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  • 201.
    Nordén, Anton Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Adjektiv i hög grad: En korpusstudie av förstärkares distribution i svenska2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien är en korpusbaserad undersökning av hur bloggare vanligen förstärker adjektiv på svenska, och om förstärkningen varierar utifrån vilka adjektiv och/eller substantiv som modifieras. Tidigare litteratur belyser exempelvis hur adjektivförstärkning kan styras av semantiska och kontextuella faktorer samt hur förstärkare ofta grammatikaliseras. Undersökningen ämnar deskriptivt komplettera tidigare observationer, genom analys av större datamängder än motsvarande studier av svenska. Datan hämtades ur korpusen Swedish Blog Sentences (>6 miljarder tokens). Alla sammansatta adjektiv, adverb följda av adjektiv samt liknelser (”ADJ som en/ett N”) extraherades automatiskt. Därefter listades manuellt de 20 vanligaste förstärkande förleden, adverben och liknelserna, totalt och för 26 utvalda adjektiv. ”Förstärkning” definierades som ett uttryck för ’hög grad’ av egenskapen som adjektivet betecknar. Resultaten visade att förleden och adverben är nära Zipf-fördelade totalt sett, och ofta för enskilda adjektiv. Vidare fastslogs att adjektiv förstärks olika mycket och med olika förstärkare. Resultaten bedöms stödja teorin kring affixoider och grammatikalisering samt graderbarhet hos adjektiv. Det föreslås att framtida större studier skulle belysa skillnaden mellan lexikalt specifika och generella förstärkningar. Slutligen argumenteras för att liknelserna fyller samma förstärkande funktion som förleden och adverben.

  • 202.
    Nordén, Anton Harry
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Epistemic modality in Ghanaian Pidgin English2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the expression of epistemic modality in a corpus of Ghanaian Pidgin English (GhaPE). The epistemic expressions are manually identified and thereafter distinguished from each other in terms of grammatical status and their indication of different epistemic and evidential notions. 7 different elements are found, ranging from 1 pre-verbal marker, 1 adverb, 2 particles and 3 complement-taking predicates. The results indicate, in line with existing research, that to differentiate between usage properties of individual modal expressions it may be necessary to subdivide them in terms of not only epistemic but also evidential meanings. Moreover, a functional parallel between the GhaPE particle abi, the Swedish modal particle väl and the Spanish adverbs a lo mejor and igual is demonstrated, with respect to their simultaneous function of expressing epistemic probability and asking the hearer for confirmation. Finally, the results suggest, contrary to previous accounts, that the pre-verbal marker fit may indicate epistemic possibility without the addition of a preceding irrealis marker go. It is proposed that future researchers should make use of bigger corpora in order to arrive at a more ample conception of both individual modal categories and their interrelations.

  • 203.
    Norrman, Matilda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Försämringsuttryck på finska: En undersökning av hur uttryck för organiska produkters försämringsprocess väljs i finska2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien syftade till att hitta kategorier till hur olika organiska produkters försämringsprocess beskrivs och hur försämringsuttrycken väljs på finska. Med hjälp av korpusar och ordböcker togs kombinationer av försämringsuttryck och deras subjekt fram samt beskrivningar på de olika uttrycken och deras etymologi. Resultatet blev att många av försämringsuttrycken går att använda med många olika organiska produkter (som mädäntyä ’ruttna’, som både kan användas med köttprodukter och frukter), medan användningen av andra försämringsuttryck kan vara väldigt begränsade och produktkategoriinterna och alltså bara går att användas med en viss organisk produkt (som eltaantua ’härskna’, som bara kan användas med fettprodukter). Alla försämringsuttrycken beskrev en skillnad i någon eller några parametrar – smak, lukt, utseende, konsistens osv., men en gemensam nämnare som alla försämringsuttrycken hade var att de alltid beskriver en skillnad i utseende.

  • 204.
    Norstedt, fd. Walberg, Heléne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Lateralization in speech perception? A first analysis of brain activation in 4-month-old children and adults2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Hemispheric lateralization in speech perception in infants and adults was studied by means of brain activation patterns via EEGmeasurement. Overall activation and ERPs in response to IDS-stimuli in Swedish, Portuguese and rotated Swedish were tested in 9 4-monthold infants and 13 adults with EEG head-nets. Left-hemispheric activation was expected in adults at least for intelligible speech stimuli, whereas non-specific activation in both hemispheres was expected in infants. The results showed a right-hemispheric lateralization tendency in adults. The infants showed no lateralization pattern. Further research on 9-month-old infants is the next step to understand lateralization development in infants.

  • 205.
    Norén Hakamäki, Sigrid
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Finithetsfenomen i djambarrpuyŋu2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det nord-australiska pama-njunganspråket djambarrpuyŋu har studerats med avseende på finita egenskaper. Det går att påstå att det finns en finithetsdistinktion i djambarrpuyŋu eftersom det finns satser som kan uttrycka vissa egenskaper (t ex tempus, modus, aspekt och nominativt/ergativt subjekt) samtidigt som det finns satsliknande konstruktioner som inte kan uttrycka detta. Ett möjligt samband mellan finita kriterier i djambarrpuyŋu är förmåga att fungera som talhandling och förmåga att overt kunna uttrycka nominativt/ergativt subjekt, men detta behöver studeras närmare. Ett annat möjligt samband är att endast konstruktioner som kan uttrycka nominativt/ergativt subjekt har möjlighet att uttrycka TMA på något vis, dvs overt TMA-markering ses då som ett möjligt (men icke-obligatoriskt) finit kriterium medan nominativt/ergativt subjekt ses som ett nödvändigt kriterium.

  • 206.
    Noske, Karina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska, Avdelningen för tyska.
    Einflussfaktoren auf die Aussprache einer Zweit-/Fremdsprache: Eine Forschungsübersicht2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 207.
    Noske, Karina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The influence of formal instruction on segmental speech production by German learners of English2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the influence of formal L2 English instruction (FEI) on pronunciation accuracy of similar and new vowels in the framework of Flege’s Speech Learning Model (Flege, 1995a, 1999, 2002), focusing on selected segmental pronunciation features produced by native German speakers. A spectral vowel production experiment was carried out with 24 German students who attend sixth, ninth and twelfth grade of a south German secondary school by the time this study was conducted. Spectral characteristics of the similar vowel /ɛ/ and the new vowel /æ/,produced by each subject of the three groups (G6, G9, and G12), were compared to vowel data of native English speakers. In order to test the influence of formal instruction on selected phonetic segments, which are known to cause difficulties for native German learners of English, three native English listeners judged on a three pointscale the intelligibility of the segments produced. The results of the vowel experiment showed significant influence of FEI on pronunciation accuracy of some characteristics of the similar vowel /ɛ/ but not of the new vowel /æ/. The listener rating experiment showed that FEI had on average no influence on pronunciation accuracy of the three L2 English learner groups.

  • 208.
    Nyberg, Joacim
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Negation in Japanese2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Negation has fascinated thinkers and scholars for some 2,500 years.However, within linguistics, it is only in the recent years that negation has been given the attention it deserves. Within language typology, the main subject of investigation has been the notion of standard negation. This is well covered and data from several languages has been presented.When it comes to Japanese, it has proved hard to come across a detailed description of negation. There is a rich general literature covering many aspects of Japanese grammar, but there seems to be a lack of a work that investigates and collects all negation phenomena in one place. Furthermore, the general grammars do not take the typological perspective of negation into consideration.

