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  • 2151.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics, Institute of Latin American Studies.
    Iconicity, Subjectification and Dominion in Portuguese concessive clauses: Conceptual Differences between Concessive Clauses Introduced by Apesar de and Embora2012In: Compendium of Cognitive Linguistics Research: Volume 1 / [ed] Thomas Fuyin Li, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2012, p. 169-192Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper analyses Portuguese concessive constructions introduced by apesar de (‘in weight of’) and embora (from Old Portuguese em boa hora, ‘in good time’). From the standpoint of Cognitive Grammar, it is argued that the constructions display a prime example of iconicity. Thus, it is shown that iconic principles such as linear ordering, formal complexity and formal distance explain the reason why the apesar de construction prototypically designates a more direct concessive relation, while the embora construction designates a more complex relation to the main clause. Further, it is claimed that the complex relation between the embora construction and the main clause represents a prime example of subjectification. Finally, the analysis shows that the subjunctive mood in the embora construction is related to the notion of dominion.

  • 2152.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Impersonals with ser ('to be') and the dominion of effective control2014In: Language sciences (Oxford), ISSN 0388-0001, E-ISSN 1873-5746, Vol. 41, p. 143-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper analyses the semantic meaning of the subjunctive mood in complements of deontic and evaluative impersonal expressions. From the perspective of Cognitive Grammar, it is argued that the meaning of the subjunctive mood is to designate events that are located outside the conceptualizer’s dominion, whereas the impersonal expression puts focus on the relevant dominion, i.e. the dominion of effective control. Thus, the analysis shows that there is a conceptual relation between the conceptual content of the impersonal expression, on the one hand, and occurrence of the subjunctive mood, on the other hand. An additional analysis concerns the occurrence and the meaning of the inflected infinitive in contexts that imply a low degree of effective control.

  • 2153.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Instructions or dominion?: The meaning of the Spanish subjunctive mood2013In: Pragmatics & Cognition, ISSN 0929-0907, E-ISSN 1569-9943, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 359-379Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a highly interesting study, Dam and Dam-Jensen (2010) put forward the idea that the indicative and the subjunctive mood in Spanish complementizer phrases can be explained by the instructions they convey. The indicative instructs the addressee to locate the situation created by the verb relative to the situation of utterance, whereas the subjunctive instructs the addressee not to locate the situation described by the verb relative to the situation of utterance. Although this explanation is most appealing, the present paper argues that it also may create explanatory problems. Thus, it is claimed that the notion of dominion can explain the semantic meaning of the Spanish subjunctive mood. This verbal mood designates events that are located outside the conceptualizer’s dominion, either in terms of epistemic control or in terms of effective control.

  • 2154.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Mood choice in complements of Spanish comprender and Portuguese compreender (‘understand’) – distribution and meaning2017In: Languages in Contrast: International Journal for Contrastive Linguistics, ISSN 1387-6759, E-ISSN 1569-9897, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 279-302Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper analyzes the occurrence of indicative and subjunctive complements of the verbs comprender (Spanish) and compreender (Portuguese) in European Spanish and European Portuguese. A quantitative analysis based on 400 occurrences of the complements randomly selected from the newspaper genre shows that the indicative mood occurs more frequently than the subjunctive mood in both languages, although the subjunctive mood is more frequent in the Portuguese corpus than in the Spanish one. The analysis also shows that the occurrence of the subjunctive complement is highly restricted to contexts in which the subject of the main clause verb is either 1st person or 3rd person singular. From the theoretical perspective of Cognitive Grammar, the mood alternation is explained by the concept of dominion, i.e. the indicative complement designates an event that is located within the conceptualizer’s epistemic dominion, whereas the subjunctive complement designates an event that is located outside the conceptualizer’s dominion of effective control.

  • 2155.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    O modo verbal em expressões impessoais com o verbo ser2012In: Revue Romane, ISSN 0035-3906, E-ISSN 1600-0811, Vol. 47, no 1, p. 76-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The subjunctive mood has frequently been explained in terms of unreality, presupposition, non-assertion and the distinction between new and old information. Although these explanations offer a partial account of the semantics of this mood, it is shown that many occurrences of the subjunctive mood remain unexplained. This being so, the present paper aims at explaining the indicative and subjunctive mood in impersonal expressions with the verb ser from a Cognitive Grammar perspective of linguistic analysis. The analysis shows that the variation between the indicative and subjunctive mood in this grammatical context can be explained in terms of dominion and control. An extension of the analysis further shows that it may account for the occurrence of the subjunctive mood in other grammatical contexts.

