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  • 2101.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Swedish sign language corpus2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2102.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transkriptionskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter2009Other (Other academic)
  • 2103.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transcription guide lines for Swedish Sign Language discourse. (Version 1)2010Other (Other academic)
  • 2104.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transkriptionskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter. (Version 2).2010Other (Other academic)
  • 2105.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transkriptionskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter. (Version 3).2011Other (Other academic)
  • 2106.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transkriptionskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter. (Version 4).2012Other (Other academic)
  • 2107.
    Waltin, Josefin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    När döva och hörande kollegor möts genom tolk: En etnografisk studie om tvåspråkighet på en arbetsplats2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Deaf people in Sweden and worldwide live with few exceptions in a hearing society, and thereby in one way or another they have connections with hearing people in their private and professional lives. Most Deaf people in working life have no or few Deaf co-workers at hearing workplaces and hence a Sign Language interpreter is often hired to facilitate the communication between deaf and hearing co-workers. This thesis is an ethnographic study of the interpreting situation at a workplace where one Deaf and about 20 hearing co-workers work together. With field notes, interviews and video recording an illustration of the situation has been generated. The results show a tendency that the Deaf participant to a great extent suffers from information loss in several areas. In addition, the hearing co-workers seem to have a gap in knowledge about Sign Language and the conditions of Deaf people. Also, the Deaf participant seems to participate in her own subordination through the surrounding majority society. In the complexity of the interpreting situation, the interpreter seems to serve as a gatekeeper. She also has a challenging and not always easily definable role in translating and coordinating turns between Deaf and hearing participants, thus moving the conversation forwards in a mutual direction. Nevertheless, the Deaf participant and her hearing co-workers often seem to have different views of the responsibilities of the interpreter, something that might make the interpreter’s job even more challenging. This, in turn, can influence the relationship between hearing and Deaf co-workers. The results of the thesis have been discussed from a poststructural perspective to show a connection between the intimate workplace situation and language ideology, language policy, power relations and the theory of Deafhood.

     

  • 2108.
    Wedin, Åsa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Literacy Practices in and out of School in Karagwe: the Case of Primary School Literacy in Rural Tanzania2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study has investigated the question of relation between literacy practices in and out of school in rural Tanzania. By using the perspective of linguistic anthropology, literacy practices in five villages in Karagwe district in the northwest of Tanzania have been analysed. The outcome may be used as a basis for educational planning and literacy programs.

    The analysis has revealed an intimate relation between language, literacy and power. In Karagwe, traditional élites have drawn on literacy to construct and reconstruct their authority, while new élites, such as individual women and some young people have been able to use literacy as one tool to get access to power. The study has also revealed a high level of bilingualism and a high emphasis on education in the area, which prove a potential for future education in the area. At the same time discontinuity in language use, mainly caused by stigmatisation of what is perceived as local and traditional, such as the mother-tongue of the majority of the children, and the high status accrued to all that is perceived as Western, has turned out to constitute a great obstacle for pupils’ learning.

    The use of ethnographic perspectives has enabled comparisons between interactional patterns in schools and outside school. This has revealed communicative patterns in school that hinder pupils’ learning, while the same patterns in other discourses reinforce learning. By using ethnography, relations between explicit and implicit language ideologies and their impact in educational contexts may be revealed. This knowledge may then be used to make educational plans and literacy programmes more relevant and efficient, not only in poor post-colonial settings such as Tanzania, but also elsewhere, such as in Western settings.

  • 2109.
    Westerlund, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Linguistic differences between fantasy and science fiction: A Coh-Metrix analysis2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the potential linguistic differences between the genres fantasy and science fiction by using the computation tool Coh-Metrix to analyse texts by 15 different authors, out of whom five authors write texts in both genres. The data was analysed by conducting ANOVA, correlations, t-tests and general scrutinising of the data. The results showed a lot of weak correlations and significant differences, but a lack of patterns, when comparing the texts and texts groups to each other, both when looking at all indices and the different measures of Coh-Metrix. However, there were some discernible patterns. In general, the authors who write both fantasy and science fiction seem to conform more to the fantasy genre than the science fiction genre overall (based on a set of control texts), but for four out of the eleven measures of Coh-Metrix (descriptive, referential cohesion, LSA and lexical diversity), the authors writing texts in both genres seemed to conform more to science fiction than fantasy. The text easability principle component scores variable seemed to differentiate the genres as well. Patterns among the connectives variable, as well as the syntactic structure similarity index, agentless passive voice forms index and second language readability index implicated potential differences between the genres but were not supported by significant differences. The potential differences between the genres are all suggested for future research.

