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  • 251.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language attrition2013In: Language, Society & Communication / [ed] Zannie Bock & Gift Mheta, van Schaik , 2013Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 252.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Language-specific patterns in event conceptualization: Insights from bilingualism2011In: Thinking and speaking in two languages / [ed] Aneta Pavlenko, Avon: Multilingual Matters, 2011, 108-142 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 253.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Maturational constraints and first language attrition2009In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 59, no 3, 687-715 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the article is to examine how first language attrition research on maturational constraints interprets and links its findings to current views on maturation in the field of second language acquisition. It is argued that attrition research exhibits certain inconsistencies in the interpretation of the structural characteristics of the critical period and the interplay between maturation and nonmaturational factors in attrition. In view of findings from first language relearning/reactivation and theoretical-methodological advances in second language research on maturation, the article proposes a reinterpretation of maturational constraints in language attrition that, first, emphasizes the gradual decline of susceptibility to attrition and, second, puts forth the conditioning function that the maturational constraints have on nonmaturational factors.

  • 254.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Unomathotholo or i-radio? Factors predicting the use of English loanwords among L1 isiXhosa - L2 English bilinguals2014In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 35, no 2, 105-120 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the use of English loanwords in L1 isiXhosa-L2 English bilinguals living in Cape Town, South Africa. The specific aim of the study is to investigate which individual background factors may increase or reduce the presence of English loanwords in a L1 isiXhosa speaker's repertoire. Data on English loanword use and individual background were collected through a picture naming task and a background questionnaire, respectively. Results showed that those speakers who frequently used English for interactive purposes were more prone to using English loanwords when naming pictures in isiXhosa. Moreover, it was documented that those who arrived at an early age in Cape Town (from the isiXhosa-dominant Eastern Cape Province) were also less prone to using isiXhosa words in the naming task. Marginal, negative effects were found for non-interactive isiXhosa use (i.e. radio, books, etc.) and attitudes towards English, such that those speakers with high indices on these variables used more often English loanwords. A marginal, positive effect of the presence of isiXhosa in primary and secondary school on the use of isiXhosa words was also found.

  • 255.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Does first language maintenance hamper nativelikeness in a second language? A study of ultimate attainment in early bilinguals2012In: Studies in Second Language Acquisition, ISSN 0272-2631, E-ISSN 1470-1545, Vol. 34, no 2, 215-241 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the field of SLA, the incidence of nativelikeness in second language (L2) speakers has typically been explained as a function of age of acquisition. An alternative interpretation, however, is that L2 learners do not attain nativelike proficiency because of first language (L1) maintenance. This interpretation has nevertheless remained mostly theoretical due to the lack of empirical evidence. This study sets out to address the role of L1 proficiency in L2 ultimate attainment by examining L1 and L2 proficiency in 30 early L1 Spanish–L2 Swedish bilinguals. Language proficiency was assessed through grammaticality judgment tests and cloze tests, and additional data on language aptitude were collected through the Swansea Language Aptitude Test (v.2.0; Meara, Milton, & Lorenzo-Dus, 2002). The results showed positive correlations between nativelike L1 and L2 behavior. Additionally, it was found that language aptitude was positively correlated with nativelike L1 and L2 performance. In view of these findings, it is suggested that (a) L1 maintenance does not hamper L2 nativelikeness and (b) language aptitude is an important factor for bilingual ultimate attainment.

  • 256.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    The role of language aptitude in first language attrition: The case of prepubescent attriters2010In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 31, no 3, 443-464 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While language aptitude has been investigated actively within second language research, there is a current dearth of research on the effects of aptitude in cases of attrition. The aim of the present investigation was to explore the role of language aptitude for L1 proficiency in speakers who experienced a break with their L1 setting prior to puberty. Twenty-five L1 SpanishL2 Swedish bilinguals residing in Sweden participated in the study, and 15 native speakers of Spanish living in Chile were recruited as controls. The L1 proficiency was measured by means of a grammaticality judgement test (GJT) and language aptitude data were obtained through the Swansea Language Aptitude Test (Meara et al. <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="B36">2003</xref>). Results showed a positive correlation between GJT performance and language aptitude. More specifically, the bilinguals with above-average aptitude were more likely to score within the native range on the GJT than those with below-average aptitude. It was also seen that among the participants with below-average aptitude, GJT scores were related to daily L1 use. In view of these findings, we suggest that language aptitude has a compensatory function in language attrition, helping the attriter to retain a high level of L1 proficiency despite reduced L1 contact.

  • 257.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Introduction: Cognition, Motion Events, and SLA2015In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, 1-13 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This opening article introduces the reader to current topics in research on language and thought in monolingual speakers and second language (L2) learners, with particular attention to the domain of motion. The article also delineates the rationale that underlies the special issue at hand, and provides a contextualisation of the individual contributions. It is argued that the centrality of motion in everyday human life, in combination with the vast cross-linguistic variation in motion construal, makes motion events a suitable topic for SLA research, both in terms of ecological validity and learnability challenge. The pedagogical aspects of this line of research are discussed in terms of, first, whether it is desirable to include the acquisition of language-specific thought patterns in curricular goals, and second, whether the knowledge about language specificity in thought can be used in teaching as a means to facilitate learning.

  • 258.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Language and thought in a multilingual context: The case of isiXhosa2014In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 17, no 2, 431-441 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Situated within the grammatical aspect approach to motion event cognition, this study takes a first step in investigating language and thought in functional multilinguals by studying L1 isiXhosa speakers living in South Africa. IsiXhosa being a non-aspect language, the study investigates how the knowledge and use of additional languages with grammatical aspect influence cognition of endpoint-oriented motion events among L1 isiXhosa speakers. Results from a triads-matching task show that participants who often used aspect languages and had greater exposure to English in primary education were less prone to rely on endpoints when categorising motion events.