  • 2156.
    Vesterinen, Rainer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    The Portuguese Future Subjunctive: A Dominion Analysis2017In: Review of Cognitive Linguistics, ISSN 1877-9751, E-ISSN 1877-976X, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 58-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the analysis of the Portuguese future subjunctive mood would contribute to a greater understanding of the general meaning of the subjunctive mood, this verb form has received considerably little attention compared to the other subjunctive forms, namely, the past and present subjunctives. The aim of the present paper is to fill this gap. Using the theoretical perspective of Cognitive Grammar, it will be shown that the Portuguese future subjunctive shares many characteristic features with other tenses of the subjunctive mood. In particular, the analysis shows that the Portuguese future subjunctive can be explained by the concept of dominion. Thus, the present paper provides a conceptually grounded and unified explanation for the meaning of the Portuguese subjunctive mood.

  • 2157.
    Vikner, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Accent preference - stereotypes or individual?: Swedish university students' attitudes towards British and American varieties of English.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the attitudes of Swedish university students towards the British and the American variety of English. Many studies have shown that perceptions of the varieties are changing as a result of increasing exposure of the language. The present study analyses responses from a questionnaire on speech samples of the two varieties and compares them to a similar study made ten years ago, to investigate possible differences over time and between respondents. The data shows a more positive attitude towards the American variety in general, although female respondents are more prone to conform to the results of previous studies and favour the British variety in aspects of prestige and status. The data also show that this method of research is very sensitive to individual characteristics of the speakers used in the investigation and stresses the difficulties in receiving a reliable general result.

  • 2158.
    Vikström, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    “[E]en strict offensive och defensive alliance” and “the danger this King and the 2 Queens were in”: News Reporting in Early Modern Swedish and English Diplomatic Correspondence2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study of early cross-linguistic diplomatic epistolography was first introduced in Brownlees' (2012) comparative study of Italian and English personal newsletters. Given the field’s young age and the strong need for both further research and the retrieving of new, untranscribed and unanalysed data, the present study set out to help move this field forward by examining, at both a textual superstructure and semantic macrostructural level, two sets of unchartered diplomatic newsletters which representatives at foreign courts despatched back to their respective home countries. The first set of original manuscripts comprises periodical newsletters which Baron Christer Bonde, the Swedish ambassador-extraordinary to England, wrote to Charles X, King of Sweden, between 1655-6, whereas the second set consists of letters sent in 1680 by John Robinson, England’s chargé d’affaires in Sweden, to Sir Leoline Jenkins, Secretary of State for the Northern Department of England. The analysis has shown that whereas the textual superstructures of the two diplomats’ correspondences remain similarly robust, the instantiating semantic macrostructures display not only stylistic and compositional, but also narrative, variation.

  • 2159.
    Vikström, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Tudor and Stuart England and the Significance of Adjectives: A Corpus Analysis of Adjectival Modification, Gender Perspectives and Mutual Information Regarding Titles of Social Rank Used in Tudor and Stuart England2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study has been to investigate how titles of social rank used in Tudor and Stuart England are modified by attributive adjectives in pre-adjacent position and the implications that become possible to observe. Using the Corpus of Early English Correspondence Sampler (CEECS) the present work set out to examine adjectival modification, gender perspectives and MI (Mutual Information) scores in order to gain a deeper understanding of how and why titles were modified in certain ways. The titles under scrutiny are Lord, Lady, Sir, Dame, Madam, Master and Mistress and these have been analysed following theories and frameworks pertaining to the scientific discipline of sociohistorical linguistics.

       The findings of the present study suggest that male titles were modified more frequently than, and differently from, female titles. The adjectives used as pre-modifiers, in turn, stem from different semantic domains which reveals differences in attitudes from the language producers towards the referents and in what traits are described regarding the holders of the titles. Additionally, a type/token ratio investigation reveals that the language producers were keener on using a more varied vocabulary when modifying female titles and less so when modifying male titles. The male terms proved to be used more formulaically than the female terms, as well. Lastly, an analysis of MI scores concludes that the most frequent collocations are not necessarily the most relevant ones.

       A discussion regarding similarities and differences to other studies is carried out, as well, which, further, is accompanied by suggestions for future research. 

