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  • 2101.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Conversational maxims and principles of language planning1991In: Experiments in speech processes / [ed] Olle Engstrand, Catharina Kylander, Mats Dufberg, Stockholm: The Institute of Linguistics, University of Stockholm , 1991, Vol. XII, p. 25-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Striking similarities can be observed between Grice's (1967) conversational maxims and Tauli's (1968) principles of language planning: In order to function well, a language must be such that it makes a well behaved conversation possible. Nevertheless, many ethnic languages as well as constructed interlanguages possess features which are incompatible with these principles. The paper contains an analysis of such cases: The compulsory expression of number and gender, which is in conflict with the principle of facultative precision; ambiguity and lack of distinctiveness in the names of the Latin letters; excessive length of certain morphemes; and restricted freedom to place sentence constituents in a pragmatically adequate order. The compulsory nature of certain distinctions, which cannot be understood on functional grounds, is ascribed to an excessive activity of "universal grammar", which is seen as one of the instincts of human beings. It is further shown that some constructed interlanguages (Volapük and Interlingua) clash with some of Greenberg's (1963) universals concerning the order of meaningful elements. While Esperanto is free from that type of deficiency, it is in conflict with the principle of facultative precision in the same way as most ethnic languages of Europe, as distinct from those of East Asia.

  • 2102.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Conversion between acoustic and auditory units of pitch and calculation of auditory intervals and distances2005Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an on-line tool for conversions between frequency f (Hz), period P (ms),  Subjective pitch (mel), CB-rate z (bark), ERB-rate (ERB), and musical intervals (semitones, octaves)

  • 2103.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Cross-modal interactions in visual as opposed to auditory perception of vowels2006In: Fonetik 2006: Working Papers 52, 2006, p. 137-140Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes two perception experiments with vowels in monosyllabic utterances presented auditorily, visually and bimodally with incongruent cues to openness and/or roundedness. In the first, the subjects had to tell what they heard; in the second what they saw. The results show that the same stimuli evoke a visual percept that may be influenced by audition and may be different from the auditory percept that may be influenced by vision. In both cases, the strength of the influence of the unattended modality showed between-feature variation reflecting the reliability of the information.

  • 2104.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Demodulation, mirror neurons and audiovisual perception nullify the motor theory2007In: Fonetik 2007: TMH-QPSR 50 (1), 2007, p. 17-20Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Motor Theory of Speech Perception (MTSP), listeners perceive speech by way of the articulatory gestures they would perform themselves in producing a similar signal. The theory postulates a module that allows extracting gestural information from the signal. The gestures constitute the event perceived.

    According to the Modulation Theory (MDT), speech is modulated voice. Listeners perceive it by demodulating the signal. The properties of the voice convey nonlinguistic information while the linguistically coded information is conveyed by its modulation. The modulation pattern constitutes the linguistic event perceived.

    The theories agree in requiring a linkage or mapping between perception and production. According to MDT, phonetically labeled links between exteroception and proprioception (mirror and echo neurons) are established in the brain during speech acquisition. The set of links embodies the knowledge of the relation. While MDT describes the device that MTSP would need in order to be implemented, it makes it redundant to recruit the motor system. Demodulation is also necessary in speechreading and in order to perceive sign language, when a face or body is 'modulated’ instead of a voice. In audiovisual speech perception, there are two percepts: a normally dominant vocal one and a gestural one that does not need to agree with it. MTSP knows of only one of these. It is concluded that all the specific claims of MTSP are false while MDT rests on ‘first principles’.

  • 2105.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Der Vokalismus im Ostmittelbairischen1982In: Zeitschrift für Dialektologie und Linguistik, ISSN 0044-1449, E-ISSN 2366-2395, Vol. 49, no 3, p. 289-333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2106.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Die spektrale Auflösung bei der Wahrnehmung der Klangfarbe von Vokalen1984In: Acta Acoustica united with Acustica, ISSN 1610-1928, E-ISSN 1861-9959, Vol. 54, p. 237-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The distances between neighbouring partials of vowels are in many cases larger than the bendwidths of the formants and also often larger than the critical bandwidth (1 Bark). Several results of different experiments with synthetic one- and two-formant vowels suggest that an efficient bandwidth of resolution of roughly 3 Bark is basic to the perception of spectral features of vowels. A corresponding spectral dispersion or integration did not, however, appear in experiments with non-speech harmonic sounds. K. Benedini investigated the timbre differences between harmonic sounds with up to six harmonics of 100 Hz. An analysis of the estimated timbre differences shows that both the bandwidth of resolution and the perceptual weight of the partials is proportional to their frequency. The weight of the fundamental is, however, substantially increased in comparisons between residual and complete harmonic sounds. Further, the perceived difference between two sounds turns out to be dependent on the remaining sounds presented in a perceptual experiment. The timbre differences between low-passed harmonic sounds of different width can be accounted for exclusively on the basis of the tono-topical distances between the upper flanks of these sounds. It is concluded that the judgement of differences in timble involves the prior extraction, induced by context, of relevant dimensions. The bandwidth of spectral resolution that appears with the perception of vowel-like sounds may in part be due to an intrincsic inacuity to the phonetic templates supposedly stored in memory.