  • 2110.
    Westerlund, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Frilansöversättningens status: En studie om frilansöversättares uppfattning om status i förhållande till uppdragsförmedlande språkföretag2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines how freelance translators view their own professional prestige relative to intermediary language service providers in Sweden. By utilizing a survey inspired by the studies of Dam & Zethsen, in combination with an analysis of publically published texts from a number of big Swedish language service providers, this study aims to get an insight in the freelance translators’ own perception of their prestige and in the demands of the language service providers. The study also explores to what extent the translation profession is professionalized in Sweden. The results show that freelance translators, with few exceptions, think of their status as middle to low. At the same time, the language service providers seem to have very few formal demands of their translators, with work experience and punctuality appearing to be the two main requirements to translate for them. Moreover, it seems that the translator profession in Sweden has undergone only a relatively low level of professionalization.

  • 2111.
    Westerlund, Marcus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Punktregel och precision: Kommenterad översättning av en EU-förordning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study consists of an annotated translation of the preamble and the first chapter of the operative part of the French version of regulation No 528/2012 of the European Parliament and of the Council into Swedish. A translation strategy is determined based on several factors, mainly applicable translation theories and the Swedish guidelines for translators of the Union’s legal documents. The translation is then compared to the existing Swedish version of the regulation in order to analyze similarities and differences concerning the translation strategies employed. This analysis focuses on three aspects: transposition, modulation as well as sentence structure and the Union’s punctuation rule. The analysis shows that both the author’s own translation and the existing Swedish version are very similar to the source text, but the existing Swedish version is much more so, indicating a strong norm not to stray too far from the source text.

  • 2112.
    Westerståhl, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Classical vs. modern Squares of Opposition, and beyond2012In: The Square of Opposition: A General Framework for Cognition / [ed] Jean-Yves Beziau, Gillman Payette, Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2012, p. 195-229Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main difference between the classical Aristotelian square of oppo- sition and the modern one is not, as many seem to think, that the classical square has or presupposes existential import. The difference lies in the relations holding along the sides of the square: (sub)contrariety and sub- alternation in the classical case, inner negation and dual in the modern case. This is why the modern square, but not the classical one, applies to any (generalized) quantifier of the right type: all, no, more than three, all but five, most, at least two-thirds of the,... After stating these and other logical facts about quantified squares of opposition, we present a number of examples of such squares spanned by familiar quantifiers. Spe- cial attention is paid to possessive quantifiers, such Mary’s, at least two students’, etc., whose behavior under negation is more complex and in fact can be captured in a cube of opposition.

  • 2113.
    Westerståhl, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Compositionality in Kaplan style semantics2012In: The Oxford Handbook of Compositionality / [ed] M. Werning, W Hinzen, E. Machery, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2012, p. 192-219Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I investigate how the notion of compisitionality can be adapted to various kinds of semantics that take context dependence seriously.

  • 2114.
    Westerståhl, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Constant Operators: Partial Quantifiers2012In: From Quantification to Conversation / [ed] Lars Borin and Staffan Larsson, London: College Publications, 2012Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper begins to explore what it means for an operator to be *constant*, roughly in the sense of meaning the same on every universe. We consider total as well as partial operators of various types, with special focus on generalized quantifiers.

  • 2115.
    Westerståhl, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Generalized quantifiers2016In: Cambridge Handbook of Formal Semantics / [ed] Maria Aloni, Paul Dekker, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016, p. 206-237Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirty years of generalized quantifiers

