [+ATR] vowels which spread their feature both leftward and rightward to recessive [–ATR] vowels. The [+ATR] dominance is also present as a floating feature without any phonological material. The vowel /a/ is analysed as a neutral vowel, co-occuring with both [+ATR] and [–ATR] vowels within roots.

  • 194.
    Narin, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Kinesiskans påverkan på hmu vid användning av genitiv och nominalisering2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Kinesiska och miao-språket hmu har nära kontakt med varandra och påverkan från kinesiskan har iakttagits i hmu på lexikal och fonologisk nivå. Denna studie undersöker hur påverkan från kinesiskan ser ut även på syntaktisk nivå i fråga om användningen av genitiv och nominalisering. På kinesiska uttrycks detta med en och samma partikel, vilken har en motsvarighet i hmu. Studien delades upp i två delar: en korpusundersökning och en meningsanalys över två olika upplagor av Nya testamentet på hmu. I den tidigare upplagan användes den partikel flitigt som på hmu sägs uttrycka genitiv och nominalisering och korpusundersökningen visade en minskad användning av denna partikel i den senare upplagan av Nya testamentet. Meningsanalysen visade att kinesisk påverkan finns på användningen av genitiv men inte på nominalisering i hmu. Med detta har vi fått en klarare bild av hur kinesisk påverkan ser ut på just dessa syntaktiska funktioner i hmu.

  • 195.
    Narin, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Phonological features of Yazghulami: A field study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Yazghulami is a South-East Iranian language spoken in the Pamir area of Tajikistan by about 9000 people. This study gives an account of the phonology of the language by describing contrastive segments and their distribution and realizations, as well as describing suprasegmental features such as syllable structure and stress patterns. Field research was carried out in a community of Yazghulami speakers in Dushanbe, the capital of Tajikistan, by recording, transcribing and annotating spoken language. Yazghulami is analyzed as having 8 vowel phonemes of which one pair contrasts in length, and 36 consonant phonemes with a considerable display of palatal, velar and uvular phonemes, of which a set of three labialized plosives and three labialized fricatives is found. The syllable structure of Yazghulami allows for clusters of no more than two consonants in the onset and two in the coda; clusters in both positions do not occur in one and the same syllable. The stress generally falls on the last syllable of a word, although when nouns are inflected with suffixes, the stress instead falls on the last syllable of the stem. With these results, a foundation for further efforts to develop and increase the status of this endangered language is laid.

  • 196.
    Nejström, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    El uso de atenuaciones en español entre alumnos suecos del bachillerato: Rechazos, consejos y peticiones2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo principal de este estudio es examinar el uso de las atenuaciones como marcador de cortesía en español entre estudiantes suecos del bachillerato en los actos de habla de rechazos, consejos y peticiones. Compartimos la premisa de que en el uso del español como lengua extranjera hay una falta de competencia comunicativa en general, y también competencia en cuanto a las atenuaciones. Nuestra hipótesis es que en el uso de español como lengua extranjera por parte de estudiantes suecos del bachillerato, hay una competencia comunicativa suficiente como para transmitir contenidos temáticos pero no para expresarse de forma socioculturalmente adecuada en cuanto a los contenidos de cortesía, especialmente hay una falta del conocimiento y del uso de las atenuaciones. Se ha elaborado una encuesta con nueve situaciones, tres para cada tipo de acto de habla, donde 32 estudiantes suecos de bachillerato han tenido que rechazar invitaciones, dar opiniones y consejos y pedir favores. Para poder comparar los resultados tenemos un grupo de control de 10 jóvenes hispanohablantes, sin conocimientos de sueco. Según el Ministerio de Educación sueco, para poder obtener un aprobado en el nivel tres del bachillerato y poder acceder a los estudios universitarios, los estudiantes deben tener suficiente conocimiento de la lengua meta y su sociopragmática para poder adaptarse a diferentes situaciones y usar ciertas estrategias. Los resultados nos muestran que, en la mayoría de los casos, los estudiantes suecos atenúan con marcadores de cortesía, concretamente realizando un sobreuso de agradecimientos: han desarrollado así un sistema propio, o sea, una interlengua del español con elementos suecos, lo cual muestra que estos estudiantes aplican estrategias comunicativas que resultan eficaces. En general, realizan actos amenazantes para las imágenes del emisor y del destinario, bastante más que el grupo de control. Sin atenuaciones, estos actos de habla pueden ser interpretados como descortesía por el interlocutor hispanohablante y podrían surgir problemas en la comunicación.