    The aim of this thesis is to describe various negation strategies and related phenomena in the Japanese language and to put them in a typological perspective. To carry this out, a questionnaire for describing negation is used. Information and examples are extracted from grammars, articles, and a corpus. This is a descriptive text, and the analyses and conclusions presented can clearly contribute to the already existing literature on negation in Japanese, with the addition of a typological perspective.

  • 209.
    Nylin, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Is e- the new cyber?: A corpus study on fashion cycles in vocabulary2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A central area of research in linguistics is the study of changes in vocabulary over time, be it over historical time periods or faster changes within generations. One contributing factor driving such fast changes could be “fashion cycles”, as this is a very general cultural phenomenon. Here, results are reported from a corpus study investigating trends over time in the use of cyber as the first part of compound nouns, and of alternatives which carry a similar meaning, such as e- as short for electronic. It is found that cyber was commonly used in the time period 1995-2004. Usage then strongly declined, but there was a new peak in popularity in the last year of available data (2012). Interestingly, cyber was initially used in positively charged or neutral contexts (e.g. cyberspace), but in recent years mostly in negatively charged words such as cyberbullying or cyber warfare. The hypothesis that cyber has been replaced with e- was partially supported (in particular in the case of e-mail, but e-books is another prominent example of a recent rising trend in vocabulary). However, in most other contexts usage of e- actually peaked a few years before the last years of the available corpus data. In general, results were consistent with “fashion cycles” in that the popularity of using cyber or e-, and in particular of specific words including these compound noun parts, seems to come and go rapidly over time. Interestingly use of cyber was seen mostly in negative contexts during later time periods. No such change was apparent in the use of e-. An emerging hypothesis partially supported by the data is that words in commercial contexts (e.g. cyber-business, e-business) rapidly lose their positive charge as they become common and are replaced by other, more novel and more fashionable words. Corpus linguistics is a very powerful tool for investigating such patterns of change in the popularity of words, and the processes behind them.

  • 210.
    Nyqvist, Jakob
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Avdelningen för japanska.
    Onomatopoesi: Svenska studenters uppfattning och förståelse av japanska onomatopoetiska ord som beskriver tillstånd eller känslor2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 211.
    Ocampo Sepulveda, Marta
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    El aprendizaje del español L2 en los estudios universitarios: Un estudio sobre la relación existente entre contexto de aprendizaje, motivación, actitudes y resultados obtenidos2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    Hoy en día, el aprendizaje de una lengua extranjera (LE) es esencial para poder trabajar, viajar o para comunicarse con otras personas. Pero, puede también ser interesante por la satisfacción que significan nuevos conocimientos en otra lengua. El éxito en el aprendizaje de una lengua varía mucho según los motivos, las actitudes y los intereses de los aprendices. Por eso, el objetivo de este estudio es investigar estos factores, y ver de qué manera influyen en el aprendizaje de la lengua española. Por un lado, se espera que los estudiantes que no tienen el español como lengua materna (Español I y Español III), presenten una motivación de tipo intrínseca. Por otro lado, se espera que los estudiantes hispanohablantes (Español I y Español III), a diferencia de los que tienen español como L2, tengan una motivación extrínseca que justifique la elección de estudiar español.

    Este estudio consta de 25 cuestionarios que fueron respondidos por estudiantes de dos niveles distintos de español LE en una universidad sueca (Español I y Español III). Los resultados muestran que la mayoría de los alumnos estudian el español porque puede ser útil para los estudios, la carrera profesional o para vivir en un país hispano (motivos extrínsecos). Sin embargo, existen diferencias notables según la lengua materna del estudiante y su nivel de estudio. Así, algunos de los estudiantes de Español III, motivan su deseo de aprender el español porque les gusta el idioma y es un placer estudiarlo (motivación intrínseca). En cuanto a las actitudes hacia la lengua, la gente hispana y sus países, la mayoría de los estudiantes los valora de manera muy positiva. Sin embargo, valoran de manera positiva al grupo de español y el curso, pero no tienen una opinión muy positiva de los profesores y del entorno en el que ocurre el aprendizaje. Además, los resultados muestran que los estudiantes están más interesados en la cultura de España que en la latinoamericana. Por último, los resultados indican que la mayoría de los alumnos que obtienen altos resultados en el curso tienen motivos extrínsecos. Sin embargo, la motivación extrínseca acompaña también resultados bajos en el rendimiento académico, mientras que la motivación intrínseca se relaciona únicamente con resultados altos.

  • 212.
    Olanders, Urban
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Parallelism: A Stylistic Device in Sarah Kane’s Cleansed2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Literature differs from other types of texts because it tends to use certain stylistic devices more frequently. Among these, parallelism has an important role, because it is very common. Parallelism means that identical or similar words, grammatical constructions, or phonological features occur in the same or adjacent lines in the text. In the present work the occurrence and function of lexical, phonological, syntactic and syntagmatic parallelism in the play Cleansed are examined. Cleansed was written by Sarah Kane and was staged in 1998 at the Royal Court Theatre in London. Parallelism is a common stylistic device in Cleansed. The effect of parallelism is that it contributes to emphasis and coherence to textual passages. In addition, parallelism has a poetic function, as it makes the language formulations themselves prominent. Particularly common forms of parallelism in Cleansed are repetitions of single words, like for instance anaphors in stage directions and repetition of expressions. By repeating words and expressions, or by alliteration, emphasis is given to particular parts of the text, and repetition of identical or similar items also creates coherence.  

  • 213.
    Oletic, Aleksandra
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Evaluative language in student reflections: A corpus-based study of online forum contributions2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With the widespread use of English in higher education, there are many genres and registers that students need to master (e.g. Hood, 2010; Hyland, 2004; Hüttner, 2008; Kuteeva, 2012). Previous research on evaluation in academic writing has largely focused on expert genres such as research articles or graduate student writing. This paper aims to address the gap in research on student genres by providing a corpus-based analysis of a collection of student writing. The methodology consists of a textual analysis of evaluative language in student writing on data collected from students’ forum comments and reflections posted on Stockholm University’s online learning platform. The theoretical framework for the analysis of evaluative language draws primarily on the theoretical frameworks for the study of evaluative language inspired by Systemic Functional Linguistics. The dataset is labelled for instances of evaluation that express a positive, negative or neutral attitude of the writer. The types of evaluation are categorized into judgments of acceptability, difficulty, expectedness, goodness, importance, interestingness, and usefulness. Overall, the results indicate that students tend to evaluate positively in order to express a positive attitude within all categories of entities found in the data. However, differences exist between evaluations within different categories in terms of the expressed writer’s attitude. In their evaluations limited to discussions within specific research approaches, students tend to limit their evaluation to expressions of a positive or negative attitude. On the other hand, evaluations of theoretical concepts contain a more balanced distribution of attitude types and tend to be contextualized or paired with support in the discourse. Furthermore, a qualitative analysis of individual instances of evaluation shows that it can serve different communicative purposes depending on its form and position in the discourse. Finally, a connection can be drawn between the types of evaluation and the selection of writer’s voice, showing that students assume a range of voices in order to cope with the demand to perform evaluation at different levels of experience.

