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  • 251.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Frequency, Form, and Distribution of Illocutionary Speech Acts in Swedish Parent-Child Interaction2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, young children’s development of speech acts was examined. Interaction between six Swedish-speaking parents and their children was observed. The frequency, form and distribution of speech acts in the output from the parents were compared with the frequency, form and distribution of the children’s speech acts. The frequency was measured by occurrences per analysed session. The aim of the analysis was to examine if the parent’s behaviour could be treated as a baseline for the child’s development. Both the parents’ and the children’s illocutionary speech acts were classified. Each parent-child dyad was observed at four different occasions, when the children were 1;0, 1;6, 2;0, and 2;6 years of age. Similar studies have previously shown that parents keep a consistent frequency of speech acts within a given time span of interaction, though the distribution of different types of speech acts may shift, depending on contextual factors. The form, in terms of Mean Length of Speech Act in Words (MLSAw), were correlated with the longitudinal result of the children’s MLSAw. The distribution of the parents’ speech acts showed extensive individual differences. The result showed that the children’s MLSAw move significantly closer the MLSAw of their parents. Since the parent’s MLSAw showed a wide distribution, these results indicate that the parent’s speech acts can be treated as a baseline for certain aspects of the children’s development, though further studies are needed.

  • 252.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Noun Phrase Anaphora and Referential Behaviour in Child-Directed Speech During the Child’s First Year2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    “Anaphora” is a label used for a referential expression that connects one entity (e.g. a pronoun) to another previously established entity (e.g. a proper name). The previously established entity is called an antecedent. The use of anaphora will, in this study, be referred to as referential behaviour. The study was based around audio and video recordings of free play between a Swedish parent and his/her child. 10 parents and their children were recorded. The referential behaviour of the parents was analysed. The sessions took place when the children were 3, 6, 9 and 12 months old. Recent studies indicate that speech directed at children during a child's first six months contains a larger amount of pronouns than the speech directed at children between 6 and 12 months of age. The purpose of the study was to examine if the decline of pronouns was visible in Swedish child- directed speech, and to see how different types of anaphora appeared in the same speech. Correlations between the visible changes of different types of referential expressions were also examined. A drop in the use of anaphoric pronoun with an explicit antecedent was found for the last two ages, which confirmed the study’s hypothesis. The results were also compared to each child’s vocabulary development. 

  • 253.
    Per, Lindberg
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    Ungdomars attityder till svordomar ur ett andraspråksperspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna uppsats undersöks ett urval gymnasielevers attityder till i synnerhet svenska svordomar. Tonvikten ligger vid attityderna till svordomar hos dem som har svenska som ett andraspråk och huruvida dessa skiljer sig i förhållande till attityderna hos dem som har svenska som sitt modersmål.

    Grunden i undersökningen utgörs av en enkät som sedan kompletteras med ett antal intervjuer. Resultaten vilar alltså till störst del på kvantitativa data vilka i sin tur diskuteras utifrån Bourdieus (1991) begreppsapparat om kulturellt kapital, marknader och habitus, samt teorier kring språkets kopplingar till känslor.

    Undersökningen visar att det finns skillnader i attityder till svordomar mellan modersmålstalande och andraspråkstalande av svenska inom det föreliggande urvalet. Sammanfattningsvis tenderar de som har svenska som andraspråk att svära mindre och reagera kraftigare vid förekomster av svordomar än vad modersmålstalarna gör. Resultaten visar också att andraspråkstalarna har en tendens att bejaka svordomarnas kränkande funktioner, medan modersmålstalarna i högre utsträckning än andraspråkstalarna bejakar svordomar i syften som att förstärka yttranden eller avreagera sig vid smärta. Dessa skillnader antas kunna härledas ur de värderingar som återfinns inom den kultur respektive deltagare vuxit upp i.

  • 254.
    Persson, Adam
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Övervakad namntaggning med domänspecifik träningsdata2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Övervakad maskininlärning har gett goda resultat för automatisk namntaggning. Detta kräver dock manuellt annoterad träningsdata, vilket är krävande att ta fram. Studier har visat att likhet mellan träningsdata och testdata är viktigt för att uppnå bra resultat, men normalt sett tränas system alltid med så mycket data som möjligt, utan hänsyn till dess relevans. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om bättre namntaggning kan uppnås genom att utesluta de delar av träningsdatan som inte tillhör samma textdomän som testdatan. För att genomföra detta konstrueras ett system med multinomial logistisk regression som tränas och testas på Stockholm-Umeå Corpus enligt både traditionell och föreslagen metod. Undersökningen visar en liten men signifikant försämring vid användning av enbart domänspecifik träningsdata, ett resultat som dock inte är genomgående för alla delar av undersökningen. Den stora fördelen av att reducera träningsdatan är dock att det ökar maskininlärningens hastighet. För att kunna utnyttja detta föreslås att namntaggning föregås av textklassificering.

  • 255.
    Persson, Frej
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet.
    Kjapt och kjempebra: En studie av skandinavisk språkgemenskap på en arbetsplats2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks skandinavisk grannspråksförståelse på en arbetsplats med anställda från Danmark, Norge och Sverige. Syftet är att ta reda på hur den skandinaviska språkgemenskapen tar sig konkret uttryck på arbetsplatsen. Materialet, som omfattar ett möte och två intervjuer, analyseras med utgångspunkt i ackommodationsteorin och CA (Conversation Analysis), samt i tidigare forskning om skandinavisk grannspråksförståelse.

    Resultaten visar dels att viss ackommodation (språkliga anpassningar) görs i de interskandinaviska samtalen, dels att förståelsen är asymmetrisk: de svenska medarbetarna tycks ha svårare än sina skandinaviska kolleger att förstå grannspråken. Främst har de svårt att förstå talad danska, och väljer därför ofta att tala engelska med sina danska kolleger. Talad norska förstås däremot betydligt bättre av svenskarna. Den skandinaviska språkgemenskapen på arbetsplatsen kan därför sägas vara partiell. Dessa resultat stämmer i hög grad överens med tidigare forskning om skandinavisk grannspråksförståelse.

  • 256.
    Persson, Minna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Tempus och aspekt i pidginisering: En studie av sju pidginspråk och deras källspråk2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    It has been proposed that pidgin languages are similar in their marking of tense and aspect. This study wishes to answer three questions: 1) are there similarities in the marking of tense and aspect in pidgins, 2) are there similarities between the source languages and the pidgins they result in, and 3) does the development of tense aspect marking in pidgins follow the general patterns of grammaticalisation observed in other languages. Two quite different approaches are used to analyse the languages. Firstly the concept of grams is used, that is, a representation of a grammatical category in a specific language, e.g. the perfect in Swedish. Secondly the theory of prominence is used, i.e. that a particular language tends to grammaticalise one of the categories tense or aspect (or mood) rather than the other. The study looks at a sample of seven pidgin languages from around the world and compares them with regards to their marking of tense and aspect. Furthermore the tense-aspect systems of the source languages (lexifiers and substrates) of these pidgins are studied. Regarding the first question, the most obvious similarity is the fact that there is very little grammaticalised marking of tense and aspect at all. A pattern can also be discerned were a pidgin uses either a marker for perfective aspect or for past tense and that future/present markers are grammaticalised at a later stage. As for the similarities between the source languages and the pidgins, the pidginisation process has yielded languages with less grammaticalised forms than the source languages. All gram types found in the pidgins can also be found in their lexifiers. The patterns of grammaticalisation of tense and aspect markers follow universal patterns that have been described in typological studies. The semantic change of inherited or borrowed markers follow general patterns as do the innovations in the pidgin itself.

