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  • 251.
    Seidel, Thorsten
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska, Avdelningen för tyska.
    Anglizistische Berufsbezeichnungen in deutschen und schwedischen Stellenanzeigen: -Eine kontrastive Studie anhand der Tageszeitungen Süddeutsche Zeitung, Dagens Nyheter und Svenska Dagbladet-2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 252.
    Seidel, Thorsten
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Language Teachers’ Perception of the Influence of Bilingualism on the Acquisition of English as a Third Language2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A variety of studies indicate that bilingualism has a positive influence on third language acquisition (TLA) (Brohy, 2001; Sagasta, 2003; Stafford et al., 2010). The purpose of this study is firstly, to confirm the view that bilingualism has a positive influence on TLA and secondly, to identify those features that have the strongest impact on it. The holistic approach Focus on Multilingualism has been applied to the study to meet its variety of influencing factors. The study is based on a qualitative research methodology using semi-structured interviews with three teachers of English. The language teachers are chosen from three different schools in the region of Stockholm, Sweden. The findings of the study indicate that bilingualism per se does not automatically give advantages in the acquisition of a third language but rather has a supportive role. It seems that the contextual factor, extramural English (English outside the school context), and the individual factor, motivation, has the most influential impact on TLA.

  • 253.
    Sigurjónsson, Pétur Már
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Pre-aspiration and Plosives in Icelandic English2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    For this study, two groups of native Icelandic speakers were compared in terms of the acoustic properties of their English pronunciation of two phonetic phenomena, plosives and pre-aspiration. In English, plosives with the same manner and place of articulation are distinguished by means of a voicing contrast, whereas in Icelandic, plosives are distinguished by means of an aspiration contrast. This study examines whether participants exhibit interlanguage features in their plosive contrasts in English, substituting unaspirated voiceless plosives for voiced counterparts. Furthermore, this study looks at pre-aspiration, a phonetic feature of Icelandic, characterized by glottal friction following a short vowel preceding a fortis plosive (VhC). Pre-aspiration is not a feature of standard English varieties such as general American (GA) or received pronunciation (RP), and as such this study examines whether participants retain pre-aspiration in their English pronunciation or not. Participants numbered 16 in total, and were all L1 speakers of Icelandic, with eight in each group, four male and four female. The groups were divided by means of age differences, with the first group consisting of participants aged 20-26, and the second group of participants aged 44-50. Participants were asked to partake in a short informal interview, to read a short written passage, and to read a word list. The interview and readings were recorded and analysed using spectrograms and waveforms, and subsequently compared with English and Icelandic reference values for voice onset time (VOT), which vary between the two languages, and pre-aspiration duration in Icelandic. The two groups were also compared to determine whether there were any lingering differences between them. The conclusions drawn are that VOT in English and Icelandic may be more similar than assumed, and that participants shorten pre-aspiration duration or neutralize pre-aspiration when speaking English. However, the English production of the features are more similar to Icelandic than English. Furthermore, the results do not indicate any differences between the two age groups in terms of English pronunciation.

  • 254.
    Sikström, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Att vikta sin information: hur signaleras biinformation i deskriptiva teckenspråkstexter?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning

    Målet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur döva föreläsare signalerar vad som är biinformation i en deskriptiv teckenspråkstext. Materialet består av tre olika föreläsningar som analyserats i annotationsprogrammet ELAN.

    Biinformation kan dels bestå av längre utvikningar och dels parentetisk information i form av korta inskjutna avbrott i huvudinformationen. Längre utvikningar tycks kräva en tydlig och explicit inledning och avslutning i form av lexikala uttryck medan parentetiska kommentarer verkar kunna markeras enbart med prosodi och utnyttjandet av teckenrummet.

    Analysen visar att det är mycket vanligt att man utnyttjar spatial förskjutning för parenteser, antingen genom att byta hand, placera tecknen åt ena sidan eller att rent fysiskt förflytta sig i rummet. Då en parentes avslutar ett tema (termination) verkar den ofta få en spatial förskjutning åt höger (till skillnad mot i narrativa texter där parentetisk information placeras till vänster i teckenrummet). Den åtföljs även av höjda ögonbryn och ofta hålls parentesen samman med hjälp av teckenfragment.

    I de fall då man återgår till huvudtemat som om parentesen aldrig funnits (continuation) verkar man istället använda sammandragna ögonbryn, uppdragna kinder samt ibland även rynkad näsa och kisning. Spatial förskjutning åt höger verkar vara sällsynt i denna grupp. Däremot förekommer i några fall spatial förskjutning åt vänster men då tycks det krävas att man även byter aktiv hand så att vänsterhanden blir den primära artikulatorn. Det är även i denna grupp som man ibland återfinner en pekning hos vänsterhanden, en s.k. index-hold, vilken hjälper mottagaren att hålla huvudtemat i fokus.

    Slutsatsen är att döva talare klart och tydligt lotsar sina åhörare genom texten genom att signalera när man inleder och avslutar en utvikning eller ett parentetiskt inskott.