    It is now more than thirty years since the first serious applications of Generalized Quantifier (GQ) theory to natural language semantics were made: Barwise and Cooper (1981); Higginbotham and May (1981); Keenan and Stavi (1986). Richard Montague had in effect interpreted English NPs as (type 〈1〉) generalized quantifiers (see Montague, 1974), but without referring to GQs in logic, where they had been introduced by Mostowski (1957) and, in final form, Lindström (1966). Logicians were interested in the properties of logics obtained by piecemeal additions to first-order logic (FO) by adding quantifiers like ‘there exist uncountably many’, but they made no connection to natural language. Montague Grammar and related approaches had made clear the need for higher-type objects in natural language semantics. What Barwise, Cooper, and the others noticed was that generalized quantifiers are the natural interpretations not only of noun phrases but also in particular of determiners (henceforth Dets). This was no small insight, even if it may now seem obvious. Logicians had, without intending to, made available model-theoretic objects suitable for interpreting English definite and indefinite articles, the Aristotelian all, no, some, proportional Dets like most, at least half, 10 percent of the, less than two-thirds of the, numerical Dets such as at least five, no more than ten, between six and nine, finitely many, an odd number of, definite Dets like the, the twelve, possessives like Mary's, few students’, two of every professor's, exception Dets like no … but John, every … except Mary, and Boolean combinations of all of the above. All of these can – if one wants! – be interpreted extensionally as the same type of second-order objects, namely (on each universe of discourse) binary relations between sets. Given the richness of this productive but seemingly heterogeneous class of expressions, a uniform interpretation scheme was a huge step. Further, the tools of logical GQ theory could be brought to bear on putative Det interpretations, which turned out to be a subclass of the class of all type 〈1, 1〉 quantifiers with special traits. The three pioneer papers mentioned above offered numerous cases of novel description, and sometimes explanation, of characteristic features of language in terms of model-theoretic properties of the quantifiers involved.

  • 2116.
    Westerståhl, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Midpoints2012In: Theories of Everything: In Honor of Ed Keenan / [ed] T. Graf, D. Paperno, A. Szabolcsi, J. Tellings, Los Angeles: UCLA Working Papers in Linguistics 17 , 2012, p. 427-438Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I generalize Keenan's study of midpoints, generalized quantifiers equivalent to their own postcomplements (inner negations), focusing on the difference between a global and a local perspective of quantifiers.

  • 2117.
    Westerståhl, Dag
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy.
    Pair grammars and compositionality2014In: Idées Fixes: A Festschrift dedicated to Christian Bennet on the Occasion of his 60th Birthday / [ed] Martin Kaså, Göteborg: University of Gothenburg; Philosophy, Linguistics and Theory of Science , 2014, p. 121-137Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2118.
    Westling, Måns
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A Qualitative Descriptive Translation Study of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is a qualitative descriptive translation study concerning two translations of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet into Swedish. The purpose of the study is to investigate the translational behaviour of the translators and the translation norms that govern this behaviour.

    By thoroughly analysing stretches of the play, the study will attempt to locate translation shifts (linguistic changes) that occur in the translation from the source text to the target text. These changes are connected with the translators’ fidelity towards e.g. the metre of the verse or the sense transfer of puns. The analysis also comprises a survey of the translation norms that the translators adhere to. These norms, stated by the translators themselves, are connected to their translation approach. Thus, the study will reveal the differences of translation behaviour and analyse them from a wider perspective. The translations were made around 1840 and in 1982, respectively. The considerable space in time in itself suggests that linguistic differences will occur. However, the study will also find differences as regards the purposes of the translations. The older translation appears to be performed in a tradition of fidelity to the written text and its literary qualities, whereas the modern translation clearly has the purpose of being used for the stage performance. The latter is stated by the translator himself, who also argues that Shakespeare is to be considered drama and not literature.

  • 2119. Whalen, Doug
    et al.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Biological Basis of Speech2006In: Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, 2nd edition, Vol. 12, no 27, p. 61-67Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    The biological basis of speech has three main components: the physiology of the vocal tract, the physiology of the perceptual system (primarily the ear but also the eye and, occasionally, other systems), and the neural resources that allow their use for communication. The genetic underpinnings of these functions are beyond the scope of this article, so the functional aspects will be discussed.

    Speech, like language, is a biological system. Because it is the part of language with a physical realization, the immediacy of the biology is more apparent than it is for syntax and semantics, but it forms a part of that complete biological system. Language is generally considered the defining characteristic of humans, and it will develop in every neurologically normal child with virtually any exposure to linguistic material. The large investment that is made in being able to acquire and use language is justified by the immense rewards for using it, and the severe penalties for being unable to.