  • 259.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Linguistic relativity in SLA: Towards a new research programme2014In: Language learning, ISSN 0023-8333, E-ISSN 1467-9922, Vol. 64, no 4, 952-985 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the current article is to support the investigation of linguistic relativity in second language acquisition and sketch methodological and theoretical prerequisites toward developing the domain into a full research program. We identify and discuss three theoretical-methodological components that we believe are needed to succeed in this enterprise. First, we highlight the importance of using nonverbal methods to study linguistic relativity effects in second language (L2) speakers. The use of nonverbal tasks is necessary in order to avoid the circularity that arises when inferences about nonverbal behavior are made on the basis of verbal evidence alone. Second, we identify and delineate the likely cognitive mechanisms underpinning cognitive restructuring in L2 speakers by introducing the theoretical framework of associative learning. By doing so, we demonstrate that the extent and nature of cognitive restructuring in L2 speakers is essentially a function of variation in individual learners’ trajectories. Third, we offer an in-depth discussion of the factors (e.g., L2 proficiency and L2 use) that characterize those trajectories, anchoring them to the framework of associative learning, and reinterpreting their relative strength in predicting L2 speaker cognition.

  • 260.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Televised Whorf: Cognitive Restructuring in Advanced Foreign Language Learners as a Function of Audiovisual Media Exposure2015In: The Modern language journal, ISSN 0026-7902, E-ISSN 1540-4781, Vol. 99, 123-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The encoding of goal-oriented motion events varies across different languages. Speakers of languages without grammatical aspect (e.g., Swedish) tend to mention motion endpoints when describing events (e.g., two nuns walk <styled-content style=text-decoration:underline>to a house</styled-content>) and attach importance to event endpoints when matching scenes from memory. Speakers of aspect languages (e.g., English), on the other hand, are more prone to direct attention to the ongoingness of motion events, which is reflected both in their event descriptions (e.g., two nuns <styled-content style=text-decoration:underline>are walking</styled-content>) and in their nonverbal similarity judgements. This study examines to what extent native speakers (L1) of Swedish (n=82) with English as a foreign language (FL) restructure their categorisation of goal-oriented motion as a function of their proficiency and experience with the English language (e.g., exposure, learning history, etc.). Seventeen monolingual native English speakers from the United Kingdom (UK) were recruited for comparison purposes. Data on motion event cognition were collected through a memory-based triads matching task in which a target scene with an intermediate degree of endpoint orientation was matched with two alternative scenes with low and high degrees of endpoint orientation. Results showed that the preference among the Swedish speakers of FL English to base their similarity judgements on ongoingness rather than event endpoints was correlated with exposure to English in everyday life, such that those who often watched television in English approximated the ongoingness preference of the English native speakers. These findings suggest that event cognition patterns may be restructured through exposure to FL audiovisual media. The results add to the emerging picture that learning a new language entails learning new ways of observing and reasoning about reality.

  • 261.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Athanasopoulos, Panos
    Oostendorp, Marcelyn
    Motion event cognition and grammatical aspect: Evidence from Afrikaans2013In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 51, no 5, 929-955 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on the relationship between grammatical aspect and motion event construal has posited that speakers of non-aspect languages are more prone to encoding event endpoints than are speakers of aspect languages (e. g., von Stutterheim and Carroll 2011). In the present study, we test this hypothesis by extending this line of inquiry to Afrikaans, a non-aspect language which is previously unexplored in this regard. Motion endpoint behavior among Afrikaans speakers was measured by means of a linguistic retelling task and a non-linguistic similarity judgment task, and then compared with the behavior of speakers of a non-aspect language (Swedish) and speakers of an aspect language (English). Results showed the Afrikaans speakers' endpoint patterns aligned with Swedish patterns, but were significantly different from English patterns. It was also found that the variation among the Afrikaans speakers could be partially explained by taking into account their frequency of use of English, such that those who used English more frequently exhibited an endpoint behavior that was more similar to English speakers. The current study thus lends further support to the hypothesis that speakers of different languages attend differently to event endpoints as a function of the grammatical category of aspect.

  • 262.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism. University of the Western Cape, South Africa.
    Díaz, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    The role of heritage language instruction for first language proficiency: a psycholinguistic perspective2012In: International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, ISSN 1367-0050, E-ISSN 1747-7522, Vol. 15, no 5, 593-609 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effects of weekly heritage language (HL) classes on first language (L1) proficiency in speakers who arrived in the second language (L2)-dominant setting before the onset of puberty. Two groups of L1 Spanish – L2 Swedish bilingual high school students living in Sweden participated in the study. One group currently attended HL classes once a week, whereas the other group was no longer doing so. The two groups did not differ with regard to the total number of years of HL class attendance, age of arrival in Sweden, length of residence or degree of L1 contact. Results from a grammaticality judgement test and a cloze test showed that the group that currently attended HL classes outperformed the non-attending group. Using a framework that emphasises heightened attrition susceptibility among speakers who lost contact with the L1-dominant setting before puberty, the study suggests that HL classes function as a factor that, all other things being equal, may counterweigh attrition susceptibility. Moreover, it is suggested that the effects of HL classes on L1 proficiency are short term rather than long term. That is to say, once attendance ceases the counterweighing effect is less visible.

  • 263.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Abrahamsson, Niclas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age of acquisition effects or effects of bilingualism in second language ultimate attainment?2013In: Sensitive Periods, Language Aptitude, and Ultimate L2 Attainment / [ed] Granena, Gisela & Long, Michael, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, 69-101 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 264.
    Bylund, Emanuel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Jarvis, Scott
    Dept. of Linguistics, Ohio University.
    L2 effects on L1 event conceptualization patterns2011In: Bilingualism: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1366-7289, E-ISSN 1469-1841, Vol. 14, no 1, 47-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The finding that speakers of aspect languages encode event endpoints to a lesser extent than do speakers of non-aspect languages has led to the hypothesis that there is a relationship between grammatical aspect and event conceptualization (e.g., von Stutterheim and Nüse, 2003). The present study concerns L1 event conceptualization in 40 L1 Spanish – L2 Swedish bilinguals (all near-native speakers of Swedish). Spanish and Swedish differ as regards grammatical aspect: Whereas Swedish lacks this grammatical category, Spanish conveys aspect through verbal morphology and periphrasis. The principal aim of the study was to explore the relationship between event conceptualization patterns and proficiency with aspectual contrasts. The participants were asked to provide oral L1 Spanish descriptions of video clips projecting motion events with different degrees of endpoint orientation (see von Stutterheim, 2003). In addition, they took a grammaticality judgment test concerning verb and gender agreement, verbal clitics and aspectual contrasts. Compared with baseline data from monolingual Spanish speakers, the results on endpoint encoding show that the bilinguals mention the endpoints of motion events to a higher degree than the Spanish control group does. Moreover, it was shown that the weaker the bilinguals’ discrimination of aspectual errors on the grammaticality judgement test, the more prone they were to encoding endpoints. This result consequently furthers the hypothesis about the interconnectedness between grammatical aspect and event conceptualization. It was suggested that this finding indicate that the bilinguals are influenced by the Swedish-like tendency to attend to the boundedness rather than the ongoingness of events.

