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  • 201.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Projektiva prepositioner och perspektivtagande: en experimentell studie om tre faktorers relativa betydelse för användning av projektiva prepositioner i svenska2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Traditionellt har det antagits att användning och förståelse av spatiala prepositioner i första hand sker utifrån geometriska kriterier. Senare studier har visat att prepositioner också påverkas dels av huruvida de spatialt relaterade objekten också är funktionellt relaterade eller inte och dels av den visuella miljö som objekten utgör en del av. Dessa faktorer påverkar valet av perspektiv utifrån vilket prepositioner tillskrivs spatiala relationer, samt användning och förståelse av dem i situationer då de enbart kan tillskrivas utifrån ett perspektiv. Detta arbete undersöker experimentellt hur dessa två faktorer påverkar användning och perspektivtagande vid användning av de projektiva prepositionerna ovanför, nedanför, framför, bakom och bredvid. Resultaten visar att en funktionell relation mellan de spatialt relaterade föremålen och tillgången till en visuell miljö ökar benägenheten att använda prepositionerna utifrån ett perspektiv som utgår från föremålens egna orienteringar. Resultaten talar för att användningen av dessa prepositioner är mer situations-beroende än vad som traditionellt har antagits.

  • 202.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The neurophysiological correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language comprehension is assumed to proceed incrementally, and comprehenders commit to initial interpretations even in the absence of unambiguous information (e.g., Crocker 1994; Hawkins 2007). Initial ambiguous object arguments are therefore preferably interpreted as subjects, an interpretation that needs to be revised towards an object initial interpretation once the disambiguating information is encountered (e.g, de Vincenzi 1991; Haupt, Schlesewsky, Roehm, Friederici, & Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, 2008). Most accounts of such grammatical function reanalyses (Haupt et al. 2008) assume that they involve phrase structure revisions, and do not differ from other syntactic reanalyses. A number of studies using measurements of event-related brain potentials (ERP:s) provide evidence for this view by showing that both reanalysis types engender similar neurophysiological responses (e.g., P600 effects) (e.g., Bornkessel, McElree, Schlesewsky, & Friederici, 2004; Friederici & Mecklinger, 1996; Matzke, Mai, Nager, Russeler, Munte, 2002). Others have claimed that grammatical function reanalyses rather involves revisions of the mapping of thematic roles to argument NP:s (Bornkessel & Schlesewsky, 2006; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky & Schlesewsky, 2009a, 2009b; Haupt et al., 2008). In line with this, it has been shown that grammatical function reanalysis during spoken language comprehension engender a N400 effect (Haupt et al., 2008), an effect which has been shown to correlate with general problems in the mapping of thematic roles to argument NP:s in a number of languages (see Bornkessel-Schlesewsky & Schlesewsky, 2009b for a review).

    This poster presents a study which investigated the ERP correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish. Post-verbal NP:s that disambiguated the interpretation of object-topicalized sentences towards an object-initial reading engendered a N400 effect with a local, left-parietal distribution. This ―reanalysis N400‖ effect provides further support for the view that grammatical function reanalysis is functionally distinct from syntactic reanalyses and rather involves a revision of the mapping of thematic roles to the sentence arguments.

    Bornkessel, I., McElree, B., Schlesewsky, M., & Friederici, A. D. (2004). Multi-dimensional contributions to garden path strength: Dissociating phrase structure from case marking. Journal of Memory and Language, 51(4), 495-522.

    Bornkessel, I., & Schlesewsky, M. (2006). The extended argument dependency model: A neurocognitive approach to sentence comprehension across languages. Psychological Review, 113(4), 787-821.

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, I., & Schlesewsky, M. (2009a). Processing syntax and morphology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, I., & Schlesewsky, M. (2009b). The role of prominence information in the real-time comprehension of transitive constructions: A cross-linguistic approach. Language and Linguistics Compass, 3(1), 19-58.

    Crocker, M. W. (1994). On the nature of the principle-based sentence processor. In C. Clifton, Jr., L. Frazier, & K. Rayner (Eds.), Perspectives on sentence processing (pp. 245–266). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.

    de Vincenzi, M. (1991). Syntactic parsing strategies in Italian. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

    Friederici, A. D., & Mecklinger, A. (1996). Syntactic parsing as revealed by brain responses: First-pass and second-pass parsing processes. Journal of Psycholinguistic Research, 25(25), 157-176.

    Haupt, F. S., Schlesewsky, M., Roehm, D., Friederici, A. D., & Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, I. (2008). The status of subject-object reanalyses in the language comprehension architecture. Journal of Memory and Language, 59(1), 54-96.

    Matzke, M., Mai, H., Nager, W., Russeler, J., Munte, T. (2002). The costs of freedom: An ERP-study of noncanonical sentences. Clinical Neurophysiology, 113(6), 844-852.

  • 203.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Jaeger, T. Florian
    Brain and Cognitive Sciences, University of Rochester.
    Deriving argument ordering biases from expectation-based processing2017In: Cognitive explanations in linguistic typology: Contemporary insights from language processing and language acquisition. 12th Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology, Australian National University, Canberra, December 12-15, 201., 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research suggests that principles of language processing and communication to some extent affect how grammars evolve over time (e.g., Futrell et al. 2015; Hawkins 2007). However, there are different views on how these principles operate. Some have proposed specific linguistic biases—such a preference for interpreting the initial NP as the subject (e.g., Bickel et al. 2015; Demiral et al. 2008). Others have proposed that language processing is expectation-based, drawing on statistical patterns in the input (e.g., MacDonald 2013; Trueswell et al. 1994), and that these expectation-based preferences shape language over time (Gildea & Jaeger 2015; Levy 2005). This includes the possibility that specific biases—such as the preference for a subject-initial interpretation—are reducible to the general principle of expectation-based processing (but see Bickel et al. 2015; Demiral et al. 2008; Wang et al. 2012). We test this possibility for the case of Swedish. We first conducted a large-scale corpus-based study to assess the relevant distributional patterns in the input. We then developed a predictive model based on those patterns, and compared these predictions against human processing preferences in a self-paced reading experiment.