  • 2120.
    Widinghoff-Lillsund, Caroline
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies, Japanese Studies.
    Vem är "jag"?: Analyser av bruket av japanska personliga pronomen inom film2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2121. Wiemer, Björn
    et al.
    Bjarnadottir, Valgerdur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German. Vilnius University, Lithuania.
    On the non-canonical marking of the highest-ranking argument in Lithuanian and Icelandic: Step towards a database2014In: Grammatical Relations and their Non-Canonical Encoding in Baltic / [ed] Axel Holvoet, Nicole Nau, John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 301-361Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is a first report on an ongoing project aiming at building up a database of non-canonical argument marking in Lithuanian in contrast to other languages with relatively rich systems of morphological cases. The language with which we begin the comparison is Icelandic. The overarching aim consists not only in a unified inventorisation of relevant units, but in disclosing (i) regularities in the alternation of coding patterns and (ii) the factors underlying such variation. We will concentrate on case marking; this however implies agreement patterns as well, insofar as in these two languages only nominatival NPs trigger agreement on the finite verb (= predicate of the clause). We further concentrate on verbs with non-canonical marking of their highest-ranking argument (HRA); the notion of HRA is defined on the basis of the Actor-Undergoer Hierarchy as developed in Role & Reference Grammar (see 2.1). What we present here is not yet a comprehensive description of the whole body of data, but rather a problem paper which details some conceptual issues and highlights some prominent types of argument coding and their relation to lexical groups.

  • 2122. Wiemer, Björn
    et al.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Contact-induced grammatical change: Diverse phenomena, diverse perspectives2012In: Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact / [ed] Wiemer, Björn & Wälchli, Bernhard & Hansen, Björn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 3-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2123. Wiemer, Björn
    et al.
    Wälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.Hansen, Björn
    Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume presents new insights into two basic theoretical issues hotly debated in recent work on grammaticalization and language contact: grammatical replication and grammatical borrowability. The key issues are: How can grammatical replication be distinguished from other, superficially similar processes of contact-induced linguistic change, and under what conditions does it take place? Are there grammatical morphemes or constructions that are more easily borrowed than others, and how can language contact account for areal biases in borrowing (vs. calquing) of grammatical formatives? The book is a major contribution to the ongoing theoretical discussion concerning the relationship between grammaticalization and language contact on a broad empirical basis.

  • 2124.
    Wiklund, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Social networks and proficiency in Swedish: a study of bilingual adolescents in both mono- and multicultural contexts in Sweden2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to official statistics, bilingual students make up a disproportionate share of the students who attend individual programmes (programmes designed for students who cannot follow the ordinary national programmes) in the upper secondary school in Sweden. This seems to indicate that national programmes cause problems for many bilingual students. This situation relates to the fact that literacy in the language of schooling, proficiency in that language, cognitive development and school success are closely linked. This study investigates the importance of characteristics of social networks on proficiency in Swedish. More exactly it investigates the characteristics of individual students’ interaction with their nearest friends from different ethnic backgrounds and the frequency of a handful linguistic features typical of written and spoken texts respectively, as well as the use of Swedish in interaction. The aim of this study is twofold. One aim is to study the possible relation between social network characteristics, use of Swedish and frequency of selected features of Swedish, and, the other, to develop methods for the analyses of the informants’ network characteristics, language use and selected features of their L2 performance. Thirty-nine bilingual students participated in all parts of the study. The informants’ social networks outside the school context were defined for their density, multiplexity and for different activities and frequency of interaction with these students’ best friends from three different network orientations, namely (1) the students’ own ethnic group, (2) monolingual Swedes, and, (3) bilingual groups other than their own. Furthermore, a measure of the informants’ integration into the different groups was defined and scored, and the different interactional patterns within the networks were defined and measured. Excerpts of each informant’s production of written texts, i.e. school compositions (examples of a context-reduced and demanding register) and transcriptions of informal interviews (examples of a context-embedded and undemanding register) were analysed and scored for selected linguistic features that were correlated to network data. The frequency of the following selected linguistic features was scored, namely (1) verbal complexity: long words, mean length of words, non-recurring words and number of different words; (2) nominalisations and passive constructions (typical of context-reduced and cognitively demanding texts) and (3) first-person pronouns and negations (typical of contextembedded and cognitively undemanding texts). The study was carried out at two schools: one suburban, where bilingual students are in the majority, and one provincial, where they are in the minority. A tendency was noted that students who were more integrated into Swedish-oriented networks and whose network multiplexity was strengthened by higher frequency in interaction in networks directed towards monolingual Swedes demonstrated higher frequency of linguistic features which are typical of more advanced mastery of Swedish. The relationship between network interaction, integration and language proficiency was complex, however, and no statistically significant differences were seen among informants with different orientations of their social networks. The results point to an intricate co-variation between several social network characteristics and the selected linguistic features. Some integral components of the informants’ social networks were analysed, namely time of residence in Sweden, school year, gender and residential area, but there are assumedly a great number of other components which, solely or in combination, affect proficiency in Swedish.

