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  • 2151.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Sjons, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Tengstrand, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Variationsmängder i barnriktat tal2013In: XIII Nordiska Barnspråkssymposiet - 2013 Stockholms universitet, Sverige, 8-9 november 2013, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Barnriktat tal har en rad unika egenskaper som alla tycks härröra från föräldrarnas (omedvetna) önskan att som mycket som möjligt underlätta språkinlärningen för barnet. En av dessa egenskaper hos barnriktat tal är dess repetitivitet, till exempel i successiva yttranden som följande:

    Var kan Kucka vara då?

    Var är Kucka?

    Var är kaninen som heter Kucka?

    I det här papperet studerar vi den lokala repetitiviteten i barnriktat tal, som i litteraturen brukar kallas variationsmängder. Dessa är intressanta genom att de visar de ord och konstruktioner som föräldrarna vid varje tillfälle tycks koncentrera sig på att lära sina barn.

    Ett teoretiskt ramverk med bäring på detta är konstruktionsgrammatik, som antar att konstruktioner är inlärningsbara eftersom a) de utgör konventionaliserade form–betydelsepar som b) lärs in gradvis, alltifrån holofraser över schematiska uttryck ("item-based constructions", Tomasello 2003) till vuxenspråkets fullt abstraherbara konstruktioner. Genom att vi har longitudinella data så kan vi fånga i vad mån de successiva konstruktionerna anpassas enligt detta mönster allteftersom barnet blir äldre.

    Flera försök till formalisering av begreppet variationsmängd har föreslagits, till exempel Küntay och Slobin (1996), Brodsky et al. (2007) och Onnis et al. (2008). Vanliga krav på en variationsmängd är att den a) utgör successiva yttranden med upp till två mellanliggande yttranden; b) att minst två av de ingående orden upprepas; och c) att yttrandenas intention är konstant. Vi experimenterar med olika värden på a) och använder stället för b) en strängmatchningsmetod som även tar hänsyn till yttrandelängden.

    I papperet redovisar vi utfallet av konstruktionstyper baserat på data från en longitudinell korpus med barnriktat tal för tretton barn i åldrar mellan 3 och 33 månader, fördelade på 58 sessioner.

  • 2152.
    Wirén, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Modelling the Informativeness of Non-Verbal Cues in Parent–Child Interaction2017In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017), Stockholm: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 2203-2207, article id 1143Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Non-verbal cues from speakers, such as eye gaze and hand positions, play an important role in word learning. This is consistent with the notion that for meaning to be reconstructed, acoustic patterns need to be linked to time-synchronous patterns from at least one other modality. In previous studies of a multimodally annotated corpus of parent–child interaction, we have shown that parents interacting with infants at the early word-learning stage (7–9 months) display a large amount of time-synchronous patterns, but that this behaviour tails off with increasing age of the children. Furthermore, we have attempted to quantify the informativeness of the different nonverbal cues, that is, to what extent they actually help to discriminate between different possible referents, and how critical the timing of the cues is. The purpose of this paper is to generalise our earlier model by quantifying informativeness resulting from non-verbal cues occurring both before and after their associated verbal references.

  • 2153.
    Wlodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory Constraints in Verbal and Non-verbal Communication2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the present paper we address the old question of respiratory planning in speech production. We recast the problem in terms of speakers' communicative goals and propose that speakers try to minimize respiratory effort in line with the H&H theory. We analyze respiratory cycles coinciding with no speech (i.e., silence), short verbal feedback expressions (SFE's) as well as longer vocalizations in terms of parameters of the respiratory cycle and find little evidence for respiratory planning in feedback production. We also investigate timing of speech and SFEs in the exhalation and contrast it with nods. We find that while speech is strongly tied to the exhalation onset, SFEs are distributed much more uniformly throughout the exhalation and are often produced on residual air. Given that nods, which do not have any respiratory constraints, tend to be more frequent toward the end of an exhalation, we propose a mechanism whereby respiratory patterns are determined by the trade-off between speakers' communicative goals and respiratory constraints.

  • 2154.
    Wojtysiak, Zofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    Bara ett nagellack eller en iögonfallande kristallyta med djupa, klassiska färger?: Om översättning från svenska till polska av reklamtexter för Oriflame kosmetikaprodukter.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis has been to find out how Oriflame’s Swedish advertising texts differ from their Polish translations and if the potential differences depend on a cultural adaption to the target culture. Furthermore, an image analysis was conducted in order to study the interaction between text and image as well as how this relation is likely to influence the customers. Even though the quantitative analysis has shown that the source and target texts do not differ much, they are contrastive when it comes to their content and the gender roles which are present in the analyzed texts.

  • 2155.
    Wysocka, Patrycja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The study abroad experience: Self-reflecting on the development of intercultural competence and identity after one semester abroad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Study abroad programmes have become popular among students around the world nowadays. Thanks to the participation in the exchange, students are able to improve their intercultural skills, which may be beneficial for them in their future careers. This study investigates students’ development of intercultural competence and identity after spending one semester at the university in Hong Kong. Its main focus is to analyse how study abroad programmes impact students’ abilities in intercultural communication by analysing their self-reflections towards their re-invented identities as well as the overall experience of living and studying in a different country. The whole study is also based on the concept of linguistic repertoire, which is here being updated in the context of globalisation. In order to collect the data, four participants from the Netherlands, Germany and Canada were asked to fill in initial contact forms by providing information about one specific intercultural encounter that they have experienced during the study abroad period. This information then acted as the background knowledge used in the following interviews with each participant, where their opinions have been further developed in more detail. The results show that the participants further developed their skills in intercultural competence as well as enhanced their already interculturally-oriented identities. As for the impact on their linguistic repertoires, the interesting finding shows that the linguistic repertoires of the participants with English as a second language might have been affected slightly more than those of the native speakers. In the end, these results agree with the previous research on the development of intercultural skills after the study abroad period and highlight the importance of participating in study abroad programmes as students become prepared for their future careers in the highly globalised world.