    Background: Many languages, including Swedish, provide speakers with multiple ways of encoding arguments syntactically (word order) and morphologically (e.g., case). Speakers’ encoding preferences depend on, for example, semantic / referential (e.g., animacy and definiteness) and verb semantic information (e.g., volitionality and sentience; Bresnan et al. 2007; Hörberg 2016; for a cross-linguistic review, see Jaeger & Norcliffe 2009). This creates complex statistical patterns in the input to comprehenders: whether a given noun phrase should be interpreted as the subject or object depends on, for example, the referential and morphosyntactic properties of both the argument and the preceding context. Expectation-based accounts of language comprehension predict that language processing implicitly draws on these cues to assign grammatical functions to argument NPs (e.g., MacWhinney 2005). We test this prediction for the case of transitive sentences with two overt arguments in Swedish, which allows both SVO and OVS orders.

    Corpus study: 16552 transitive sentences were extracted from a syntactically annotated corpus of written Swedish. These were annotated for word order (SVO vs. OVS), NP animacy, definiteness, givenness, and case, as well as for the semantic class of the verb (such as volitionality and sentience). Mixed logistic regression models confirmed the predicted ordering preferences (e.g., animate before inanimate; word order freezing for otherwise ambiguous verb-argument combinations).

    Model: We then calculated the incremental predictions that a simulated comprehender with experience in Swedish would have after seeing the sentence up to and including the first NP (model 1), the verb (model 2), or the second NP (model 3). Each model provides estimates of the objective probability of SVO vs. OVS grammatical function assignment at each sentence region. Based on this estimate, we calculate the Bayesian surprise at each sentence region as the predicted processing cost experienced at that region (i.e., the relative entropy over the two possible grammatical function assignments before and after seeing the argument, cf. Kuperberg & Jaeger 2016). Bayesian surprise (over syntactic trees) is also the measure that has been argued to underlie (Levy 2008) the well-documented correlation between word surprisal and both processing times (Smith & Levy 2013) and certain neural responses (e.g., the N400 effect, Frank et al. 2015).

    Self-paced reading experiment (45 participants, 64 items): Participants read transitive sentences that varied with respect to word order (SVO vs. OVS), NP1 animacy (animate vs. inanimate) and verb class (volitional vs. experiencer). By-region reading times on NP1, the verb, and NP2 were well-described by the region-specific Bayesian surprise calculated from our model. For example, reading times in the NP2 region observed in locally ambiguous, object-initial sentences were mitigated when the animacy of NP1 and its interaction with the verb class bias towards an object-initial word order.

    Conclusions: Taken together, these findings indicate that comprehenders take advantage of statistical regularities in their previous language input during on-line grammatical function assignment, as predicted by expectation-based accounts. The model correctly predicts a subject-firstbias for Swedish, as well as incremental changes in the strength of this bias over the course of the sentence, dependent on the verb and argument properties.

    Bickel, B., Witzlack-Makarevich, A., Choudhary, K. K., Schlesewsky, M., & Bornkessel-

    Schlesewsky, I. (2015). The Neurophysiology of Language Processing Shapes the Evolution of Grammar: Evidence from Case Marking. PLOS ONE, 10(8), e0132819.

    Bresnan, J., Cueni, A., Nikitina, T., Baayen, R. H., & others. (2007). Predicting the dative alternation. Cognitive Foundations of Interpretation, 69–94.Demiral, Ş. B.,

    Schlesewsky, M., & Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, I. (2008). On the universality of language comprehension strategies: Evidence from Turkish. Cognition, 106(1), 484–500.

    Frank, S. L., Otten, L. J., Galli, G., & Vigliocco, G. (2015). The ERP response to the amount of information conveyed by words in sentences. Brain and Language, 140, 1–11.

    Futrell, R., Mahowald, K., & Gibson, E. (2015). Large-scale evidence of dependency length minimization in 37 languages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 33(112), 10336–10341.

    Gildea, D., & Jaeger, F. T. (2015, October). Human languages order information efficiently.

    Hawkins, J. A. (2007). Processing typology and why psychologists need to know about it. New Ideas in Psychology, 25(2), 87–107.

    Hörberg, T. (2016). Probabilistic and Prominence-driven Incremental Argument Interpretation in Swedish (PhD thesis). Stockholm University, Stockholm.Jaeger, T. F., &

    Norcliffe, E. J. (2009). The Cross-linguistic Study of Sentence Production. Language and Linguistics Compass, 3(4), 866–887.

    Kuperberg, G. R., & Jaeger, T. F. (2016). What do we mean by prediction in language comprehension? Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 31(1), 32–59.

    Levy, R. (2005). Probabilistic Models of Word Order and Syntactic Discontinuity (PhD thesis). Stanford University, Stanford.Levy, R. (2008). Expectation-based syntactic comprehension. Cognition, 106(3), 1126–1177.

    MacDonald, M. C. (2013). How language production shapes language form and comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology, 4.MacWhinney, B. (2005). Extending the Competition Model. International Journal of Bilingualism, 9(7), 69–84.