  • 2125.
    Wikström, Joakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    La representación del empleo de los tiempos pretérito perfecto simple y pretérito imperfecto en libros de gramática, difundidos internacionalmente y en Suecia2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the comprehensibility of the preterite and imperfect explained in grammar books addressed to both international and Swedish audiences and how useful those explanations are in practice. One grammar book is in Spanish, one is in English and three are in Swedish, one of which is a textbook for teaching purposes. The aim of this study is to test whether a high abstraction level of the grammatical explanations could be counterproductive, while a low abstraction level could be incorrect. The analysis is based on five cases expressed in five Swedish sentences, with each sentence containing one verb which is to be put in the preterite or imperfect tense while transmitted into Spanish. The analysis shows that the abstract explanations of the Spanish monolingual grammar, and the lack of examples in Spanish and comparisons with other languages, make it difficult for the learner to choose between the preterite and the imperfect tense in the cases, while the short explanations of the Swedish grammars don’t always hold enough information to help the learner choose between the tenses. The grammar book with explanations in English has long explanations, many examples in Spanish and comparisons with English and a low abstraction level, which appears to provide the learner with the best help.

     

  • 2126.
    Wikén Bonde, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German, German.
    Att översätta Freud: The how of the saying is also the what2011In: med andra ord, ISSN 1104-4462, no 69, p. 4-9Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2127.
    Wikén Bonde, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages. Nederländska avdelningen.
    Paul Kußmaul: Verstehen und Übersetzen. Ein Lehr-und Arbeitsbuch. (Narr-Studienbücher). Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag, 2007.2008In: Studia Neophilologica, ISSN 0039-3274, E-ISSN 1651-2308, Vol. 80, no 2, p. 243-250Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [de]

    översättningsdidaktik

  • 2128. Williams, Quentin E.
    et al.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Linguistic citizenship: Language and politics in postnational modernities2017In: Language and Citizenship: Broadening the Agenda / [ed] Tommaso M. Milani, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2017, p. 90-110Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2129. Williams, Quentin Emmanuel
    et al.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Multilingualism in transformative spaces: contact and conviviality2013In: Language Policy, ISSN 1568-4555, E-ISSN 1573-1863, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 289-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa is a highly mobile country characterized by historical displacements and contemporary mobilities, both social and demographic. Getting to grips with diversity, dislocation, relocation and anomie, as well as pursuing aspirations of mobility, is part of people's daily experience that often takes place on the margins of conventional politics. A politics of conviviality is one such form of politics of the popular that emerges in contexts of rapid change, diversity, mobility, and the negotiation and mediation of complex affiliations and attachments. The questions in focus for this paper thus pertain to how forms of talk, born out of displacement, anomie and contact in the superdiverse contexts of South Africa, allow for the articulation of life-styles and aspirations that break with the historical faultlines of social and racial oppression. We first expand upon the idea of (marginal) linguistic practices as powerful mediations of political voice and agency, an idea that can be captured in the notion of linguistic citizenship, the rhetorical foundation of a politics of conviviality. We then move on to analyze the workings of linguistic citizenship in the multilingual practices of two distinct manifestations of popular culture, namely hip hop and a performance by a stand-up comedian in Mzoli's meat market in Gugulethu, Cape Town. The paper concludes with a general discussion on the implications for politics of multilingualism and language policy.

  • 2130.
    Williams, Quentin
    et al.
    University of Western Cape.
    Stroud, Christopher
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Performing rap ciphas in late modern Cape Town: Extreme locality and multilingual citizenship2010In: Africa Focus, ISSN 0772084X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 39-59Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of hip-hop in Cape Town, and indeed South Africa, has traditionally focused on the narratives and poetics of resistance, race and counter-hegemonic agency in the context of apartheid and the early days of post-apartheid. Despite this attention, hip-hop cipha performances remain relatively under-researched. The aim of this paper is to suggest that cipha performances display linguistic and discursive features that not only are of particular interest to rap music and hip-hop on the Cape Flats of Cape Town specifically, but that also engage core issues around multilingualism, agency and voice more generally. It demonstrates how in the process of entextualization a sense of locality, extreme locality, emerges in cipha performances by means of verbal cueing, representing place, expressing disrespect (dissing), and the (deictic) reference to local coordinates that is achieved by transposing or recontextualizing transidiomatic phrases, and by incorporating local proxemics and audience reactions through commentary and response. It concludes by suggestingthat competition around acceptable linguistic forms and framings (metalinguistic disputes) of extreme locality comprise the very micro-processes behind the formation of new registers. At the same time, these registers create the semiotic space for the exercise of agency and voice through multilingual practices, that is, multilingual citizenship.