  • 255.
    Sjons, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Automatic Induction of Word Classes in Swedish Sign Language2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Identifying word classes is an important part of describing a language. Research about sign languages often lack distinctions crucial for identifying word classes, e.g. the difference between sign and gesture. Additionally, sign languages typically lack written form, something that often constrains quantitative research on sign language to the use of glosses translated to the spoken language in the area. In this thesis, such glosses have been extracted from The Swedish Sign Language Corpus. The glosses were mapped to utterances based on Swedish translations in the corpus, and these utterances served as input data to a word space model, producing a co-occurence matrix. This matrix was clustered with the K-means algorithm. The extracted utterances were also clustered with the Brown algorithm. By using V-measure, the clusters were compared to a gold standard annotated manually with word classes. The Brown algorithm performs significantly better in inducing word classes than a random baseline. This work shows that utilizing unsupervised learning is a feasible approach for doing research on word classes in Swedish Sign Language. However, future studies of this kind should employ a deeper linguistic analysis of the language as a part of choosing the algorithms.

  • 256.
    Skirgard, Hedvig
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Finns det dubbelnegation i svenska dialekter?: -inte...e i två Hälsingemål2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I den här uppsatsen beskrivs den syntaktiska distributionen av en andra negator, e i två svenska dialekter. Det finns tidigare belägg för att e förekommer i slutet av negerade satser i icke-standarddialekter. Uppsatsen redogör också för tidigare forskning om ett relaterat rikssvenskt fenomen (inte... inte), dialektforskning om e samt språktypologisk forskning som relaterar till negation och i synnerhet dubbelnegation. Uppsatsen baseras på en parallell\-korpusundersökning med material från två svenska dialekter, Forsamål och Jarssemål. I undersökningen studeras syntaktiska mönster som är relevanta för distributionen av en andra negator, såsom satstyp, underordning, upprepning av subjekt med mera. Huvudresultatet är att e är mycket frekvent, särskilt efter huvudsatser. E är mycket ovanligt i bisatser, men annars finns det få tendenser till andra syntaktiska mönster i materialet. Olika teorier om vad denna andra negator skulle kunna ha eller ha haft för funktion presenteras. Vidare forskning om den syntaktiska distributionen av e i fler dialekter såväl som dess funktion i desamma behövs.

  • 257.
    Skirgård, Hedvig
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Français Tirailleur: - A Corpus Study2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Français Tirailleur (FT) är ett pidginspråk som talades av västafrikanska soldateroch deras vita officerare i den franska kolonialarmen cirka 1857-1954. Den häruppsatser beskriver denna språkvatietet utifrån ett korpus som består av de dokumenteradeyttranden som hittills hittats. Studien visar bland annat att standardnegation uttrycks med en pre-verbal partikel (pas), ja/nej-frågor uttryckts främstgenom intonation, genussystemet är inte produktivt, det finns ingen skillnad mellansubjekt och objekt i pronomensystemet och attributiv ägande uttrycks med possessivapronomen, juxtaposition eller prepositioner. Den standardiserade type-token-rationär 26%, vidare forskning om ordförråd i pidginspråk och jämförelser med talat språkbehövs. Det finns två former som är väldigt frekventa och som anses vara mycketkarakteristiska för FT: ya och yena. Dessa former har tidigare beskrivits som stativaverb, relativmarkörer och finithetsmarkörer. De förekommer i majoriteten av alladokument i korpuset. De fungerar som stativa verb, kopula eller kopulalika markörer,samt potentiellt även som predikatsmarkörer. Frågan om huruvida adjektiv är enrelevant språklig kategori i denna pidgin diskuteras också i denna uppsats.

  • 258.
    Skogmyr Marian, Klara
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Doing solving spelling problems in a Swedish EFL classroom: A conversation analytic study2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how high school students collaboratively solve naturally occurring spelling problems in an English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom in Stockholm, Sweden. The study is motivated by the scarcity of research on spelling solving, both in terms of the observable spelling practices adopted by the students and in terms of the collaborative management of spelling issues in the second/foreign language classroom. The theoretical and methodological framework is multimodal ethnomethodological conversation analysis (CA). The data consists of video recordings of ten EFL lessons that took place during five consecutive school days. The thesis focuses specifically on three spelling solving episodes and analyzes at the micro level the process by which the students go from initiating to closing the spelling solving sequence. In providing fine-grained accounts of the students’ verbal and embodied actions as they collaboratively attempt to solve the spelling problems, the thesis respecifies spelling solving strategies as observable spelling solving practices. The analysis demonstrates how the participants orient to spelling solving as an important form-focused activity. Moreover, the analysis shows how the students integrate different verbal and embodied resources as well as cultural artifacts to accomplish the spelling solving. Finally, the analysis demonstrates how the students’ relative orientations to individual versus collaborative achievements and their management of epistemic rights and responsibilities in completing the task influence the sequential organization and the outcome of the solving sequences. The thesis discusses the findings in relation to prior work on spelling solving and also points out potential implications for second/foreign language instruction that may be of use for current and future EFL instructors.