    Smith, N. J., & Levy, R. (2013). The effect of word predictability on reading time is logarithmic. Cognition, 128(3), 302–319.

    Trueswell, J. C., Tanenhaus, M. K., & Garnsey, S. M. (1994). Semantic Influences on Parsing: Use of Thematic Role Information in Syntactic Ambiguity Resolution. Journal of Memory and Language, 1994(33), 285–318.

    Wang, L., Schlesewsky, M., Philipp, M., & Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, I. (2012). The Role of Animacy in Online Argument Interpretation in Mandarin Chinese. In M. Lamers & P. de Swart (Eds.), Case, Word Order and Prominence (Vol. 40, pp. 91–119). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands

  • 204.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The neurophysiological correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish2013In: Language and cognitive processes (Print), ISSN 0169-0965, E-ISSN 1464-0732, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 388-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language comprehension is assumed to proceed incrementally, and comprehenders commit to initial interpretations even in the absence of unambiguous information. Initial ambiguous object arguments are therefore preferably interpreted as subjects, an interpretation that needs to be revised towards an object initial interpretation once the disambiguating information is encountered. Most accounts of such grammatical function reanalyses assume that they involve phrase structure revisions, and do not differ from other syntactic reanalyses. A number of studies using measurements of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) provide evidence for this view by showing that both reanalysis types engender similar neurophysiological responses (e.g., P600 effects). Others have claimed that grammatical function reanalyses rather involve revisions of the mapping of thematic roles to argument noun phrases (NPs). In line with this, it has been shown that grammatical function reanalysis during spoken language comprehension engenders a N400 effect, an effect which has been shown to correlate with general problems in the mapping of thematic roles to argument NPs in a number of languages. This study investigated the ERP correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish. Postverbal NPs that disambiguated the interpretation of object-topicalised sentences towards an object-initial reading engendered a N400 effect with a local, right-parietal distribution. This ‘‘reanalysis N400’’ effect provides further support for the view that grammatical function reanalysis is functionally distinct from syntactic reanalyses and rather involves a revision of the mapping of thematic roles to the sentence arguments. Postverbal subject pronouns in object-topicalised sentences were also found to engender an enhanced P300 wave in comparison to object pronouns, an effect which seems to depend on the overall infrequency of object-topicalised constructions. This finding provides support for the view that the ‘‘reanalysis N400’’ in some cases can be attenuated by a task-related P300 component.

  • 205.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A história das línguas: uma introduçâo2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 206.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att välja ur antiken2015In: Klassisk filologi i Sverige: Reflexioner, riktningar, översättningar, öden / [ed] Eric Cullhed, Bo Lindberg, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2015, p. 41-50Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bengt Sigurd2011In: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitetsakademiens Årsbok 2011, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2011, p. 79-84Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 208.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Dillerin Tarihi2016Book (Refereed)
  • 209.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerna - vildar eller hjältar?2014In: Aktuellt om historia, ISSN 0348-503X, no 1, p. 19-30Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 210.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerna: myten, historien, språken2013Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 211.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerna och vi: Reflektioner över ett populärvetenskapligt projekt2015In: Kungl. Vetenskapssamhällets i Uppsala årsbok 40/2013-2014 / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Larsson, Uppsala: Kungl. Vetenskapssamhällets i Uppsala , 2015, p. 9-19Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 212.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerna syns i varenda mening2014In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 1, p. 47-51Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 213.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerne: Mytene, historien, språket2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 214.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gotiskt klotter skriver historia2016In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 4, p. 60-62Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 215.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hur rödhåriga var germanerna?2014In: Latinet i tiden. En festskrift till Hans Aili / [ed] Andersson, Elin, Kihlman, Erika & Plaza, Maria, Stockholm: Stockholms universitets förlag, 2014, p. 167-173Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 216.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ljudförändringar och informationsteori2013In: Text, tal & tecken: Några perspektiv inom språkforskningen / [ed] Lindblom, Björn, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2013, p. 62-70Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 217.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    När danska blev svenska2014In: Upplev litteraturen 3: Texter och tal / [ed] Carl-Johan Markstedt, Sven Eriksson, Stockholm: Sanoma utbildning , 2014, p. 244-251Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 218.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Rudolf Botha & Martin Everaert (eds.), The Evolutionary Emergence of Language: Evidence and Inference2014In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 451-457Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 219.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Storia naturale del latino: La storia della lingua più famosa del mondo2015Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 220.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The History of Languages: An Introduction2012Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an introduction to the history of languages, from the distant past to a glimpse at what languages may be like in the distant future. It looks at how languages arise, change, and ultimately vanish, and what lies behind their different destinies. What happens to languages, he argues, has to do with what happens to the people who use them, and what happens to people, individually and collectively, is affected by the languages they speak.

    The book opens by examining what the languages are the hunter-gatherers might have spoken and the changes to language that took place when agriculture made settled communities possible. It then looks at the effects of the invention of writing, the formation of empires, the spread of religions, and the recent dominance of world powers, and shows how these relate to great changes in the use of languages. Tore Janson discusses the appearance of new languages, the reasons why some languages spread and others die, considers whether similar cyclical processes are found at different times and places, and examines the causes of internal changes in languages and dialects.

    The book ranges widely among the world's languages and mixes thematic chapters on general processes of change with accounts of specific languages, including Chinese, Arabic, Latin, Greek, and English.                   

  • 221.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The History of Languages (på koreanska): An Introduction (på koreanska)2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 222.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vad är svenska?2012In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 2, p. 52-56Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad som är ett språk, och vad som skiljer det från ett annat, är inte lätt att definiera. En historisk djupdykning visar att mycket sitter i språkets namn.