  • 257.
    Persson, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Starved neural learning: Morpheme segmentation using low amounts of data2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Automatic morpheme segmentation as a field has been dominated by unsupervised methods since its inception. Partly due to theoretical motivations, but also due to resource constraints. Given the success neural network methods have shown on a wide variety of field in later years, it would seem compelling to apply these methods to the morpheme segmentation field. This study explores the efficacy of modern neural networks, specifically convolutional neural networks and Bi-directional LSTM networks, on the morpheme segmentation task in a resource low setting to determine their viability as contenders with previous unsupervised, minimally supervised, and semi-supervised systems in the field. One architecture of each type is implemented and trained on a new gold standard data set and the results are compared to previously established methods. A qualitative error analysis of the architectures’ segmentations is also performed. The study demonstrates that a BLSTM system can be trained with minimal effort to produce a proof of concept solution at low levels of training data and suggests that BLSTM methods may be a fruitful direction for further research in this field.

  • 258.
    Pettersson, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Från 1980-talets Snuten i Hollywood till 2010-talets The Theory of Everything: Titelöversättning av utländska biofilmer i Sverige under 30 år2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här uppsatsen är att undersöka hur översättningen av titlar på utländska biofilmer i Sverige har utvecklats mellan 1985 och 2015, samt att hitta förklaringar till den utveckling som visas i resultaten. Materialet består av samtliga utländska filmer som visats på svenska biografer under åren 1985, 1995, 2005 och 2015 – totalt 868 originaltitlar och deras svenska motsvarigheter. Titlarna har klassificerats utifrån tre översättningsstrategier: (1) kopiering, (2) direktöversättning och (3) fri översättning. Som komplement har fem intervjuer med personer på svenska distributionsbolag genomförts, då det är de som väljer svensk titel. Resultaten visar bland annat en trend där kopiering har ökat allt mer samtidigt som de andra två strategierna har minskat sedan 1980-talet, samt att andelen engelska originaltitlar varken har ökat eller minskat sedan 1985. Uppsatsens slutsats är att tillvägagångssätt för val av översättningsstrategi varierar mellan olika distributionsbolag, men påverkas oftast av både titelns originalspråk och filmens målgrupp.

  • 259.
    Pettersson, Lena
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Writing Business Emails in English as a Lingua Franca - how informal can you be?: An analysis of formality in BELF emails2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of globalisation, the number of companies working globally is increasing at an unprecedented pace. Consequently, the need to communicate with people from other countries is getting bigger. In such intercultural communication, a common language must be used to interact. The language of choice is most often English, which is the business lingua franca (BELF) today. Furthermore, email has become the obvious choice of medium when interacting with foreign business associates. The present study was conducted through intensive and extensive analyses, investigating BELF emails written by 21 individuals with 14 different native languages. The data consists of 209 emails. The study follows Bjørge’s (2007) work on formality in emails written in academic settings. The aim of the study was to determine how formal the participants were in greetings and closings and whether they accommodated their language to the respondent. The results suggest that the level of formality mainly depends on the purpose of the email and, to some extent, how formal the correspondent is. The accommodation to the correspondent seems to be individual. The present study wishes to extend knowledge on email communication in BELF settings. The results are likely to be relevant for teachers and students of Business Communication and English as a Second or Foreign Language along with managers in internationally functioning companies, especially as regards what should be considered in BELF communication.

  • 260.
    Philp, Rebecca
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Sexpectations: Gender perspectives on language proficiencyin English among Swedes and Sweden Finns2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this comparative study is to investigate language proficiency in English among Swedes and the Finnish-speaking population living in Sweden, henceforth referred to as Sweden Finns. The main issue is to discover to what extent Sweden Finns show similarity and how they differ from Swedes regarding their proficiency in English, concerning grammar and vocabulary. Through a proficiency test, this essay intends to compare and discover any possible tendencies among male and female monolingual and bilingual participants.

         Gender issues are rather unexplored in research on bilingualism. Sex, or gender, as a variable has received a limited amount of attention compared with other factors of individual variation, such as age or language learning strategies in the field of SLA.

         The results of the statistical analysis of the data indicate that results are varied, and therefore confirm previous results. Sweden Finns score higher as a group on the test than Swedes, but male Swedish participants gave the most correct answers on all questions, followed by female Sweden Finns, then male Sweden Finns and ultimately female Swedes. Interesting, but not statistically significant, findings suggest that the students participating in this study have a good vocabulary size and are acquainted with high-frequency words and pronouns. Most errors were found in the parts concerning irregular verbs and synonyms. Multiple-choice questions received a higher frequency of right answers than open questions.

         As the results are varied since this type of study has not been carried out before, it shows that there is a need for nuanced quantitative research in this field of study.

  • 261.
    Plaza, Cajsa
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The environments differ, and therefore, the language differs.: A case study of how pragmatic competence in English is taught in a Swedish secondary and upper secondary school.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Pragmatic competence has become an essential component of L2 (second language) proficiency. The purpose of this case study is to investigate how pragmatic competence in English is taught in a public Swedish secondary and upper secondary school. The aim with this study is to reach an in-depth understanding of how the teachers in this specific school view, value and teach pragmatic competence. The study has a qualitative approach and was conducted through semi-structured interviews with two teachers. In addition to the interviews, an analysis of the pedagogic material used in the classroom was made. The most significant findings of the study show that pragmatic competence and cultural knowledge are teachable and are indeed being taught in the studied school. Different types of oral activities are the mostly used pedagogical practices to teach different aspects of pragmatic competence. The aspects of pragmatic competence that are in focus, in both secondary and upper secondary school, are formal and informal language, adaptation of the language and politeness. 

  • 262.
    Quevedo, Marta
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The influence of semantic context on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in extemporaneous foreign accented Swedish speech2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Bilingualism is nowadays a worldwide phenomenon due to different factors such as migration, education or political and geographical reasons. These factors have led to both individual and social bilingualism, which favor an increase of communicative encounters between native and non-native speakers of a certain language.

    The above situation has contributed to a growth of studies on second language acquisition. Some of these studies have focused on native speakers’ perception and understanding of the non-native speech. More specifically, perception and effectiveness of communication through the analysis of three dimensions; accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility. Although these three constructs have been intensively studied, little is known about the effect of semantic context on them. To our knowledge, just two studies have analyzed the effect of semantic context on native speakers’ judgments of the three dimensions by using read material. Therefore, this thesis extends the research on the influence of semantic context over these three dimension when the auditory stimulus corresponds to spontaneous non-native speech.

    In this thesis, the results on accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility tasks of 40 native Swedish speakers are presented. The findings showed that listeners’ perceived comprehensibility of the non-native speech is affected by the use of additional contextual information. That is, the listeners who were provided with additional visual information perceived the non-native speech as significantly easier to understand than those listeners who did not receive the extra contextual support. Furthermore, the results showed that accentedness and comprehensibility perception of the listeners is influenced by their actual understanding of the non-native speech.