  • 2107.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Section for Phonetics.
    Distinctive names for speech sounds and letters obtained with hyper-coarticulated vowels1999In: Proceedings of the XIVth ICPhS, San Francisco, 1999, p. 1125-1128Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The names used in most languages for the letters of the Latin alphabet and for the sounds these represent are marked by a lack of distinctiveness that often makes them fail their purpose. Various auxiliary "spelling alphabets" are used in such cases. No such need arises with the letter names that are used for the Arabic, Hebrew, Armenian and Greek alphabets. Short and yet distinctive names for consonants can, however, be coined with a minimum of arbitrariness by exploiting the coarticulatory effects of consonants on vowels. These are analyzed for schwa-like vowels in the permissive vowel systems of NW-Caucasian and Mandarin Chinese, and it is shown how they can be utilized to coin names for phones and letters, especially for Turkish.

  • 2108.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    En tur i fonetikens marker1996Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Här granskas samspelet mellan språkliga och utomspråkliga fenomen i talet.

  • 2109.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Evidence for demodulation in speech perception2000In: Proceedings of the 6th ICSLP, 2000, p. 790-793Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Modulation Theory, speakers modulate their voice with linguistic gestures, and listeners demodulate the signal in order to separate the linguistic from the expressive and organic information. Listeners tune in to the carrier (the voice) on the basis of an analysis of a stretch of speech and they evaluate its modulation. This is reflected in many perceptual experiments that involved manipulated introductory phrases, blocked vs. randomized speakers, and other non-linguistic variables.

  • 2110.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Factors affecting visual influence on heard vowel roundedness: Web experiments with Swedes and Turks2009In: Proceedings FONETIK 2009: The XXIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference, held at Stockholm University, June 10-12, 2009, Stockholm, 2009, p. 166-171Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of various general and stimulus-specific factors on the contribution of vision to heard roundedness was investigated by means of web experiments conducted in Swedish. The original utterances consisted of the syllables /ɡyːɡ/ and /ɡeːɡ/ of a male and a female speaker. They were synchronized with each other in all combinations, resulting in four stimuli that were incongruent in vowel quality, two of them additionally in speaker sex. One of the experiments was also conducted in Turkish, using the same stimuli. The results showed that visible presence of lip rounding has a weaker effect on audition than its absence, except for conditions that evoke increased attention, such as when a foreign language is involved. The results suggest that female listeners are more susceptible to vision under such conditions. There was no significant effect of age and of discomfort felt by being exposed to dubbed speech. A discrepancy in speaker sex did not lead to reduced influence of vision. The results also showed that habituation to dubbed speech has no deteriorating effect on normal auditory-visual integration in the case of roundedness.

  • 2111.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    IPAKLICK: en fonetisk skrivmaskin / a phonetic type-and-clickwriter2003Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    An on-line phonetic 'typewriter' for use in MS Internet Explorer

  • 2112.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    La plej vaste uzataj vortoj2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2113.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lippenrundung bei schwedischen Vokalen1979In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 44-56Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Is there a steady transition between unrounded, 'outrounded', and 'inrounded' Swedish vowels, or are these distinct categories? By which articulatory parameters can these distinctions be described? These questions, actualised through confusion data in speechreading, are answered by means of articulatory measurements of lip-opening, lip-protrusion, and jaw-lowering in 4 subjects. It is found, i.a., that rounded and unrounded vowels form clearly separated categories, and that inrounded vowels, including /o/, are distinguished from outrounded ones by their smaller lip-opening and, if long, by increased lowering of the jaw.

  • 2114.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Modulation and demodulation in production, perception, and imitation of speech and bodily gestures1998In: Proceedings of FONETIK 98, 1998, p. 40-43Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2115.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    On Vowels : Spectral Features, Related Aspects of Production and Sociophonetic Dimensions1983Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first and major part of this thesis deals with spectral features of vowels and with the distinction of phonetic information from personal and transmittal information also conveyed to listeners by speech sounds. The results of perceptual experiments with synthetic vowels whose fundamental and first formant were varied in frequency suggested that the smaller tonotopical distances between formants (< 6 Bark) are invariant in phonetically idenctical vowels produced by male and female speakers of several languages. It is further investigated how partials are resolved in the process of timbre perception. Previous experiments by other researchers suggest an effective bandwidth close to three Bark. In similar experiments, though using different stimuli, this result could not be replicated. A re-analysis of some other experimental results gave, among other details, effective bandwidths roughly proportional to frequency in the range below 600 Hz. Due to contextual effects, the general validity of this result is in question. The non-uniform sex-differences in formant frequencies are shown mainly to be consequences of an anatomical development in accord with the perceptual condition of invariant phonetic qualities.

    The second part of the thesis, Vocalism in Eastern Central Bavarian, represents a case study of the realization of sociophonetic dimensions in speech. In the chosen group of dialects some phonological rules lead to a richly shadowed vowel system. The application of these rules is investigated with respect to dialectal, sociolectal, speaker age, and speech tempo variation.