  • 223.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vocative and the grammar of calls2013In: Vocative!: Addressing between System and Performance / [ed] Barbara Sonnenhauser, Patrizia Noel Asiz Hanna, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013, p. 219-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocative forms appear in calls, which constitute a type of utterances; other types are statements, questions, and commands. Grammatical descriptions usually focus on sentences, the grammatical form of statements. This paper presents a sketch of the grammar of calls. The basic form of a call is a noun phrase denoting a person. Calls may include special marking to show the utterance type. There may be markers outside the noun phrase (utterance marking) or marking within the noun phrase (noun phrase marking). Some languages have one of the types and some have both. The types typically do not interfere but occur independently of each other. Utterance marking consists of special intonation or of an optional vocalic particle. Noun phrase marking may consist of suppletion, contraction or apocope of the noun, or of addition of an affix. The noun then has a special vocative form. In languages with obligatory case marking, noun marking of calls and marking of case may interfere in complex ways.

  • 224.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vulgar Latin and Middle Arabic2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract
  • 225.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    КРАТКА ИСТОРИЯ НА ЕЗИЦИТЕ2013Book (Refereed)
  • 226.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Modeling the Evolution of Creoles2015In: Language Dynamics and Change, ISSN 2210-5824, E-ISSN 2210-5832, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 1-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various theories have been proposed regarding the origin of creole languages. Describing a process where only the end result is documented involves several methodological difficulties. In this paper we try to address some of the issues by using a novel mathematical model together with detailed empirical data on the origin and structure of Mauritian Creole. Our main focus is on whether Mauritian Creole may have originated only from a mutual desire to communicate, without a target language or prestige bias. Our conclusions are affirmative. With a confirmation bias towards learning from successful communication, the model predicts Mauritian Creole better than any of the input languages, including the lexifier French, thus providing a compelling and specific hypothetical model of how creoles emerge. The results also show that it may be possible for a creole to develop quickly after first contact, and that it was created mostly from material found in the input languages, but without inheriting their morphology.

  • 227. Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Modelling the evolution of creoles2012In: The Evolution of Language: Proceedings of the 9th International Conference (EVOLANG9) / [ed] Thomas C. Scott-Phillips et al., Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Company , 2012, p. 464-465Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 228.
    Juvonen, Päivi
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Den flerspråkiga världen i siffror2003In: Låt mig ha kvar mitt språk: den tredje SUKKA-rapporten = Antakaa minun pitää kieleni: kolmas SUKKA-raportti / [ed] Raija Kangassalo, Ingmarie Mellenius, Umeå: Inst. för moderna språk, Umeå univérsitet , 2003, 11, p. 13-32Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 229.
    Jäger, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reported speech constructions and the grammaticalization of hearsay evidentiality: a cross-linguistic survey2010In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung, ISSN 0942-2919, Vol. 63, no 3, p. 177-195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 230.
    Keidel Fernández, Alejandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Qualitative differences in L3 learners’ neurophysiological response to L1versus L2 transfer2017In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017) / [ed] Włodarczak, Marcin, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 1789-1793Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Third language (L3) acquisition differs from first language (L1) and second language (L2) acquisition. There are different views on whether L1 or L2 is of primary influence on L3 acquisition in terms of transfer. This study examines differences in the event-related brain potentials (ERP) response to agreement incongruencies between L1 Spanish speakers and L3 Spanish learners, comparing response differences to incongruencies that are transferrable from the learners’ L1 (Swedish), or their L2 (English). Whereas verb incongruencies, available in L3 learners’ L2 but not their L1, engendered a similar response for L1 speakers and L3 learners, adjective incongruencies, available in L3 learners’ L1 but not their L2, elicited responses that differed between groups: Adjective incongruencies engendered a negativity in the 450-550 ms time window for L1 speakers only. Both congruent and incongruent adjectives also engendered an enhanced P3 wave in L3 learners compared to L1 speakers. Since the P300 correlates with task-related, strategic processing, this indicates that L3 learners process grammatical features that are transferrable from their L1 in a less automatic mode than features that are transferrable from their L2. L3 learners therefore seem to benefit more from their knowledge of their L2 than their knowledge of their L1.

  • 231. Klein, Raymond M.
    et al.
    Christie, John
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Does multilingualism affect the incidence of Alzheimer’s disease?: A worldwide analysis by country2016In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 2, p. 463-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been suggested that the cognitive requirements associated with bi- and multilingual processing provide a form of mental exercise that, through increases in cognitive reserve and brain fitness, may delay the symptoms of cognitive failure associated with Alzheimer′s disease and other forms of dementia. We collected data on a country-by-country basis that might shed light on this suggestion. Using the best available evidence we could find, the somewhat mixed results we obtained provide tentative support for the protective benefits of multilingualism against cognitive decline. But more importantly, this study exposes a critical issue, which is the need for more comprehensive and more appropriate data on the subject.