  • 2160.
    Virta, Erkki
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities.
    Tvåspråkighet, tänkande och identitet: studier av finska barn i Sverige och Finland1994Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 2161.
    Visnjar, Mojca
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Negotiating Identity: A sociolinguistic analysis of adult English speaking immigrants in Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased transnational migration and globalisation, English has come to have a high status in Sweden, and is used in daily communication. The purpose of this research is to investigate how immigrants with English as their first language, negotiate their identity in Sweden, how they construct the need to (not) speak Swedish, and, finally, how their linguistic trajectories inform us about their linguistic ideologies and reported practices. Identity, constantly performed on the border between the self and the other, is greatly dependent on the language. Recent research in the field has focused mainly on immigrants moving to English speaking countries, while migrants with English as their first language have been somewhat neglected. This study investigates identity negotiation based on linguistic repertoire, Spracherleben, and linguistic ideologies, based on data collected through interviews. The results indicate that the fact that all informants prefer to, and mostly do use English, has a meaning beyond the language. It is namely in the language choice itself that the participants negotiate and demonstrate their identity. Language, therefore, is not the main issue the informants find problematic. Instead, it is the sense of alienation and the inability to convey their message in the way they feel would best represent who they are. 

  • 2162.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Adjective2013In: Wörterbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft online: cognitive grammar / [ed] Susanne Niemeier, Constanze Juchem-Grundmann, Doris Schönefeld, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2013, , p. 5Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2163.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Classifier2013In: Wörterbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (WSK) Online: Cognitive grammar / [ed] Susanne Niemeier, Constanze Juchem-Grundmann, Doris Schönefeld, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2164.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Comparison2013In: Wörterbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft / [ed] Christoph Demmerling et al., de Gruyter , 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2165.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Det fördomsfulla språket2001In: Språkbitar / [ed] Jane Nystedt, Stockholm: svenska förlaget , 2001Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2166.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Going towards the unknown: Expressions for dying in European languages2009In: Studies in language and cognition, Cambridge: Cambridge Scholars Publishing , 2009, p. 200-208Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper investigates expressions for dying in five European languages with an onomasiological approach. The data was collected from questionnaires, dictionaries, web resources and literature, both fiction and non-fiction. The results indicate that expressions for dying show great similarities across the languages. Expressions involve verbs with high agentivity. A location (where one will be after death) is often specified. Expressions often make use of trivial tasks, such as “put down the receiver”. Further, death is associated with lack of breath and to sleep. Here, the study supports earlier research. Finally, a seemingly paradoxical way of relating death to both cold and heat is explained by discussing specific conceptualizations, separating the body from the location of the body.

  • 2167.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Gradability2013In: Wörterbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (WSK) Online: Cognitive Grammar / [ed] Susanne Niemeier, Constanze Juchem-Grundmann, Doris Schönefeld, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2168.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Laddade ord2011In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2169.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism.
    Laddade ord2010In: Populär kommunikation, ISSN 1402-2567Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2170.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Participle2013In: Wörterbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (WSK) Online: Cognitive grammar / [ed] Susanne Niemeier, Constanze Juchem-Grundmann, Doris Schönefeld, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2171.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Superlative2013In: Wörterbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (WSK) Online: Cognitive grammar / [ed] Susanne Niemeier, Constanze Juchem-Grundmann, Doris Schönefeld, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2172.
    Vogel, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Scandinavian Languages.
    Tranströmer visar världen på nytt2014In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 11Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2173.
    Vogt-Svendsen, Marit
    et al.
    Institutt för spesialpedagogikk, Universitet i Oslo.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Point Buoys: The Weak Hand as a Point of Reference for Time and Space2007In: Simultaneity in Signed Languages: Form and Function, John Benjamins Publishing Company, Amsterdam/Philadelphia , 2007, p. 217-235Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In his account of the weak hand’s function as a marker at discourse level in American Sign Language, Liddell (2003) introduces the concept of “buoys”, which are signs that are “held in a stationary configuration as the strong hand continues producing signs” (p. 223). The types of buoys identified include list buoys, fragment buoys, the THEME buoy, and the POINTER buoy. In the present chapter we argue that Norwegian Sign Language and Swedish Sign Language have yet another category of buoys, point buoys. In contrast to other types of buoys a point buoy neither represents, nor points at, a prominent discourse entity. Instead, a point buoy represents a point in time or space in relation to which other signs are located and is used for visualizing temporal and spatial relations between entities.