  • 197.
    Nejström, Emelie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English as an academic lingua franca at Stockholm University School of Business: A sociolinguistic study of academic English in parallel-language settings2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study is based on interviews with 20 students with Swedish as mother tongue, and observations from 10 lectures and seminars on advanced level at Stockholm University School of Business. The courses observed use English as a medium of instruction and the study explores how English is used as a lingua franca, how the students adapt to English in academic settings and the sociolinguistic functions of choosing English or Swedish in specific situations.

    The results show that English is used in parallel with Swedish, a great number of Swedish terms and expressions are used, both by students and teachers. Students speak Swedish with each other as well as with Swedish teachers in unofficial settings. English is used whenever a foreign teacher or student is around.

    Many students in the study claim to handle the English medium courses well but in reality they do have some difficulties. The students should be given instruction in English for academic purposes and reconsider their attitudes about what is correct and incorrect English.

  • 198.
    Nerelius, Ulrika
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Plain Language in the EU: Impact of Plain Language in Drafting and Translation of Different Types of EU Legislation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay assesses the impact of plain language campaigns in EU legislation. Different types of legislation as well as legislation with different intended recipients are analysed. The analysis includes calculating a LIX index score and complementing the index data with data from the texts. The data derives from textual parameters associated with plain language. The distinction between the recipient and the actual reader of legislation in the EU will also be discussed as the general public is asserted by the EU to be the reader of legislative acts. It is, however, shown in this essay that the general public is not the reader of legislative acts directed to them.

    The hypothesis in this essay is that there has been an impact of plain language in legislative acts in the EU over time, as a result of plain language campaigns in the EU. We may also see a difference in the impact of plain language between specific types of legislation and between legislation directed to different intended recipients. A specialist audience may be considered to have a higher competence of the register of law compared to the general public. However, as the results from the analysis are inconclusive we cannot see any coherent impact of plain language in the texts analysed in this essay. The analysis also suggests that using textual features associated with plain language is not an effective tool to use to assess improvement in terms of readability and impact of plain language over time. The different textual parameters do not cohere.

    In addition to the above, the impact of plain language in relation to translation in the EU is discussed. Plain language could perhaps enable more accurate and efficient translation to multiple languages, which is important in the EU’s multilingual environment. Consequently, by making an original language version of legislation less complex, the quality of translations may be improved. The qualitative analysis regarding plain language in translation suggests that a short, non-complex sentence in combination with the use of high frequency words enables a more natural translation in the Swedish language versions. The analysis also suggests some changes seen over time in relation to plain language in the translation process.

  • 199.
    Neubauer, Christine
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska.
    Neue Wörter -alte Ideen: Die Reproduktion nationalsozialistischen Sprachgebrauchs in den Parteiprogrammen der Nationaldemokratischen Partei Deutschlands und der Sverigedemokraterna2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 200.
    Nilsand, Katja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English Abbreviation and Acronym Usage Amongst Swedish Adolescents A Netspeak Inquiry2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s media society the Internet and the language that faces us therein is constant. Social Media (i.e. Facebook, Twitter etc.), Weblogs (blogs), Online Network games and the increasing amount of Internet use feed us with the new language features , and with a generation that is “Born to be wired,” a new language evolves.

         The aim of this paper is to find out what kind of English abbreviations and acronyms, springing from Netspeak, do Swedish adolescents from 12-15 years of age use. Which of them do they use in written language and which in spoken? And do they know what the abbreviations they use denote?

         The inquiry is based on a questionnaire survey given to pupils in junior high school and then studied through diverse perspectives.

         The results indicate that the Swedish adolescents to whom this survey was given claim to use Netspeak. The most common words they use are LOL (Laughing out Loud), OMG (Oh my God) and BTW (By the way). However, not all of them use them in spoken language and not all of them know what the abbreviations and acronyms they use mean.

    According to the survey a lot of the pupils read blogs, use Skype and other social medias, which can be a trigger for their massive use of English abbreviations.

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