  • 214.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Iamitives: Perfects in Southeast Asia and beyond2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores grammatical markers with meanings similar to the English perfect tense and words like already, as found in numerous languages across the world, and perhaps especially in languages of Southeast Asia, with the aim of describing the main function of these markers. Such items have previously been treated as belonging to the same category as the perfects of European languages but are tentatively termed "iamitives" in this study (from Latin iam 'already') since they differ from perfects in many respects. The investigation focusses on the semantic and pragmatic factors that determine the use of iamitive-like markers in Indonesian/Malay, Thai, Vietnamese and Mandarin Chinese, based on questionnaire data obtained through work with native speakers of the languages, with additional data coming from a number of languages spoken in other parts of the world. The results highlight the differences and similarities that can be found between iamitives, perfects and 'already', and explicates a number of conditions that are crucial for the use of iamitives, notably involving notions such as change-of-state and speaker expectations

  • 215.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Subordinate clauses in Kashaya Pomo2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyzes subordinate clauses in Kashaya (Pomoan; Northern California). Subordinateclauses have not received any substantial attention in the literature on Kashaya, and the aim of the study istherefore to provide a general description of the morphosyntactic characteristics of some of the mostimportant subordinate clause types. Data was mainly taken from two sources: a collection of transcribedtexts (Oswalt 1964) and the manuscript of an unfinished dictionary (Oswalt, no date), from whichsentences that appeared to consist of combinations of two or more clauses were extracted. In order todetermine whether the constructions found in these sentences involved subordination, they wereexamined in accordance with the parameters proposed in Lehmann (1988). These parameters includerestrictions on word order, reduction of the grammatical categories expressed on the subordinate verb andthe presence of nominal morphology (e.g. case marking) on the subordinate verb. This investigationresulted in the identification of a number of subordinate clause types, of which seven are presented in thestudy: three complement clause constructions, one relative clause construction and three adverbialconstructions. Subordinate clauses are characterized by strictly verb-final word order and partialmorphological reduction. The study also provides a more thorough analysis of relativization strategiesand of the clausal nominalizations involved in several of the constructions that are examined.

  • 216.
    Olsson, Ingrid
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för didaktik och pedagogiskt arbete.
    Schirren, Eva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för didaktik och pedagogiskt arbete.
    ”… det känns ju naturligt att få följa elevernas språkutveckling …”: Lärares sätt att erfara performansanalysen som bedömningsverktyg2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med undersökningen är att beskriva de uppfattningar av bedömningsverktyget performansanalys som uttrycks av två lärare i svenska som andraspråk. Studiens delsyfte är att relatera dessa uppfattningar till det mål- och kunskapsrelaterade betygsystemet. Undersökningens fyra frågeställningar avser aspekter beträffande vad som möjliggör, försvårar och förutsätter bedömningsarbetet med performansanalys. Problemområdet, bedömning inom svenska som andraspråk, är komplext och mångfacetterat samt tenderar att vara tidskrävande och omfattande. Lärare inom ämnet behöver kunskaper om den speciella process som tillägnandet av ett andraspråk innebär, samt ett bedömningsverktyg som kan ta hänsyn till denna process. Performansanalys presenteras som en möjlig metod för detta. Som teoretiska utgångspunkter ligger den forskning kring andraspråksinlärning och andraspråksutveckling som utgör grunden för performansanalys. Vidare presenteras forskning kring summativ och formativ bedömning. Undersökningen är av kvalitativ karaktär och har en fenomenografisk forskningsansats, vilken strävar efter att kartlägga variationer av uppfattningar. Kvalitativa intervjuer har utgjort datainsamlingsmetod. Bearbetningsmetoden innefattar en beskrivande och en analytisk nivå med fyra steg: transkribering, datareferat i form av citat, menings-koncentrering och analys. Resultat och analys visar att lärarna erfar performansanalys på två övergripande sätt. Dels uppfattas performansanalys i enlighet med dess teoretiska utgångspunkter. Dels uppfattas performansanalys som ett summativt inriktat bedömningsverktyg, vilket har ett samband med tidsaspekten och kommunens inverkan på lärarnas arbete med bedömningsverktyget. Diskussionen visar på olika tolkningsmöjligheter av analysen.

  • 217.
    Olsson, Linus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Form and function of reduplicated nouns in Japanese2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the form and function of reduplication in nouns in Japanese. Three main areas were investigated: meaning, morphosyntactic behavior, and register. The study was conducted with informants participating in meetings which were audio recorded. The informants were asked to describe a number of reduplicated nouns belonging to three categories: concrete nouns, abstract nouns, and nouns relating to time. A number of pseudo forms were also included to see if similar patterns could be observed in nouns that did not belong to the regular lexicon. The results were analyzed for possible patterns relating to meaning, morphosyntactic behavior, and register across the three noun categories. Primarily two patterns were observed: 1. the reduplicated forms of concrete nouns tended to have a meaning of plurality and maintain their noun status, and 2. the reduplicated forms of nouns relating to time tended to acquire a sensation of extended time and frequency, and change word class into adverbs. These patterns were not observed as strongly among the pseudo forms. In addition to these patterns, other phenomena were observed among the reduplicated nouns that could not be categorized as belonging to specific patterns and should be investigated in further studies.

  • 218.
    Olsson, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Spädbarns anticipatoriska ögonrörelser som svar på ljud: Inlärning i ett eye-tracker-baserat hörseltest2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA) är en metod för att bedöma små barns hörtrösklar. Ett hörseltest med eye-tracking som bygger på VRA är under utveckling, och syftet med denna studie är att vidareutveckla inlärningsfasen i ett sådant hörseltest. Barn i åldern 6,5 till 7,5 månader fick lyssna på ljudstimuli från högtalare på vänster och höger sida om sig och samtidigt se visuella stimuli på motsvarande sida av en bildskärm. Barnens inlärning av det audio-visuella sambandet testades sedan genom att mäta deras ögonrörelser till platsen för visuella stimuli under tiden då ljudet presenterades. Resultaten kan inte tydligt visa att barnen lärt sig associationen, varför testets utformning bör utvecklas vidare för att tillgodose det behov som finns av ett fullt automatiskt och objektivt hörseltest för att utreda spädbarns hörtrösklar.

  • 219.
    Ottersten, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Andraspråksinlärares användning av olika verbtyper i det svenska teckenspråket2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Andraspråksinlärare använder speciella regler vid inlärningen av ett nytt språk. Det finns många teorier som beskriver hur. Interimspråkshypotesen och performansanalysen ligger till grund för denna undersökning. Verb är en av ordklasserna i svenska språket och specifikt för verb är att man kan uttrycka tempus. I teckenspråket kan verb ha formen fasta och polysyntetiska tecken, i både icke modifierad och modifierad form. Tidigare undersökningar (bl.a. Stenberg 2009) har fokuserat på de fel andraspråksanvändarna gör och har hittat att förenkling är den vanligast förekommande kategorin. Denna uppsats studerar hur informanterna använder verb. De använder främst fasta tecken för verb men efter mer undervisningstid använder de mer polysyntetiska tecken. Komplexiteten hos verb verkar öka från fasta till modifierade tecken och de polysyntetiska tecknen är de svåraste, i likhet med tyska studier. Man kan se generella likheter med interimspråkets teorier.