    Finally, this thesis proves the difficulty of studying the effect of semantic context on listeners’ response to accentedness, comprehensibility, and intelligibility when using spontaneous non-native speech. The results indicate that more research on how semantic context influences the perception of extemporaneous non-native speech is needed.

  • 263.
    Randén, Petra
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Business English in the Swedish Pharmaceutical Sector: A study of the needs of speakers of Business English when used as a Lingua Franca.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Multinational corporations operating in Sweden often use English as their official corporate language. The employees are expected to communicate using English both internally and with external business contacts. English used for communication between people with different mother tongues is commonly referred to as ELF, English as a Lingua Franca, and when used in business contexts it is referred to as Business English or BELF, Business English as a Lingua Franca. This study was conducted to explore how Business English is used in the pharmaceutical sector in Sweden and what elements of Business English are challenging or necessary for successful communication. In the study five informants were interviewed about their experiences. The study showed that the informants use Business English for all types of communication and are comfortable with English as a lingua franca yet often switch over to Swedish if there are only Swedish speakers present. It was also found that clear, somewhat simplified English with focus on content and getting business done was preferred over grammatically correct and native sounding English. The respondents viewed an industry specific vocabulary as highly important bordering to a pre-requisite. The findings of this study support previous research in the field indicating that there is little difference when it comes to Business English for the pharmaceutical industry compared to other industries.

  • 264.
    Rask, Linnea
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för fonetik.
    Prosodic Features in Child-directed Speech during the Child's First Year2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates prosodic features of child-directed speech during the child’s first year, using the automated prosodic annotation software Prosogram. From previous studies on first language acquisition and child-directed speech we know that speech directed to infants and small children is characterised by exaggerated use of several prosodic features, including a higher pitch, livelier pitch movement and slower speech rate. Annotation of these phenomena has previously been done manually, which is time consuming and includes a risk of circularity. If we can use semi-automated systems to carry out this task, it would be a huge methodological gain. This study analysed recordings of 10 parent-child pairs at four occasions (3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age) for a total of 40 recordings. The audio files were analysed in Prosogram in order to detect possible differences depending on the child’s age. The results showed a noticeable change in child-directed speech over the first year of the child’s life. A change in several characteristic prosodic features was noted to occur between the ages of 6 and 9 months. Pitch levels decreased, and articulation rate increased. Additionally, parents seemed to use pitch values much higher than their mean pitch speaking to children aged 3 and 6 months than to children aged 9 and 12 months. Despite using a relatively small sample, the results show several interesting trends in the usage of child-directed speech. Furthermore, this study shows that Prosogram is a useful tool for automatic analysis of child-directed speech.

  • 265.
    Rosell, Christoffer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för spanska, portugisiska och latinamerikastudier.
    Sardinas contra tiburones: El discurso de la política comercial de Evo Morales con respecto al Acuerdo de Asociación entre la Comunidad Andina y la Unión Europea2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    Esta tesis de máster trata del discurso de la política comercial del presidente de

    Bolivia Evo Morales, con respecto a la negociaciones del pilar comercial del

    Acuerdo de Asociación entre la Comunidad Andina y la Unión Europea.

    Mediante un análisis del discurso de Morales, se responde a las preguntas de

    cómo puede caracterizarse el discurso de Morales, en qué se fundamenta y qué

    fines estratégicos tiene. El hilo conductor del trabajo es que Bolivia tiene un

    presidente que representaría la imagen social de los pueblos originarios y cuando

    Europa propone un nuevo proyecto como el Acuerdo de Asociación, este proyecto

    sería percibido como neocolonialista, donde es Europa quien decide en los

    asuntos internos de su socio latinoamericano. Se analizan 23 declaraciones de

    Morales, concluyendo que las alusiones a la Colonización es la característica más

    central de su discurso y que este tema ha afectado la posición de Bolivia en las

    negociaciones.

  • 266.
    Rosenqvist, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Att översätta slang: En jämförelse av översättningen av slanguttryck i John Greens Paper Towns till svenska och nederländska.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker hur de engelska slanguttrycken och talspråksmarkörerna i ungdomsromanen Paper Towns av John Green översatts till nederländska och svenska. En analys av slanguttrycken och talspråksmarkörerna i romanens första kapitel, utifrån Lambert & van Gorps modell (1985), visar vilka översättningsstrategier som översättarna valt och vilka översättningsnormer dessa är ett uttryck för. Resultatet visar att översättningarnas preliminära data pekar mot en adekvansinriktad översättningsstrategi. På mikronivå visar resultatet en mer acceptansinriktad översättningsstrategi vid översättning av slang och talspråksmarkörer, med en något större källspråksinriktning i den nederländska översättningen.

  • 267.
    Rosén, Linda
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Multilingualism and Translanguaging in Swedish Upper Secondary school: An exploration of English teacher candidates’ attitudes2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This ethnographically informed, qualitative study aims to investigate English teacher candidates’ attitudes towards multilingualism and translanguaging in English as a foreign language (EFL) classrooms and in the school environment. More specifically, the study intends to identify potential contributing factors to the formation of said attitudes, such as the influence of policy documents and of the teacher training program on the perception of the future working environment. The data was collected with semi-structured interviews; the participants were four teacher candidates, two females and two males, enrolled in the teacher education program in a Swedish university. In addition, at the time of data collection, all participants had completed most of the teacher education program, an aspect that increased the relevance of their responses, since they would soon be active teachers in the Swedish school system. Overall, the participants expressed positive attitudes towards multilingualism and translanguaging in a school environment. However, some hesitation in their answers was detected when they are asked how they would work with multilingual students in their future practice. These findings suggest that, if teacher candidates receive adequate education to approach their future working environment with confidence they would be better equipped to provide adequate pedagogical support to students whose L1 is other than Swedish. This would foster positive attitudes towards multilingualism and translanguaging and would, consequently, lead to an improvement in the academic results of multilingual students. The teacher candidates’ increased awareness of the benefits and challenges of multilingualism and their ability to put into practice the general principles they learn at university would benefit from changes in the teacher training program, in the curriculum compiled by the National Agency of Education, and in the national pedagogical approach to language learning.

  • 268.
    Rudberg, Tom
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    Le futur en français: Une étude sur l'emploi du futur simple et futur périphrastique à l'oral2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The general view by some linguists seems to be that the French simple future is often replacedby the periphrastic future in spoken language; a natural development characterized by anincrease of analytical forms at the expense of synthetic forms. However others claim that theusage of both simple and periphrastic future are still present in ordinary French, both havingdifferent implications. In this particular study, we examine the usage of simple future andperiphrastic future in the corpus ESLO2, which consist of transcripts of interviews andconversations from Orléans, France. We also examine some of the linguistic factors thatmight affect the usage of the two forms. Our hypothesis, based on previous literature andarticles treating the subject, being that the periphrastic future is used more frequently than thesimple future and that the traditional distinction between the two forms is not adequate inexplaining their usage in spoken French. The results of the study show that the periphrasticfuture is used more frequently than the simple form, and that there are linguistic factors thatcould explain their usage, however it is difficult to find unison explanations and furtherstudies are needed to conclude the factors behind the two forms.