  • 2116.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Paralinguale Phänomene: (Paralinguistic phenomena)2005In: SOCIOLINGUISTICS / SOZIOLINGUISTIK: An International Handbook of the Science of Language and Society / Ein internationales Handbuch zur Wissenschaft von Sprache und Gesellschaft, 2nd ed., Walter de Gruyter, Berlin/New York , 2005, p. Vol. 1, 653-665Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Paralinguistic phenomena are those phenomena that can be observed in speech (Saussure's 'parole') but that do not belong to the arbitrary conventional code of language (Saussure's 'langue'). The paralinguistic features of speech play, nevertheless, an important role in speech communication, and there are no speech signals without such features. However, the distinction linguistic vs. paralinguistic applies not only to speech but to gestural language as well, and it is not bound to any sensory modality. The chapter distinguishes between (1) perspectival, (2) organic, (3) expressive and (4) linguistic aspects. Under (1), spatial hearing, distance perception, spectral distortion, and helium speech is mentioned. Under (2), sex differences (also in energy balance and in liveliness) and the articulatory and acoustic effects (on F0, formant frequencies etc.) of the ontological development of the organ of speech are considered as well as the perception of speakers' age and sex. The phylogeny of the sex-differences is also considered. Under (3), it is considered how a speaker's emotions and attitudes affect the properties of speech signals and how they are recognized by listeners. This includes an account for the "Frequency Code" (Ohala, 1984) and for the acoustic effects of variations in vocal effort. The following topics are also mentioned: Personality inference from voice quality; Baby-talk; semantically empty linguistic vehicles of expressive information; cases in which both a linguistic contrast and a paralinguistic continuum is involved. Under (4), the problem of how listeners extract the linguistic-phonetic information from speech signals is considered, and the normalization, search for invariance and modulation/demodulation approaches are mentioned. The paralinguistic origin of many prosodic features of languages is mentioned as well as onomatopoeia and sound symbolism and its basis in associations.

    Two tables (F0 mean and SD data of male and female speakers in various languages and types of discourse; voice correlates of emotions and attitudes); 129 References.

  • 2117.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Perception of speaker sex, age, and vocal effort1997In: Fonetik 1997: Phonum 4, 1997, p. 183-186Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech material recorded for the purpose of studying the acoustic properties of speech as a function of speaker sex, age, and vocal effort (induced by varying the distance between the speaker and the person spoken to over a wide range) was used in perception experiments in which the subjects had to rate either the distance between speaker and adressee or the age and the sex of the speaker. The correlations between these percepts and gross spectral and temporal properties of the utterances, such as the mean values of F0, F1, and F3, spectral emphasis and utterance duration were analysed.

  • 2118.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Perception of timbre:: evidence for spectral resloution bandwidth different from critical band?1982In: The Representation of Speech in the Peripheral Auditory System, Elsevier Biomed. Press, Amsterdam , 1982, p. 103-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2119.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Perceptual dimension of openness in vowels.1981In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 69, no 5, p. 1465-75Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2120.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Phase vowels1987In: The psychophysics of speech perception: Proceedings of the NATO advanced research workshop on "The psychophysics of speech perception" / [ed] M.E.H. Schouten, Dordrecht: Nijhoff in cooperation with NATO Scientific Affairs Division , 1987, p. 377-384Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2121.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Size and physiological effort in the production of signed and spoken utterances2001In: Fonetik 2001: Working Papers 49, 2001, p. 164-167Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is shown that the energy required in order to articulate manual and oral gestures at a given rate varies in proportion with the fifth power of linear body size, while the energy supply varies with its second power. This provides for a better understanding of the differences in peripheralness observed in the formant frequencies of vowels in speech articulated more or less forcefully by men, women and children.

  • 2122.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Some aspects of the sound of speech sounds1987In: The Psychophysics of Speech Perception, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, Dordrecht , 1987, p. 293-305Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2123.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Sound symbolism in deictic words2000In: Tongues and Texts Unlimited: Studies in Honour of Tore Jansson on the Occasion of his Sixtieth Anniversary / [ed] Hans Aili & Peter af Trampe, Dept. of Classical Languages, Stockholm University , 2000, p. 213-234Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    After a short introduction to the phenomenon of sound symbolism, its possible effects on the proximal and distal demonstratives and the personal pronouns of the first and second person are investigated. For this purpose, word pairs in which there is a straight forward difference that is compatible with or contrary to the expectations suggested by sound symbolism have been counted. Forms with a common etymology have been taken as a single case. The results confirm that vowels in proximal demonstratives tend to have a higher 'sibilant pitch', or F2', than do those in the distal demonstratives of the same languages, and they show that such forms have an advantage in their struggle for existence in languages. Counterexamples are found only in languages with a small number of speakers. It is, further, found that nasals are preferred in first person pronouns while stops and other obstruents are preferred in second person pronouns. This is attributed to the proprioceptive qualities of these classes of speech sounds. In addition, it is suggested that association with lingual or labial pointing gestures may affect the preferences of consonants. It is observed that the pronouns of most language groups of Europe and Northern Asia are likely to be etymologically related, while sound symbolism may have contributed to the survival of their similarities. It is, however, also shown that similarities that have been taken as evidence for far-reaching genetic relationships can sometimes be readily understood as genetically independent reflections of universal sound symbolism.