  • 265.
    Bylund, Emanuel Spångberg
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Ultimate attainment of event segmentation and temporal structuring patterns in speakers of L2 Swedish2011In: Vigo International Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 1697-0381, Vol. 8, 29-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates ultimate attainment of patterns of segmentation and temporal structuring of events in L2 speakers. The participant group consists of 35 L1 Spanish - L2 Swedish adult bilinguals living in Sweden, with ages of L2 acquisition ranging from 1 to 19 years. Fifteen native speakers of Swedish and 15 native speakers of Spanish were engaged as controls. The participants provided online-retellings of a film excerpt. The results showed that the L2 speakers resorted to an event segmentation strategy with an intermediate degree of event resolution, which fell in between the monolingual Spanish high degree of resolution and the monolingual Swedish low degree of resolution. Regarding temporal structuring patterns, the results showed that the L2 speakers converged with the Swedish-speaking controls, linking the events by means of anaphoric adverbials (i.e., x then y). There was no effect of age of L2 acquisition on the L2 speakers' degree of conformity with Swedish native speaker behaviour.

  • 266.
    Bylund Spångberg, Emanuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Age differences in first language attrition: A maturational constraints perspective2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates age-related differences in first language (L1) attrition in a second language (L2) setting. The thesis is based on four individual studies. The aim of each of the studies has been to examine aspects of age differences that to date have remained in the background of attrition research: Study I gives an overview of research on age differences in L1 attrition and suggests a reinterpretation of age effects in attrition, using as a point of departure critical period constructs. Study I also formulates hypotheses regarding the contour and timing of attrition susceptibility and its interplay with non-biological factors. Study II investigates L1 residual knowledge and L2 ultimate attainment in international adoptees. The results suggest that a) that L1 remnants may be found if relearning activities have taken place prior to testing; b) L2 learners who have experienced a complete cut-off in L1 contact do not attain higher L2 proficiency levels than learners who have stayed in contact with the L1. The results also indicate that the level of L1 reactivation and L2 ultimate attainment are related to age of adoption. Study III examines age effects on the retention of L1 event construal patterns. The results show that the onset of puberty is a turning point for the degree of conformity with native behaviour, i.e. those who arrived in the L2 setting before puberty were more likely to exhibit non-converging patterns than those who arrived after puberty. This finding suggests that in attrition conceptual proficiency is equally affected by age as are formal language skills. Finally, Study IV explores the role of language aptitude in prepubescent attriters. The results show that nativelike grammatical intuitions are connected to language aptitude, and that speakers with high levels of language aptitude rely less on L1 contact than do speakers with low levels of language aptitude in their retention of nativelike grammatical intuitions in the L1.

  • 267.
    Bysell, Lina Emilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Institute for Interpreting and Translation Studies.
    En revolutionerande översättning: En översättningsteoretisk uppsats om att översätta en skildring av det ryska inbördeskriget2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay covers the translation of a fictional prose text from Russian to Swedish, the source text being the first chapter of Aleksey Tolstoy’s Chmuroe utro (Bleak Morning), the third part of his trilogy Choždenie po mukam (The Ordeal). A commentary of this translation is provided, where the linguistic abstractions encountered throughout the process are documented.

    My methodology attempts to emulate that of Eugene Nida and his principle of “Dynamic Equivalence”. This procedure is addressed in the commentary, as I explain how utilisation of Nida's theories can assist in overcoming the numerous peculiarities inherent to translation.

    I also deal with the issue regarding the first two books of the trilogy, which have already been translated into Swedish by another translator. In my work, I explain how and why I have chosen to relate to the earlier translation. 

  • 268.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Grammatisk finithet i trumaí2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Traditionellt har tempusböjning och person-/numeruskongruens på verb varit de starkaste kriterierna för finithet. Det har dock visat sig vara svårapplicerade kriterier för många språk och finithet på satsnivå – huruvida en sats är självständig eller ej – har blivit en viktig fråga för definitionen.

    Uppsatsen syftar till att beskriva och analysera finithetsfenomenet utifrån språket trumaí.

    Det tycks finnas flera fenomen som är tecken på en finithetsdistinktion i trumaí, framför allt -n/-e-klitikan som markerar 3Abs på verbet vid absolutivargumentets frånvaro, samt FT-partiklarna som har en tempusfunktion. För imperativ verkar det vara så att imperativpartiklarna har en intern distribution baserad på person och animathet hos absolutivargumentet, vilket kan tolkas som att det finns en argumentkongruens frikopplad från den semantiska inkorporeringen av andraperson som subjekt. Gällande finithet på satsnivå finns det i trumaí både finita och infinita satser som kan fungera som bisatser. I strukturer där verbet beter sig prototypiskt är satsen finit, medan andra strukturers verb tycks ha rört sig mot att bete sig nominellt, varpå satsen fungerar annorlunda och är infinit.

  • 269.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Här är 4 procent av invånarna döva2013In: Dövas tidning, ISSN 1402-1978, Vol. 4, 13-13 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 270.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Härmed tecknar jag dig ...2017In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 7, 52-57 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 271.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Object marking in the signed modality: Verbal and nominal strategies in Swedish Sign Language and other sign languages2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this dissertation, I investigate various aspects of object marking and how these manifest themselves in the signed modality. The main focus is on Swedish Sign Language (SSL), the national sign language of Sweden, which is the topic of investigation in all five studies. Two of the studies adopt a comparative perspective, including other sign languages as well. The studies comprise a range of data, including corpus data, elicited production, and acceptability judgments, and combine quantitative and qualitative methods in the analyses.