  • 2131.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    L1 and L2 influence in L3 production: Evidence from language switches1997Report (Other academic)
  • 2132.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language switches in L3 production: Implications for a polyglot speaking model1998In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 295-333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2133.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language switches in L3 production: Implications for a polyglot speaking model2009In: Processes in third language acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 28-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2134.
    Winsa, Birger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German. Finska.
    Tornedalingarna - en språklig minoritet2007In: Mer än ett språk: En antologi om flerspråkigheten i norra Sverige, Stockholm: Norstedts akademiska förlag , 2007, p. 76-93Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2135.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Language and Computers, Markus Dickinson, Chris Brew, Detmar Meurers, Wiley-Blackwell, 20132013In: Computational linguistics - Association for Computational Linguistics (Print), ISSN 0891-2017, E-ISSN 1530-9312, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 777-780Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2136.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Review of "Web Corpus Construction" by Schäfer & Bildhauer2014In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 37, no 3, p. 457-463Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 2137.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Grigonytė, Gintarė
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Longitudinal Studies of Variation Sets in Child-directed Speech2016In: The 54th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics: Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Cognitive Aspects of Computational Language Learning, Stroudsburg, PA, USA: Association for Computational Linguistics, 2016, p. 44-52Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the characteristics of child-directed speech is its high degree of repetitiousness. Sequences of repetitious utterances with a constant intention, variation sets, have been shown to be correlated with children’s language acquisition. To obtain a baseline for the occurrences of variation sets in Swedish, we annotate 18 parent–child dyads using a generalised definition according to which the varying form may pertain not just to the wording but also to prosody and/or non-verbal cues. To facilitate further empirical investigation, we introduce a surface algorithm for automatic extraction of variation sets which is easily replicable and language-independent. We evaluate the algorithm on the Swedish gold standard, and use it for extracting variation sets in Croatian, English and Russian. We show that the proportion of variation sets in child-directed speech decreases consistently as a function of children's age across Swedish, Croatian, English and Russian.

  • 2138.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Sjons, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Tengstrand, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Variationsmängder i barnriktat tal2013In: XIII Nordiska Barnspråkssymposiet - 2013 Stockholms universitet, Sverige, 8-9 november 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Barnriktat tal har en rad unika egenskaper som alla tycks härröra från föräldrarnas (omedvetna) önskan att som mycket som möjligt underlätta språkinlärningen för barnet. En av dessa egenskaper hos barnriktat tal är dess repetitivitet, till exempel i successiva yttranden som följande:

    Var kan Kucka vara då?

    Var är Kucka?

    Var är kaninen som heter Kucka?

    I det här papperet studerar vi den lokala repetitiviteten i barnriktat tal, som i litteraturen brukar kallas variationsmängder. Dessa är intressanta genom att de visar de ord och konstruktioner som föräldrarna vid varje tillfälle tycks koncentrera sig på att lära sina barn.

    Ett teoretiskt ramverk med bäring på detta är konstruktionsgrammatik, som antar att konstruktioner är inlärningsbara eftersom a) de utgör konventionaliserade form–betydelsepar som b) lärs in gradvis, alltifrån holofraser över schematiska uttryck ("item-based constructions", Tomasello 2003) till vuxenspråkets fullt abstraherbara konstruktioner. Genom att vi har longitudinella data så kan vi fånga i vad mån de successiva konstruktionerna anpassas enligt detta mönster allteftersom barnet blir äldre.

    Flera försök till formalisering av begreppet variationsmängd har föreslagits, till exempel Küntay och Slobin (1996), Brodsky et al. (2007) och Onnis et al. (2008). Vanliga krav på en variationsmängd är att den a) utgör successiva yttranden med upp till två mellanliggande yttranden; b) att minst två av de ingående orden upprepas; och c) att yttrandenas intention är konstant. Vi experimenterar med olika värden på a) och använder stället för b) en strängmatchningsmetod som även tar hänsyn till yttrandelängden.

    I papperet redovisar vi utfallet av konstruktionstyper baserat på data från en longitudinell korpus med barnriktat tal för tretton barn i åldrar mellan 3 och 33 månader, fördelade på 58 sessioner.