  • 232.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Assessing language acquisition from parent-child interaction: An event-related potential study on perception of audio-visual cues in infancy2013In: The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 134, article id 4106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper promotes a theory-driven model development of parent-child interaction. In our project, we identify, test, and simulate some of the fundamental components of speech,gestures, and social-emotional behaviors and the consequences they might have on child language development. Our theoretical position is part of the connectionist tradition; language acquisition is described to be an emergent consequence of the interplay between the infant and the ambient linguistic environment, including sensory information of all modalities. It is well known that speech comprehension and production are significantly influenced by the presence of co-speech gestures. These gestures may be articulatory in nature or hand/beat co-gestures that keep the rhythm of speech. However, since the extent of this integrated relationship is difficult to determine from behavioral research solely, studies addressing neural mechanisms that underlie cognitive processes and behaviors are of importance. This paper reports an electroencephalography/event-related potential (EEG/ERP) pilot study on children’s early perception of congruent versus incongruent audio-visual pairings (e.g., acoustic informationmatching vs not matching the articulation shown). Ultimately, it is our hope that understanding the integrated speech-gesture relationship may provide insights into how children allocate resources while speaking and help clinicians/teachers to better identify and treat children withdevelopmental disorders.

  • 233.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Modellering av förälder-barn interaktion (MINT): Komponenter hos audio-visuella ledtrådar och deras konsekvenser för språkinlärning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 234.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerhom, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The Stockholm Babylab Multimodal Approach: Modelling Infant Language Acquisition Longitudinally from Parent-Child Interaction2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory communicative interaction is in general best analyzed with the help of simultaneously recorded visual information about discourse objects and the positioning of interlocutors in space. Access to visual information is even more important in parent-child interaction since this type of communica-tion is largely based on use of contextual gestures, gaze and imitation. The un-derstanding of parent-child interaction benefits further from information on brain activation involved in speech processing. This paper introduces the Stockholm Babylab approach to study multimodal language learning in typi-cally developing infants and young children. Our effort is to build a multimodal corpus that incorporates EEG (electroencephalography) data in the model. Ap-plication fields are social signal processing (SSP), improvement of diagnosis of late or atypical language development, and further development of habilitation methods for individuals with neurocognitive and language deficits.   

  • 235.
    Knuchel, Dominique
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A comparative study of egophoric marking: Investigating its relation to person and epistemic marking in three language families2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Egophoric marking as a potentially categorical expression in language is conceived of as a binary semantic contrast that marks an event as either involving one of the speech act participants (egophoric), or as one that does not (non-egophoric). Prima facie, the egophoric marking pattern resembles person indexing and has been interpreted as such. However, it appears that what is marked does not simply correspond to indexing the speech act roles of speaker and addressee. Rather, egophoric marking appears to encode the speech participant’s respective access to events/information in terms of ‘involvement’ and is therefore more akin to epistemic categories, such as evidentiality.

    This thesis presents a comparative study of egophoric marking on the basis of data from descriptions of relevant languages from the Barbacoan (South America), Nakh-Daghestanian (Caucasus) and Tibeto-Burman (Himalaya) language families. The study covers grammatical and functional properties, as well as diachronic aspects of egophoric marking systems. The findings are discussed in relation to typological studies on person and evidentiality in order to determine similarities and differences between egophoric marking and these associated categories. 

  • 236.
    Kolehmainen, Leena
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland .
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nordlund, Taru
    Johdanto: Kielten vertailu menetelmänä kieli- ja käännöstieteessä2013In: Kielten vertailun metodiikka / [ed] Kolehmainen, Leena; Miestamo, Matti; Nordlund, Taru, Helsinki: Suomalaisen Kirjallisuuden Seura, 2013, p. 7-23Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 237. Kolehmainen, Leena
    et al.
    Miestamo, MattiStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.Nordlund, Taru
    Kielten vertailun metodiikka2013Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 238.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Adnominal Possession in the European Languages2002In: Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung (STUF), Vol. 55, no 2, p. 31-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 239.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Introducing the panel: what can be meant by areal semantics?2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the panel is to initiate a discussion on which lexico-semantic phenomena show parallells across the (West-)African languages and how these similarities may be described and accounted for – by universal tendencies, genetic relations among the languages, their contacts and/or their common extra-linguistic surrounding. Areal semantics (Ameka & Wilkins 1996, Koptjevskaja-Tamm & Liljegren forthc.), in its concern with the diffusion of semantic features across language boundaries in a geographical area, is a potentially vast field, spanning the convergence of individual lexemes, through the structuring of entire semantic domains to the organization of complete lexicons. It has a great potential for historical and areal linguistics, but is still awaiting systematic research. Lexical phenomena have a long standing record in research on language contact and linguistic areas. However, the recent developments in areal linguistics and areal typology have, with a few exceptions, mainly concerned grammatical phenomena. This is not at all surprising given the central place of this research in modern linguistics of all denominations, including typology, where the rapidly developing field of areal typology has encouraged and facilitated serious research on the relative role of universal, genetic and areal factors for many grammatical and phonetic phenomena. The two traditionally distinguished groups of contact phenomena in the lexicon are loanwords and calques, or semantic loans – the distinction paralleled by contact phenomena at other levels (‘replication of matter’ vs. ‘pattern replication’ in Matras and Sakel 2007, also Croft's 2000 distinction between ‘substance linguemes’ and ‘schematic linguemes’ and Heine and Kuteva's 2005 ‘polysemy copying’). Loanwords have been studied from a more systematic cross-linguistic perspective, where the core issue has been the varying borrowability of various words, seen as belonging to different parts of speech and/or coming from different semantic domains (cf. Haspelmath and Tadmor eds. 2009, Wohlgemuth 2009). The interesting research angles here, as elsewhere in research on contact phenomena and in (areal-)typological research (cf. Koptjevskaja-Tamm 2011) are possible outcomes of language contact in the realm of the lexicon, on the one hand, and a possibility of using lexical phenomena for reconstructing contact, on the other. But a lexical-typological contribution to areal linguistics has an even greater potential when it comes to pattern replication rather than to replication of matter. To give one example, Hayward (1991, 2000, also Treis 2010) points out many shared lexicalization patterns in the three Ethiopian languages Amharic (Semitic), Oromo (Cushitic) and Gamo (Omotic), which add to the cumulative evidence in favour of the Ethio-Erithrean linguistic area and fall into four categories: (i) shared semantic specializations, e.g. ‘die without ritual slaughter (of cattle)’;  (ii) shared polysemy, e.g. ‘draw water’ – ‘copy’; (iii) shared derivational pathways, e.g. ‘need’ = causative of ‘want’: (iv) shared ideophones and idioms, e.g., ‘I caught a cold’ expressed via ‘a cold caught me’. Matisoff (2004), Vanhove (ed. 2008), Zalizniak et al. (2012) and Urban (2012) give numerous examples of cross-linguistically recurrent patterns of polysemy (e.g., ‘eat’ –> ‘suffer’), some of which are clearly areally restricted and witness of language contact, whereas others rather reflect universal tendencies.