  • 220.
    Ouahabi, Zaynab
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Diferencias en la realización y percepción de actos de habla de (des)cortesía entre estudiantes universitarios en Suecia, hispanohablantes y suecos.2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

            Nuestro objetivo con el presente estudio es analizar si existen diferencias en cuanto a lo que se considera cortés y/o respectivamente descortés entre hablantes nativos de sueco e hispanohablantes que residen en Suecia. Este objetivo nos motivó a realizar encuestas dirigidas a informantes representativos de ambos grupos. Las encuestas fueron diseñadas para observar en qué medida había diferencias en cuanto a la realización de ciertos actos de habla y si estas diferencias se debían a que los informantes percibían los actos como más o menos amenazantes dependiendo de los contextos socio-culturales vigentes en sus sociedades de origen. Estas encuestas se hicieron en el idioma del informante (sueco respectivamente español). A partir de las respuestas a las preguntas de la encuesta registramos algunas realizaciones de los actos en estudio que reflejaban diferencias en el estilo comunicativo de estos dos grupos de hablantes. Creemos que es la distinta pertenencia sociocultural de los integrantes de estos grupos, lo que influencia que haya diferencias en el modo de realizar actos de habla, en principio similares. Los resultados de este trabajo muestran que hay variación entre los grupos en estudio en  el modo de realizar los actos del saludo, el agradecimiento y la petición. Por otra parte también comprobamos la existencia de diferencias en el uso de las formulas de tratamiento. y Usted.

  • 221.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Frequency, Form, and Distribution of Illocutionary Speech Acts in Swedish Parent-Child Interaction2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, young children’s development of speech acts was examined. Interaction between six Swedish-speaking parents and their children was observed. The frequency, form and distribution of speech acts in the output from the parents were compared with the frequency, form and distribution of the children’s speech acts. The frequency was measured by occurrences per analysed session. The aim of the analysis was to examine if the parent’s behaviour could be treated as a baseline for the child’s development. Both the parents’ and the children’s illocutionary speech acts were classified. Each parent-child dyad was observed at four different occasions, when the children were 1;0, 1;6, 2;0, and 2;6 years of age. Similar studies have previously shown that parents keep a consistent frequency of speech acts within a given time span of interaction, though the distribution of different types of speech acts may shift, depending on contextual factors. The form, in terms of Mean Length of Speech Act in Words (MLSAw), were correlated with the longitudinal result of the children’s MLSAw. The distribution of the parents’ speech acts showed extensive individual differences. The result showed that the children’s MLSAw move significantly closer the MLSAw of their parents. Since the parent’s MLSAw showed a wide distribution, these results indicate that the parent’s speech acts can be treated as a baseline for certain aspects of the children’s development, though further studies are needed.

  • 222.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Noun Phrase Anaphora and Referential Behaviour in Child-Directed Speech During the Child’s First Year2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    “Anaphora” is a label used for a referential expression that connects one entity (e.g. a pronoun) to another previously established entity (e.g. a proper name). The previously established entity is called an antecedent. The use of anaphora will, in this study, be referred to as referential behaviour. The study was based around audio and video recordings of free play between a Swedish parent and his/her child. 10 parents and their children were recorded. The referential behaviour of the parents was analysed. The sessions took place when the children were 3, 6, 9 and 12 months old. Recent studies indicate that speech directed at children during a child's first six months contains a larger amount of pronouns than the speech directed at children between 6 and 12 months of age. The purpose of the study was to examine if the decline of pronouns was visible in Swedish child- directed speech, and to see how different types of anaphora appeared in the same speech. Correlations between the visible changes of different types of referential expressions were also examined. A drop in the use of anaphoric pronoun with an explicit antecedent was found for the last two ages, which confirmed the study’s hypothesis. The results were also compared to each child’s vocabulary development. 

  • 223.
    Palm, Clara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Buscamos profesor@s: Un estudio del género gramatical en anuncios de trabajo y dentro del profesorado sueco2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo del presente estudio es investigar el uso preferido del género gramatical y en particular el genérico masculino. Muchos son los estudios realizados sobre el genérico masculino en otras lenguas, pero pocos los que se han centrado en describir el uso en el español. Es por ello que pretendemos profundizar el entendimiento de este campo mediante un análisis del género gramatical usado para denominar profesiones y cargos en bolsas de trabajo en la página web española, y además cómo el profesorado sueco lo aplica cuando refieren a alumnos oralmente o por escrito y cómo prefieren que otros hagan referencia a su propia profesión. El corpus consta de títulos de 265 anuncios de cuatro profesiones de cuatro sitios web españoles y 69 respuestas de un cuestionario compartido en un grupo para profesores de español en Facebook. Es un estudio del tipo cuantitativo y se analiza el resultado según el uso del género gramatical. Partimos de la hipótesis de que hay una gran variedad de uso; en gran parte arbitraria, pero también que se organiza el uso según los estereotipos. Los hallazgos principales son que en el 69 % de los anuncios de trabajo el uso más frecuente no es el genérico masculino sino la inclusión de las dos formas gramaticales, hecha de varias maneras y en el uso entre los profesores el genérico masculino es el más usado, no obstante, hay una multitud de preferencias y para resumir constatamos que hay una gran variedad en el uso en los contextos investigados.

  • 224.
    Persson, Adam
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Övervakad namntaggning med domänspecifik träningsdata2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Övervakad maskininlärning har gett goda resultat för automatisk namntaggning. Detta kräver dock manuellt annoterad träningsdata, vilket är krävande att ta fram. Studier har visat att likhet mellan träningsdata och testdata är viktigt för att uppnå bra resultat, men normalt sett tränas system alltid med så mycket data som möjligt, utan hänsyn till dess relevans. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om bättre namntaggning kan uppnås genom att utesluta de delar av träningsdatan som inte tillhör samma textdomän som testdatan. För att genomföra detta konstrueras ett system med multinomial logistisk regression som tränas och testas på Stockholm-Umeå Corpus enligt både traditionell och föreslagen metod. Undersökningen visar en liten men signifikant försämring vid användning av enbart domänspecifik träningsdata, ett resultat som dock inte är genomgående för alla delar av undersökningen. Den stora fördelen av att reducera träningsdatan är dock att det ökar maskininlärningens hastighet. För att kunna utnyttja detta föreslås att namntaggning föregås av textklassificering.

  • 225.
    Persson, Frej
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    Kjapt och kjempebra: En studie av skandinavisk språkgemenskap på en arbetsplats2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks skandinavisk grannspråksförståelse på en arbetsplats med anställda från Danmark, Norge och Sverige. Syftet är att ta reda på hur den skandinaviska språkgemenskapen tar sig konkret uttryck på arbetsplatsen. Materialet, som omfattar ett möte och två intervjuer, analyseras med utgångspunkt i ackommodationsteorin och CA (Conversation Analysis), samt i tidigare forskning om skandinavisk grannspråksförståelse.

    Resultaten visar dels att viss ackommodation (språkliga anpassningar) görs i de interskandinaviska samtalen, dels att förståelsen är asymmetrisk: de svenska medarbetarna tycks ha svårare än sina skandinaviska kolleger att förstå grannspråken. Främst har de svårt att förstå talad danska, och väljer därför ofta att tala engelska med sina danska kolleger. Talad norska förstås däremot betydligt bättre av svenskarna. Den skandinaviska språkgemenskapen på arbetsplatsen kan därför sägas vara partiell. Dessa resultat stämmer i hög grad överens med tidigare forskning om skandinavisk grannspråksförståelse.