  • 2174. Volodina, Elena
    et al.
    Grigonyté, GintaréStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.Pilán, IldikóNilsson Björkenstam, KristinaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.Borin, Lars
    Proceedings of the joint workshop on NLP for Computer Assisted Language Learning and NLP for Language Acquisition at SLTC: Umeå 16th November 20162016Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2175.
    Volodina, Elena
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg.
    Megyesi, Beata
    Uppsala University.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Granstedt, Lena
    Umeå University.
    Prentice, Julia
    University of Gothenburg.
    Reichenberg, Monica
    University of Gothenburg.
    Sundberg, Gunlög
    Stockholm University.
    A Friend in Need?: Research agenda for electronic Second Language infrastructure2016In: SLTC 2016: The Sixth Swedish Language Technology Conference (SLTC), SLTC , 2016, Vol. 6, 2016, Vol. 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, we describe the research and societal needs as well as ongoing efforts to shape Swedish as a Second Language (L2) infrastructure. Our aim is to develop an electronic research infrastructure that would stimulate empiric research into learners' language development by preparing data and developing language technology methods and algorithms that can successfully deal with deviations in the learner language.

  • 2176. Von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    et al.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Engström, Elisabet
    Uhlén, Inger
    Segmental and suprasegmental properties in nonword repetition - An explorative study of the associations with nonword decoding in children with normal hearing and children with bilateral cochlear implants2015In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 216-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored nonword repetition (NWR) and nonword decoding in normal-hearing (NH) children and in children with bilateral cochlear implants (CI). Participants were 11 children, with CI, 5:0-7:11 years (M = 6.5 years), and 11 NH children, individually age-matched to the children with CI. This study fills an important gap in research, since it thoroughly describes detailed aspects of NWR and nonword decoding and their possible associations. All children were assessed after having practiced with a computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach during four weeks. Results showed that NH children outperformed children with CI on the majority of aspects of NWR. The analysis of syllable number in NWR revealed that children with CI made more syllable omissions than did the NH children, and predominantly in prestressed positions. In addition, the consonant cluster analysis in NWR showed significantly more consonant omissions and substitutions in children with CI suggesting that reaching fine-grained levels of phonological processing was particularly difficult for these children. No significant difference was found for nonword-decoding accuracy between the groups, as measured by whole words correct and phonemes correct, but differences were observed regarding error patterns. In children with CI phoneme, deletions occurred significantly more often than in children with NH. The correlation analysis revealed that the ability to repeat consonant clusters in NWR had the strongest associations to nonword decoding in both groups. The absence of as frequent significant associations between NWR and nonword decoding in children with CI compared to children with NH suggest that these children partly use other decoding strategies to compensate for less precise phonological knowledge, for example, lexicalizations in nonword decoding, specifically, making a real word of a nonword.

  • 2177. von Mentzer, Cecilia Nakeva
    et al.
    Lyxell, Björn
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Dahlström, Örjan
    Lindgren, Magnus
    Ors, Marianne
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for children using cochlear implants or hearing aids2014In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 55, no 5, p. 448-455Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined computer-assisted reading intervention with a phonics approach for deaf and hard of hearing (DHH) children in Sweden using cochlear implants or hearing aids, or a combination of both. The study included 48 children, 5, 6 and 7years of age. Sixteen children with normal hearing (NH) served as a reference group. The first purpose of the study was to compare NH and DHH children's reading ability at pre and post-intervention. The second purpose was to investigate effects of the intervention. Cognitive and demographic factors were analyzed in relation to reading improvement. Results showed no statistically significant difference for reading ability at the group level, although NH children showed overall higher reading scores at both test points. Age comparisons revealed a statistically significant higher reading ability in the NH 7-year-olds compared to the DHH 7-year-olds. The intervention proved successful for word decoding accuracy, passage comprehension and as a reduction of nonword decoding errors in both NH and DHH children. Reading improvement was associated with complex working memory and phonological processing skills in NH children. Correspondent associations were observed with visual working memory and letter knowledge in the DHH children. Age was the only demographic factor that was significantly correlated with reading improvement. The results suggest that DHH children's beginning reading may be influenced by visual strategies that might explain the reading delay in the older children.

  • 2178.
    von Rettig, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Translating Expressive Prose using CAT Tools: An investigation into discerning the effects of segmentation in student translations2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Computer Assisted Translation tools continue to become more ubiquitous, but translation students do not necessarily receive much training in using them, and may therefore find translating when using them very different to translating freehand. An experiment was conducted where a three Master’s students were each asked to translate two texts; one in a CAT tool and the other freehand, and the resulting target texts were inspected to determine whether they may have been affected by the segmentation performed by the CAT tool compared to freehand translations of the same text, and if so, how. There were indications that in certain cases, such as very long sentences, the CAT tool may act as a visual aid, and also indications that certain students may be more prone to follow the segmentation provided by the CAT tool than others. However, the influence of personal translator style and translator’s habitus cannot be disregarded and as such the differences that are apparent cannot be entirely attributed to the CAT tool.