  • 240.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Swedish proper-name compounds in blogs: creativity, productivity and frequency2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 9-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate creativity, productivity and frequency of Swedish proper-name compounds following in the steps of Dahl (2003, 2008) and Kajanus (2005). These studies described several examples of Swedish compounding patterns based on a particular proper name that have manifested a gradual diachronic rise in the frequency of both types (by spreading to further stems) and tokens, i.e. have been gradually entrenched. Dahl’s most striking example is the explosive development of Swedish PropN-compounding with Palme as the first component, following on the important and highly salient event in the modern Swedish history, the murder of the Swedish prime-minister in 1986. In fact, many Palme-compounds are related to the “murder script”, with Palme often metonymic for the Palme murder and also for further compounds derived from it (by means of metonymical chains), cf. Palme+kulorna — ’the Palme bullets, i.e. the bullets found at some distance from the place of the Palme murder’, Palme+misstänkta — ‘Palme suspects, i.e. persons suspected of having committed the Palme murder’, Palme+utredningen ’the Palme investigation, i.e. the investigation of the Palme murder’, etc. In all these previous studies the data come from the Swedish press and novel corpus (86 mln words). Our research uses the Swedish Blog Sentences corpus containing 6 mlrd tokens from 46 mln blog posts in the period of 2010-2014 (Östling and Wirén. We focus on creativity, productivity and frequency of compounds based on several proper names that have been particularly salient in the discourse during the relevant period . We consider how the fluctuations in the type and token frequencies of the proper-name compouns correlate with the rises and falls in the frequency of the relevant proper names. Interestingly, there are very few highly frequent compounds – in fact, 1-2 for each of the proper names considered (e.g., Putinregimen ‘the Putin regime’, Zlatanboken ‘the Zlatan book’, Obamaadministrationen ‘the Obama administration’). On the other hand, each of the proper names ”generates” a high number of unique compounds, i.e. compounds that have only one occurrence in the whole corpus. Finally, there are also proper name compounds that are in-between the unique and the highly frequent ones, but this group is quite restricted.

  • 241.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature terms across languages: derivation, lexical stability and lexical universals2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 28-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this talk I will focus on the cross-linguistic regularities in the origin and development of temperature terms, such as ‘warm’ or ‘cold’, based on the data from about 40 languages in Koptjevskaja-Tamm (ed. 2015). The first question concerns motivational patterns typical for temperature terms, i.e., to what extent and by which word-formation strategies temperature terms are derived from expressions with other meanings. To give a few examples, some of the most frequent sources for ‘hot’ include, not surprisingly, such concepts as ‘burn’, ‘fire’, ‘boil’, ‘cook’, ‘sweat’, while those for ‘cold’ include ‘ice’, ‘shade’, ‘winter’, ‘brr’, ‘to become stiff’. In fact, the close relation between the conventionalised expressions for ‘warm/hot’ and those for ‘fire’ or ‘sweat’ in some languages raises the issue of whether the former do indeed belong to the basic or central temperature terms. In addition, there are many other sources for temperature terms. A fascinating group of questions related to the origin and development of temperature terms concerns their stability. For instance, do genetically related languages share temperature cognates? If they do, do the cognates have the same or similar meanings? What is the role of language contact in shaping the temperature term systems? It has been suggested in earlier research that central temperature terms are unusually stable, i.e. that they are typically «passed on essentially unchanged and with essentially no vocabulary turn-over across hundreds of generations of grammar&lexicon acquirers for thousands of years» (Plank 2010). However, the answers to the above listed questions differ for different languages, or for groups of languages. For instance, some of the central temperature terms across Indo-European turn out to be extremely stable, but these languages also testify to numerous instances of lexical replacement or addition of new temperature terms. The temperature terms in the two closely related Timor-Alor-Pantar languages Abui and Kamang and across the Nyulnyulan family are, on the contrary, strikingly dissimilar. Significantly, in all these cases, the meanings of cognates and their place in the overall temperature system of a language may be subject to significant variation.