  • 226.
    Persson, Minna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Tempus och aspekt i pidginisering: En studie av sju pidginspråk och deras källspråk2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that pidgin languages are similar in their marking of tense and aspect. This study wishes to answer three questions: 1) are there similarities in the marking of tense and aspect in pidgins, 2) are there similarities between the source languages and the pidgins they result in, and 3) does the development of tense aspect marking in pidgins follow the general patterns of grammaticalisation observed in other languages. Two quite different approaches are used to analyse the languages. Firstly the concept of grams is used, that is, a representation of a grammatical category in a specific language, e.g. the perfect in Swedish. Secondly the theory of prominence is used, i.e. that a particular language tends to grammaticalise one of the categories tense or aspect (or mood) rather than the other. The study looks at a sample of seven pidgin languages from around the world and compares them with regards to their marking of tense and aspect. Furthermore the tense-aspect systems of the source languages (lexifiers and substrates) of these pidgins are studied. Regarding the first question, the most obvious similarity is the fact that there is very little grammaticalised marking of tense and aspect at all. A pattern can also be discerned were a pidgin uses either a marker for perfective aspect or for past tense and that future/present markers are grammaticalised at a later stage. As for the similarities between the source languages and the pidgins, the pidginisation process has yielded languages with less grammaticalised forms than the source languages. All gram types found in the pidgins can also be found in their lexifiers. The patterns of grammaticalisation of tense and aspect markers follow universal patterns that have been described in typological studies. The semantic change of inherited or borrowed markers follow general patterns as do the innovations in the pidgin itself.

  • 227.
    Pettersson, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Writing Business Emails in English as a Lingua Franca - how informal can you be?: An analysis of formality in BELF emails2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of globalisation, the number of companies working globally is increasing at an unprecedented pace. Consequently, the need to communicate with people from other countries is getting bigger. In such intercultural communication, a common language must be used to interact. The language of choice is most often English, which is the business lingua franca (BELF) today. Furthermore, email has become the obvious choice of medium when interacting with foreign business associates. The present study was conducted through intensive and extensive analyses, investigating BELF emails written by 21 individuals with 14 different native languages. The data consists of 209 emails. The study follows Bjørge’s (2007) work on formality in emails written in academic settings. The aim of the study was to determine how formal the participants were in greetings and closings and whether they accommodated their language to the respondent. The results suggest that the level of formality mainly depends on the purpose of the email and, to some extent, how formal the correspondent is. The accommodation to the correspondent seems to be individual. The present study wishes to extend knowledge on email communication in BELF settings. The results are likely to be relevant for teachers and students of Business Communication and English as a Second or Foreign Language along with managers in internationally functioning companies, especially as regards what should be considered in BELF communication.

  • 228.
    Philp, Rebecca
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Sexpectations: Gender perspectives on language proficiencyin English among Swedes and Sweden Finns2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this comparative study is to investigate language proficiency in English among Swedes and the Finnish-speaking population living in Sweden, henceforth referred to as Sweden Finns. The main issue is to discover to what extent Sweden Finns show similarity and how they differ from Swedes regarding their proficiency in English, concerning grammar and vocabulary. Through a proficiency test, this essay intends to compare and discover any possible tendencies among male and female monolingual and bilingual participants.

         Gender issues are rather unexplored in research on bilingualism. Sex, or gender, as a variable has received a limited amount of attention compared with other factors of individual variation, such as age or language learning strategies in the field of SLA.

         The results of the statistical analysis of the data indicate that results are varied, and therefore confirm previous results. Sweden Finns score higher as a group on the test than Swedes, but male Swedish participants gave the most correct answers on all questions, followed by female Sweden Finns, then male Sweden Finns and ultimately female Swedes. Interesting, but not statistically significant, findings suggest that the students participating in this study have a good vocabulary size and are acquainted with high-frequency words and pronouns. Most errors were found in the parts concerning irregular verbs and synonyms. Multiple-choice questions received a higher frequency of right answers than open questions.

         As the results are varied since this type of study has not been carried out before, it shows that there is a need for nuanced quantitative research in this field of study.

  • 229.
    Plaza, Cajsa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The environments differ, and therefore, the language differs.: A case study of how pragmatic competence in English is taught in a Swedish secondary and upper secondary school.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Pragmatic competence has become an essential component of L2 (second language) proficiency. The purpose of this case study is to investigate how pragmatic competence in English is taught in a public Swedish secondary and upper secondary school. The aim with this study is to reach an in-depth understanding of how the teachers in this specific school view, value and teach pragmatic competence. The study has a qualitative approach and was conducted through semi-structured interviews with two teachers. In addition to the interviews, an analysis of the pedagogic material used in the classroom was made. The most significant findings of the study show that pragmatic competence and cultural knowledge are teachable and are indeed being taught in the studied school. Different types of oral activities are the mostly used pedagogical practices to teach different aspects of pragmatic competence. The aspects of pragmatic competence that are in focus, in both secondary and upper secondary school, are formal and informal language, adaptation of the language and politeness. 

  • 230.
    Quevedo, Marta
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The influence of semantic context on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in extemporaneous foreign accented Swedish speech2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Bilingualism is nowadays a worldwide phenomenon due to different factors such as migration, education or political and geographical reasons. These factors have led to both individual and social bilingualism, which favor an increase of communicative encounters between native and non-native speakers of a certain language.

    The above situation has contributed to a growth of studies on second language acquisition. Some of these studies have focused on native speakers’ perception and understanding of the non-native speech. More specifically, perception and effectiveness of communication through the analysis of three dimensions; accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility. Although these three constructs have been intensively studied, little is known about the effect of semantic context on them. To our knowledge, just two studies have analyzed the effect of semantic context on native speakers’ judgments of the three dimensions by using read material. Therefore, this thesis extends the research on the influence of semantic context over these three dimension when the auditory stimulus corresponds to spontaneous non-native speech.

    In this thesis, the results on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility tasks of 40 native Swedish speakers are presented. The findings showed that listeners’ perceived comprehensibility of the non-native speech is affected by the use of additional contextual information. That is, the listeners who were provided with additional visual information perceived the non-native speech as significantly easier to understand than those listeners who did not receive the extra contextual support. Furthermore, the results showed that accentedness and comprehensibility perception of the listeners is influenced by their actual understanding of the non-native speech.

    Finally, this thesis proves the difficulty of studying the effect of semantic context on listeners’ response to accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility when using spontaneous non-native speech. The results indicate that more research on how semantic context influences the perception of extemporaneous non-native speech is needed.

  • 231.
    Randén, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Business English in the Swedish Pharmaceutical Sector: A study of the needs of speakers of Business English when used as a Lingua Franca.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Multinational corporations operating in Sweden often use English as their official corporate language. The employees are expected to communicate using English both internally and with external business contacts. English used for communication between people with different mother tongues is commonly referred to as ELF, English as a Lingua Franca, and when used in business contexts it is referred to as Business English or BELF, Business English as a Lingua Franca. This study was conducted to explore how Business English is used in the pharmaceutical sector in Sweden and what elements of Business English are challenging or necessary for successful communication. In the study five informants were interviewed about their experiences. The study showed that the informants use Business English for all types of communication and are comfortable with English as a lingua franca yet often switch over to Swedish if there are only Swedish speakers present. It was also found that clear, somewhat simplified English with focus on content and getting business done was preferred over grammatically correct and native sounding English. The respondents viewed an industry specific vocabulary as highly important bordering to a pre-requisite. The findings of this study support previous research in the field indicating that there is little difference when it comes to Business English for the pharmaceutical industry compared to other industries.