  • 2124.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    The role of F0 in vowel perception1998Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This is an on-line auditory demonstration.

  • 2125.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Viskningar och rop: Paralingvistisk fonetik2000In: Att förstå det mänskliga: Humanistisk forskning vid Stockholms universitet / [ed] Kerstin Dahlbäck, Natur och Kultur, Stockholm , 2000, p. 308-330Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2126.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Acoustic effects of variation in vocal effort by men, women, and children.2000In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 107, no 6, p. 3438-51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The acoustic effects of the adjustment in vocal effort that is required when the distance between speaker and addressee is varied over a large range (0.3-187.5 m) were investigated in phonated and, at shorter distances, also in whispered speech. Several characteristics were studied in the same sentence produced by men, women, and 7 year-old boys and girls: duration of vowels and consonants, pausing and occurrence of creaky voice, mean and range of F0, certain formant frequencies (F1 in [a] and F3), SPL of voiced segments and [s], and spectral emphasis. In addition to levels and emphasis, vowel duration, F0, and F1 were substantially affected. “Vocal effort” was defined as the communicational distance estimated by a group of listeners for each utterance. Most of the observed effects correlated better with this measure than with the actual distance, since some additional factors affected the speakers’ choice. Differences between speaker groups emerged in segment durations, pausing behavior, and in the extent to which the SPL of [s] was affected. The whispered versions are compared with the phonated versions produced by the same speakers at the same distance. Several effects of whispering are found to be similar to those of increasing vocal effort.

  • 2127.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Eriksson, Anders
    The frequency range of the voice fundamental in the speech of male and female adults1993Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Published data on the frequency of the voice fundamental (F0) in speech show its range of variation, often expressed in terms of two standard deviations (SD) of the F0-distribution, to be approximately the same for men and women if expressed in semitones, but the observed SD varies substantially between different investigations. Most of the differences can be attributed to the following factors: SD is increased in tone languages and it varies with the type of discourse. The more ‘lively’ the type of discourse, the larger it is. The dependence of SD on the type of discourse tends to be mom pronounced in the speech of women than of men. Based on an analysis of various production data A is shown that speakers normally achieve an increased SD by increasing the excursions of F0 from a ‘base-value’ that lies about 1.5 SD below their mean F0. This is relevant to applications in speech technology as well as to general theories of speech communication such as the ‘modulation theory’ in which the base-value of F0 is seen as a carrier frequency.

  • 2128.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The perceptual evaluation of F0 excursions in speech as evidenced in liveliness estimations.1995In: J Acoust Soc Am, ISSN 0001-4966, Vol. 97, no 3, p. 1905-15Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to learn how listeners evaluate F0 excursions, a set of experiments was performed in which subjects had to estimate the liveliness of utterances. The stimuli were obtained by LPC analysis of one natural utterance that was modified by resynthesizing F0 , the formant frequencies, and the time scale in order to simulate some of the natural extra- and paralinguistic variations that affect F0 and/or liveliness, namely the speaker's age, sex, articulation rate, and voice register. In each case, the extent of the F0 excursions was varied in seven steps. The results showed that, as long as the stimuli appeared to have been produced in the modal register (of men, women, and children), listeners judged F0 intervals to be equivalent if they were equal in semitones. When the voice register was shifted without adjustment in articulation , listeners appeared to judge the F0 excursions in relation to the spectral space available below F1 . The liveliness ratings were found to be strongly dependent on articulation rate and to be affected by the perceived age of the speaker which, with the manipulated stimuli used here, turned out to be significantly affected by the sex of the listener.

  • 2129.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Ménard, Lucie
    Perception of speaker age, sex and vowel quality inves­tigated using stimuli produced with an articulatory model2003In: Proceedings of the XVth ICPhS, 2003, p. 1739-1742Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the perception of linguistic and paralinguistic qualities conveyed by synthetic vowels produced with an articulatory model in which transfer func­tions of the French vowels /i y e ø E œ/ characteristic of five growth stages were each combined with five different F0 values. Listeners had to judge the speaker's age and sex in addition to vowel quality. Four subgroups of listeners were distinguished, according to sex and frequency of contact with children. The results were subjected to regression analy­sis based on ctitical band rate (z) and logarithmic values of F0, F1 to F5 and calculated values of F2’. This showed (Z1 -0.6 Z0) to correlate highly with vowel openness and 0.8 (Z4 -Z3) with roundedness in addition to Z2'. F0 and the formants above F1 contributed equally to age percep­tion. There were slight but significant differences between listener groups and there was a tendency to perceive vowels as produced by a younger speaker when perceived as rounded - older when not. This can be understood as due to a choice listeners have in interpreting lower formants as due to liprounding or a permanently longer vocal tract indicative of a higher age.