  • 2156.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknown categories within and across languages2014In: Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknowncategories within and across languages: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Benedikt Smrecsanyi & Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 355-393Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces three algorithms for the extraction of lexical and grammatical markers in parallel texts. The starting point for all of them is that trigger distributions are used as semantic cues. Automatic processing chains apply the same procedures (so-called “procedural universals”) to directly comparable texts of all languages. The domain-internal distribution of markers is usually highly diverse cross-linguistically due to polymorphy (there are many markers instantiating the same domain, but which also expressother meanings at the same time). Polymorphy structures a domain into subdomains in cross-linguistically different ways, and this structure canbe used for the aggregation of markers into cross-linguistically recurrent marker types and for assessing the domain-specific similarity relationships between languages.

  • 2157.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Co-compounds2015In: Word-formation: an international handbook of the languages of Europe / [ed] Müller, Peter O., Ohnheiser, Ingeborg, Olsen, Susan, Rainer, Franz, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 707-727Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2158. Wälchli, Bernhard
    Co-compounds and natural coordination2003Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 2159.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammaticalization clines in space: Zooming in on synchronic traces of diffusion processes2012In: Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact / [ed] Wiemer, Björn & Wälchli, Bernhard & Hansen, Björn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 233-272Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2160.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Indirect measurement in morphological typology2012In: Methods in Contemporary Linguistics / [ed] Ender, Andrea & Leemann, Adrian & Wälchli, Bernhard, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 69-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2161.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Morphosemantics, constructions, algorithmic typology and parallel texts2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike morphology (the internal formal structure of words) and semantics (the study of the meaning of words and sentences), morphosemantics is concerned with the link between marker and meaning. Traditional approaches to morphosemantics such as semiotics and construction grammar argue that the relationship between image acoustique and concept is symbolic. This works well if the links are known (in the “proficiency mode”). In this talk I argue that there is a statistical alternative which is particularly useful if the links are not known (in the “discovery mode”). Meanings and markers form collocations in texts which can be measured by means of collocation measures. However, there is a considerable non-isomorphism between marker and meaning. As is well known a marker can have many different meanings (polysemy). Somewhat less well known is that a meaning is often expressed by many different markers, both paradigmatically and syntagmatically (polymorphy).

            To make meanings and markers commensurable, they must be converted into units of the same kind. This same kind is the set of contexts in a text or corpus where a marker or meaning occurs. If the distribution of a meaning in a corpus is known, its corresponding marker complex can be determined which consists of a paradigmatically and syntagmatically ordered set of simple markers. The markers considered here are surface markers of two types: word forms and morphs (continuous character strings within word forms). More abstract marker types such as lexemes, grammatical categories and word classes might often be better markers than surface markers, but they are not available in the discovery mode.

            Marker complexes are a simple construction type. A procedural approach to construction grammar is adopted where marker complexes are viewed as an intermediate stage in a processing chain of increasingly more complex construction types from simple markers via marker complexes to syntactic constructions. Marker complexes have the advantage that they can be extracted automatically from massively parallel texts, i.e. translations of the same text into many languages, such as the New Testament used here. In parallel texts the same meanings (with certain restrictions) are expressed across different languages. This means that a functional domain can be defined as a set of contexts where a certain meaning occurs.

            The same procedure is applied to cross-linguistically similar material and the procedure applied to cross-linguistic data is fully explicit and therefore replicable. It can be implemented in a computer program and run without the intervention of a typologist (algorithmic typology). The underlying idea is that the procedure of extraction is invariant (procedural universal) whereas the extracted structures can be highly variable depending on the texts and languages to which they are applied.

            The talk considers to what extent surface markers are sufficient as input for the identification of constructions in a range of grammatical and lexical domains in a world-wide convenience sample of somewhat more than 50 languages. One of the domains considered in more detail is comparison of inequality. Comparison of inequality is expressed in most languages of the sample by an at least bipartite marker complex consisting of the parts standard marker (‘than’) and predicate intensifier (‘more’, ‘-er’). It will be argued here that both of them are intrinsic parts of the comparative construction. These findings are not fully in accordance with Leon Stassen’s typology of comparison – a classical study in functional domain typology – which is based exclusively on the encoding of the standard NP. Other domains considered in the talk include negation, ‘want’, future, and predicative possession.

  • 2162.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Non-specific, specific and obscured perception verbs in Baltic languages2016In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 7, p. 53-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunistic perception verbs (‘see’, ‘hear’, as opposed to explorative perception verbs, ‘look’, ‘listen’) express the opportunity for perception and are condition-oriented (exposure, i.e. the perceiver’s exposure to a percept), not participant-oriented, in their aspectual structure. The Baltic languages, as other languages in Central, East, and Northern Europe, have specific perception verbs, which are a subtype of opportunistic perception verbs, for the expression of restricted exposure. The lexical character of specificity in Baltic—unlike Russian where it is integrated into a rigid grammatical aspect system—is more favorable for uncovering the underlying semantic factors of specificity, which differ across perceptual systems. Restrictedness of exposure is a scale rather than a dichotomy, and cross-linguistic comparison in parallel texts reveals that specificity is a scale with much variation as to where the borderline between specific and non-specific perception verbs is drawn in the languages of the area. Obscured perception verbs, which emphasize difficulty in discrimination, are another set of condition-oriented perception verbs in Baltic and Russian and are closely related to specific verbs synchronically and diachronically.

    This paper describes non-specific, specific, and obscured perception verbs in the Baltic languages and attempts to capture their variability within six dimensions (morphology, area, diachrony, specificity, modality, obscured verbs). A precondition for this endeavor is a critique of earlier approaches to the semantics of perception verbs. Nine major biases are identified (nominalism, physiology, discrete features, vision, paradigmatic modelling, aspectual event types, dual nature models, participant orientation, and viewing activity as control). In developing an alternative, the approach greatly profits from Gibson’s ecological psychology and Rock’s theory of indirect perception. 