  • 232.
    Rask, Linnea
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Prosodic Features in Child-directed Speech during the Child's First Year2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates prosodic features of child-directed speech during the child’s first year, using the automated prosodic annotation software Prosogram. From previous studies on first language acquisition and child-directed speech we know that speech directed to infants and small children is characterised by exaggerated use of several prosodic features, including a higher pitch, livelier pitch movement and slower speech rate. Annotation of these phenomena has previously been done manually, which is time consuming and includes a risk of circularity. If we can use semi-automated systems to carry out this task, it would be a huge methodological gain. This study analysed recordings of 10 parent-child pairs at four occasions (3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age) for a total of 40 recordings. The audio files were analysed in Prosogram in order to detect possible differences depending on the child’s age. The results showed a noticeable change in child-directed speech over the first year of the child’s life. A change in several characteristic prosodic features was noted to occur between the ages of 6 and 9 months. Pitch levels decreased, and articulation rate increased. Additionally, parents seemed to use pitch values much higher than their mean pitch speaking to children aged 3 and 6 months than to children aged 9 and 12 months. Despite using a relatively small sample, the results show several interesting trends in the usage of child-directed speech. Furthermore, this study shows that Prosogram is a useful tool for automatic analysis of child-directed speech.

  • 233.
    Rosell, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Sardinas contra tiburones: El discurso de la política comercial de Evo Morales con respecto al Acuerdo de Asociación entre la Comunidad Andina y la Unión Europea2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    Esta tesis de máster trata del discurso de la política comercial del presidente de

    Bolivia Evo Morales, con respecto a la negociaciones del pilar comercial del

    Acuerdo de Asociación entre la Comunidad Andina y la Unión Europea.

    Mediante un análisis del discurso de Morales, se responde a las preguntas de

    cómo puede caracterizarse el discurso de Morales, en qué se fundamenta y qué

    fines estratégicos tiene. El hilo conductor del trabajo es que Bolivia tiene un

    presidente que representaría la imagen social de los pueblos originarios y cuando

    Europa propone un nuevo proyecto como el Acuerdo de Asociación, este proyecto

    sería percibido como neocolonialista, donde es Europa quien decide en los

    asuntos internos de su socio latinoamericano. Se analizan 23 declaraciones de

    Morales, concluyendo que las alusiones a la Colonización es la característica más

    central de su discurso y que este tema ha afectado la posición de Bolivia en las

    negociaciones.

  • 234.
    Rosenqvist, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Att översätta slang: En jämförelse av översättningen av slanguttryck i John Greens Paper Towns till svenska och nederländska.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker hur de engelska slanguttrycken och talspråksmarkörerna i ungdomsromanen Paper Towns av John Green översatts till nederländska och svenska. En analys av slanguttrycken och talspråksmarkörerna i romanens första kapitel, utifrån Lambert & van Gorps modell (1985), visar vilka översättningsstrategier som översättarna valt och vilka översättningsnormer dessa är ett uttryck för. Resultatet visar att översättningarnas preliminära data pekar mot en adekvansinriktad översättningsstrategi. På mikronivå visar resultatet en mer acceptansinriktad översättningsstrategi vid översättning av slang och talspråksmarkörer, med en något större källspråksinriktning i den nederländska översättningen.

  • 235.
    Rosén, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Multilingualism and Translanguaging in Swedish Upper Secondary school: An exploration of English teacher candidates’ attitudes2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This ethnographically informed, qualitative study aims to investigate English teacher candidates’ attitudes towards multilingualism and translanguaging in English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms and in the school environment. More specifically, the study intends to identify potential contributing factors to the formation of said attitudes, such as the influence of policy documents and of the teacher training program on the perception of the future working environment. The data was collected with semi-structured interviews; the participants were four teacher candidates, two females and two males, enrolled in the teacher education program in a Swedish university. In addition, at the time of data collection, all participants had completed most of the teacher education program, an aspect that increased the relevance of their responses, since they would soon be active teachers in the Swedish school system. Overall, the participants expressed positive attitudes towards multilingualism and translanguaging in a school environment. However, some hesitation in their answers was detected when they are asked how they would work with multilingual students in their future practice. These findings suggest that, if teacher candidates receive adequate education to approach their future working environment with confidence they would be better equipped to provide adequate pedagogical support to students whose L1 is other than Swedish. This would foster positive attitudes towards multilingualism and translanguaging and would, consequently, lead to an improvement in the academic results of multilingual students. The teacher candidates’ increased awareness of the benefits and challenges of multilingualism and their ability to put into practice the general principles they learn at university would benefit from changes in the teacher training program, in the curriculum compiled by the National Agency of Education, and in the national pedagogical approach to language learning.

  • 236.
    Ryderberg, Sanni
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Strong female characters and femininity: Exploring feminine language in Buffy the vampire slayer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely accepted that gender is actively performed and a part of identity rather than biology, and that this is where gender differences in language stem from. Researchers have attempted to define what constitutes men and women’s language, and this paper uses some of these definitions to analyse the speech of the main character in the first season of the television show Buffy the vampire slayer. This research project investigates Buffy’s use of feminine language as well as whether her language changes when her performance is otherwise more masculine in the role of the slayer. This is done by comparing conversations between Buffy and her friends with conversations between Buffy and her enemies. The results show that Buffy uses some feminine linguistic features but that her speech is not distinctly feminine in general. Her language also does not change significantly when performing the role of the slayer. 

  • 237.
    Rönnlöf, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Language practices in the workplace: Ethnographic insights from two multilingual companies in Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s globalised world calls for a multilingual workplace, with employees who can communicate effectively and efficiently with colleagues and clients around the world. Communication, both in the sense of actual language use and of language management, is an important but often forgotten part of productivity and performance in multinational corporations. This exploratory study aims to investigate how language is used and managed in two Swedish companies with English as at least one of the official languages. By using in-depth ethnographical interviews and a short analysis of the companies’ language policies from the view of centricity, present study is focused on the employees’ perceptions of the day-to-day language use and the company’s language management. It can be concluded that English is the main language used for written communication while both Swedish and English are used in spoken interactions. Language is negotiated through a set of variables and is thus determined by the people involved in the interaction, the function of the interaction and the medium of communication. Although some strains and difficulties did emerge in the interviews, both informants are positive towards the use of English. It is hoped that this small study will contribute to a better understanding of language use and language management in multinational companies in Sweden. 