  • 2130.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Krull, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The effect of local speaking rate on the perception of quantity in Estonian.2003In: Phonetica, ISSN 0031-8388, Vol. 60, no 3, p. 187-207Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Estonian language with its elaborate system of contrasts in quantity, whose essentials are described in the paper, is used to investigate human perception of distinctive contrasts in the duration of vowels, consonants and larger units. In the experiments reported, the speaking rate of a preceding or following syllable was manipulated in addition to that of a target V, C or VC sequence that carried a quantity distinction in disyllabic words. The results confirmed that the second syllable in such words, in particular the duration of its vowel, serves as a reference, but they showed segments of additional syllables to contribute in the same direction. The results provided no support for ascribing quantity to any larger units than phonetic segments. Speech rate effects of similar magnitude have been observed in Japanese, while effects of the same kind were found to be smaller in Dutch. These differences may be linked with the functions durational contrasts have in the different languages. It appears that listeners have to adapt more fully to variations in the local speaking rate when there are no additional cues and the functional load of quantity distinctions is high.

  • 2131.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Krull, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    van Dommelen, Wim A.
    Local speaking rate and perceived quantity2003In: Fonetik 2003: PHONUM 9, 2003, p. 41-44Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In an earlier experiment, we have shown that the local speaking rate affects the perception of quantity of Estonian listeners. In order to see if this effect is language dependent, we presented the same stimuli to Finns and a subset to Norwegians, whose languages have a different and smaller functional load of quantity distinctions. The results obtained with Estonian and Finnish listeners are compatible with a model of speech perception in which variations in speaking rate are reflected in the pace of an "inner clock" by which listeners measure segment durations. More 'absolute' and narrow scoped results with Norwegians are compatible with such a model only if the inner clocks of listeners with a less demanding linguistic background are assumed to resist such an influence to a higher degree.

  • 2132.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Perceptual relativity in identification of two-formant vowels1987In: Speech Communication, ISSN 0167-6393, E-ISSN 1872-7182, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 143-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is attempted to reduce the phonetic quality of vowels to the positions of the peaks in their tonotopical spectra relative to the other peaks, simultaneous or preceding in context. Synthetic two-formant vowels were identified by speakers of languages that differentiate richly among high vowels (Swedish, Turkish). The parameters F1 (204-801 Hz) and F2' (509-3702 Hz) were systematically varied in steps of 0.75 critical bandwidth. F0 was kept close below F1 in all vowels. These were presented in two orders with subsequently rising or falling F2'. Most subjects heard predominantly close vowels. The "isophones" of most subjects could be described in a uniform manner implying a normalization with respect to two reference points, one at a distance of 3 critical bands above F0 and the other one at an absolute position corresponding to 2.8 kHz. It is speculated that this second reference point might represent a default position of the third formant or the like.

  • 2133.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    van Bezooijen, Renée
    The auditory perception of children’s age and sex1994In: Proceedings ICSLP-94, 1994, p. vol. 3: 1171-1174Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The experiments reported here provided some data on the accuracy with which listeners rate the age of speakers, and some knowledge about the relative contributions of underlying factors such as F0, the formant frequencies, and the 'verbal maturation' of children. The speech material consisted of excerpts from interviews with boys and girls in the age groups 5, 7, 9, and 11 years. Utterances which contained verbal cues to age were eliminated after presenting written versions to a panel of judges. The retained utterances were LPC-analyzed and resynthesized with modifications, to obtain (1) natural speech, (2) whispered speech, (3) speech of 9 year olds with F0, formants, and speech rate modified as at an age of 5, 7, 9, and 11 years, and (4) whispered versions of (3). The listeners agreed in their age ratings with an SD that increased from 1.3 at 5 to 1.8 at 11 years. The differences in SD between the four types of speech were small, but there was a bias toward 8 to 9 years in the modified versions. Multidimensional regression analysis showed the perceptual weight of the factors to decrease slightly in the order (1) verbal maturation, (2) formants (and rate), (3) F0. As for the distinction boy/girl, there was a slight improvement in correctness with age and a general bias to classify the younger children as girls and the older ones as boys.

  • 2134.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Audiovisual perception of openness and lip rounding in front vowels2007In: Journal of Phonetics, Vol. 35, p. 244-258Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish nonsense syllables /gig/, /gyg/, /geg/ and /gøg/, produced by four speakers, were video-recorded and presented to male and female subjects in auditory, visual and audiovisual mode and also in cross-dubbed audiovisual form with incongruent cues to vowel openness, roundedness, or both. With audiovisual stimuli, subjects perceived openness nearly always by ear. Most subjects perceived roundedness by eye rather than by ear although the auditory conditions were optimal and the sensation was an auditory one. This resulted in fused percepts such as when an acoustic /geg/ dubbed onto an optic /gyg/ was predominantly perceived as /gøg/. Since the acoustic cues to openness are prominent, while those to roundedness are less reliable, this lends support to the “information reliability hypothesis” in multisensory perception: The perception of a feature is dominated by the modality that provides the more reliable information. A mostly male minority relied less on vision. The between-gender difference was significant. Presence of lip rounding (a visibly marked feature) was noticed more easily than its absence. The influence of optic information was not fully explicable on the basis of the subjects’ success rates in lipreading compared with auditory perception. It was highest in stimuli produced by a speaker who smiled.