  • 2163.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The dynamicity of stative resultatives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2164.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The incomplete story of feminine gender loss in Northwestern Latvian dialects2017In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 8, p. 143-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to show that Northwestern Latvian dialects (also called Tamian) are insufficiently characterized by placing them on a simple linear hierarchy of feminine gender loss, which is how they are traditionally approached in Latvian dialectology. While Lithuanian and Central and High Latvian dialects all have very similar and fairly canonical gender systems, various Northwestern Latvian dialects display a wealth of underexplored non-canonical gender properties, such as the reactivated topic marker gender relic, honorific feminine gender, pronominal adjectives behaving differently from attributive adjectives, the noun ‘boy’ turning into a hybrid feminine noun, and a third controller gender restricted to some diminutives. Feminine gender loss is traditionally explained by Livonian (Finnic) substrate. It is shown in this paper that the developments in NW Latvian have multiple causes, one of them being apocope (loss of short vowels infinal syllables), a common feature of NW Latvian dialects which prompted many developments making NW Latvian different from Central Latvian dialects and which is also ultimately due to language contact. Apocope and other developments made the system more complex. The non-canonical gender properties described in this paper are the effect of subsequent developments reducing system complexity again.

  • 2165.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The rise of gender in Nalca (Mek, Tanah Papua): The drift towards the canonical gender attractor2018In: Non-canonical gender systems / [ed] Sebastian Fedden, Jenny Audring, Greville G. Corbett, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 68-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2166.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ender, Andrea
    Wörter2013In: Sprachwissenschaft: Grammatik – Interaktion – Kognition / [ed] Peter Auer, Stuttgart: Verlag J. B. Metzler, 2013, p. 91-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 2167.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Exploring the cross-linguistic relationship between resultative constructions and participles2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 2168.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
    Introduction: The text-feature-aggregation pipeline in variation studies2014In: Aggregating Dialectology, Typology, and Register Analysis: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Benedikt Szmrecsanyi & Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 1-25Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2169.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sölling, Arnd
    The encoding of motion events: Building typology bottom-up from text data in many languages2013In: Variation and Change in the Encoding of Motion Events / [ed] Juliana Goschler & Anatol Stefanowitsch, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 77-113Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates eleven fundamental questions of motion event encoding from a massively cross-linguistic (i.e. typological) perspective in a bottom-up approach in parallel and original texts making use of quantitative and qualitative methods and various visualization methods. It is found that motion events can be encoded by lexical and grammatical means, by words and morphemes and tend to be expressed by constructions rather than simple markers (distributional spatial semantics). It is argued that local decomposition is more appropriate to address the semantics of motion events than global decomposition and that motion event typology consists of continuous rather than discrete variables. In motion event typology there are many features with only weak correlations (high heterogeneity). Both universal and culture-dependent aspects of motion event encoding are identified and areal trends in motion event typology are addressed (notably the deviant behavior of the North American continent).

  • 2170.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    von Waldenfels, Ruprecht
    University of Bern.
    Measuring morphosemantic language distance in parallel texts2013In: Approaches to Measuring Linguistic Differences / [ed] Lars Borin & Anju Saxena, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013, p. 475-506Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 2171.
    Wåghäll Nivre, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Kaute, BrigitteStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.Andersson, BoUppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.Landén, BarbroStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.Stoeva-Holm, DessislavaUppsala universitet, Institutionen för moderna språk.
    Begegnungen: Das VIII. Nordisch-Baltische Germanistentreffen in Sigtuna vom 11. bis zum 13.6.20092011Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 2172.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Capturing respiratory sounds with throat microphones2017In: Nordic Prosody: Proceedings of the XIIth Conference, Trondheim 2016 / [ed] Eggesbø Abrahamsen, Jardar Koreman, Jacques van Dommelen, Wim A., Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Publishing Group, 2017, p. 181-190Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of a pilot study using throat microphones for recording respiratory sounds. We demonstrate that inhalation noises are louder before longer stretches of speech than before shorter utterances (< 1 s) and in silent breathing. We thus replicate the results from our earlier study which used close-talking head-mounted microphones, without the associated data loss due to cross-talk. We also show that inhalations are louder within than before a speaking turn. Hence, the study provides another piece of evidence in favour of communicative functions of respiratory noises serving as potential turn-taking (for instance, turn-holding) cues. 

  • 2173.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory belts and whistles: A preliminary study of breathing acoustics for turn-taking2016In: Proceedings Interspeech 2016, International Speech Communication Association, 2016, p. 510-514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents first results on using acoustic intensity of inhalations as a cue to speech initiation in spontaneous multiparty conversations. We demonstrate that inhalation intensity significantly differentiates between cycles coinciding with no speech activity, shorter (< 1 s) and longer stretches of speech. While the model fit is relatively weak, it is comparable to the fit of a model using kinematic features collected with Respiratory Inductance Plethysmography. We also show that incorpo- rating both kinematic and acoustic features further improves the model. Given the ease of capturing breath acoustics, we consider the results to be a promising first step towards studying communicative functions of respiratory sounds. We discuss possible extensions to the data collection procedure with a view to improving predictive power of the model. 

  • 2174.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory Properties of Backchannels in Spontaneous Multiparty Conversation2015In: Proceedings of the 18th International Congress of Phonetic Sciences / [ed] Maria Wolters, Judy Livingstone, Bernie Beattie, Rachel Smith, Mike MacMahon, Jane Stuart-Smith, Jim Scobbie, Glasgow: University of Glasgow , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we report on first results of a newly started project focussing on interactional functions of breathing in spontaneous multiparty conversation. Specifically, we investigate respiratory patterns associated with backchannels (short feedback expressions), and compare them with breathing cycles observed during longer stretches of speech or while listening to interlocutor’s speech. Overall, inhalations preceding backchannels were found to resemble those in quiet breathing to a large degree. The results are discussed in terms of temporal organisation and respiratory planning in these utterances. 

  • 2175.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Respiratory turn-taking cues2016In: Proceedings Interspeech 2016: International Speech Communication Association, 2016 / [ed] ISCA, ISCA , 2016, p. 1275-1279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates to what extent breathing can be used as a cue to turn-taking behaviour. The paper improves on ex- isting accounts by considering all possible transitions between speaker states (silent, speaking, backchanneling) and by not re- lying on global speaker models. Instead, all features (including breathing range and resting expiratory level) are estimated in an incremental fashion using the left-hand context. We identify several inhalatory features relevant to turn-management, and as- sess the fit of models with these features as predictors of turn- taking behaviour. 