  • 2179.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    Foreword2012In: Coordinating Participation in Dialogue Interpreting / [ed] Claudio Baraldi, Laura Gavioli, Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2012, p. xi-xiiChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2180.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Tolkutbildning i Sverige2013In: Från ett språk till ett annat: Om översättning och tolkning, Stockholm: Norstedts Förlag, 2013, p. 71-77Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2181.
    Wadensjö, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.
    Englund Dimitrova, BirgittaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, The Institute for Interpretation and Translation Studies.Nilsson, Anna-LenaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    The Critical Link 4. Professionalisation of interpreting in the community.: Selected papers from the 4th International Conference on Interpreting in Legal, Health and Social Service Settings, Stockholm, Sweden, 20-23 May 20042007Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2182.
    Wahlström, Christina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Gender and indirectness: A corpus study investigating imperatives and tag questions2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There has been some controversy concerning the subject of gender and indirectness in discourse over the years. The goal of this essay is to investigate four major approaches to gender and indirectness for the purpose of distinguishing the most relevant one. The first three ways of approaching gender and indirectness, the theory of deficit, the theory of dominance and the theory of difference claim that there is a measurable difference between genders but they cannot concur on why such a difference exists. The theory of deficit and the theory dominance claim that the difference is socially structured, while the theory of difference claims it is because of inherent nature. The fourth approach, the dynamic/social constructionist approach, does not agree with previous approaches and claims instead that other factors are more important when analyzing why some people are more indirect than others, for example age, class and ethnicity. This essay investigates the topic of indirectness by studying tag questions and imperatives and the data used in this essay was collected from the British National Corpus. The search queries used in the British National Corpus were please and come for imperatives and hasn’t and wasn’t for tag questions. The result of this essay is consistent with the results from the fourth approach, the theory of dynamic/social constructionist as no measurable difference could be found between the genders.

  • 2183.
    Wahlström, Sofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Feminism and Anti-Feminism in Harmony?: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Postfeminism in Women's Magazines2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates postfeminist discourses in women’s magazines with the use of

    Fairclough’s (2014) critical discourse analysis (CDA). Additionally, it presents

    consumers’ perceptions of women’s magazines in order to explore how women’s

    magazines might influence readers’ constructions of identity. Postfeminism is mainly

    defined by Gill (2007, 2009) and McRobbie (2004) as an idea of feminism and antifeminism

    combined with the use of neoliberal views. Previous research conducted

    between 1990 and 2009 has stated that women’s magazines follow a postfeminist

    discourse and therefore give a contradictory message to their readers, emphasising the

    importance of individuality and empowerment as well as promoting a traditional

    feminine image. The magazines analysed in this essay were the January 2016 issue of

    Elle Magazine US and the February 2016 issue of Elle Magazine UK. The magazines

    follow a postfeminist discourse, and it is constructed with the use of wording and

    modality. To complement the CDA, an interview with a target group of women’s

    magazine readers was conducted. Findings indicate that the magazines both largely

    follow a postfeminist discourse, constructed through the use of rhetorical features such

    as wording and modality, and readers believe magazines affect their identity

    construction negatively. The article is concluded with a discussion on what the aim of a

    postfeminist discourse is.

  • 2184.
    Walldoff, Amanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Asian, Middle Eastern and Turkish Studies.
    Arabic in Home Language Instruction: Language Acquisition in a Fuzzy Linguistic Situation2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the command 8th-graders in Arabic home language instruction have of written Modern Standard Arabic and if the type of instruction they have received and/or contact with written Arabic affect their performance. Background chapters discuss variables connected to the Arabic language (diglossia, research on reading and writing in Arabic) and variables connected to HLI in Sweden (set-up, steering documents). 

    The testing material consisted of a translation test from Swedish to Arabic combined with a questionnaire that addressed various factors of relevance to language acquisition. 

    The translations were analysed on three levels: (1) handwriting, (2) spelling and (3) morphosyntax. The main result of the analysis was that the participants were highly heterogeneous: some participants produced incomplete translations in handwriting that was barely legible, whereas others had good results for all measures. Many of the participants relied on a phonological strategy for spelling. For example, even short, high-frequency words such as personal pronouns and prepositions had not been spelled correctly. 