  • 238.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    From left to right and back again: The distribution of dependent clauses in the Hindukush2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In complex clause constructions, the dependent clause can either precede or succeed the main clause. In a study on a selection of Indo-Aryan languages spoken on the Indian subcontinent (Hook 1987), a gradual transition between pre- and postposing languages was found, when moving from the southeast to the northwest in the area. In their relative vicinity in the Hindukush area, a sub-group of Indo-Aryan languages are spoken, commonly known by the tentative term “Dardic”. These languages are said to mainly have the dependent clause preceding the main clause (left-branching), and that this feature is shared by the neighbouring languages. This would mean a breach with the continuum described by Hook. In the present comparative study on the Dardic languages spoken in northern Pakistan, complex clauses of adverbial and complement types were studied in an attempt to confirm this proposition. The languages were found to have two competing branching structures where the indigenous, dominating left-branching structure possibly is being challenged by an imported right branching pattern, especially in complement clauses, possibly due to Persian or Urdu influence. A similar transition between more left-branching languages towards languages with a higher degree of right branching structures were found when moving from east to west in the geographical area studied.

  • 239.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Fusion, exponence, and flexivity in Hindukush languages: An areal-typological study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Surrounding the Hindukush mountain chain is a stretch of land where as many as 50 distinct languages varieties of several language meet, in the present study referred to as “The Greater Hindukush” (GHK). In this area a large number of languages of at least six genera are spoken in a multi-linguistic setting. As the region is in part characterised by both contact between languages as well as isolation, it constitutes an interesting field of study of similarities and diversity, contact phenomena and possible genealogical connections. The present study takes in the region as a whole and attempts to characterise the morphology of the many languages spoken in it, by studying three parameters: phonological fusion, exponence, and flexivity in view of grammatical markers for Tense-Mood-Aspect, person marking, case marking, and plural marking on verbs and nouns. The study was performed with the perspective of areal typology, employed grammatical descriptions, and was in part inspired by three studies presented in the World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS). It was found that the region is one of high linguistic diversity, even if there are common traits, especially between languages of closer contact, such as the Iranian and the Indo-Aryan languages along the Pakistani-Afghan border where purely concatenative formatives are more common. Polyexponential formatives seem more common in the western parts of the GHK as compared to the eastern. High flexivity is a trait common to the more central languages in the area. As the results show larger variation than the WALS studies, the question was raised of whether large-scale typological studies can be performed on a sample as limited as single grammatical markers. The importance of the region as a melting-pot between several linguistic families was also put forward.

  • 240.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Tense and aspect systems in Dardic languages: A comparative study2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The languages belonging to the group commonly known as the “Dardic languages” are on some levels insufficiently researched and have barely been subject to any comparative research on their finer grammatical structures, such as their tense and aspect systems. This comparative study analyses three Dardic languages spoken in the central Dardic speaking area (Khowar, Gawri, Palula) in view of their tense and aspect system, to find out how similar the languages are in this respect. The comparison is based on Dahl‟s 1985 Tense and Aspect questionnaire, partly to have an equal, comparable data set, and partly to be able to tie the results to the greater field of language typology. The study shows that the languages studied have a common primary focus on IPFV:PFV distinction, where past tense often is a secondary implicature following perfective aspect. There are notable differences in how and if the languages mark future tense and habitual aspect. The subject merits further studies on an extended sample and with more languages from the Dardic group.

  • 241.
    Sandin Johansson, Christopher
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A study of attitudes towards English as a Lingua Franca: Perspectivesand experiences of university students2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    My aim is to study university students’ attitudes towards using English as a first language when studying. This exploratory study will be conducted through a series of interviews but also a review of the students’ course syllabus to see if there occurs any pattern of variation amongst the literature used for their course.The results indicate that there is a favourable attitude towards the use of English because of both overt and covert prestige that is attached to it in academia. However, I have also discovered that there is a link between the students’ proficiency and their confidence in using English as an educational medium. This occurs because of the students’ own acceptance of the material given to them by the educational institutions. This acceptance of the literature is closely related to the students’ own reason to acquire a greater knowledge and proficiency through the use of English literature. By combining Kachru’s theory of concentric circles and the Milroys’ theory about overt and covert prestige, I have discovered that the globalization process has influenced Sweden’s choice of what second language to introduce into the educational system. Looking at the more informal and covert level I have found out that students strive to acquire a high level of proficiency in English due to cultural or social aspects that are involved.

  • 242.
    Schelhaas, Johanna Renate
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    The role of semantic context and attentional resource distribution in semantic comprehension in Swedish pre-schoolers2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Research on semantic processing focused mainly on isolated units in language, which does not reflect the complexity of language. In order to understand how semantic information is processed in a wider context, the first goal of this thesis was to determine whether Swedish pre-school children are able to comprehend semantic context and if that context is semantically built up over time. The second goal was to investigate how the brain distributes attentional resources by means of brain activation amplitude and processing type. Swedish preschool children were tested in a dichotic listening task with longer children’s narratives. The development of event-related potential N400 component and its amplitude were used to investigate both goals. The decrease of the N400 in the attended and unattended channel indicated semantic comprehension and that semantic context was built up over time. The attended stimulus received more resources, processed the stimuli in more of a top-down manner and displayed prominent N400 amplitude in contrast to the unattended stimulus. The N400 and the late positivity were more complex than expected since endings of utterances longer than nine words were not accounted for. More research on wider linguistic context is needed in order to understand how the human brain comprehends natural language. 

  • 243.
    Schlyter, Olivia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Gendered verbal behaviour in gatekeeping encounters: A comparative corpus study on men's and women's use of five linguistic features during job interviews2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The job interview is a gatekeeping encounter and it is crucial that the recruitment process is conducted in a fair and just way. Potential gendered verbal behaviour might affect an interviewer's impression and judgement of the interviewee. Previous research has shown that men and women differ in several ways in verbal communication, both as regards formal and informal encounters. In the present paper, a corpus study on forty job interviews is conducted with the aim to find out whether there are any differences between men and women when it comes to turn-length and the use of boosters, hedges, fillers and pauses. The results show that in the majority of the features under scrutiny, there is no statistically significant difference. These results do not go in line with earlier research on gendered verbal behaviour. Proposed explanations for these results are that the female interviewer might have encouraged a less typically gendered verbal behaviour and that younger generations have developed a less gendered conversational style compared to older generations. However, due to the limitations of the present study, no empirical conclusion can be drawn regarding this and further research needs to be conducted in order to fully explain these research findings.

  • 244.
    Scot, Sky
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    An Investigation Concerning the Base-Generation of Four Old English Conjunct and Disjunct Adverbials within the Structure of Old English Clauses2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with an investigation of four Old English adverbials with respect to where they are base-generated within the substructure of clauses which serve as examples of Old English prose. There are three structures in which base-generation of clausal constituents is deemed to occur: the CP, the IP, and the VP. Function and derivational movement are the governing factors which regulate the possibility of base-generation occurring within a particular structure. The movements undergone by clausal constituents, from their places of origin within the ‘underlying structures’ to their syntactic realization in the ‘surface structures’ of Old English clauses, are founded upon the model outlined in Johannesson (2009a) which is based on the tenets of Government and Binding theory. As there are no native speakers of Old English, the functions of these adverbials within their clausal environments are determined by their Modern English interpretations. Due to time and space constraints, four Old English adverbials were analysed within the context of one-hundred and twenty clauses which were extracted from The Dictionary of Old English Corpus (2004). Cases deemed to be ambiguous are addressed and classified separately; only one such case was encountered in the course of this study.

    The results should exhibit proof that base-generation of the four Old English conjunct and disjunct adverbials investigated occurs within one of the aforementioned structures. Note that any conclusions drawn are based upon Modern English translations and that the results pertain to the genre of Old English prose.