  • 2176.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Edlund, Jens
    Breathing in Conversation: An Unwritten History2015In: Proceedings of the 2nd European and the 5th Nordic Symposium on Multimodal Communication / [ed] Kristiina Jokinen, Martin Vels, Linköping, 2015, p. 107-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper attempts to draw attention of the multimodal communication research community to what we consider a long overdue topic, namely respiratory activity in conversation. We submit that a turn towards spontaneous interaction is a natural extension of the recent interest in speech breathing, and is likely to offer valuable insights into mechanisms underlying organisation of interaction and collaborative human action in general, as well as to make advancement in existing speech technology applications. Particular focus is placed on the role of breathing as a perceptually and interactionally salient turn-taking cue. We also present the recording setup developed in the Phonetics Laboratory at Stockholm University with the aim of studying communicative functions of physiological and audio-visual breathing correlates in spontaneous multiparty interactions

  • 2177.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Edlund, Jens
    Communicative needs and respiratory constraints2015In: 16th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2015): Speech Beyond Speech Towards a Better Understanding of the Most Important Biosignal, 2015, p. 3051-3055Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates timing of communicative behaviour with respect to speaker’s respiratory cycle. The data is drawn from a corpus of multiparty conversations in Swedish. We find that while longer utterances (> 1 s) are tied, predictably, primarily to exhalation onset, shorter vocalisations are spread more uni- formly across the respiratory cycle. In addition, nods, which are free from any respiratory constraints, are most frequently found around exhalation offsets, where respiratory requirements for even a short utterance are not satisfied. We interpret the results to reflect the economy principle in speech production, whereby respiratory effort, associated primarily with starting a new respiratory cycle, is minimised within the scope of speaker’s communicative goals. 

  • 2178.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Laskowski, Kornel
    Carnegie Mellon University.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Aare, Kätlin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Improving Prediction of Speech Activity Using Multi-Participant Respiratory State2017In: Proceedings of the 18th Annual Conference of the International Speech Communication Association (INTERSPEECH 2017) / [ed] Włodarczak, Marcin, Stockholm: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 1666-1670Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One consequence of situated face-to-face conversation is the co- observability of participants’ respiratory movements and sounds. We explore whether this information can be exploited in pre- dicting incipient speech activity. Using a methodology called stochastic turn-taking modeling, we compare the performance of a model trained on speech activity alone to one additionally trained on static and dynamic lung volume features. The method- ology permits automatic discovery of temporal dependencies across participants and feature types. Our experiments show that respiratory information substantially lowers cross-entropy rates, and that this generalizes to unseen data. 

  • 2179.
    Yamazaki, Yoko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Monosyllabic Circumflexion in Lithuanian2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis examines a phenomenon known as Monosyllabic Circumflexion (MC, hereafter) from a historical linguistics / phonological point of view. MC denotes a Lithuanian or Balto-Slavic phenomenon according to which long vowels and diphthongs in monosyllabic words exhibit a circumflex tone instead of the expected acute tone.  It is observed in the following four categories:

    I. 3rd person future forms of monosyllabic stems (e.g., šõksšókti `to jump;' vy͂svýti `to drive')

    II. reflexes of PIE root nouns (e.g., Latv. gùovs `cow;' Lith. šuõ `dog')

    III. prepositions/adverbs (e.g., nuõ `from' ~  nùotaka `bride;' vė͂l `again' ~ Latv. vêl `still, yet,' tė͂ (permissive particle) < *teh1)

    IV. pronominal forms (e.g., tuõ ~ gerúoju `the good (m.~sg.~instr.),' tie͂ ~ tíeji `id. (pl.nom)').

    The unexpected circumflex tone in these categories is problematic and important for the solution of a Balto-Slavic accentological question on the etymological background of acute and non-acute tones. The aim of this thesis is to partially contribute to the solution of this problem by establishing the existence of MC and its relative chronology.

    The first category, the 3rd person future forms, provides a substantial number of examples and counterexamples. The examination of them has revealed the fact that the counterexamples constitute a morpho-semantic group of verbs whose future stems underwent considerable morphological changes in the prehistory, hence not exhibiting MC. This shows that the regular tonal reflex of the 3rd person future forms of monosyllabic acute stem must be circumflex, allowing for the establishment of MC as a regular phonological process, although this category does not provide much information on the relative chronology of MC. The second category, the reflexes of Proto-Indo-European root nouns, gives an important clue as to where MC is located in the relative chronology of Balto-Slavic sound changes. Next, there is a discussion of whether the results of the examinations of the first two categories can be maintained for the data of the third and fourth categories, which show an irregular distribution of the acute and circumflex tones in monosyllabic forms. It is shown that various morphological factors, such as homonymic clashes within the paradigms for pronouns, can explain why some monosyllabic forms have acute tone. Also, the linguistic feature of West Aukštaitian dialects of Lithuanian that tend to preserve the results of MC is revealed. These dialects are known to have played an important role in the formation of standard Lithuanian.

    In this way, the monosyllabic forms with unexpected circumflex tone in Lithuanian are explained as a combination of MC in the Proto-Balto-Slavic time and the dialectal tendency of West Aukštaitian dialects of Lithuanian.

  • 2180.
    Yamazaki, Yoko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German, Baltic Languages.
    Monosyllabic circumflexion or shortening?: The treatment of the long vowels in the 3rd person future forms in Lithuanian2014In: Indogermanische Forschungen, ISSN 0019-7262, E-ISSN 1613-0405, Vol. 119, no 1, p. 339-354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lithuanian 3rd person future forms of monosyllabic acute stems arementioned as one of the categories where the examples of a phenomenoncalled “monosyllabic circumflexion” or “monosyllabic metatony” are found,e.g., dúotiduõs ‘to give.’ However, there are several exceptions, e.g., lìs (lýti ‘to rain’), bùs ( būti ‘to be’), etc. Yet, the condition of the exceptionshas not been fully analyzed in the context of the verbal systeminvolving other tense paradigms. In this paper, a thorough examination willbe conducted on the 3rd person future forms and their paradigms in Lithuanian.It is found that the verbs which have shortened 3rd person future formsalways have the nasal infix present. Based on this result, a possible interpretationwill be presented as to how certain 3rd person future forms have beenshortened. Also, I will propose that the shortening of the 3rd person futureforms is a secondary development, whereas MC could be the regular processfor the 3rd person future forms.