    The results for handwriting, spelling and morphosyntax were checked against the variables (1) years of HLI, (2) extra instruction in Arabic outside of HLI and (3) contact with written Arabic in the free time. The results for the effect of participation in HLI were inconclusive. However, many, but not all, of the participants with good results on the translation test had received extra instruction in Arabic, either in Sweden or prior to coming to Sweden. Reading Arabic in the free time was not in all cases connected to good results, but not reading Arabic in the free time was in most cases connected to a low command of written Arabic. Regarding these results, it is suggested that additional factors (motivation, support from the family, etc.) could be at play. 

    Previous research has addressed the question of heterogeneity in HLI classes. The findings of this thesis illustrate how great the heterogeneity can in fact be, and thus have implications for the set-up of Arabic HLI in Sweden.

  • 2185.
    Wallermo, Yvonne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Reading Success and Vocabulary Knowledge among advanced professionals with English as their second language (L2): A comparative study of Russian and Swedish medical professionals in Sweden2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    It is vital you have advanced knowledge in English as a second language (L2) if you work and/or research as a medical specialist at the Swedish academic university hospitals in Sweden. Otherwise it will be impossible to communicate within your area of interest, either orally or in writing, or even by means of reading, not only internationally but also between co-workers. All communication between academic professionals from different countries as well as textbooks, articles, instructions, lectures and exchange of information are in English.

    Interviews and tests for this essay were made with advanced medical researchers and specialists at Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PURPOSE

    The aim of this research is to find out how closely estimated vocabulary size is related to successful reading.

    There has not been much research on advanced academic intellectuals when it comes to advanced reading comprehension. Some studies on children and younger adults have shown that reading proficiency is based on the size of their vocabulary, the bigger vocabulary they have the higher their reading proficiency, while other studies have shown that the more they read the more they understand and automatically their vocabulary increases. Are these the only reasons for their reading proficiency, or are there other aspects involved? Do their vocabulary sizes affect their understanding when they read? Or what other reasons help reading and comprehending the text?

    In comparing readers’ understanding of different domain-specific texts, it can be hypothesized that there are differences in comprehension between general and more specialized texts. It can also be thought that it is easier for Swedes to read and comprehend English as the same alphabet is used in English and Swedish, than for Russians, who are used to a different language structure with other typographical factors.

    RESEARCH ON READING

    Factors that Can Affect Reading Success

    - The Linguistic Threshold Hypothesis

    - Background knowledge

    - Prior knowledge

    - Interest and attitude

    General Questions

    1. How important is a L2 reader’s vocabulary size to his/her understanding of a text? Could other factors be more important?

    2. Is it possible for professionals with poor linguistic proficiency in English to read and understand domain specific texts due to their expert knowledge?

    3. Is professionals’ receptive proficiency similar within their domain specific areas and in general areas?

    4. Is there an effect of having lived in an English-speaking country on reading comprehension or vocabulary size?

    Hypothesis

    1. The L1 typology would make a difference.

    2. The Swedes would have a better vocabulary and a better general comprehension of general English, and thereby a better understanding of the domain-specific texts as well.

    METHOD

    Professionals often have English as their L2. They are assumed to read English texts as efficiently as they read texts in their L1. In this essay the focus was set on their reading ability and their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary was assessed as academic or infrequent, and reading was assessed by means of tests of word recognition, single sentence comprehension, evaluation of logical arguments based on two sentence recognitions, and reading domain-specific, medical articles as well as general articles.

    Data was collected from medical researchers and specialists during this empirical research. The specialists were presumed to read English journal articles on a daily basis in their area of expertise, medicine, and use English as their working language. Seven Russians and seven Swedes were interviewed between February and April 2007. They had chosen the date, time and place for their interviews.

    The testing took about 90 minutes and was divided into

    MATERIAL

    Each subject was asked to fill out a questionnaire about his/her educational and social background. This data could not be used in this essay, but would be interesting to use for research about the impact of social background on the proficiency of English as a L2.

    Then they were asked to continue with paper diagnostic tests, the Proficiency Test, testing their syntax skills and vocabulary size. The Proficiency Test is a part of DIALANG, a self-assessment test developed by the Project of the European Commission for use on the Internet, and it was used along with a test of academic vocabulary, and a test of infrequent vocabulary, divided into synonyms and antonyms.

    The computerized test, the SuperLab test, was divided into two sections. For the first section, Reading Proficiency, articles within the medical domain as well as various general domains were read and then retold orally. The retold stories were taped and the language used when retelling the story, L1 or L2, was decided by the subject, so they would feel comfortable when speaking. These interviews were transcribed and analyzed. The second part of the computerized sub skills, Reading Comprehension, consisted of word recognition and reading comprehension of one and more sentences.

    ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

    The Proficiency Test

    The Proficiency test tested vocabulary knowledge. Overall most of the subjects thought Part 2 Synonyms and Part 3 Antonyms were the most difficult parts of the whole test. Although they knew other languages, it was not possible to use that knowledge in this part of the test. One Swede thought the Part 3 Antonyms was the most difficult. Some words were recognised from earlier, from looking them up in dictionaries several times and then forgetting them again. Sometimes no alternative seemed to be correct. Another Swede commented that it was not obvious which alternative was the correct answer. Sometimes the synonym or antonym could be explained in his own words, but not with any of the alternatives. A third Swede commented that in reading a regular text you do not have to know every single word to get coherence.

    The SuperLab Test

    The computerized reading test, the SuperLab test, was to show reading comprehension of texts, sentences and word recognition. Since sentence comprehension did not correlate well with vocabulary size here, these results suggest that the size of the vocabulary above a certain level does not have an immediate impact on the logical judgement or comprehension of sentences At the same time it has to be remembered that the subjects are advanced academic professionals, and might not only use their vocabulary knowledge and size in a L2 when it comes to making conclusions and decisions.

    Reading Comprehension - Analysis

    The Reading Comprehension part of the test consisted of six different texts: three general texts and three medical texts. For each text there were a number of propositions that had to be correctly recalled to get points. The first text was on paper and the last five read and timed on the computer. It has to be kept in mind that the text read on paper, Text 1, presented the subjects with an opportunity to read as they usually do. Most of them seemed to read the title, skimmed the text and then read and reread the interesting or missed parts several times, until the message was clear. When the other five texts were read on the computer screen on the other hand, only one sentence was shown at a time, and disappeared when the next sentence was keyed for. This computerized way of reading the text forced the reader to remember what was read after each sentence, without knowing what came next. So, the ordinary way of reading a text was changed.

    Reading Comprehension - Results

    A conclusion of all propositions indicated that the Russians as a group had higher results than the Swedes. When looking at the individual answers a pattern can be shown. The Swedes on an average were a more homogenous group with a smaller span between the top result and the lowest. The Russians were a more heterogeneous group.

    In this essay the focus has been on the reading quality. The results showed that there are other circumstances than simple language and reading proficiency to be aware of. There is a difference in their background knowledge. How much of their ‘recall’ do they actually remember from the text and how much do they know from beforehand?

    For example, the Reading Comprehension Test with the retelling of the five texts read in an unnatural way did not only test how much the subjects understood and recalled, but also how much they remembered. While reading the texts on the computer, one sentence at a time, the subjects had to focus on the meaning of each sentence in the text, memorize it and then read the next sentence. For the three first texts there was no demand for any previous knowledge to be able to read and understand the words and sentences separately. The subjects did not use any dictionaries, which they seldom do in their ordinary, everyday work either.

    The results also show that interest and background knowledge were important factors to be able to understand the whole contents of each text. The meaning of the text was more easily understood the more background knowledge the subjects had.

    DISCUSSION

    Hypothesis 1 - The L1 typology would make a difference.

    The tests did not show that the language background made a difference. The Russians lived in Sweden and spoke Russian among themselves but English with everybody else. They were well-educated academics, not only proficient in English within their own area, medical texts, but also very good at understanding general texts. When it came to reading comprehension the background knowledge seemed to be more important than the vocabulary skills.

    Hypothesis 2 - The Swedes would have a better vocabulary and a better general comprehension of general English, and thereby a better understanding of the domain-specific texts as well.

    It was not indicated at any time during the research for this essay that the Swedes had a better vocabulary and thereby would understand both general and domain-specific texts better. The understanding and comprehension seemed to be more based on attitude and background knowledge of the different texts.

    Tsui and Fullilove (1998) found in their studies that it was extremely difficult to process information which contradicted what they already knew. This particularly showed during this essay, with some of the Russians questioning and discussing the contents of the medical texts, exactly as Steffensen and Joag-Dev (1979) found in their study. The authors stated that readers seemed to dismiss information they found unimportant, add information they thought should be there, and focus on what they found important, all based on their world view and their opinion.

    Most of the Russians seemed to be more involved and questioning than the Swedes in this investigation. This study showed that the more background knowledge the subjects had, the more they understood the texts.