  • 269.
    Ryderberg, Sanni
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Strong female characters and femininity: Exploring feminine language in Buffy the vampire slayer2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    It is widely accepted that gender is actively performed and a part of identity rather than biology, and that this is where gender differences in language stem from. Researchers have attempted to define what constitutes men and women’s language, and this paper uses some of these definitions to analyse the speech of the main character in the first season of the television show Buffy the vampire slayer. This research project investigates Buffy’s use of feminine language as well as whether her language changes when her performance is otherwise more masculine in the role of the slayer. This is done by comparing conversations between Buffy and her friends with conversations between Buffy and her enemies. The results show that Buffy uses some feminine linguistic features but that her speech is not distinctly feminine in general. Her language also does not change significantly when performing the role of the slayer. 

  • 270.
    Rönnlöf, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Language practices in the workplace: Ethnographic insights from two multilingual companies in Sweden2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Today’s globalised world calls for a multilingual workplace, with employees who can communicate effectively and efficiently with colleagues and clients around the world. Communication, both in the sense of actual language use and of language management, is an important but often forgotten part of productivity and performance in multinational corporations. This exploratory study aims to investigate how language is used and managed in two Swedish companies with English as at least one of the official languages. By using in-depth ethnographical interviews and a short analysis of the companies’ language policies from the view of centricity, present study is focused on the employees’ perceptions of the day-to-day language use and the company’s language management. It can be concluded that English is the main language used for written communication while both Swedish and English are used in spoken interactions. Language is negotiated through a set of variables and is thus determined by the people involved in the interaction, the function of the interaction and the medium of communication. Although some strains and difficulties did emerge in the interviews, both informants are positive towards the use of English. It is hoped that this small study will contribute to a better understanding of language use and language management in multinational companies in Sweden. 

  • 271.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    From left to right and back again: The distribution of dependent clauses in the Hindukush2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In complex clause constructions, the dependent clause can either precede or succeed the main clause. In a study on a selection of Indo-Aryan languages spoken on the Indian subcontinent (Hook 1987), a gradual transition between pre- and postposing languages was found, when moving from the southeast to the northwest in the area. In their relative vicinity in the Hindukush area, a sub-group of Indo-Aryan languages are spoken, commonly known by the tentative term “Dardic”. These languages are said to mainly have the dependent clause preceding the main clause (left-branching), and that this feature is shared by the neighbouring languages. This would mean a breach with the continuum described by Hook. In the present comparative study on the Dardic languages spoken in northern Pakistan, complex clauses of adverbial and complement types were studied in an attempt to confirm this proposition. The languages were found to have two competing branching structures where the indigenous, dominating left-branching structure possibly is being challenged by an imported right branching pattern, especially in complement clauses, possibly due to Persian or Urdu influence. A similar transition between more left-branching languages towards languages with a higher degree of right branching structures were found when moving from east to west in the geographical area studied.

  • 272.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Fusion, exponence, and flexivity in Hindukush languages: An areal-typological study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Surrounding the Hindukush mountain chain is a stretch of land where as many as 50 distinct languages varieties of several language meet, in the present study referred to as “The Greater Hindukush” (GHK). In this area a large number of languages of at least six genera are spoken in a multi-linguistic setting. As the region is in part characterised by both contact between languages as well as isolation, it constitutes an interesting field of study of similarities and diversity, contact phenomena and possible genealogical connections. The present study takes in the region as a whole and attempts to characterise the morphology of the many languages spoken in it, by studying three parameters: phonological fusion, exponence, and flexivity in view of grammatical markers for Tense-Mood-Aspect, person marking, case marking, and plural marking on verbs and nouns. The study was performed with the perspective of areal typology, employed grammatical descriptions, and was in part inspired by three studies presented in the World Atlas of Language Structures (WALS). It was found that the region is one of high linguistic diversity, even if there are common traits, especially between languages of closer contact, such as the Iranian and the Indo-Aryan languages along the Pakistani-Afghan border where purely concatenative formatives are more common. Polyexponential formatives seem more common in the western parts of the GHK as compared to the eastern. High flexivity is a trait common to the more central languages in the area. As the results show larger variation than the WALS studies, the question was raised of whether large-scale typological studies can be performed on a sample as limited as single grammatical markers. The importance of the region as a melting-pot between several linguistic families was also put forward.

  • 273.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Tense and aspect systems in Dardic languages: A comparative study2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The languages belonging to the group commonly known as the “Dardic languages” are on some levels insufficiently researched and have barely been subject to any comparative research on their finer grammatical structures, such as their tense and aspect systems. This comparative study analyses three Dardic languages spoken in the central Dardic speaking area (Khowar, Gawri, Palula) in view of their tense and aspect system, to find out how similar the languages are in this respect. The comparison is based on Dahl‟s 1985 Tense and Aspect questionnaire, partly to have an equal, comparable data set, and partly to be able to tie the results to the greater field of language typology. The study shows that the languages studied have a common primary focus on IPFV:PFV distinction, where past tense often is a secondary implicature following perfective aspect. There are notable differences in how and if the languages mark future tense and habitual aspect. The subject merits further studies on an extended sample and with more languages from the Dardic group.

  • 274.
    Samuelsson, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska, Slaviska språk.
    Den fria dativens struktur i ryska: En kontrastiv studie mellan ryska och svenska2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker den fria dativens struktur i ryska utifrån ett kontrastivt perspektiv. Genom en parallellkorpusbaserad metod jämförs språkliga kontexter för ryska och svenska. Resultatet visar att den ryska fria dativen strukturellt kan kategoriseras i intressets dativ, den omdömesfällande personens dativ och etisk dativ i första respektive andra person. Intressets dativ motsvarar de semantiska rollerna benefaktiv och malefaktiv, den omdömesfällande personens dativ judikantis och etisk dativ i första person upplevare. Etisk dativ i andra person kan representeras av antingen benefaktiv eller upplevare. Morfologiskt har intressets dativ och den omdömesfällande personens dativ svenska ekvivalenter. För etisk dativ påvisades inga ekvivalenter. Däremot upptäcktes olika typer av kompensationer till etisk dativ. Talarens negativa inställning till lyssnaren kan i ekvivalenta satser i svenska bäras av possessiva pronomen i andra person eller av pejorativa ord. Uttryck av besvikelse kan i motsvarande svenska satser kodas genom olika sorters jämförelsekonstruktioner.

  • 275.
    Samuelsson, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för slaviska och baltiska språk, finska, nederländska och tyska, Slaviska språk.
    The Russian Verbal Prefix v- and Circumfix v- -sja in Space: A Contrastive Study between Russian and Swedish2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien undersöker det ryska verbprefixet v(o)- och cirkumfixet v(o)- -sja i det konkreta fysiska rummet. Syftet med den kontrastiva studien är att undersöka och beskriva betydelser. Tvåspråkig data från en samtida rysk-svensk ordbok analyseras med Krongauz metod. En lista över verbaffixens betydelser byggs upp genom att jämföra lexikala betydelser och morfosyntaktiska konstruktioner för verben i båda språken. Resultatet visar att affixens betydelser kan delas in i följande kategorier: Spatiala rörelser in i ett slutet rum, Spatiala rörelser till en avgränsad yta, Spatiala rörelser mot en närhet, Vidhäftning och Platser i det fysiska rummet.