  • 2181.
    Yilmaz, Demet
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Communicator-in-Chief: A study of the rhetorical strategies President Clinton (1993) and President Kennedy (1961) used in their inaugural addresses.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study has two main research goals. One goal consists in studying the patterns of

    the rhetorical figures of anaphora, chiasmus, antithesis and alliteration in President

    Kennedy and President Clinton‟s (1991) inaugural speeches. The uses of these

    rhetorical figures are reviewed and compared. The second goal of this study is

    reviewing, analysing and comparing the keywords and key phrases in both speeches.

    This was possible with transcripts of the speeches. Both presidents used all the

    aforementioned rhetorical figures in their speeches to convey their purpose of their

    speeches. They had different approaches to their use of the devices; however,

    similarities were found. The data collected concerning the keywords and key phrases

    were retrieved with the software program AntCon. The 50 most frequent words in both

    speeches were analyzed. There were some similarities in the frequent words used in the

    speeches; however, there were more differences in the choice of words since the two

    speeches conveyed different themes. Both presidents used similar rhetorical strategies to

    convey different messages. However, they did differ in their choices of words that

    seemed to act as themes for their speeches.

  • 2182.
    Young, Nathan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Suburban Swedish maturing: Examining variation and perceptions among adult speakers of Swedish contemporary urban vernacular2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Up to now, adolescent speakers have been the primary focus when researching contemporary variation in the language of Sweden’s urban areas. This study contributes to the growing body of research on the topic by examining and reporting on adult speakers of what is here referred to as förortssvenska (English: Suburban Swedish). This study focuses specifically on formal speech registers of eight young working-class men from Stockholm along with the perception and reception of their speech by two independent native-listener groups.

    The paper is the first to present quantifiable data on what has been previously referred to as a “staccato” rhythm in Suburban Swedish. Strong correlations are shown between prosodic rhythm as measured by the normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) and speech speed to mean listener attitudes (R2=0.9). A strong correlation is also shown for nPVI’s influence on mean listener-projected ethnicity (R2=0.8). Alongside variation in rhythm, we also see phonemic variation that trends toward specific indexes of social identity as revealed by speaker interviews and native-listener assessments. Alongside linguistic variation among speakers, there is also significant variation within speaker peer groups.

    In addition to identifying specific linguistic features, the study examines social mechanisms revealed in interviews with and qualitative observations of speaker and listener participants. In exploratory fashion, ideas on variation, register ranges, meta-pragmatic stereotyping, and ethnic boundary-making are presented to make a case for treating contemporary urban variation in Swedish as a habitual semiotic extension of speaker identity. Indicators that contemporary urban variation in Swedish may be heading in the direction of sociolectal entrenchment are also discussed.

  • 2183.
    Yukawa, Emiko
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    L1 Japanese Attrition and Regaining: Three Case Studies of Two Early Bilingual Children1997Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 2184. Zabrodskaja, Anastassia
    et al.
    Ringblom, Natalia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Slavic and Baltic Studies, Finnish, Dutch, and German.
    Karpava, Sviatlana
    Russian Language Transmission and Loss in the Baltic Countries, Sweden and Cyprus: Linguistic Choices and their Justification2016In: Sociolinguistic Sympusium 21: Attitudes and Prestige, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language attitudes of adult speakers towards their heritage language, its intergenerational transmission and maintenance are often considered to be the major contributors to the linguistic outcome of their children. The ethnolinguistic vitality model proposed by Giles, Bourhis & Taylor (1977) takes into account variables that may contribute to the influence on the maintenance or loss of the homelanguage. Such factors as social networks have also been reported to be responsible for the high or low maintenance of a specific speech variety (Milroy & Wei, 2005). Clearly defined transmission strategies are associated with success, where the most effective one is the one parent –one language strategy, which has been confirmed by several studies. Parental language choice is definitely one of the main factors contributing to successful transmission. However, children's language choices also influence the language choices of their parents, which in turn may change the language patterns among the parents. The parents often switch to the majority language to accommodate the language choices of their children. The question is how this will influence parental attitudes towards bilingual upbringing and language transmission to the second generation. Individuals change their minds and attitudes, which is reflected in the theory of cognitive dissonance (Festinger 1957). They try to reduce tension produced by any inconsistency. People do this by changing the inconsistent cognition and they look for additional evidence to prefer one choice over another, often laying the blame on the child who ―refuses to speak some particular language. This paper discusses the attitudes towards the Russian language transmission of 25 Russian-speaking mothers living in Baltic countries, Sweden and Cyprus, and how these attitudes changed over time. Particular attention will be paid to similarities and differences in the three populations under investigation. What they have in common is their L1 Russian background and the minority status of their native language. In Cyprus and Sweden, they mainly come from immigrant and mixed-marriage communities, while in Estonia/Latvia/Lithuania they live in a bilingual society, where Estonian/Latvian/Lithuanian is a prestigious language and Russian has a low status. Our data was collected with the help of narrative interviews and questionnaires. It represents different kinds of family types: exogamous couples, endogamous couples, blended families and single parents. Our results indicate that success in language transmission is not predicted by the family type. On the other hand, the attitudes towards bilingualism and Russian language transmission (including the change of these attitudes over the years) -depending on the parents' success in bringing up children bilingually -seemed to matter. A lot depends on whether there is a tendency for integration with the dominant language community, for staying isolated and only preserving the home language or for having a balanced bilingual/multilingual approach and positive attitude towards both majority and minority languages. The socio-economic status, level of education and mother‘s employability may play crucial roles in language transmission and attitudes. The linguistic repertoire of the father (minority, majority or mixed) also has an effect.