    During the testing he Swedes made a point of the difficulties of reading the texts on the computers, which did not agree with their reading strategies. These Swedes seemed to attempt to use more normal strategies when reading the texts on the computer screen than the Russians. The Russians appeared to read more slowly overall. Slow readers usually had difficulties putting things together towards the end of sentences and paragraphs. Probably the Russians used more background information than English reading proficiency and understanding when doing the test.

    Vocabulary Size and Reading Success

    During the work with this essay it was not proven that vocabulary size was directly linked to reading proficiency. The readers tested were advanced academic professionals, and might not only use their vocabulary but also their background knowledge when understanding the content of the texts used. The Russians were not a random selection, because those who participated were more confident with their English knowledge than those that did not participate.

    CONCLUSION

    There were of course some limitations during this study. One was fatigue among the subjects due to their hectic working environment and the long duration of the tests. Another issue was that most of the texts were on the screen, to be read sentence by sentence, and hence unnaturally read.

    Out of the results of these tests the conclusion could be drawn that even if you have a larger vocabulary, it would not necessarily mean you understand more.

    After having worked with the material for this essay and interviewing the scientists, brought up in an academic environment, I came to the conclusion that vocabulary knowledge and reading skills shown during a test did not show everything. Speed and accuracy of reading often correlate, but that was not the case in this study. Low proficiency did not seem to make an impact on the understanding of the text. The background knowledge was very important, but at the same time the attitude and interest of the subjects during the testing also had an enormous impact on their results.

    References

    Steffensen, M.S., Joag-Dev, C. and Anderson, R.C. 1979. A cross-cultural perspective on reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 1 (pp. 10-29).

    Tsui, A.B.M. and Fullilove, J. 1998 Bottom-up or top-down processing as a discriminator of L2 listening performance. Ap

  • 2186.
    Wallin Bååth, Sarah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Who is Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?: A corpus-based study on the representation of wolves in metaphors in the English language2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As described by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), conceptual metaphors play a large part in how we understand and perceive the world we live in. Very often human traits are described using animal metaphors (Lawrence, 1993). To gain a better understanding, previous research on animal metaphors was examined and summarised. Few animals have been subject to such fierce public opinion as the wolf. Thus, the main focus of this essay has been to investigate whether such opinions are mirrored in the way that wolves are represented in metaphors.To get a proper overview of the occurrences and representations of wolves in metaphors in the English language of modern times, a corpus search was conducted in the COCA corpus (Davies, 2008-). The results from that search were then classified using the MIPVU-method (Steen et al., 2010) and further analysed to determine normative bias. The results were unanimous with previous research on the subject and in agreement with other studies. The wolf is exclusively used as a representative for less flattering human traits, both regarding physique and personality. It is plausible to conclude that the perception of the wolf as expressed in metaphors are similar to those in legends, fairy tales and stories from times long ago. The continuous usage of negative images associated with wolves maintains the image of the animal as danger and something to be feared.

  • 2187.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelning för teckenspråk.
    Polysyntetiska tecken i svenska teckenspråket1994Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 2188.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Polysynthetic signs in Swedish Sign Language1996Book (Other academic)
  • 2189.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Two kinds of productive signs in Swedish Sign Language: Polysynthetic signs and size and shape specifying signs2000In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 237-256Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2190.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Lule, Dorothy
    Kyambogo University, Kampala.
    Transmission of Sign Languages in Africa2010In: Sign Languages - Cambridge Language Surveys / [ed] Diane Brentari, Cambridge University Press , 2010, p. 113-130Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2191.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Lule, Dorothy
    Kyambogo University.
    Lutalo, Sam
    Kyambogo University.
    Busingye, Bonny
    Kyambogo University.
    Uganda Sign Language Dictionary2006Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2192.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Annoteringskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter2014Report (Other academic)
  • 2193.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Annoteringskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter2015Report (Other academic)
  • 2194.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Annoteringskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter: Version 7 (januari 2018)2018Report (Other academic)
  • 2195.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Swedish sign language corpus2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2196.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transkriptionskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter2009Other (Other academic)
  • 2197.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transcription guide lines for Swedish Sign Language discourse. (Version 1)2010Other (Other academic)
  • 2198.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transkriptionskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter. (Version 2).2010Other (Other academic)
  • 2199.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transkriptionskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter. (Version 3).2011Other (Other academic)
  • 2200.
    Wallin, Lars
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Transkriptionskonventioner för teckenspråkstexter. (Version 4).2012Other (Other academic)
41424344454647 2151 - 2200 of 2308
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