  • 242.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    IJzerman, Hans
    How our biology predisposes us to an "AFFECTION IS WARMTH" "metaphor", and how our environment changes its anchor2015In: 48th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europea: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Alwin Kloekhorst, Martin Kohlberger, 2015, p. 83-84Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    "AFFECTION IS WARMTH" is one of the most widely quoted "universal" conceptual metaphors. Cognitive linguists suggest these to be conceptual, based on frequently used English expressions as “warm words, feelings”. In this talk, we will reflect on their cross-disciplinary collaboration, using both the findings of a large-scale cross-linguistic study of the meanings and uses of the temperature terms in the world’s languages and the insights from (social) psychology. Our first question –inspired by Geeraerts and Grondelaers (1995) –was to explore whether these reflect universal patterns or whether they are based on specific cultural traditions. Their presence across languages indeed varies considerably: while some languages demonstrate elaborated systems of such uses, quite a few lack them altogether, and yet others vary as to which temperature term has predominantly positive associations in its extended uses (e.g. ‘cold’rather than ‘warm’). This disconfirms the idea that this conceptual metaphor is universal, and further confirms suspicions from social psychology, which has falsified another basic assumption from conceptual metaphor theory –unidirectionality (IJzerman & Semin 2010). In the remainder, we first explore these patterns, and then provide first explorations for why they are likely to differ across languages. Perhaps surprisingly, the edited volume by Koptjevskaja-Tamm (2015) clearly reveals a significant variance in using temperature metaphors. Australian languages, Hup (Nadahup), Mapudungun (Araucanian), and Ojibwe (Algonquian) basically lack any extended use of temperature terms, while the 84SLE 2015 Book of AbstractsOceanic languages in Vanuatu and Nganasan (Uralic) have very few. This is in contrast both to some European and other Asian languages, but also to the African languages Ewe, Gbaya, Gurenɛ, Likpe, Sɛlɛɛ, Abui and Kamang (Timor-Alor-Pantar), and Yucatec Maya. These latter reveal a rich inventory of extended uses pertaining to their temperature terms, ranging from the more common ones, to the idiosyncratic ones. The actual cross-linguistic variation is both striking, thought-provoking, and calling for more research. Insights from (social) psychology may provide us with further answers for why such cross-cultural variation exists among languages. The most important reason is likely that temperature metaphors reflect how people deal with the metabolic demands of the environment. Thermoregulation is one of the most metabolically expensive activities across the animal kingdom. Other animals (and thus also humans) help regulate the temperature environment when this gets too cold, making a comfortable warm touch seem to answer basic biological necessities in mammalian sociality (Harlow & Suomi 1970; IJzerman et al. 2015). The second part of this talk will discuss the biological mechanisms behind social thermoregulation, and point to how others keeping us warm can help us answer to basic metabolic needs (cf. Beckes & Coan 2011; Beckes et al. 2014). From that, humans have developed so-called "cultural complements" to deal with the demands of the environment, and we will speculate that different linguistic metaphors are reflective of different metabolic needs across cultures, which are implemented according to different cultural practices (e.g., differences in touch) and rely on different needsdepending on the environment (e.g., different climates). Together, we discuss how language can facilitate culturally coordinated metabolism regulation, and thus point to the role of different attention-driving functions of linguistic –not conceptual –metaphors in cultural coordination.

  • 243.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Antonyms and derivational negation: a pilot study of cross-linguistic variation2015In: ALT 2015: 11th Conference of the Association for Linguistic Typology. August 1-3, 2015, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Abstract Booklet, Albuquerque: University of New Mexico , 2015, p. 85-86Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typological research on negation has mainly focused on clausal negation and on indefinite pronouns in the scope of negation (see Miestamo 2007 for an overview). Derivational affixes expressing negation (e.g., un- in unhappy or -less in powerless), have so far not figured in systematic typological studies. Zimmer's (1964) seminal study of affixal negation with adjectives is mainly restricted to a few well-known Indo-European languages; other families are given less attention. Semantically, derivational negation is closely connected to antonymy, which can be expressed by unrelated lexemes (lexical antonyms: small vs. big) or by means of overt derivational negation (morphological antonyms: happy vs. unhappy). Lexical and morphological antonymy do not necessarily exclude each other. E.g., Russian has regular triads of the kind bol’šoj ‘big’ – malen’kij ‘little’ – nebol’šoj ‘NEG.big’, and even tetrads, such as dobryj ‘kind’ – zloj ‘mean’ – nedobryj ‘NEG.kind’ – nezloj ‘NEG.mean’. Antonymy has been a popular topic in semantic theories and in logic (see Horn 2001). A central distinction is the one between contradictory vs. contrary opposites; the former are either–or (dead vs. alive), whereas the latter show a middle ground between the two poles (small vs. big). It has been suggested that languages have “canonical antonyms”, i.e. “a limited core of highly opposable couplings” (speed: slow/fast, luminosity: dark/light, strength: weak/strong, size small/large, width: narrow/wide, merit bad/good and thickness thin/thick) (Paradis & al. 2009). However, systematic typological studies of antonymy are lacking. This talk presents a cross-linguistic pilot study of antonymy and its expression by both lexical and overt morphological means. Our pilot sample includes 20 languages from different families and geographical areas. The data come from dictionaries and grammars as well as from a questionnaire sent to language experts. We focus on antonymy in property words (adjectives), more specifically in such forms that can be used as adnominal modifiers, with the goal to find correlations between semantic and formal properties of antonyms. From the formal point of view, we will pay attention to the type of marking (e.g., prefix vs. suffix), to the number of different derivational negators in a language, whether these markers can be used on other word classes than property words and how they are related to other negative markers in the language, primarily to clausal negation. Taking in semantics, we will observe what types of opposition (contrary vs. contradictory, scalar vs. non-scalar etc.) and which domains (evaluation, size, dimension, temperature etc.) are expressed by lexical antonyms vs. each attested type of overt morphological marking. Specific hypotheses to be tested against the cross-linguistic data include the following. Evaluatively positive members of an antonym pair are more likely to accept morphological negation (unclever vs. *unstupid). The existence of a lexical antonym may block the possibility of morphological marking and if triads (or tetrads) exist, there will be cross-linguistically recurring ways in which the meanings of the lexical vs. morphological antonyms are related to each other. Morphological antonyms built with elements similar to clausal negators in the language will tend to involve contradictory rather than contrary opposites.