  • 2185.
    Zetterholm, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Mechtild, Tronnier
    Identifiering av fonologiska kontraster i svenska ord: Ett lyssnartest för andraspråksinlärare2016In: Svenskans Beskrivning 34: Förhandlingar vid trettiofjärde sammankomsten, Lund den 22–24 oktober 2014 / [ed] Anna W. Gustafsson, Lisa Holm, Katarina Lundin, Henrik Rahm, Mechtild Tronnier, Lund: Lunds universitet , 2016, Vol. 74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är många olika faktorer som spelar in när man lär sig ett nytt språk och förutsättningarna ser olika ut såväl individuellt som socialt. Här finns språkliga aspekter såsom typologiska likheter och skillnader mellan det/de språk inläraren redan behärskar och målspråket samt hur mycket språklig stimulans och möjlighet till interaktion inläraren får (Abrahamsson & Bylund 2012; Flege & Liu 2001). Förstaspråkets fonologiska regler överförs ofta till andraspråket och påverkar såväl perception som produktion (Major 2008, Jarvis & Pavlenko 2010). För att kunna producera ett lyssnarvänligt uttal på målspråket är det viktigt att inläraren uppfattar de fonologiska kontrasterna då det anses föreligga en koppling mellan perception och produktion (Escudero, 2005; McAl-lister, 1995). Det är inte självklart att det alltid är de mest uppenbara språkliga kontrasterna mellan första- och andraspråket som kan vålla uttalsproblem, ibland är de små mera subtila skillnaderna svårare att identifiera och förändra (Flege 1991). Talarens uttalsvanor, dvs. de artikulatoriska vanligtvis omedvetna och inlärda rörelserna, är ibland svåra att förändra och kräver en del medvetenhet och övning hos inläraren. Den studie som presenteras här tar upp frågan huruvida andraspråksinlärare med olika modersmål kan identifiera svenska ord utifrån ordpar med fonologiska kontraster. Ordparen är utvalda utifrån tidigare forskning som visar på generella svårigheter med den svenska fonologin som förekommer vid inlärning av svenska som andraspråk (Bannert 1990; tronnier & Zetterholm 2013; Zetterholm & tronnier 2012). Syftet med studien är att ta reda på om andraspråksinlärare uppfattar den fonologiska kontrasten när de hör ord uttalade av en svensk talare. Detta är en pilotstudie och resultaten får därför anses som preliminära, men intressanta för vidare forskning i ämnet.

  • 2186.
    Zetterström, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The Battlefield of the Human Body Revisited – Metaphors and Cancer: A Comparison between Genres2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine metaphors in cancer contexts, and in particular war and military metaphors. A four step approach was performed for the examination. The use over time has been studied for metaphorical linguistic expressions including the words fight and battle in the Corpus of Contemporary American English in the categories Academic Journals, Magazines and Newspapers. A general corpus search for the word cancer in the same categories has been made to investigate what kinds of metaphorical linguistic expressions could be found. The goal was to examine possible development of the use of other expressions than the dominant martial ones for the period 2005 - 2011. The findings were also investigated to see which thematic role for the word cancer was the most frequent in the categories. To complement the corpus findings, an inquiry was sent out to explore how writers of research articles reason when they use expressions such as fight against cancer or battle with cancer in their texts.

    The corpus findings show that the martial metaphorical linguistic expressions are more often used within the categories Newspapers and Magazines. In the category Academic journals the occurrences are fewer. The most common metaphor alternatives were within the area of sports. The study of semantic roles shows that the word cancer appears most often in the role of patient. The agent role occurred slightly more often in the newspaper category than in the other text categories investigated. The result of the inquiry suggests that some researchers use martial metaphors out of routine.

    The four step approach of the study reveals a complex image of the use of metaphors in cancer contexts. Detection of trends for the use of metaphorical linguistic expressions possibly demands a longer time interval than the studied period.

  • 2187. Zilliacus, Harriet
    et al.
    Paulsrud, BethAnne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Explicit and implicit discourses on multilingual education in Swedish and Finnish national curricula2016In: 6th Conference on Explorations in Ethnography, Language and Communication: Diversities in Global Societies, Södertörns högskola, 22−23 September 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While Finland and Sweden are internationally known for having education systems promoting equity and equality, recent societal and political changes linked to increased immigration have created new challenges in efforts to support diversity in these contexts.  Concepts such as multilingual education and intercultural education commonly aim to promote equality in education and are well established in the Nordic educational field. However, these concepts have been subject to constant re-conceptualizations and shown to be vague both in theoretical and practical use. The present study aims at clarifying the conceptual frameworks in the two countries, with a focus on the discourses on multilingual education in the respective national curricula. This study represents one part of the larger research project, MINTED (Multilingual and Intercultural Education in Sweden and Finland), investigating national policies, teacher training and teaching practice.

    The comprehensive school curricula from Finland (2014) and Sweden (2011), together with other selected relevant policy documents, were analyzed using discourse analysis.  In the Finnish curricula there is an explicit discourse of a pluralist-oriented education, which places multilingual education and social justice issues at the forefront. While language is key in the Swedish curricula, multilingual and intercultural education are not explicitly covered, but may be gleaned from the focus on human rights and democracy. Thus, the analyzed education policies create different implementational and ideological spaces for multilingual education. These spaces are key to our possibilities as educators to promote linguistic diversity and social justice in the schools of today’s global societies. Therefore, the next step in the MINTED project will be an ethnographic study of classroom practices, investigating how teachers re-contextualize current national policies in diverse education settings.

  • 2188.
    Zora, Hatice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Mapping prosody onto the lexicon: Memory traces for lexically specified prosodic information in the brain2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Lexical access, the matching of auditory information onto lexical representations in the brain, is a crucial component of online language processing. To understand the nature of lexical access, it is important to identify the kind of acoustic information that is stored in the long-term memory and to study how the brain uses such information. This dissertation investigates the contribution of prosodic information to lexical access and examines language-specific processing mechanisms by studying three typologically distinct languages: English, Turkish, and Swedish. The main research objective is to demonstrate the activation of long-term memory traces for words on the sole basis of prosodic information and to test the accuracy of typological phonological descriptions suggested in the literature by studying electrophysiological measurements of brain activation. A secondary research objective is to evaluate three distinct electrophysiological recording systems. The dissertation is based on three papers, each examining neural responses to prosodic changes in one of the three languages with a different recording system. The first two papers deal directly with the interplay between prosody and the lexicon, and investigate whether prosodic changes activate memory traces associated with segmentally identical but prosodically different words; the third paper introduces morphology to this process and investigates whether prosodic changes activate memory traces associated with potential lexical derivations. Neural responses demonstrate that prosodic information indeed activates memory traces associated with words and their potential derivations without any given context. Strongly connected neural networks are argued to guarantee neural activation and implementation of long-term memory traces. Regardless of differences in prosodic typology, all languages exploit prosodic information for lexical processing, although to different extents. The amount of neural activation elicited by a particular piece of prosodic information is positively correlated with the strength of its lexical representation in the brain, which is called lexical specification. This dissertation could serve as a first step towards building an electrophysiological-perceptual taxonomy of prosodic processing based on lexical specification.