  • 245.
    Seidel, Thorsten
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska, Avdelningen för tyska.
    Anglizistische Berufsbezeichnungen in deutschen und schwedischen Stellenanzeigen: -Eine kontrastive Studie anhand der Tageszeitungen Süddeutsche Zeitung, Dagens Nyheter und Svenska Dagbladet-2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 246.
    Seidel, Thorsten
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Language Teachers’ Perception of the Influence of Bilingualism on the Acquisition of English as a Third Language2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of studies indicate that bilingualism has a positive influence on third language acquisition (TLA) (Brohy, 2001; Sagasta, 2003; Stafford et al., 2010). The purpose of this study is firstly, to confirm the view that bilingualism has a positive influence on TLA and secondly, to identify those features that have the strongest impact on it. The holistic approach Focus on Multilingualism has been applied to the study to meet its variety of influencing factors. The study is based on a qualitative research methodology using semi-structured interviews with three teachers of English. The language teachers are chosen from three different schools in the region of Stockholm, Sweden. The findings of the study indicate that bilingualism per se does not automatically give advantages in the acquisition of a third language but rather has a supportive role. It seems that the contextual factor, extramural English (English outside the school context), and the individual factor, motivation, has the most influential impact on TLA.

  • 247.
    Sigurjónsson, Pétur Már
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Pre-aspiration and Plosives in Icelandic English2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For this study, two groups of native Icelandic speakers were compared in terms of the acoustic properties of their English pronunciation of two phonetic phenomena, plosives and pre-aspiration. In English, plosives with the same manner and place of articulation are distinguished by means of a voicing contrast, whereas in Icelandic, plosives are distinguished by means of an aspiration contrast. This study examines whether participants exhibit interlanguage features in their plosive contrasts in English, substituting unaspirated voiceless plosives for voiced counterparts. Furthermore, this study looks at pre-aspiration, a phonetic feature of Icelandic, characterized by glottal friction following a short vowel preceding a fortis plosive (VhC). Pre-aspiration is not a feature of standard English varieties such as general American (GA) or received pronunciation (RP), and as such this study examines whether participants retain pre-aspiration in their English pronunciation or not. Participants numbered 16 in total, and were all L1 speakers of Icelandic, with eight in each group, four male and four female. The groups were divided by means of age differences, with the first group consisting of participants aged 20-26, and the second group of participants aged 44-50. Participants were asked to partake in a short informal interview, to read a short written passage, and to read a word list. The interview and readings were recorded and analysed using spectrograms and waveforms, and subsequently compared with English and Icelandic reference values for voice onset time (VOT), which vary between the two languages, and pre-aspiration duration in Icelandic. The two groups were also compared to determine whether there were any lingering differences between them. The conclusions drawn are that VOT in English and Icelandic may be more similar than assumed, and that participants shorten pre-aspiration duration or neutralize pre-aspiration when speaking English. However, the English production of the features are more similar to Icelandic than English. Furthermore, the results do not indicate any differences between the two age groups in terms of English pronunciation.

  • 248.
    Sikström, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Att vikta sin information: hur signaleras biinformation i deskriptiva teckenspråkstexter?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Målet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur döva föreläsare signalerar vad som är biinformation i en deskriptiv teckenspråkstext. Materialet består av tre olika föreläsningar som analyserats i annotationsprogrammet ELAN.

    Biinformation kan dels bestå av längre utvikningar och dels parentetisk information i form av korta inskjutna avbrott i huvudinformationen. Längre utvikningar tycks kräva en tydlig och explicit inledning och avslutning i form av lexikala uttryck medan parentetiska kommentarer verkar kunna markeras enbart med prosodi och utnyttjandet av teckenrummet.

    Analysen visar att det är mycket vanligt att man utnyttjar spatial förskjutning för parenteser, antingen genom att byta hand, placera tecknen åt ena sidan eller att rent fysiskt förflytta sig i rummet. Då en parentes avslutar ett tema (termination) verkar den ofta få en spatial förskjutning åt höger (till skillnad mot i narrativa texter där parentetisk information placeras till vänster i teckenrummet). Den åtföljs även av höjda ögonbryn och ofta hålls parentesen samman med hjälp av teckenfragment.

    I de fall då man återgår till huvudtemat som om parentesen aldrig funnits (continuation) verkar man istället använda sammandragna ögonbryn, uppdragna kinder samt ibland även rynkad näsa och kisning. Spatial förskjutning åt höger verkar vara sällsynt i denna grupp. Däremot förekommer i några fall spatial förskjutning åt vänster men då tycks det krävas att man även byter aktiv hand så att vänsterhanden blir den primära artikulatorn. Det är även i denna grupp som man ibland återfinner en pekning hos vänsterhanden, en s.k. index-hold, vilken hjälper mottagaren att hålla huvudtemat i fokus.

    Slutsatsen är att döva talare klart och tydligt lotsar sina åhörare genom texten genom att signalera när man inleder och avslutar en utvikning eller ett parentetiskt inskott.

  • 249.
    Sjons, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Automatic Induction of Word Classes in Swedish Sign Language2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying word classes is an important part of describing a language. Research about sign languages often lack distinctions crucial for identifying word classes, e.g. the difference between sign and gesture. Additionally, sign languages typically lack written form, something that often constrains quantitative research on sign language to the use of glosses translated to the spoken language in the area. In this thesis, such glosses have been extracted from The Swedish Sign Language Corpus. The glosses were mapped to utterances based on Swedish translations in the corpus, and these utterances served as input data to a word space model, producing a co-occurence matrix. This matrix was clustered with the K-means algorithm. The extracted utterances were also clustered with the Brown algorithm. By using V-measure, the clusters were compared to a gold standard annotated manually with word classes. The Brown algorithm performs significantly better in inducing word classes than a random baseline. This work shows that utilizing unsupervised learning is a feasible approach for doing research on word classes in Swedish Sign Language. However, future studies of this kind should employ a deeper linguistic analysis of the language as a part of choosing the algorithms.

  • 250.
    Skirgard, Hedvig
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Finns det dubbelnegation i svenska dialekter?: -inte...e i två Hälsingemål2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen beskrivs den syntaktiska distributionen av en andra negator, e i två svenska dialekter. Det finns tidigare belägg för att e förekommer i slutet av negerade satser i icke-standarddialekter. Uppsatsen redogör också för tidigare forskning om ett relaterat rikssvenskt fenomen (inte... inte), dialektforskning om e samt språktypologisk forskning som relaterar till negation och i synnerhet dubbelnegation. Uppsatsen baseras på en parallell\-korpusundersökning med material från två svenska dialekter, Forsamål och Jarssemål. I undersökningen studeras syntaktiska mönster som är relevanta för distributionen av en andra negator, såsom satstyp, underordning, upprepning av subjekt med mera. Huvudresultatet är att e är mycket frekvent, särskilt efter huvudsatser. E är mycket ovanligt i bisatser, men annars finns det få tendenser till andra syntaktiska mönster i materialet. Olika teorier om vad denna andra negator skulle kunna ha eller ha haft för funktion presenteras. Vidare forskning om den syntaktiska distributionen av e i fler dialekter såväl som dess funktion i desamma behövs.

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