  • 2139.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Modelling the Informativeness of Non-Verbal Cues in Parent–Child Interaction2017In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017), Stockholm: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 2203-2207, article id 1143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-verbal cues from speakers, such as eye gaze and hand positions, play an important role in word learning. This is consistent with the notion that for meaning to be reconstructed, acoustic patterns need to be linked to time-synchronous patterns from at least one other modality. In previous studies of a multimodally annotated corpus of parent–child interaction, we have shown that parents interacting with infants at the early word-learning stage (7–9 months) display a large amount of time-synchronous patterns, but that this behaviour tails off with increasing age of the children. Furthermore, we have attempted to quantify the informativeness of the different nonverbal cues, that is, to what extent they actually help to discriminate between different possible referents, and how critical the timing of the cues is. The purpose of this paper is to generalise our earlier model by quantifying informativeness resulting from non-verbal cues occurring both before and after their associated verbal references.

  • 2140.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence), short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's) as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  • 2141.
    Wojtysiak, Zofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Bara ett nagellack eller en iögonfallande kristallyta med djupa, klassiska färger?: Om översättning från svenska till polska av reklamtexter för Oriflame kosmetikaprodukter.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis has been to find out how Oriflame’s Swedish advertising texts differ from their Polish translations and if the potential differences depend on a cultural adaption to the target culture. Furthermore, an image analysis was conducted in order to study the interaction between text and image as well as how this relation is likely to influence the customers. Even though the quantitative analysis has shown that the source and target texts do not differ much, they are contrastive when it comes to their content and the gender roles which are present in the analyzed texts.

  • 2142.
    Wysocka, Patrycja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The study abroad experience: Self-reflecting on the development of intercultural competence and identity after one semester abroad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Study abroad programmes have become popular among students around the world nowadays. Thanks to the participation in the exchange, students are able to improve their intercultural skills, which may be beneficial for them in their future careers. This study investigates students’ development of intercultural competence and identity after spending one semester at the university in Hong Kong. Its main focus is to analyse how study abroad programmes impact students’ abilities in intercultural communication by analysing their self-reflections towards their re-invented identities as well as the overall experience of living and studying in a different country. The whole study is also based on the concept of linguistic repertoire, which is here being updated in the context of globalisation. In order to collect the data, four participants from the Netherlands, Germany and Canada were asked to fill in initial contact forms by providing information about one specific intercultural encounter that they have experienced during the study abroad period. This information then acted as the background knowledge used in the following interviews with each participant, where their opinions have been further developed in more detail. The results show that the participants further developed their skills in intercultural competence as well as enhanced their already interculturally-oriented identities. As for the impact on their linguistic repertoires, the interesting finding shows that the linguistic repertoires of the participants with English as a second language might have been affected slightly more than those of the native speakers. In the end, these results agree with the previous research on the development of intercultural skills after the study abroad period and highlight the importance of participating in study abroad programmes as students become prepared for their future careers in the highly globalised world.

  • 2143.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknown categories within and across languages2014In: Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknowncategories within and across languages: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Benedikt Smrecsanyi & Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 355-393Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces three algorithms for the extraction of lexical and grammatical markers in parallel texts. The starting point for all of them is that trigger distributions are used as semantic cues. Automatic processing chains apply the same procedures (so-called “procedural universals”) to directly comparable texts of all languages. The domain-internal distribution of markers is usually highly diverse cross-linguistically due to polymorphy (there are many markers instantiating the same domain, but which also expressother meanings at the same time). Polymorphy structures a domain into subdomains in cross-linguistically different ways, and this structure canbe used for the aggregation of markers into cross-linguistically recurrent marker types and for assessing the domain-specific similarity relationships between languages.

  • 2144.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Co-compounds2015In: Word-formation: an international handbook of the languages of Europe / [ed] Müller, Peter O., Ohnheiser, Ingeborg, Olsen, Susan, Rainer, Franz, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 707-727Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2145. Wälchli, Bernhard
    Co-compounds and natural coordination2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 2146.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammaticalization clines in space: Zooming in on synchronic traces of diffusion processes2012In: Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact / [ed] Wiemer, Björn & Wälchli, Bernhard & Hansen, Björn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 233-272Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2147.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Indirect measurement in morphological typology2012In: Methods in Contemporary Linguistics / [ed] Ender, Andrea & Leemann, Adrian & Wälchli, Bernhard, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 69-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2148.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Morphosemantics, constructions, algorithmic typology and parallel texts2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike morphology (the internal formal structure of words) and semantics (the study of the meaning of words and sentences), morphosemantics is concerned with the link between marker and meaning. Traditional approaches to morphosemantics such as semiotics and construction grammar argue that the relationship between image acoustique and concept is symbolic. This works well if the links are known (in the “proficiency mode”). In this talk I argue that there is a statistical alternative which is particularly useful if the links are not known (in the “discovery mode”). Meanings and markers form collocations in texts which can be measured by means of collocation measures. However, there is a considerable non-isomorphism between marker and meaning. As is well known a marker can have many different meanings (polysemy). Somewhat less well known is that a meaning is often expressed by many different markers, both paradigmatically and syntagmatically (polymorphy).