  • 2189.
    Zora, Hatice
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Neural correlates of lexical stress: mismatch negativity reflects fundamental frequency and intensity2015In: NeuroReport, ISSN 0959-4965, E-ISSN 1473-558X, Vol. 26, no 13, p. 791-796Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Neural correlates of lexical stress were studied using the mismatch negativity (MMN) component in event-related potentials. The MMN responses were expected to reveal the encoding of stress information into long-term memory and the contributions of prosodic features such as fundamental frequency (F0) and intensity toward lexical access. In a passive oddball paradigm, neural responses to changes in F0, intensity, and in both features together were recorded for words and pseudowords. The findings showed significant differences not only between words and pseudowords but also between prosodic features. Early processing of prosodic information in words was indexed by an intensity-related MMN and an F0-related P200. These effects were stable at right-anterior and mid-anterior regions. At a later latency, MMN responses were recorded for both words and pseudowords at the mid-anterior and posterior regions. The P200 effect observed for F0 at the early latency for words developed into an MMN response. Intensity elicited smaller MMN for pseudowords than for words. Moreover, a larger brain area was recruited for the processing of words than for the processing of pseudowords. These findings suggest earlier and higher sensitivity to prosodic changes in words than in pseudowords, reflecting a language-related process. The present study, therefore, not only establishes neural correlates of lexical stress but also confirms the presence of long-term memory traces for prosodic information in the brain.

  • 2190.
    Zou, Qi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    An experimental on Chinese university students' perceptions and attitudes towards Asian English accents2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the use of English language world wide in different domains, English has undoubtely become the most dominant lingua franca (Parijs, 2011). This has had implication for English language teaching (ELT), both in terms of actual practices and people's attitudes towards English. Although there have previous been numerous attitudinal studies, few have focused on the Chinese context, where the number of people who learn and use English keep increasing. With its experimental design, this study investigates and compares 202 Chinese university students' perceptions and attitudes towards four Asian English accents. A modofied version of the questionnaire from Jenkins' attitudinal (2007) was adopted to explore the attitudes and perceptions of two groups of university students. The results suggest that native English accents are still prefered in both groups as there are more than 90% of the participants who rank the native accents as the first and second. Native accents are graded higher in correctness, acceptability and pleasantness. However, the experimental group which has received information about the basic concepts and ideologies of World Englishes (WE) before doing the questionnaires shows higher acceptance to Asian English accents and grades those accents higher than the control group without the introduction. Brief semi-structured interviews are carried out to follow up on the questionnaire results, to further explore the reasons underlying the attitudinal responses. The results show that the participants in the control group tend to believe that the non-native English accents are 'wrong' and should be corrected, while the experimental group tends to accept the impracticality of achieving near-native accents and shows higher tolerance to the non-native accents. It is preliminary try of a 'WE-awareness' experimental attitudinal study which gives inspiration for a future study in a larger scale. It aims for contributing to the realization of 'Linguistic Equality' and gives implication to the ELT and teacher education in China.

  • 2191.
    Zwanenburg Widingsjö, Monique
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German, Dutch.
    Pippi Langkous: Een vergelijking van eerdere met latere drukken & een vertaalanalyse2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [nl]

    Inmiddels is Pippi een internationaal onderzoeksobject geworden. De Duitse literatuuronderzoekster Astrid Surmatz heeft een grote bijdrage geleverd met haar proefschrift Pippi Långstrump als Paradigma (2005b). Wat volgens mij nog ontbrak is een grondige analyse van de Nederlandse vertaling, en wat er met de boeken gebeurd is na hun oorspronkelijke vertaling.

    Het respect voor kinderboeken in vertaling laat nog al eens te wensen over en uitgeverijen nemen soms grote vrijheden. Geldt dat ook voor de Nederlandse uitgaven van Pippi Langkous?Deze scriptie geeft een aanzet tot het antwoord met behulp van een analyse van de vertaalnormen uit de Descriptive Translation Studies van Toury, aangevuld met de vertaalmethoden van Newmark.

    De conclusie is dat de eerste Nederlandse druk een adequate (Toury) of getrouwe (Newmark) vertaling is, en dat de wijzigingen in de volgende drukken er toe geleid hebben dat de tekst en de illustraties steeds meer zijn gaan afwijken van het Zweedse origineel, en dat er nu van een aanvaardbare (Toury), of idiomatische of zelfs vrije vertaling (Newmark) gesproken moet worden. Dat Nederlanders toch weten hoe Pippi door Astrid Lindgren is neergezet, is onder andere te danken aan de tv-serie, de films en de merchandise met de tekeningen van illustratrice Ingrid Vang Nyman.

  • 2192.
    Álvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    Como avançar no estudo do léxico de origem africana na América Latina?2012In: Revista da Abralin, ISSN 1678-1805, E-ISSN 2178-7603, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 203-225Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The text discusses adequate methodologies for the development of a database including lexicon of African origin in varieties of Latin American Spanish and Portuguese. The aim is to start a discussion about the elaboration of theoretical and methodological approaches to be applied in future research. It also points out the possibility of articulation of various work fronts operating at the same time for which it will become necessary to perform lexicographical and metalexicographical pilot studies alongside the development of the database. The idea is to test a set of hypotheses and elaborate theoretical and methodological approaches that result suitable for a systematic and comprehensive study of the lexicon of African origin in Latin America using the available sources.