  • 2135.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The auditory and the visual percept evoked by the same audiovisual stimuli2007In: Proceedings of the international conference AVSP 2007: International Conference on Auditory-Visual Speech Processing, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In analyses and models of audiovisual speech perception, it has been common to consider three percepts: (1) the auditory percept evoked by acoustic stimuli, (2) the visual percept evoked by optic stimuli and (3) a common percept evoked by synchronous optic and acoustic stimuli. Here, it is shown that a vocal percept that is heard and influenced by vision has to be distinguished from a gestural percept that is seen and influenced by audition. In the two experiments reported, syllables distinguished solely by their vowels [i], [y] or [e] were presented to phonetically sophisticated subjects auditorily, visually and in incongruently cross-dubbed audiovisual form. In the first, the subjects rated roundedness, lip spreading, openness and backness of the vowels they heard - in the second of those they saw. The results confirmed that roundedness is mainly heard by eye while openness is heard by ear. Heard backness (retraction) varied with the acoustic and optic presence of roundedness. Seen openness was substantially influenced by acoustic cues, while there was no such influence on seen roundedness. The results are discussed in the context of theories and models.

  • 2136.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Öhrström, Niklas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The effect of incongruent visual cues on the heard quality of front vowels2007In: ICPhS XVI: 16th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences, 2007, p. 721-724Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish nonsense syllables distinguished solely by their vowels [i], [y] or [e], were presented to phonetically sophisticated subjects auditorily, visually and in cross-dubbed audiovisual form with

    incongruent cues to openness, roundedness or both. Acoustic [y] dubbed onto optic [i] or [e] was heard as a retracted [i], while acoustic [i] or [e] dubbed onto optic [y] were perceived as rounded and slightly fronted. This confirms the higher weight of the more reliable information and that intermodal integration occurs at the level of phonetically informative properties prior to any categorization.

  • 2137.
    Trolin, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    En tolk ska översätta, det är inte som att vara en lärare: Hur upplever skolledare, tolkar, lärare och elever tolkningen i specialskolan?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, a principal, two interpreters, one teacher and two focus groups with students were interviewed about their views on interpretation in Swedish Schools for the Deaf. Data from semi-structured interviews were analyzed according to a qualitative content analysis where similar responses are organized into themes. Three themes were chosen for results: 1. Information concerning the interpretation 2. The interpreter as a coordinator 3. The interpreter's role. Information about interpretation is what kind of information the students receive in order for interpretation to work. By coordination the study assumes Wadensjö's (1998) view of coordination as a regulation of the interpreted conversation. The interpreter's role is examined primarily according to Metzger’s (1999) reflection of whether the interpreter can be neutral. The results indicate that the principal and the teacher believe students receive a lot of information about interpretation, but the students claim not to be given information. The interpreters also believe that more information is necessary for an understanding of the interpretation process. The interpreter's role as neutral and as a coordinator is clear to both interpreters and students, but not when a teacher is interpreting. Interpreting in Schools for the Deaf is something natural that occurs frequently and experienced to work well for the most part when interpreters are translating.

  • 2138.
    Tryggvason, Marja-Terttu
    Stockholm University, The Stockholm Institute of Education, Department of Curriculum Studies and Communication .
    Language - mirror of culture: a case study on language socialization with Finns living in Finland and Sweden, and Swedes living in Sweden2002Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to compare language socialization, i.e. how to use language and how to socialize children to use language, in three cultural groups: Finns living in Finland and Sweden and Swedes living in Sweden. Since language socialization is assumed to result in a conversational style, this was studied from different angles. The participants consisted of 20 families in each group with a target child, aged 9-13 years. The empirical data was collected by video recording a mealtime conversation with each family. The video recordings were transcribed by using the CHAT system. The analyses of data demonstrated cultural variations in interaction between Finns and Swedes. The Swedes displayed a higher involvement style than the Finns in different ways. The Swedes produced more talk and they had shorter inter-turn pauses. They elicited talk using more varied syntactic forms which also were somewhat more implicit than the forms used by Finns. The Swedish preference for negotiating and even arguing in immediate responses to negative comments provided a further difference. The Finns spoke mainly about facts, and did not leave an opening for discussion. The groups also differed from one another by showing different social norms and values. The Swedes commented more on moral and ethic issues whereas the Finns commented more on table manners. On the whole, a comparison of two neighbor countries indicated different conversational styles which are assumed to arise from different socialization styles. The cross-cultural comparison of Finns in two communities displayed a strong SwedishFinnish conversational adherence to the Finnish style. The children showed conversational congruity with the parents in each group. The findings indicated that Finnish and Swedish children in meeting each other, for example, in a classroom might have different conversational abilities when contributing to conversations.