    The dissertation begins with an overview of the topics of valency, argument structure, and object marking, primarily from a spoken language perspective. Here, the interactions between semantics and morphosyntax are presented from a typological perspective, introducing differential object marking as a key concept. With regard to signed language, object marking is discussed in terms of both verbal and nominal strategies.

    Verbal strategies of object marking among sign languages include directional verbs, object handshape classifiers, and embodied perspective in signing. The first study investigates the use of directionality and object handshapes as object marking strategies in Al-Sayyid Bedouin Sign Language (ABSL), Israeli Sign Language (ISL), and SSL. It is shown that the strategies generally display different alignments in terms of the types of objects targeted, which is uniform across languages, but that directionality is much more marginal in ABSL than in the other two languages. Also, we see that there is a connection between object marking strategies and the animacy of the object, and that the strategies, object animacy, and word order preferences interact. In the second and third studies, SSL is investigated with regard to the transitive–reflexive distinction. Here, we see that there are interactional effects between object handshapes and the perspective taken by the signer. This points to intricate iconic motivations of combining and structuring complex verb sequences, such as giving preference to agent focusing structures (e.g., agent perspective and handling handshapes). Furthermore, the use of space is identified as a crucial strategy for reference tracking, especially when expressing semantically transitive events.

    Nominal strategies include object pronouns and derivations of the sign PERSON. The fourth study provides a detailed account of the object pronoun OBJPRO in SSL, which is the first in-depth description of this sign. It is found that the sign is in widespread use in SSL, often corresponds closely to object pronouns of spoken Swedish, and is argued to be grammaticalized from the lexical sign PERSON. In the final study, the possible existence of object pronouns in other sign languages is investigated by using a sample of 24 languages. This analysis reveals that the feature is found mostly in the Nordic countries, suggesting areal contact phenomena. However, the study also shows that there are a number of derivations of PERSON, such as reflexive pronouns, agreement auxiliaries, and case markers. The use of PERSON as a source of grammaticalization for these functions is attributed to both semantic and phonological properties of the sign.

    This dissertation is unique in that it is dedicated to the topic of object marking in the signed modality. It brings a variety of perspectives and methods together in order to investigate the domain of object marking, cross-linguistically and cross-modally.

  • 272.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language. Stockholms universitet.
    Object marking in the signed modality: Verbal and nominal strategies in Swedish Sign Language and other sign languages [Dissertation abstract]2017In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 17, no 2, 280-288 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 273.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Persontecken avslöjar vilka vi är2017In: Dövas tidning, ISSN 1402-1978, Vol. 3, 7-7 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 274.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Pfau, Roland, Markus Steinbach & Annika Herrmann (eds.), A matter of complexity: Subordination in sign languages2016In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 39, no 3, 311-317 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 275.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Revisiting Reduplication: Toward a description of reduplication in predicative signs in Swedish Sign Language2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the use of reduplication with predicative signs in Swedish Sign Language (SSL), and also the related phenomena doubling and displacement.

    Reduplication in SSL typically expresses plurality of events and/or referents, but may also express intensification, ongoing event or generic activity. There is a distinction between external and internal events with reduplication: external reduplication expresses some event happening over and over at different points in time and/or with different referents, and is associated with a frequentative/habitual reading; internal reduplication expresses some event consisting of several e.g. movements/actions and is associated with an ongoing reading. Only external expression seems to be applicable to stative constructions, as one would expect. The study also found a phenomenon not previously described: oral reduplication without manual reduplication. This process is found to have the ongoing functions with telic predicates, such that it focuses on the telic predicate as a single event in progress, and thus replaces the function of manual reduplication, which, with telic predicates, would instead express several events. The reading of reduplicated signs is associated with the semantics of the sign reduplicated, and it is also associated with the phonological citation form of the sign—monosyllabic signs tend to get pluractional reading; bisyllabic signs tend to get an ongoing reading. Also, the reading expressed by reduplication is connected to the presence/absence of oral reduplication.

    Reduplication generally does not occur in negative constructions. This study shows that inherently negative signs may be reduplicated, but reduplicated predicates are negated according to other strategies than for non-reduplicated predicates, thus reduplication has the largest scope.

    Doubling and displacement are both associated mainly with plural referents, and it is in this respect that they are related to reduplication, and they both occur frequently with reduplication.

  • 276.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language. Stockholms universitet.
    Types and trends of name signs in the Swedish Sign Language community2017In: SKY Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1456-8438, E-ISSN 1796-279X, Vol. 30, 7-34 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the domain of name signs (i.e., signs used as personal names) in the Swedish Sign Language (SSL) community. The data are based on responses from an online questionnaire, in which Deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing participants answered questions about the nature of their name signs. The collected questionnaire data comprise 737 name signs, distributed across five main types and 24 subtypes of name signs, following the categorization of previous work on SSL. Signs are grouped according to sociolinguistic variables such as age, gender, and identity (e.g., Deaf or hearing), as well as the relationship between name giver and named (e.g., family or friends). The results show that name signs are assigned at different ages between the groups, such that children of Deaf parents are named earlier than other groups, and that Deaf and hard of hearing individuals are normally named during their school years. It is found that the distribution of name sign types is significantly different between females and males, with females more often having signs denoting physical appearance, whereas males have signs related to personality/behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that the distribution of sign types has changed over time, with appearance signs losing ground to personality/behavior signs – most clearly for Deaf females. Finally, there is a marginally significant difference in the distribution of sign types based on whether or not the name giver was Deaf. The study is the first to investigate name signs and naming customs in the SSL community statistically – synchronically and diachronically – and one of the few to do so for any sign language.

  • 277.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Distribution and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language2016In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 19, no 2, 143-196 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate frequency and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) using the SSL Corpus. The duration of signs is correlated with frequency, with high-frequency items having shorter duration than low-frequency items. Similarly, function words (e.g. pronouns) have shorter duration than content words (e.g. nouns). In compounds, forms annotated as reduced display shorter duration. Fingerspelling duration correlates with word length of corresponding Swedish words, and frequency and word length play a role in the lexicalization of fingerspellings. The sign distribution in the SSL Corpus shows a great deal of cross-linguistic similarity with other sign languages in terms of which signs appear as high-frequency items, and which categories of signs are distributed across text types (e.g. conversation vs. narrative). We find a correlation between an increase in age and longer mean sign duration, but see no significant difference in sign duration between genders.