  • 276.
    Sandin Johansson, Christopher
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A study of attitudes towards English as a Lingua Franca: Perspectivesand experiences of university students2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    My aim is to study university students’ attitudes towards using English as a first language when studying. This exploratory study will be conducted through a series of interviews but also a review of the students’ course syllabus to see if there occurs any pattern of variation amongst the literature used for their course.The results indicate that there is a favourable attitude towards the use of English because of both overt and covert prestige that is attached to it in academia. However, I have also discovered that there is a link between the students’ proficiency and their confidence in using English as an educational medium. This occurs because of the students’ own acceptance of the material given to them by the educational institutions. This acceptance of the literature is closely related to the students’ own reason to acquire a greater knowledge and proficiency through the use of English literature. By combining Kachru’s theory of concentric circles and the Milroys’ theory about overt and covert prestige, I have discovered that the globalization process has influenced Sweden’s choice of what second language to introduce into the educational system. Looking at the more informal and covert level I have found out that students strive to acquire a high level of proficiency in English due to cultural or social aspects that are involved.

  • 277.
    Schelhaas, Johanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Sound symbolism in Swedish child-directed speech: A longitudinal study of lexical iconicity2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the usage of iconic expressions, or sound symbolic expressions, is investigated in Swedish child-directed speech during the first two years of life. Furthermore, it is explored whether there is an effect of the usage of sound symbolism on productive vocabulary at 2;0 years. Ten monolingual Swedish and typically-developing children and their parents were selected at the ages of 0;3, 0;6, 0;9, 1;0, 1;3, 1;6, 1;9 and 2;0 years. The sound symbolic expressions were extracted, classified and analysed. One finding is that sound symbolic expressions are used by all parents in varying degrees from sparsely to abundantly. On average 0,9 sound symbolic expressions were used per minute by all parents. There was no significant effect of the usage of sound symbolism on productive vocabulary. Nevertheless, this work shows that iconicity is used in early childhood and might be a part of the register child-directed speech. Further studies should investigate more thoroughly the effect of iconicity on language acquisition.

  • 278.
    Schelhaas, Johanna Renate
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    The role of semantic context and attentional resource distribution in semantic comprehension in Swedish pre-schoolers2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Research on semantic processing focused mainly on isolated units in language, which does not reflect the complexity of language. In order to understand how semantic information is processed in a wider context, the first goal of this thesis was to determine whether Swedish pre-school children are able to comprehend semantic context and if that context is semantically built up over time. The second goal was to investigate how the brain distributes attentional resources by means of brain activation amplitude and processing type. Swedish preschool children were tested in a dichotic listening task with longer children’s narratives. The development of event-related potential N400 component and its amplitude were used to investigate both goals. The decrease of the N400 in the attended and unattended channel indicated semantic comprehension and that semantic context was built up over time. The attended stimulus received more resources, processed the stimuli in more of a top-down manner and displayed prominent N400 amplitude in contrast to the unattended stimulus. The N400 and the late positivity were more complex than expected since endings of utterances longer than nine words were not accounted for. More research on wider linguistic context is needed in order to understand how the human brain comprehends natural language. 

  • 279.
    Schlyter, Olivia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Gendered verbal behaviour in gatekeeping encounters: A comparative corpus study on men's and women's use of five linguistic features during job interviews2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The job interview is a gatekeeping encounter and it is crucial that the recruitment process is conducted in a fair and just way. Potential gendered verbal behaviour might affect an interviewer's impression and judgement of the interviewee. Previous research has shown that men and women differ in several ways in verbal communication, both as regards formal and informal encounters. In the present paper, a corpus study on forty job interviews is conducted with the aim to find out whether there are any differences between men and women when it comes to turn-length and the use of boosters, hedges, fillers and pauses. The results show that in the majority of the features under scrutiny, there is no statistically significant difference. These results do not go in line with earlier research on gendered verbal behaviour. Proposed explanations for these results are that the female interviewer might have encouraged a less typically gendered verbal behaviour and that younger generations have developed a less gendered conversational style compared to older generations. However, due to the limitations of the present study, no empirical conclusion can be drawn regarding this and further research needs to be conducted in order to fully explain these research findings.

  • 280.
    Scot, Sky
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    An Investigation Concerning the Base-Generation of Four Old English Conjunct and Disjunct Adverbials within the Structure of Old English Clauses2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is concerned with an investigation of four Old English adverbials with respect to where they are base-generated within the substructure of clauses which serve as examples of Old English prose. There are three structures in which base-generation of clausal constituents is deemed to occur: the CP, the IP, and the VP. Function and derivational movement are the governing factors which regulate the possibility of base-generation occurring within a particular structure. The movements undergone by clausal constituents, from their places of origin within the ‘underlying structures’ to their syntactic realization in the ‘surface structures’ of Old English clauses, are founded upon the model outlined in Johannesson (2009a) which is based on the tenets of Government and Binding theory. As there are no native speakers of Old English, the functions of these adverbials within their clausal environments are determined by their Modern English interpretations. Due to time and space constraints, four Old English adverbials were analysed within the context of one-hundred and twenty clauses which were extracted from The Dictionary of Old English Corpus (2004). Cases deemed to be ambiguous are addressed and classified separately; only one such case was encountered in the course of this study.

    The results should exhibit proof that base-generation of the four Old English conjunct and disjunct adverbials investigated occurs within one of the aforementioned structures. Note that any conclusions drawn are based upon Modern English translations and that the results pertain to the genre of Old English prose.

  • 281.
    Seidel, Thorsten
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska, Avdelningen för tyska.
    Anglizistische Berufsbezeichnungen in deutschen und schwedischen Stellenanzeigen: -Eine kontrastive Studie anhand der Tageszeitungen Süddeutsche Zeitung, Dagens Nyheter und Svenska Dagbladet-2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 282.
    Seidel, Thorsten
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Language Teachers’ Perception of the Influence of Bilingualism on the Acquisition of English as a Third Language2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of studies indicate that bilingualism has a positive influence on third language acquisition (TLA) (Brohy, 2001; Sagasta, 2003; Stafford et al., 2010). The purpose of this study is firstly, to confirm the view that bilingualism has a positive influence on TLA and secondly, to identify those features that have the strongest impact on it. The holistic approach Focus on Multilingualism has been applied to the study to meet its variety of influencing factors. The study is based on a qualitative research methodology using semi-structured interviews with three teachers of English. The language teachers are chosen from three different schools in the region of Stockholm, Sweden. The findings of the study indicate that bilingualism per se does not automatically give advantages in the acquisition of a third language but rather has a supportive role. It seems that the contextual factor, extramural English (English outside the school context), and the individual factor, motivation, has the most influential impact on TLA.