  • 2193.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    How to use corpus linguistics in the study of political discourse2010In: The Routledge handbook of corpus linguistics / [ed] Anne O'Keeffe and Michael McCarthy, Abingdon: Routledge , 2010Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2194.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    "Just to give you kind of a map of where we are going": a taxonomy of metadiscourse in spoken and written academic English2010In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     

    One of the basic functions to which language is put is to comment on discourse or on language itself. Reflexivity in language occurs in everyday discourse as well as in specialised discourse, such as academic papers or lectures. It is often referred to as metadiscourse, or „discourse about discourse‟, as in In this paper, I explore… or just to give you kind of a map of where we are going… Such expressions are very common in academic genres, where the writer/speaker is expected to guide the audience through the discourse, for example by making its structure explicit. While research into metadiscourse has focused on academic writing, academic speech has remained largely unexplored. Furthermore, comparisons of spoken and written metadiscourse are rare, so the similarities and differences between spoken and written types of metadiscourse are unknown.

    The present qualitative and corpus-based study compares the use of personal metadiscourse in 30 spoken university lectures to that of 130 highly proficient essays by graduate students. The purpose is to present an empirically based taxonomy of the discourse functions of spoken and written metadiscourse with respect to academic English. Despite claims in previous research that separate treatment is needed, a lumping approach is taken rather than a splitting one. The goal is to create one taxonomy for both modes, thereby highlighting both similarities and differences in the distribution of discourse functions across speech and writing.

    The proposed taxonomy consists of 23 discourse functions, divided into four main categories:

    Metalinguistic comments, Discourse organisation, Speech act labels and References to the audience. The findings reveal that most of the discourse functions in the taxonomy occurred in both speech and writing, although spoken metadiscourse performed a greater range of discourse actions than written metadiscourse. Differences in the conditions of speech and writing did indeed cause variation in the use of metadiscourse: The discourse functions REPAIRING, MARKING ASIDES and CONTEXTUALISING occurred only in the spoken data because of the lack of time for planning and revision in real-time discourse, while MANAGING COMPREHENSION/CHANNEL and MANAGING AUDIENCE DISCIPLINE occurred only in the spoken data because of the direct presence of an audience. Factors related to genre were also found to cause variation in the use of metadiscourse: ARGUING was considerably more common in the written data, since academic writers typically need to put a great deal of work into argumentation, while lecturers generally present information not based on their own research. MANAGING THE MESSAGE, on the other hand, was common in the spoken data, which can be attributed to lecturers adopting a more authoritative role than student writers.

     
  • 2195.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    On the boundaries between evaluation and metadiscourse2005In: Strategies in academic discourse / [ed] Elena Tognini-Bonelli & Gabriella Del Lungo Camiciotti, Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins , 2005, p. 153-162Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2196.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Rapport building in student group work2011In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, no 12, p. 2932-2947Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do students build rapport in online group work, especially if all they have to work with is asynchronous text? Taking this question as a point of departure, this paper presents research into the ‘interactional’ function in group work among university students, specifically investigating rapport-building language use, defined as communicative acts promoting social concord. Rapport building is examined in online student group work, using written material in the form of discussion board messages (from the Mid-Sweden Corpus of Computer-Assisted Language Learning). To help bring out what is characteristic of the online type of discourse, spoken face-to-face material also representing student– student interaction (from the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English) is included. Frequency word lists based on the two sets of material were used in combination with concordancing in order to find which of the most frequent expressions functioned as rapport building, thus combining corpus-based and discourse-analytical methods. A taxonomy of rapport-building discourse functions was developed, containing four major categories: discourse-structuring, intratextual, face-saving and bonding units. Each of these covers specific discourse functions; in the case of bonding units, these are Agreeing; Aligning with in-group; Commiserating; Complimenting; Seeking agreement; Offering encouragement; Thanking; Responding to thanks; and Chatting.

  • 2197.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Using corpora to teach academic writing: challenges for the direct approach2010In: Corpus-based approaches to English language teaching / [ed] Mari Carmen Campoy-Cubillo, Begoña Bellés-Fortuño and Maria Lluisa Gea-Valor, London and New York: Continuum , 2010Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2198.
    Ädel, Annelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    "What uh the folks who did this survey found": expert attribution in spoken academic lectures2008In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 83-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Academic writing has been said to display a tension between originality and humility to the community (Myers 1990; Berkenkotter & Huckin 1995; Hyland 1999). One of the fundamental ways in which this tension plays out is in references to previous research, or ‘attribution’. While recent research has emphasized the importance of attribution in academic writing—Hyland (1999), for example, found the average number of citations in research articles to be as high as 70 per 10,000 words—the role of attribution in spoken academic discourse is relatively uncharted territory. In this study of attribution in academic speech, transcripts of 30 large lectures from the Michigan Corpus of Academic Spoken English (MICASE; Simpson et al. 1999) were analysed, totalling 250,000 words. References to expert sources in the academic domain were analysed, specifically third person attribution (including third person pronouns, proper names, and a selection of nouns), as in “um and, Marx points out that those are the tools that the proletariat are gonna use”. The research questions were: To what degree dolecturers situate intertextually the knowledge and facts they are presenting? Do thedisciplinary differences found in written citation practices also occur in speech? Howvariable are the formal realizations of attribution in speech?Contrary to previous research findings (e.g. Biber 2006; Swales 2005), the studyshowed both that expert attribution is quite pervasive and that there is disciplinaryvariation in academic speech. The findings are compared to studies of attribution inacademic writing (e.g. Hyland 1999; Tadros 1993), with the goal of contributing tocurrent research on the commonalities that academic speech (lectures) exhibits withacademic writing on one hand, and non-academic speech on the other.

  • 2199.
    Ädel, Annelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Garretson, Gregory
    Boston University.
    Who's speaking?: evidentiality in US newspapers during the 2004 presidential campaign2008In: Corpora and discourse: the challenges of different settings / [ed] Annelie Ädel, Randi Reppen, Amsterdam ; Philadelphia: John Benjamins , 2008, p. 157-187Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2200.
    Ädel, Annelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Mauranen, Anna
    English Department, University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Metadiscourse: diverse and divided perspectives 2010In: Nordic Journal of English Studies, ISSN 1654-6970, E-ISSN 1654-6970, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
4142434445 2151 - 2200 of 2223
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