  • 278.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Lepic, Ryan
    Commentary on Kita, van Gijn & van der Hulst (1998)2014In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 17, no 2, 241-250 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 279.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Lepic, Ryan
    Belsitzman, Gal
    Articulatory plurality is a property of lexical plurals in sign language2016In: Lingvisticæ investigationes, ISSN 0378-4169, E-ISSN 1569-9927, Vol. 39, no 2, 391-407 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sign languages make use of paired articulators (the two hands), hence manual signs may be either one- or two-handed. Although two-handedness has previously been regarded a purely formal feature, studies have argued morphologically two-handed forms are associated with some types of inflectional plurality. Moreover, recent studies across sign languages have demonstrated that even lexically two-handed signs share certain semantic properties. In this study, we investigate lexically plural concepts in ten different sign languages, distributed across five sign language families, and demonstrate that such concepts are preferentially represented with two-handed forms, across all the languages in our sample. We argue that this is because the signed modality with its paired articulators enables the languages to iconically represent conceptually plural meanings.

  • 280.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Segmenting the Swedish Sign Language corpus: On the possibilities of using visual cues as a basis for syntactic segmentation2014In: Workshop Proceedings: 6th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Beyond the Manual Channel / [ed] Onno Crasborn, Eleni Efthimiou, Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Paris: ELRA , 2014, 7-10 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the possibility of conducting syntactic segmentation of the Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) on the basisof the visual cues from both manual and nonmanual signals. The SSLC currently features segmentation on the lexical level only, whichis why the need for a linguistically valid segmentation on e.g. the clausal level would be very useful for corpus-based studies on thegrammatical structure of Swedish Sign Language (SSL). An experiment was carried out letting seven Deaf signers of SSL each segmenttwo short texts (one narrative and one dialogue) using ELAN, based on the visual cues they perceived as boundaries. This was latercompared to the linguistic analysis done by a language expert (also a Deaf signer of SSL), who segmented the same texts into whatwas considered syntactic clausal units. Furthermore, these segmentation procedures were compared to the segmentation done for theSwedish translations also found in the SSLC. The results show that though the visual and syntactic segmentations overlap in manycases, especially when a number of cues coincide, the visual segmentation is not consistent enough to be used as a means of segmentingsyntactic units in the SSLC.

  • 281.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Sandler, Wendy
    University of Haifa.
    Aronoff, Mark
    Stony Brook University.
    Sign Language Linguistics2014In: Oxford Bibliographies Online: Linguistics / [ed] Mark Aronoff, New York: Oxford University Press, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 282.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Towards an Annotation of Syntactic Structure in the Swedish Sign Language Corpus2016In: Workshop Proceedings: 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining / [ed] Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Paris: ELRA , 2016, 19-24 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes on-going work on extending the annotation of the Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) with a level of syntactic structure. The basic annotation of SSLC in ELAN consists of six tiers: four for sign glosses (two tiers for each signer; one for each of a signer’s hands), and two for written Swedish translations (one for each signer). In an additional step by Östling et al. (2015), all ¨ glosses of the corpus have been further annotated for parts of speech. Building on the previous steps, we are now developing annotation of clause structure for the corpus, based on meaning and form. We define a clause as a unit in which a predicate asserts something about one or more elements (the arguments). The predicate can be a (possibly serial) verbal or nominal. In addition to predicates and their arguments, criteria for delineating clauses include non-manual features such as body posture, head movement and eye gaze. The goal of this work is to arrive at two additional annotation tier types in the SSLC: one in which the sign language texts are segmented into clauses, and the other in which the individual signs are annotated for their argument types.

  • 283.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Iconic Locations in Swedish Sign Language: Mapping Form to Meaning with Lexical Databases2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics, NoDaLiDa / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, 221-225 p., 026Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe a method for mapping the phonological feature location of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) signs to the meanings in the Swedish semantic dictionary SALDO. By doing so, we observe clear differences in the distribution of meanings associated with different locations on the body. The prominence of certain locations for specific meanings clearly point to iconic mappings between form and meaning in the lexicon of SSL, which pinpoints modalityspecific properties of the visual modality.

  • 284.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Östling, Robert
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Visualizing Lects in a Sign Language Corpus: Mining Lexical Variation Data in Lects of Swedish Sign Language2016In: Workshop Proceedings: 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining / [ed] Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Paris: ELRA , 2016, 13-18 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss the possibilities for mining lexical variation data across (potential) lects in Swedish Sign Language (SSL). The data come from the SSL Corpus (SSLC), a continuously expanding corpus of SSL, its latest release containing 43 307 annotated sign tokens, distributed over 42 signers and 75 time-aligned video and annotation files. After extracting the raw data from the SSLC annotation files, we created a database for investigating lexical distribution/variation across three possible lects, by merging the raw data with an external metadata file, containing information about the age, gender, and regional background of each of the 42 signers in the corpus. We go on to present a first version of an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) that can be used as a tool for investigating lexical variation across different lects, and demonstrate a few interesting finds. This tool makes it easier for researchers and non-researchers alike to have the corpus frequencies for individual signs visualized in an instant, and the tool can easily be updated with future expansions of the SSLC.

  • 285.
    Cabraja, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The effects of video games on the receptive vocabulary proficiency of Swedish ESL students2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Playing video games is an activity that takes up an increasing amount of children’s and adolescent’s spare time. While some previous studies have highlighted the negative aspects of video games, little research has been carried out on the linguistic learning opportunities that video games present. This study primarily investigates if Swedish second language learners of English can increase their vocabulary proficiency in English with the use of video games. In order to answer the research questions, two quantitative data elicitation methods are used: a questionnaire which aims to gather attitudinal and behavioral data, and a Vocabulary Levels Test which elicits data about the participants’ receptive vocabulary proficiency. The participants consist of 25 students at an upper secondary school in Stockholm. The results show that participants who played video games scored higher on the Vocabulary Levels Test, indicating a higher receptive vocabulary proficiency. Furthermore, the results show that participants who played moderate to frequent amounts of time performed better in the Vocabulary Levels Test than infrequent players. The results also show that video games emphasizing co-operation and communication are preferable to use for vocabulary acquisition. Additionally, the study discusses if video games could be integrated into the Swedish upper secondary school system.