  • 283.
    Sigurjónsson, Pétur Már
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Pre-aspiration and Plosives in Icelandic English2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For this study, two groups of native Icelandic speakers were compared in terms of the acoustic properties of their English pronunciation of two phonetic phenomena, plosives and pre-aspiration. In English, plosives with the same manner and place of articulation are distinguished by means of a voicing contrast, whereas in Icelandic, plosives are distinguished by means of an aspiration contrast. This study examines whether participants exhibit interlanguage features in their plosive contrasts in English, substituting unaspirated voiceless plosives for voiced counterparts. Furthermore, this study looks at pre-aspiration, a phonetic feature of Icelandic, characterized by glottal friction following a short vowel preceding a fortis plosive (VhC). Pre-aspiration is not a feature of standard English varieties such as general American (GA) or received pronunciation (RP), and as such this study examines whether participants retain pre-aspiration in their English pronunciation or not. Participants numbered 16 in total, and were all L1 speakers of Icelandic, with eight in each group, four male and four female. The groups were divided by means of age differences, with the first group consisting of participants aged 20-26, and the second group of participants aged 44-50. Participants were asked to partake in a short informal interview, to read a short written passage, and to read a word list. The interview and readings were recorded and analysed using spectrograms and waveforms, and subsequently compared with English and Icelandic reference values for voice onset time (VOT), which vary between the two languages, and pre-aspiration duration in Icelandic. The two groups were also compared to determine whether there were any lingering differences between them. The conclusions drawn are that VOT in English and Icelandic may be more similar than assumed, and that participants shorten pre-aspiration duration or neutralize pre-aspiration when speaking English. However, the English production of the features are more similar to Icelandic than English. Furthermore, the results do not indicate any differences between the two age groups in terms of English pronunciation.

  • 284.
    Sikström, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Att vikta sin information: hur signaleras biinformation i deskriptiva teckenspråkstexter?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Målet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur döva föreläsare signalerar vad som är biinformation i en deskriptiv teckenspråkstext. Materialet består av tre olika föreläsningar som analyserats i annotationsprogrammet ELAN.

    Biinformation kan dels bestå av längre utvikningar och dels parentetisk information i form av korta inskjutna avbrott i huvudinformationen. Längre utvikningar tycks kräva en tydlig och explicit inledning och avslutning i form av lexikala uttryck medan parentetiska kommentarer verkar kunna markeras enbart med prosodi och utnyttjandet av teckenrummet.

    Analysen visar att det är mycket vanligt att man utnyttjar spatial förskjutning för parenteser, antingen genom att byta hand, placera tecknen åt ena sidan eller att rent fysiskt förflytta sig i rummet. Då en parentes avslutar ett tema (termination) verkar den ofta få en spatial förskjutning åt höger (till skillnad mot i narrativa texter där parentetisk information placeras till vänster i teckenrummet). Den åtföljs även av höjda ögonbryn och ofta hålls parentesen samman med hjälp av teckenfragment.

    I de fall då man återgår till huvudtemat som om parentesen aldrig funnits (continuation) verkar man istället använda sammandragna ögonbryn, uppdragna kinder samt ibland även rynkad näsa och kisning. Spatial förskjutning åt höger verkar vara sällsynt i denna grupp. Däremot förekommer i några fall spatial förskjutning åt vänster men då tycks det krävas att man även byter aktiv hand så att vänsterhanden blir den primära artikulatorn. Det är även i denna grupp som man ibland återfinner en pekning hos vänsterhanden, en s.k. index-hold, vilken hjälper mottagaren att hålla huvudtemat i fokus.

    Slutsatsen är att döva talare klart och tydligt lotsar sina åhörare genom texten genom att signalera när man inleder och avslutar en utvikning eller ett parentetiskt inskott.

  • 285.
    Simonis, Rita
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    The effects of multilingualism on executive processing.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the first decades of the 20th century, research on bilingualism was just beginning. The first studies on bilingual children proposed a substantial disadvantage with respect to intelligence and learning abilities. This first proposition was later discarded when Peal and Lambert (1962) suggested that, on the contrary, speaking two languages was providing children with significant advantages in their cognition. At the present time, it is assessed that, while knowing more than one language is not negative, the supposition that bilingualism might have positive effects on executive processing is subject to controversy. The Bilingual Executive Advantage (BEA) hypothesis has been tested many times and in several ways. Nevertheless, it appears more like an overstated theory rather than a real and proven fact.

    The purpose of this study is to contribute to this scholarly debate not only by conducting one more experiment but also by investigating a possible extension to the original hypothesis, more specifically, the possibility that additional languages might confer an even greater cognitive advantage than the one that has been claimed to exist for bilingual individuals. In the study, 23 young adults were tested on a version of the Attentional Network Task and a Colour-Shape switching task, both used in a previous study on professional interpreters (Babcock and Vallesi, 2017). The subjects were divided in two groups, bilinguals and multilinguals. The comparison of their performances in the two task revealed no significant difference in any of the examined measures.

  • 286.
    Sjons, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Automatic Induction of Word Classes in Swedish Sign Language2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying word classes is an important part of describing a language. Research about sign languages often lack distinctions crucial for identifying word classes, e.g. the difference between sign and gesture. Additionally, sign languages typically lack written form, something that often constrains quantitative research on sign language to the use of glosses translated to the spoken language in the area. In this thesis, such glosses have been extracted from The Swedish Sign Language Corpus. The glosses were mapped to utterances based on Swedish translations in the corpus, and these utterances served as input data to a word space model, producing a co-occurence matrix. This matrix was clustered with the K-means algorithm. The extracted utterances were also clustered with the Brown algorithm. By using V-measure, the clusters were compared to a gold standard annotated manually with word classes. The Brown algorithm performs significantly better in inducing word classes than a random baseline. This work shows that utilizing unsupervised learning is a feasible approach for doing research on word classes in Swedish Sign Language. However, future studies of this kind should employ a deeper linguistic analysis of the language as a part of choosing the algorithms.

  • 287.
    Skirgard, Hedvig
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Finns det dubbelnegation i svenska dialekter?: -inte...e i två Hälsingemål2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen beskrivs den syntaktiska distributionen av en andra negator, e i två svenska dialekter. Det finns tidigare belägg för att e förekommer i slutet av negerade satser i icke-standarddialekter. Uppsatsen redogör också för tidigare forskning om ett relaterat rikssvenskt fenomen (inte... inte), dialektforskning om e samt språktypologisk forskning som relaterar till negation och i synnerhet dubbelnegation. Uppsatsen baseras på en parallell\-korpusundersökning med material från två svenska dialekter, Forsamål och Jarssemål. I undersökningen studeras syntaktiska mönster som är relevanta för distributionen av en andra negator, såsom satstyp, underordning, upprepning av subjekt med mera. Huvudresultatet är att e är mycket frekvent, särskilt efter huvudsatser. E är mycket ovanligt i bisatser, men annars finns det få tendenser till andra syntaktiska mönster i materialet. Olika teorier om vad denna andra negator skulle kunna ha eller ha haft för funktion presenteras. Vidare forskning om den syntaktiska distributionen av e i fler dialekter såväl som dess funktion i desamma behövs.