            To make meanings and markers commensurable, they must be converted into units of the same kind. This same kind is the set of contexts in a text or corpus where a marker or meaning occurs. If the distribution of a meaning in a corpus is known, its corresponding marker complex can be determined which consists of a paradigmatically and syntagmatically ordered set of simple markers. The markers considered here are surface markers of two types: word forms and morphs (continuous character strings within word forms). More abstract marker types such as lexemes, grammatical categories and word classes might often be better markers than surface markers, but they are not available in the discovery mode.

            Marker complexes are a simple construction type. A procedural approach to construction grammar is adopted where marker complexes are viewed as an intermediate stage in a processing chain of increasingly more complex construction types from simple markers via marker complexes to syntactic constructions. Marker complexes have the advantage that they can be extracted automatically from massively parallel texts, i.e. translations of the same text into many languages, such as the New Testament used here. In parallel texts the same meanings (with certain restrictions) are expressed across different languages. This means that a functional domain can be defined as a set of contexts where a certain meaning occurs.

            The same procedure is applied to cross-linguistically similar material and the procedure applied to cross-linguistic data is fully explicit and therefore replicable. It can be implemented in a computer program and run without the intervention of a typologist (algorithmic typology). The underlying idea is that the procedure of extraction is invariant (procedural universal) whereas the extracted structures can be highly variable depending on the texts and languages to which they are applied.

            The talk considers to what extent surface markers are sufficient as input for the identification of constructions in a range of grammatical and lexical domains in a world-wide convenience sample of somewhat more than 50 languages. One of the domains considered in more detail is comparison of inequality. Comparison of inequality is expressed in most languages of the sample by an at least bipartite marker complex consisting of the parts standard marker (‘than’) and predicate intensifier (‘more’, ‘-er’). It will be argued here that both of them are intrinsic parts of the comparative construction. These findings are not fully in accordance with Leon Stassen’s typology of comparison – a classical study in functional domain typology – which is based exclusively on the encoding of the standard NP. Other domains considered in the talk include negation, ‘want’, future, and predicative possession.

  • 2149.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Non-specific, specific and obscured perception verbs in Baltic languages2016In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 7, p. 53-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunistic perception verbs (‘see’, ‘hear’, as opposed to explorative perception verbs, ‘look’, ‘listen’) express the opportunity for perception and are condition-oriented (exposure, i.e. the perceiver’s exposure to a percept), not participant-oriented, in their aspectual structure. The Baltic languages, as other languages in Central, East, and Northern Europe, have specific perception verbs, which are a subtype of opportunistic perception verbs, for the expression of restricted exposure. The lexical character of specificity in Baltic—unlike Russian where it is integrated into a rigid grammatical aspect system—is more favorable for uncovering the underlying semantic factors of specificity, which differ across perceptual systems. Restrictedness of exposure is a scale rather than a dichotomy, and cross-linguistic comparison in parallel texts reveals that specificity is a scale with much variation as to where the borderline between specific and non-specific perception verbs is drawn in the languages of the area. Obscured perception verbs, which emphasize difficulty in discrimination, are another set of condition-oriented perception verbs in Baltic and Russian and are closely related to specific verbs synchronically and diachronically.

    This paper describes non-specific, specific, and obscured perception verbs in the Baltic languages and attempts to capture their variability within six dimensions (morphology, area, diachrony, specificity, modality, obscured verbs). A precondition for this endeavor is a critique of earlier approaches to the semantics of perception verbs. Nine major biases are identified (nominalism, physiology, discrete features, vision, paradigmatic modelling, aspectual event types, dual nature models, participant orientation, and viewing activity as control). In developing an alternative, the approach greatly profits from Gibson’s ecological psychology and Rock’s theory of indirect perception. 

  • 2150.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The dynamicity of stative resultatives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
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