  • 286.
    Camps Navajas, Mercè
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Estudio cualitativo de actitudes lingü.sticas: comparación entre estudiantes de bachillerato en Suecia con el español como lengua de herencia o como lengua extranjera2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has been, mainly since the decade of the 70ies a receptor of Spanish-speaking immigrants. Today, Spanish is the most popular modern language in Swedish schools. Thus, we find ourselves in a context characterized by the convergence of Spanish linguistic heritage —from 2nd and 3rd generations of immigrants— and the student’s interest to learn the language. This study is placed within this social circumstances and it aims to locate and analyse the attitudes towards linguistic variation of two groups of students of Spanish as a foreign language in a high-school (gymnasium) in the metropolitan area of Stockholm, one of which is formed by speakers of Spanish as a heritage language. We will therefore focus on the relationship between the interaction of different factors —mainly extralinguistics— and the profile of each subject. We will also take into account the how the academic context may have influenced these attitudes. In relation to the context, we would like to clarify that the students arecurrently enrolled in either Paso 5 (steg 5) or Paso 6 (steg 6) levels, according to the Swedish school system, which, according to the Marco Común Europeo de Referencia par alas Lenguas, corresponds to B1-B2 and B2 levels, respectively. In order to identify these factors and make sure that the results are representative of the attitudes of the subjects, we have decided to combine three methodologies: adirect one (qualitative interview), and two indirect ones (the matched-guise technique and the linguistic self-portraits). The results have showed that the idiosyncrasy of each subject is decisive in relation to the attitudes he shows. However, we determine that the attitudes of the students in the heritage language group are based on identity issues and linguistic pride, whereas motivation when learning the foreign language is the basis for the foreign language group’s attitudes.

  • 287.
    Canfora, Iraima
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    El pronombre sujeto en la interlengua (sueco L2) de un grupo de hispanohablantes2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    La presente investigación estudia la omisión del pronombre sujeto en la interlengua de un hablante nativo de español (L1) en el proceso de adquisición del sueco como (L2). La posibilidad de que un hispanohablante omita el pronombre sujeto, aceptado en español que es una lengua de sujeto nulo, a la hora de adquirir una L2 que no admite tal omisión, es una de las interrogantes a las que trataremos de dar respuestas, sobre todo si esta omisión se debe a transferencias de la L1 (lengua materna), en el caso que se compruebe que eso sí ocurre. Una hipótesis que nos planteamos es si el aprendiz que cuenta ya con conocimientos previos de la estructura gramatical de una lengua que no admite el pro-drop, comete menos el error de omisión del pronombre sujeto. Nuestro propósito es demostrar lo antes dicho mediante un estudio con aprendices hispanohablantes. Concluido el mismo, los resultados obtenidos muestran que aún sin tener otra lengua extranjera (LE), como por ej. el inglés, no necesariamente se omite el sujeto, a causa, como teníamos la creencia, de una sobregeneralización de reglas.

  • 288.
    Cap, Fabienne
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Adesam, Yvonne
    University of Gothenburg.
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Linköping University.
    Borin, Lars
    University of Gothenburg.
    Bouma, Gerlof
    University of Gothenburg.
    Forsberg, Markus
    University of Gothenburg.
    Kann, Viggo
    KTH.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Smith, Aaron
    Uppsala University.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nivre, Joakim
    Uppsala University.
    SWORD: Towards Cutting-Edge Swedish Word Processing2016In: SLTC 2016: The Sixth Swedish Language Technology Conference (SLTC), SLTC , 2016, Vol. 6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite many years of research on Swedish language technology, there is still no well-documented standard for Swedish word processing covering the whole spectrum from low-level tokenization to morphological analysis and disambiguation. SWORD is a new initiative within the SWE-CLARIN consortium aiming to develop documented standards for Swedish word processing. In this paper, we report on a pilot study of Swedish tokenization, where we compare the output of six different tokenizers on four different text types. For one text type (Wikipedia articles), we also compare to the tokenization produced by six manual annotators.

  • 289.
    Careborg, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att ta sig vatten över huvudet: En studie om idiomförståelse ur ett tvåspråkighets- och andraspråksperspektiv2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur väl tvåspråkiga elever i årskurs 9 behärskade vanligt förekommande idiomatiska uttryck i skrivet språk. Tre faktorer som enligt tidigare studier visat sig påverka idiomförståelse är; semantisk transparens, om uttrycket står i en kontext samt tidigare kännedom om uttrycket. Läsförmågan kontrollerades med ett standardiserat avkodnings- och läsförståelsetest, och idiomförståelsen testades utifrån ett test med 45, främst transparenta frekventa idiomatiska uttryck, isolerade respektive i en kontext. Resultaten visade att typ av tvåspråkighet och nivå på läskunnighet påverkade idiomförståelsen. De successivt tvåspråkiga med svenska som andraspråk klarade inte av att använda kontexten vid tolkningen i lika hög grad som de simultant tvåspråkiga och successivt tvåspråkiga med svenska som förstaspråk. Däremot presterade båda grupperna bäst vid tolkningen av idiomatiska uttryck som de hade kännedom om sedan tidigare. Enligt utvecklingsmodellen, global elaboration model (GEM) börjar utvecklingsprocessen för figurativ kompetens i 8 årsåldern hos enspråkiga barn. Enligt resultaten i denna studie kunde successivt tvåspråkiga med svenska som andraspråk i årskurs 9 jämföras med enspråkiga barn i 7-8 årsåldern, medan gruppen med simultant tvåspråkiga och successivt tvåspråkiga med svenska som förstaspråk, kunde jämföras med enspråkiga barn mellan 9-12 år.