  • 288.
    Skirgård, Hedvig
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Français Tirailleur: - A Corpus Study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Français Tirailleur (FT) är ett pidginspråk som talades av västafrikanska soldateroch deras vita officerare i den franska kolonialarmen cirka 1857-1954. Den häruppsatser beskriver denna språkvatietet utifrån ett korpus som består av de dokumenteradeyttranden som hittills hittats. Studien visar bland annat att standardnegation uttrycks med en pre-verbal partikel (pas), ja/nej-frågor uttryckts främstgenom intonation, genussystemet är inte produktivt, det finns ingen skillnad mellansubjekt och objekt i pronomensystemet och attributiv ägande uttrycks med possessivapronomen, juxtaposition eller prepositioner. Den standardiserade type-token-rationär 26%, vidare forskning om ordförråd i pidginspråk och jämförelser med talat språkbehövs. Det finns två former som är väldigt frekventa och som anses vara mycketkarakteristiska för FT: ya och yena. Dessa former har tidigare beskrivits som stativaverb, relativmarkörer och finithetsmarkörer. De förekommer i majoriteten av alladokument i korpuset. De fungerar som stativa verb, kopula eller kopulalika markörer,samt potentiellt även som predikatsmarkörer. Frågan om huruvida adjektiv är enrelevant språklig kategori i denna pidgin diskuteras också i denna uppsats.

  • 289.
    Skogmyr Marian, Klara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Doing solving spelling problems in a Swedish EFL classroom: A conversation analytic study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how high school students collaboratively solve naturally occurring spelling problems in an English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom in Stockholm, Sweden. The study is motivated by the scarcity of research on spelling solving, both in terms of the observable spelling practices adopted by the students and in terms of the collaborative management of spelling issues in the second/foreign language classroom. The theoretical and methodological framework is multimodal ethnomethodological conversation analysis (CA). The data consists of video recordings of ten EFL lessons that took place during five consecutive school days. The thesis focuses specifically on three spelling solving episodes and analyzes at the micro level the process by which the students go from initiating to closing the spelling solving sequence. In providing fine-grained accounts of the students’ verbal and embodied actions as they collaboratively attempt to solve the spelling problems, the thesis respecifies spelling solving strategies as observable spelling solving practices. The analysis demonstrates how the participants orient to spelling solving as an important form-focused activity. Moreover, the analysis shows how the students integrate different verbal and embodied resources as well as cultural artifacts to accomplish the spelling solving. Finally, the analysis demonstrates how the students’ relative orientations to individual versus collaborative achievements and their management of epistemic rights and responsibilities in completing the task influence the sequential organization and the outcome of the solving sequences. The thesis discusses the findings in relation to prior work on spelling solving and also points out potential implications for second/foreign language instruction that may be of use for current and future EFL instructors.

  • 290.
    Skytt, Frida
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Sorry seems to be the hardest word: A case study of corporate apologies on Twitter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As social media becomes a more important part of people’s everyday lives, it is also becoming a more important part of the corporate market. Due to the complaints received on social media sites, some forms of customer care are being directly, or indirectly, carried out on social media. Part of this customer care is apologizing in response to complaints. The purpose of this case study is therefore to examine the apologies, apology strategies and expressions of regret employed when apologizing in response to customer complaints on Twitter by the two airlines Norwegian Air Shuttle ASA and Air France. The aim of the study is to compare the different forms, and frequencies, of the apologies, apology strategies and expressions of sympathy/regret the companies employ to apologize. This is done through examining tweets from both airlines and looking at the use of certain keywords, as well as through analysis of the tweets in context. The results are then related to image repair theory and politeness theory. The most significant findings show a clear preference for certain Illocutionary Indication Devices, and strategies within each airline. Moreover, there is a clear difference in how the two airlines use Twitter to communicate with their customers, with Air France employing a more cohesive style, than Norwegian.

  • 291.
    Smith, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Conventional Polysemy in the English Lexeme Boy: Differences and similarities between its polysemously related senses2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of polysemy is defined as multiple meanings in one and the same lexeme. In polysemy, these meanings are different but also related. Conventional polysemy typically means that the meanings of a given lexeme are entrenched, and shared by proficient language users in a speech community. From a cognitive linguistic perspective, different senses of a polysemous lexeme – a polyseme – are explained by means of associations to certain situations, or specific experiential or cognitive domains. From a functional perspective, different senses of a polyseme can be used with various types of meaning in communicative discourse. From a structural perspective, different senses of a polyseme are described in terms of their paradigmatic or syntagmatic relations to other lexemes. These three perspectives are used as analytical methods in this study.

    This Bachelor Degree Project is a theoretical study of the conventional polysemous variation of the English lexeme boy. The analysis uses the three aforementioned interrelated analytical perspectives – (i) cognitive domains, (ii) language functions, and (iii) sense relations – to look closer at eight conventional senses of boy that appear at least two of the four well-known, synchronic, monolingual dictionaries that constitute the analytic material of study. These senses are described and analysed as regards their differences and similarities, as well as their relation to the primary sense of boy, ‘a male child’, which is also analysed and described. In other words, this analysis presents their polysemous connections – how they are related as well as how they differ – in a way that explicitly specifies the semantic intuitions that seem to have guided the lexicographers. This kind of theoretically based study could arguably be integrated in and improve also lexicographic presentations of polysemy.

  • 292.
    Smolentzov, Andre
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Automated Essay Scoring: Scoring Essays in Swedish2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Good writing skills are essential in the education system at all levels. However, the evaluation of essays is labor intensive and can entail a subjective bias. Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is a tool that may be able to save teacher time and provide more objective evaluations. There are several successful AES systems for essays in English that are used in large scale tests. Supervised machine learning algorithms are the core component in developing these systems.

    In this project four AES systems were developed and evaluated. The AES systems were based on standard supervised machine learning software, i.e., LDAC, SVM with RBF kernel, polynomial kernel and Extremely Randomized Trees. The training data consisted of 1500 high school essays that had been scored by the students' teachers and blind raters. To evaluate the AES systems, the agreement between blind raters' scores and AES scores was compared to agreement between blind raters' and teacher scores. On average, the agreement between blind raters and the AES systems was better than between blind raters and teachers. The AES based on LDAC software had the best agreement with a quadratic weighted kappa value of 0.475. In comparison, the teachers and blind raters had a value of 0.391. However the AES results do not meet the required minimum agreement of a quadratic weighted kappa of 0.7 as defined by the US based nonprofit organization Educational Testing Services.

  • 293.
    Solensten, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Staff and student attitudes to reading in English at the Department of Business Administration, SU2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is based on a case study that discusses students’ attitudes and beliefs about parallel language i.e. studying in two languages instead of only one. The study has been carried through by performing interviews with five students on two occasions as well as one interview with one of the educators at the department of Business Administration.

    It was found that students are positive towards parallel language even though it requires more time for reading and risk of losing out on content. A couple of the reasons that the students are positive about are that they expect (i) increased language proficiency and (ii) further work opportunities as a result of reading course literature in English.

    However, according to the educator there is little chance that reading course literature in English will affect employability. The department’s main goal is to find good textbooks.

    It was also revealed that even though students intend to read their textbooks they use different strategies and sometimes try to evade texts entirely.

    The participants were also asked to participate in a small vocabulary test with the aim of finding out if the students had acquired some of the vocabulary in their textbooks. The results showed that the students who used dictionaries extensively got the highest score, whereas those who believed that they already were proficient enough in English and did not need dictionaries that much showed very poor results.