  • 244.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Miestamo, Matti
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Antonyms and word-level negation2015In: Abstracts, 2015, p. 74-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Typological research on negation has focused most prominently on standard negation, i.e. the basic negation strategies in declarative clauses, and some work has also been done on other aspects of clausal negation as well as on indefinite pronouns in the scope of negation. Negation at the level of words, i.e., derivational affixes expressing negation as well as case markers with negative semantics, has so far not figured in systematic typological studies, but it has received some attention in theoretical literature on semantics and morphology. Zimmer (1964) discusses “affixal” negation primarily in English and a couple of other Indo-European languages, but also comments on a few non-­Indo‐European languages and even suggests some cross‐linguistic generalizations. Subsequent work (e.g., Horn 1989) is similarly restricted in its cross‐linguistic scope. From the semantic point of view, the issue of word­‐level negation is closely connected to antonymy. Antonymy and types of opposition have been a popular topic in semantic theories (see Horn 1989), where the central distinction is between contrary and contradictory opposites. The two types differ as to whether they allow a third possibility in-­between: contradictory opposites are either–or (dead vs. alive), whereas in contrary opposites there is a middle ground between the two poles (small vs. big). Linguistically, antonyms can be expressed by unrelated lexemes (lexical antonyms) like the examples cited above, or by means of overt negation (happy vs. unhappy, possible vs. impossible). Lexical and morphological antonymy do not necessarily exclude each other. E.g., Russian has regular triads of the kind bol’šoj ‘big’ – malen’kij ‘little’ – nebol’šoj ‘NEG‐big’, and even tetrads, such as dobryj ‘kind’ – zloj ‘mean’ – nedobryj ‘NEG-­kind’ – nezloj ‘NEG-­mean’. Despite all the attention that antonymy has received from semanticists, work in a broader cross‐linguistic comparative perspective is lacking. This talk presents a pilot study of antonymy and its expression by both lexical and overt morphological means. We will focus on antonymy in property words (adjectives), more specifically in such forms that can be used as adnominal modifiers. Our main interest will be in finding correlations between semantic and formal properties of antonyms. From the formal point of view, we will pay attention to the type of marking (e.g., prefix vs. suffix), to the number of different word-­‐level negators in a language, whether these markers can be used on other word classes than property words and how they are related to other negative markers in the language. Taking in semantics, we will observe what types of opposition (contrary vs. contradictory, scalar vs. non-­‐scalar etc.)and which domains of property scales (evaluation, size, dimension, temperature etc.) are expressed by lexical antonyms vs. each attested type of overt morphological marking, i.e. whether the linguistic evidence allows us to classify antonyms into cross‐linguistically relevant types. Does the existence of a lexical antonym exclude the possibility of morphological marking? Do the markers exclude one another on the same lexical item? Are there semantic principles governing such blocking effects? Can triads and/or tetrads be found in addition to pairs? Our pilot sample includes 15 languages from different families and geographical areas. The data comes from dictionaries and grammars and, most importantly, from a questionnaire sent to language experts. As this is a pilot study of a domain previously unexplored in language typology, our main goal is to sketch different ways of approaching this intriguing domain from a broader cross-­linguistic perspective.

  • 245.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vanhove, Martine
    Koch, Peter
    Typological approaches to lexical semantics2007In: Linguistic Typology, ISSN 1430-0532; 1613-415X, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 159 – 186-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 246.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A book notice on Savickienė, I. & W. U. Dressler (eds.), The acquisition of diminutives a cross-linguistic perspective2008In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, Vol. 559Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for General Linguistics.
    “A lot of grammar with a good portion of lexicon” towards a typology of partitive and pseudo-partitive nominal constructions2009In: Form and Function in Language Research: Papers in honour of Christian Lehmann / [ed] Helmbrecht, Johannes, Nishina, Yoko, Shin, Yong-Min, Skopeteas, Stavros & Elisabeth Verhoeven, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter , 2009, p. 329-346Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 248.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A Mozart sonata and the Palme funeral: The structure and uses of proper-name compounds in Swedish2013In: Morpho-syntactic categories and the expression of possession / [ed] Börjars, Kersti, Denison, David & Alan Scott, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 253-290Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on Swedish nominal compounds with a personal proper name as their first component (PropN-compounds), e.g. en Mozart+sonat ‘a Mozart sonata’ or Palme+mord-et ‘the Palme murder’ (‘Palme+murder-the’). Although these expressions have so far hardly appeared in the scientific discourse on possession, they do in fact constitute an important resource for expressing possession in the broadest sense in Swedish and, further, in Germanic. For instance, many PropN-compounds are more or less synonymous with nominals modified by preposed s-genitives and/or by postposed prepositional phrases, i.e. by the two constructions that make up the core of adnominal possession in Swedish. In the present paper I will be mostly interested in the structure and meanings/uses of PropN-compounds, in particular, as compared to the other “possessive” constructions in Swedish.

  • 249.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A review of “The changing languages of Europe” by Heine, B. & T. Kuteva2008In: Linguistics, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 1019-1030Article in journal (Other academic)
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    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A woman of sin, a man of duty, and a hell of a mess: non-determiner genitives in Swedish2003In: Noun phrase structure in the languages of Europe / [ed] Frans Plank, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2003, p. 515-558Chapter in book (Other academic)
2345678 201 - 250 of 539
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