  • 290.
    Carlberg, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att förstärka sinnelag och sinnesstämning: En korpusstudie av förstärkande förled hos svenska adjektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is no description in the Swedish grammar regarding how adjectives can be reinforced with prefixes, also known as intensifiers. Research shows that this phenomenon have recieved greater attention in other languages. The purpose of this study was to describe and map the use of prefix reinforcements, and see if any patterns or rules could be found. The quantitative research is based on statistical data collected from informal blog texts in two Swedish corpora. Adjectives on two types of mood, solid and temporary, as well as positive and negative, were investigated. The results showed that some types were more inclined to take reinforcements than others. Temporary adjectives took on more than solid ones, negative more than positive, as well as the short and frequent adjectives where more often reinforced than the longer and uncommon ones

  • 291.
    Carlsson, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Cromnow, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Egardt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    En undersökning av sambandet mellan språklig och motorisk utveckling hos 8-16 månader gamla barn: En analys av föräldrars skattningar i testinstrumentet Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory (SECDI)2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föräldrar till barn i åldrarna 8-16 månader har i samband med en forskningsstudie vid Stockholms universitet skattat sina barns färdigheter och förmågor med hjälp av formuläret SECDI. För undersökning av motorisk och språkliga utveckling hos barn valdes barn i åldrarna 8, 10, 12, 14 och 16 månader ut. Barnens skattade språkliga förmågor jämfördes med deras skattade motoriska förmågor. Syftet med detta specialarbete är att utifrån föräldrarnas skattningar av sina barns färdigheter undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan motorisk och språklig färdighet hos små barn. Undersökningens resultat påvisar ett sådant samband. Summan av antal förstådda respektive sagda ord korrelerade starkt med summan av antal gester. En bakomliggande variabel tros vara barnens ålder vilket visar sig som en signifikant korrelation mellan barnens språkliga och motoriska utveckling samt ålder.

  • 292.
    Cedergren, Mickaëlle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    L’écriture biblique dans la littérature du XIXe siècle finissant : le cas de Strindberg2008In: @nalyses, revue de critique et de théorie littéraire: Articles courants, XIXe siècle., ISSN 1715-9261, no printemps 2008, 6-30 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inferno constitutes a turning point in Strindberg’s literary production in that scriptural quotations appear more frequently and a new style emerges. This article presents the characteristics of the scriptural quotations appearing in Inferno (1897) and Jacob Wrestles (a fragment following Légendes, written in French and in Swedish in 1898). The linguistic analysis — with includes comparative, discourse, textual and intertextual approaches — is used to define the place and role of scriptural quotations in this literary corpus. This study has revealed three different types of biblical writings which show the spiritual disposition and the religious evolution of the narrator in each text.

  • 293.
    Chimbutane, Feliciano
    et al.
    Eduardo Mondlane University, Moçambique.
    Stroud, ChristopherStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Educação Bilingue em Moçambique: Reflectindo Criticamente sobre Políticas e Práticas2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 294.
    Chrystal, Judith-Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Ekvall, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Skrivelyst og tekstkompetence - Hvad responssamtaler mellem 'svage' skribenter kan afsloere2012In: Skrivelyst i et specialpaedagogisk perspektiv / [ed] Sigrid Madsberg, Kristen Friis, Köpenhamn: Dansk psykologisk Forlag, 2012, 91-116 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 295.
    Cleve, Linn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    "Det ingår liksom att anstränga sig lite": En studie om pedagogers förhållningssätt och tankar om språkstimulerande arbetssätt för flerspråkiga barn i förskolan.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to shed light on how some teachers with different backgrounds, in a homogenous Swedish-speaking and a more multicultural area, think about and work with multilingual children in preschool. My research questions concerned the teachers’ vision of how a language stimulating environment should be designed. If multilingual children need a particular design - plus positive and negative aspects of the work with multilingual preschool children, as well as if there’s differences between the statements of the various professional roles. I also wanted to find out whether children's mother tongue was spoken in the everyday praxis or not - or if the child’s origins were highlighted in other ways. Interviews were used as my reasearch metod.

    My results showed that all teachers stress the use of a nuanced, rich and naming language in everyday praxis. For children with a mother tongue other than Swedish, it becomes more important with language aid, like pictures and concrete materials, according to teachers. Problematic aspects of speaking several languages in preschool were partly organizational - to obtain staff with multilingual skills - and partly to keep a balance in also emphasizing Swedish. In two of the preschools’ everyday activity, teachers speak languages other than Swedish. They do this referring to the positive cognitive effects on the child. Contrary to this, a preschool teacher at another preschool chose not to speak other languages in everyday activity. She feels that this sends out negative signals to the children whose first language is not spoken by any of the teachers. In general, there was a position with the teachers that problems and difficulties are in the profession, making an effort forms a part of the occupation.

  • 296.
    Clyne, Michael
    et al.
    University of Melbourne.
    Norrby, Catrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Address in pluricentric languages: The case of German and Swedish2011In: Línguas Pluricêntricas Pluricentric Languages: Variação Linguística e Dimensões Sociocognitivas Linguistic Variation and Sociocognitive Dimensions / [ed] Augusto Soares da Silva, Amadeu Torres, Miguel Gonçalves, Braga, Portugal: ALETHEIA – Associação Científica e Cultural , 2011, 147-160 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on address practices in German and Swedish, which bring out contrasts in address in the national varieties. It draws mainly on a large-scale project on address in a number of languages in Europe (Clyne, Norrby, Warren 2009). Data were collected in key localities of the national varieties in focus groups, interviews, chat groups and through participant observation. The results demonstrate that the dominant variation between address in the German and Austrian national varieties of German is the much greater use of titles in Austria and the much more widespread use of T in the workplace, both to superiors and at the same level of seniority. There is also variation within Germany, which highlights the issue of whether East and West German were separate national varieties during the division of Germany. In Sweden-Swedish, the V form was virtually abandoned in the 1960s and is now restricted to addressing especially very old and frail people in service encounters. In Finland Swedish, V is still employed in a way that has been abandoned in Sweden – expressing status and formality, reflecting conservatism and the influence of the Finnish language. This means that controversy as to whether V is exclusionary in Sweden is not relevant in Finland-Swedish. Our study of German and Swedish also demonstrates that knowledge of address in others’ varieties is largely stereotypical.