  • 2139.
    Turunen, Riina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    English Vocabulary Proficiency of Synonyms Applied to Semantic Fields in Swedish Upper Secondary School2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study investigates the lexical synonym proficiency within semantic fields, of Swedish upper secondary school students studying English 5, 6 and 7. English is a language with large lexica (Lightbown & Spada, 2013, p. 61). Therefore, it may be assumed that vocabulary proficiency is essential to master English. In this study, vocabulary knowledge is highlighted as a fundamental factor in second language acquisition. Since the English lexicon contains many synonyms, the suggestion of learning synonyms in semantic fields to enhance vocabulary proficiency is explored. Paradigmatic semantic field theory is utilized as the framework for this study, since it supports structuring the lexicon by paradigmatic semantic relations, in this case synonymy. This study investigates empirical data from vocabulary tests and questionnaires to achieve perception concerning lexical synonym proficiency within the semantic fields of physical world, sense perception, social relations, religion & beliefs and emotion. From the five selected semantic fields, students know most synonyms within social relations and least synonyms within religion & beliefs and emotion. The results from the questionnaires reveal that the students from all tested groups agree to some extent that learning new words in semantic fields is helpful. In this study, testing and learning synonyms in semantic fields is suggested to assess and enhance vocabulary proficiency of Swedish upper secondary school students.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

     

    Keywords

    Vocabulary Proficiency, Synonyms, Semantic Field, Paradigmatic Semantic Field Theory, Swedish Upper Secondary School, Second Language Acquisition.

  • 2140.
    Tuva, Janhans
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    "The Only Woman in the Room": Female leaders in the Swedish gaming industry on creating and performing communication.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Female leaders in the gaming industry are a minority, and previous research states that

    women mould their identity to the male-dominated industry. Leadership is commonly

    associated with masculinity, and the feminine style of communication is viewed as

    subordinate. The present study investigates how female leaders in a male-dominated

    industry use language and communicate with their colleagues. A semi structured

    interview, field observation, and questionnaire was utilized. The results indicate that

    female leaders in the gaming industry utilize several speech strategies to communicate;

    however, favouring the masculine style. Three interesting points derived from the

    interviews; fear of misinterpretations; humour usage limitations; and, communication

    restrictions.

  • 2141.
    Tönnes, Emma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    SCUM på svenska: En uppsats om Sara Stridsbergs översättning av SCUM Manifesto och hennes tillhörande förord2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay has three purposes, all relating to the Swedish translation of Valerie Solanas’s SCUM Manifesto by Sara Stridsberg. These are: to do a characterization of the translation, to investigate and present keywords in the translated text, and to describe the interplay between Stridsberg’s foreword and translation. Models for text analysis by Yvonne Lindqvist, Lennart Hellspong and Per Ledin are applied for investigating both the general translation, a selection of the keywords and the foreword. The results indicate that Stridsberg’s translation is a free one, where the focal points are style and diction, and also that the foreword is a supplement to the translation that invites the reader to different ways in which to read the manifesto. The discussion deals with both the question of what my results mean in relation to previously existing research, and what they mean according to André Lefeveres theories about ideology and poetics being the most important factors when making choices in tranlation. The conclusion of the essay is that Stridsberg translated the text mainly as a literary text as opposed to as a political brochure or pamphlet, and that the foreword presents Stridsberg’s perspectives on the text and helps the reader do a literary reading of the manifesto.

  • 2142.
    Törnqvist, Jennifer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Using Coh-Metrix to investigate changes in student texts: Comparing student writing from 1999 and 20092015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates Swedish students’ texts from two time periods: 1999 and 2009, in search of cohesive evidence indicating a change of quality influenced by the development of the Internet. The method used in this study is the application of a computational tool that provides measures of language and discourse called Coh-Metrix, which provides measures along several cohesion variables, including word concreteness, deep cohesion, verb cohesion and lexical diversity. The results showed that the student texts from 2009 had higher lexical diversity, suggesting a larger vocabulary, which is closely connected to text quality. The results also showed a higher use of deep cohesion in the texts from 2009, which suggest that the writers know how to use connectives. In contrast, the student texts from 1999 showed a higher use of verb cohesion, suggesting the texts being written in a more narrative style, which is often connected to younger students. By using Coh-Metrix to study evidence of cohesion, this study could contribute with relevant findings about how students’ written English has changed over a period of time. 

  • 2143.
    Uddén, Julia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Männel, Claudia
    Artifical Grammar Learning and its Neurobiology in Relation to Language Processing and Development2018In: The Oxford Handbook of Psycholinguistics / [ed] Shirley-Ann Rueschemeyer, M. Gareth Gaskell, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, 2, p. 755-783Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The artificial grammar learning (AGL) paradigm enables systematic investigation of the acquisition of linguistically relevant structures. It is a paradigm of interest for language processing research, interfacing with theoretical linguistics, and for comparative research on language acquisition and evolution. This chapter presents a key for understanding major variants of the paradigm. An unbiased summary of neuroimaging findings of AGL is presented, using meta-analytic methods, pointing to the crucial involvement of the bilateral frontal operculum and regions in the right lateral hemisphere. Against a background of robust posterior temporal cortex involvement in processing complex syntax, the evidence for involvement of the posterior temporal cortex in AGL is reviewed. Infant AGL studies testing for neural substrates are reviewed, covering the acquisition of adjacent and non-adjacent dependencies as well as algebraic rules. The language acquisition data suggest that comparisons of learnability of complex grammars performed with adults may now also be possible with children.