  • 294.
    Solensten, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Study-abroad in an L3 environment: A study of the development or oral proficiency in speech rate and pronunciation of dental fricatives2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find out whether students participating in a study-abroad program for one and two terms improve their oral proficiency in speech rate and pronunciation of voiced and unvoiced dental fricatives. The participants consist of French, German and Spanish speaking students housed in an L3 environment and interacting with primarily L2 and bilingual speakers. This study was conducted by transcribing and analysing several pre-recorded interviews.

                          The results did not show any noteworthy progress in either speech rate or pronunciation, other than for the students who had the weakest oral proficiency at arrival. Nevertheless, all of the results are interesting because they indicate that oral proficiency must have many other influencing aspects. Hence, this survey suggests some reasons that partly may explain the results such as the level of previous knowledge, motivation, impact of lingua franca communities and different personality traits i.e. extroversion and introversion. Thus, the insight into how different features can affect acquiring an L2 may lead to improvements of today’s language learning environments.

  • 295.
    Sormunen, Linus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Non-native speakers’ self-deprecation towards their English accents: Swedish English and Finnish English assessed by native Finnish and Swedish speakers2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 296.
    Spetz, Henrik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    L’anxiété langagière et la production orale: Une étude sur les étudiants suédois de français langue étrangère à l’université2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to investigate foreign language anxiety at the university level. The

    concept of language anxiety is well-established within the second language

    research community, and is considered a distinct, measurable phenomenon. The

    pioneering research by Horwitz et al (1986), upon which much of the previous

    research on language anxiety is based, proposes that three categories make up

    language anxiety: communication apprehension, test anxiety, and fear of negative

    evaluation. Their framework and questionnaire for measuring students’ levels of

    language anxiety (1986) have been used in this study to investigate to what extent

    students of French, in three different courses, suffer from language anxiety, and

    what the nature of their anxiety is in relation to these three categories. The results

    show that a sizable proportion of the students of French at the university level feel

    a moderate level of language anxiety, with the highest levels of anxiety being

    recorded for communication apprehension in the beginners’ course. Another

    significant finding is that anxiety does not seem to decrease when fluency levels

    increase. Furthermore, this paper investigates anxious students’ own ideas of what

    might be done to relieve their speaking anxiety. Students were found to believe in

    a correlation between having speaking anxiety and a lack of language proficiency,

    too little speaking practice, not being well-prepared, and anxiety-inducing teaching

    practices.

  • 297.
    Staaf, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Construction of Leadership in written Corporate Communication: How is a company’s vision visible in top management communication?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership is a complex area studied in both organisational and business management theories. When performing leadership, the discourse is the core of the process and accordingly an area to be studied also within linguistics. Leadership in communication is done by giving employees a professional identity and a desired behaviour in line with the company’s vision, mission and corporate values. The Chairman’s Statement of an annual report illustrates how the top management leadership style can be visible in written communication, an area less studied than leadership in oral communication which can give a further insight into leadership discourse. In this qualitative study, it is shown that leadership is performed quite differently in four companies from three industry sectors. The vision and mission is clearly guiding all leaders in the study in their performance of their respective leadership as it is harmonised with the corporate identity of each company. Hence, the professional identity given to the employees differs from case to case. The discourse is largely affected on the specific situation for each company which emphasizes the need of analysing discourse in context of its professional practice and culture to understand it properly.

  • 298.
    Stacey, Bibi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Can minority languages survive around English?: An investigation into family language policy in the UK2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Family language policy (FLP) focusses on how languages are dealt with within the home; typically how languages are used and how they are maintained or promoted by family members. The present study investigates families living in the UK, where one parent is a native English speaker, and the other a native speaker of another language, the minority language. By use of a mixed-methods design, utilising questionnaires, interviews and logs, this paper answers the questions: what are the reported language practices of children and parents in bi- or multilingual families, what ideologies about FLP do parents in these families possess and what strategies do families reportedly employ in their homes. Through a nexus analysis approach, the paper establishes connections between the historical bodies, the interaction orders and the DIP of the families in order to account for their language behaviours in the home. The nexus analysis suggests that although parents show positive attitudes towards minority language use, it is the macro-level societal factors that are most powerful in determining language use within the home. That is, space plays an important role in choice of language practices. This finding suggests that children need more minority language exposure outside the home, therefore this paper suggests that the UK government could promote and encourage minority language maintenance through the implementation of language policy. 

  • 299.
    Staffansson, Martina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Mitt hjärta är bittert: En lexikal typologisk studie om smaktermer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Smak är en komplex blandning av ett flertal faktorer och är mycket beroende av flera av våra andra sinnen. Studiet av smakers lexikalisering är mer begränsat i jämförelse med studiet av sinnena syn och hörsel och har inte haft en särskilt stor roll inom lexikal typologi hittills. Denna studie bygger på en triangulering där smaktermer och deras användning undersöks i ett tämligen representativt urval av världens språk samt i mer detalj i svenska. Studiens syfte är att utforska hur universellt ord för ”söt” är positivt och ord för ”bitter” är negativt konnoterade i individuella språk som svenska och mer generellt i världens språk. Detta görs genom att titta närmare på polysemirelationer, kolexifikationsmönster och metaforer i språken. Resultatet visar på att generella tendenser är likadana utifrån trianguleringens två studier, men att det finns skillnader på detaljnivå. Smaktermen söt används övervägande positivt och smaktermen bitter används övervägande negativt.

  • 300.
    Stormo Scheie, Karianne Eugenie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    El uso de la cortesía en las tertulias televisivas: Un análisis contrastivo entre una tertulia chilena y otra española2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo es realizar un análisis contrastivo sobre un corpus de dos entrevistas detertulias televisivas, una chilena llamada Más Vale Tarde y otra española que se llama Late Motiv. Investigaremos la estructura secuencial del habla, siguiendo la metodología del Análisis de la Conversación y el uso de cortesía basándonos en la teoría de la imagen pública (face) y la distinción cultural basada en la cortesía entre culturas de acercamiento y de distanciamiento.

    Nuestra hipótesis es que el sistema secuencial del habla del programa chileno Más Vale Tarde se inclinaría más hacia el discurso institucional con una alternancia de turnos predeterminada y que el sistema secuencial del habla del programa español Late Motiv se inclinaría más hacia el discurso conversacional de turnos no predeterminados. Además, sostendríamos que el conductor español Andreu Buenafuente utilizaría más estrategias que son representativos de la cultura de acercamiento, mientras que el conductor chileno Álvaro Escobar utilizaría más estrategias que son característicos de la cultura de distanciamiento.

    Los resultados revelaron que nuestra hipótesis se corroboró parcialmente: por un lado, el conductor español utilizó más cortesía valorizante, hubo una mayor diversidad de los mecanismos valorizantes, hubo intervenciones solapadas y el sistema secuencial se caracterizó por cotidianidad; por otro lado, el presentador chileno utilizó más cortesía mitigadora, hubo mayor diversidad de las formas de atenuación y el sistema secuencial indicó más formalidad. No obstante, hubo una diferencia mínima entre la cantidad de intervenciones solapadas y el resultado contrario a la hipótesis es que hubo mayor frecuencia de intervenciones colaborativas en la entrevista chilena, ambas características representativas de la cultura de acercamiento.

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