  • 297.
    Clyne, Michael
    et al.
    Dept of Languages and Linguistics, The University of Melbourne.
    Norrby, Catrin
    Dept of Languages and Linguistics, The University of Melbourne.
    Warren, Jane
    Dept of Languages and Linguistics, The University of Melbourne.
    Language and Human Relations: Styles of Address in Contemporary Language2009 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way in which people address one another is crucial to expressing social relationships and is closely linked with cultural values. In English we call some people by their first names, and others 'Mr' or 'Ms', followed by their surname. In some other languages there are different ways of saying 'you' depending on the degree of social distance. Exploring practices in the family, school, university, the workplace and in letters, this book reveals patterns in the varied ways people choose to address one another, from pronouns to first names, from honorifics to titles and last names. Examples are taken from contemporary English, French, German and Swedish, using rich data from focus group research, interviews, chat groups, and participant observation.

    • A revealing investigation into the different ways people choose to address each other • Data is derived from multiple sources, such as focus groups, interviews and participant observation • Explores address practices in a variety of situations including the family, school and the workplace

  • 298.
    Collantes, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Scrutinizing the use of online data: A critical study of the use of online forum texts in research2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has given researchers a convenient and accessible tool for collecting data. It enables researchers to find natural occurring language that gives them the opportunity to save time and partake of various advantages the Internet has to offer. Web forums are deep and complex message boards occupied by online communities. These web forums are a rich source for collecting naturally occurring language that can be used for various sorts of research. Several researchers have shown that these web forums have a generous amount of advantages when used as data (Yates, 1996; Hsiung, 2000; Joinson, 2001; Im & Chee, 2006; Newhagen & Rafaeli, 2006; Misoch, 2015). However, it is equally important to understand the nature of the flaws that web forum texts as data may have. The notion of anonymity and the overrepresentation of a certain demographic groups may mislead incautious researchers collecting data from web forums.

    This paper aims to analyse several research articles which uses web forum texts as data within two different disciplines, health and social care and linguistics, in addition to classifying them as either high-stakes or low-stakes research. The goal is to investigate how researchers handle possible limitations and risks of such data. Initial results showed that high-stakes are more thorough when discussing and reporting concerns regarding their data. Evidently, health and social care high-stakes research articles reported more concerns than linguistics research articles. Several recommendations based on these results were made in the end of the paper for researchers to use when conducting research based on web forum texts.

  • 299.
    Cooper, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A unified account of the Old English metrical line2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the verse design of Old English poetry in terms of modern phonological theory, developing an analysis which allows all OE verse lines to be described in terms of single metrical design.

    Old English poetry is typified by a single type of line of variable length, characterised by four metrical peaks. The variation evident in the lengths of OE metrical units has caused previous models to overgenerate acceptable verse forms or to develop complex typologies of dozens of acceptable forms. In this study, Metrical phonology and Optimality theory are used to highlight some aspects of the relationship between syntax, phonology and verse metrics in determining how sentences and phrases interact with the verse structure to create variation.

    The main part of the study is a metrical model based on the results of a corpus analysis. The corpus is centred on the OE poems Genesis and Andreas, complemented by selected shorter poems. A template of a prototypical line is described based on a verse foot which contains three vocalic moras, and which can vary between 2 and 4 vocalic moras distributed across 1 to 4 syllables. Each standard line is shown to consist of four of these verse feet, leading to a line length which can vary between 8 and 16 vocalic moras. It is shown that the limited variation within the length of the verse foot causes the greater variation in the length of lines. The rare, longer ‘hypermetric’ line is also accounted for with a modified analysis. The study disentangles the verse foot, which is an abstract metrical structure, from the prosodic word, which is a phonological object upon which the verse foot is based, and with which it is often congruent. Separate sets of constraints are elaborated for creating prosodic words in OE, and for fitting them into verse feet and lines. The metrical model developed as a result of this analysis is supported by three smaller focused studies.

    The constraints for creating prosodic words are defended with reference to compounds and derivational nouns, and are supported by a smaller study focusing on the metrical realisation of non-Germanic personal names in OE verse. Names of biblical origin are often longer than the OE prosodic word can accommodate. The supporting study on non-Germanic names demonstrates how long words with no obvious internal morphology in OE are adapted first to OE prosody and then to the verse structure. The solution for the metrical realisation of these names is shown to be patterned on derivational nouns.

    The supporting study on compound numerals describes how phrases longer than a verse are accommodated by the verse design. It is shown that compound numerals, which consist of two or more numeral words (e.g. 777 – seofonhund and seofon and hundseofontig) are habitually rearranged within the text to meet the requirements of verse length and alliteration.

    A further supporting study discusses the difference between the line length constraints controlling OE verse design and those for Old Norse and Old Saxon verse. Previous studies have often conflated these three closely related traditions into a single system. It is shown that despite their common characteristics, the verse design described in this study applies to all OE verse, but not to ON or OS.

  • 300.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Mapping articulatory parameters on formant patterns: From articulations to acoustics non-stop2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional way of estimating the formant frequencies from articulatory data presupposes knowledge of how the vocal tract cross-sectional area varies for a given articulatory shape (Fant 1960/1970). Accordingly, in order to derive the formant pattern of a given articulation, the three-dimensional shape of the vocal tract (VT) needs to be known. In the past cross-sectional areas have typically been derived by means of ‘d-to-A rules’ that use the mid-sagittal cross-distance d at each point along the VT to produce a corresponding cross-sectional area A. X-ray and MRI data have been used to calibrate such rules (Heinz & Stevens 1964, Sundberg et al. 1987, Ericsdotter 2005). Although this procedure has produced many useful results it is time consuming and laborious. It is speaker-specific. It presupposes access to information on the three-dimensional shape of the VT, which is not experimentally readily accessible. Such observations raise the question whether sufficiently accurate alternative approaches can be developed. Is it possible to go straight from articulatory data to formant frequencies without having to construct a cross-sectional area function? If such methods could be developed it would have many uses both in phonetics and practical applications.

    This paper reports an attempt to map the time variations of selected articulatory parameters from X-ray profiles directly on the formant tracks using multiple regression analysis. Preliminary results for F1 indicate that multiple regression analysis can indeed be useful for making such predictions. The prospects of extending the present analyses to other formants are discussed.

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