  • 2144.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Hörselkliniken, Karolinska universitetssjukhuset.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Eriksson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Cecilgård, Margareta
    Hägg, Åsa
    Tvåspråkighet - en jämförande studie2007In: Audio-Nytt, ISSN 0347-6308, Vol. 34, no 1-2, p. 12-14Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2145.
    Uhlén, Inger
    et al.
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset i Huddinge.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Hägg, Åsa
    Karolinska universitetssjukhuset i Huddinge.
    Eriksson, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Tvåspråkighet avseende tidig parallell tal- och teckenspråksutveckling hos barn med hörselskada eller dövhet.2005In: Logopednytt, no 6, p. 12-16Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2146.
    Ullenius, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    L2 and L1 repairs: Speech production in a comparative perspective2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    I investigated and compared L2 and L1 speech errors and repairs. A speech error may be defined as a linguistic item that is partially or wholly articulated but disagrees with the speaker’s desired communicative intention. A self-repair usually comprises a speech error, a self-interruption, and a repair. Repairs reveal information about the speech production process and in particular about the monitoring component. Errors and repairs were collected from 24 L1 and L2 English speakers who were audio recorded while describing patterns of multi-coloured interconnected nodes. The methodology is a modified version of Levelt’s (1982; 1983) methodology in his study of L1 Dutch speakers, and his results are incorporated in the analysis section for comparison purposes. The hypothesis that L2 speakers produce more repairs than L1 speakers was confirmed. The hypothesis that they produce more lexical errors and less appropriateness errors compared to L1 speakers was confirmed in relation to the English L1 group but not in relation to Levelt’s Dutch L1 group. The hypothesis that L2 speakers leave a larger proportion of their lexical errors unrepaired was not confirmed. The significant differences in numbers and types of errors between the L1 and the L2 data may be related to Paradis’s (2009) theory of declarative knowledge and procedural competence, which entails a higher demand on attentional resources during L2 production. Data may be influenced by methodological inconsistencies, and may also be too small to generalise upon. 

  • 2147.
    Umberto, Ansaldo
    Stockholm University.
    A typology of comparatives in Sinitic: grammaticalization, patterns and language contact1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 2148.
    Untracht Forsberg, Mikaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Identity Buliding in Social Media: The role of mediated language in the online fitness industry2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The domain of social media and social network sites is a comparatively new and extensive phenomenon in today’s society. Since their introduction, social network sites, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter have attracted millions of users and are distinguished as an element of immense time consumption in many people’s lives. This thesis investigates the use of Instagram, a social network site where users are able to share pictures, videos and texts with the community. The main focus of the study is the analysis of the relationship between language, gender, and identity building in this social network. Previous research has tackled many different aspects of social media related to gender and identity. However, the focus has mainly been on the general area of images and language devoid of finding specific connections between the authors behind the analyzed materials. Therefore, this study adds to previous studies by also integrating the focus of a specific field in the analyses, that of fitness as a lifestyle. To collect the data, a number of well-known English-speaking fitness bloggers were selected from different countries including Venezuela, Colombia, Germany, France, Australia, Puerto Rico and the USA. In order to analyze the data, multimodal discourse analysis is incorporated using the theory of systemic functional linguistics, developed by Halliday (1994), including ideational, interpersonal, and textual metafunctions. Conclusively, although certain posts appear to be ‘more masculine’ than others, there are many similarities in the use of language by both men and women. The language used in men and women’s posts does not differ vastly contingent on the gender of the bloggers.

  • 2149.
    Ursini, Francesco-Alessio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Another look at preposition stranding2015In: From clerks to corpora: essays on the English language yesterday and today: essays in honour of Nils-Lennart Johannesson / [ed] Philip Shaw, Britt Erman, Gunnel Melchers, Peter Sundkvist, Stockholm: Stockholm University Press, 2015, p. 319-343Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2150.
    Ursini, Francesco-Alessio
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Another look at spatial prepositions and the modification problem2013In: Iberia: An International Journal of Theoretical Linguistics, ISSN 1989-8525, E-ISSN 1989-8525, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 1-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this paper is to propose a unification of two strands of research within the semantics of spatial prepositions. The first strand focuses on the so-called modification problem, which can be stated as follows. Some, but not all spatial prepositions can be modified by measure phrases, such as ten meters (e.g. ten meters in front of the car). The second strand focuses on so-called prepositional aspect, in particular the fact that some but not all spatial prepositions can occur with the temporal adverbial phrase in one hour (e.g. to). A simple unified syntactic and semantic approach of aspect properties is offered, to account the data. This unified account is shown to explain and predict why telic/non-cumulative prepositions cannot combine with measure phrases (viz. *ten meters to the park). It is discussed whether prepositions that can combine with measure phrases, such as ten meters in front of the car and ten meters towards the car, have different lexical aspect properties, such as cumulativity and/or monotonicity. The answer is offered via a standard analysis of the distribution of these complex phrases with the temporal adverbs in one hour/for one hour. The consequences of the unified analysis are discussed in detail.

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