  • 259.
    Skytt, Frida
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Sorry seems to be the hardest word: A case study of corporate apologies on Twitter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As social media becomes a more important part of people’s everyday lives, it is also becoming a more important part of the corporate market. Due to the complaints received on social media sites, some forms of customer care are being directly, or indirectly, carried out on social media. Part of this customer care is apologizing in response to complaints. The purpose of this case study is therefore to examine the apologies, apology strategies and expressions of regret employed when apologizing in response to customer complaints on Twitter by the two airlines Norwegian Air Shuttle ASA and Air France. The aim of the study is to compare the different forms, and frequencies, of the apologies, apology strategies and expressions of sympathy/regret the companies employ to apologize. This is done through examining tweets from both airlines and looking at the use of certain keywords, as well as through analysis of the tweets in context. The results are then related to image repair theory and politeness theory. The most significant findings show a clear preference for certain Illocutionary Indication Devices, and strategies within each airline. Moreover, there is a clear difference in how the two airlines use Twitter to communicate with their customers, with Air France employing a more cohesive style, than Norwegian.

  • 260.
    Smith, Carl
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Conventional Polysemy in the English Lexeme Boy: Differences and similarities between its polysemously related senses2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of polysemy is defined as multiple meanings in one and the same lexeme. In polysemy, these meanings are different but also related. Conventional polysemy typically means that the meanings of a given lexeme are entrenched, and shared by proficient language users in a speech community. From a cognitive linguistic perspective, different senses of a polysemous lexeme – a polyseme – are explained by means of associations to certain situations, or specific experiential or cognitive domains. From a functional perspective, different senses of a polyseme can be used with various types of meaning in communicative discourse. From a structural perspective, different senses of a polyseme are described in terms of their paradigmatic or syntagmatic relations to other lexemes. These three perspectives are used as analytical methods in this study.

    This Bachelor Degree Project is a theoretical study of the conventional polysemous variation of the English lexeme boy. The analysis uses the three aforementioned interrelated analytical perspectives – (i) cognitive domains, (ii) language functions, and (iii) sense relations – to look closer at eight conventional senses of boy that appear at least two of the four well-known, synchronic, monolingual dictionaries that constitute the analytic material of study. These senses are described and analysed as regards their differences and similarities, as well as their relation to the primary sense of boy, ‘a male child’, which is also analysed and described. In other words, this analysis presents their polysemous connections – how they are related as well as how they differ – in a way that explicitly specifies the semantic intuitions that seem to have guided the lexicographers. This kind of theoretically based study could arguably be integrated in and improve also lexicographic presentations of polysemy.

  • 261.
    Smolentzov, Andre
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för datorlingvistik.
    Automated Essay Scoring: Scoring Essays in Swedish2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Good writing skills are essential in the education system at all levels. However, the evaluation of essays is labor intensive and can entail a subjective bias. Automated Essay Scoring (AES) is a tool that may be able to save teacher time and provide more objective evaluations. There are several successful AES systems for essays in English that are used in large scale tests. Supervised machine learning algorithms are the core component in developing these systems.

    In this project four AES systems were developed and evaluated. The AES systems were based on standard supervised machine learning software, i.e., LDAC, SVM with RBF kernel, polynomial kernel and Extremely Randomized Trees. The training data consisted of 1500 high school essays that had been scored by the students' teachers and blind raters. To evaluate the AES systems, the agreement between blind raters' scores and AES scores was compared to agreement between blind raters' and teacher scores. On average, the agreement between blind raters and the AES systems was better than between blind raters and teachers. The AES based on LDAC software had the best agreement with a quadratic weighted kappa value of 0.475. In comparison, the teachers and blind raters had a value of 0.391. However the AES results do not meet the required minimum agreement of a quadratic weighted kappa of 0.7 as defined by the US based nonprofit organization Educational Testing Services.

  • 262.
    Solensten, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Staff and student attitudes to reading in English at the Department of Business Administration, SU2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is based on a case study that discusses students’ attitudes and beliefs about parallel language i.e. studying in two languages instead of only one. The study has been carried through by performing interviews with five students on two occasions as well as one interview with one of the educators at the department of Business Administration.

    It was found that students are positive towards parallel language even though it requires more time for reading and risk of losing out on content. A couple of the reasons that the students are positive about are that they expect (i) increased language proficiency and (ii) further work opportunities as a result of reading course literature in English.

    However, according to the educator there is little chance that reading course literature in English will affect employability. The department’s main goal is to find good textbooks.

    It was also revealed that even though students intend to read their textbooks they use different strategies and sometimes try to evade texts entirely.

    The participants were also asked to participate in a small vocabulary test with the aim of finding out if the students had acquired some of the vocabulary in their textbooks. The results showed that the students who used dictionaries extensively got the highest score, whereas those who believed that they already were proficient enough in English and did not need dictionaries that much showed very poor results.

  • 263.
    Solensten, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Study-abroad in an L3 environment: A study of the development or oral proficiency in speech rate and pronunciation of dental fricatives2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 15 poäng / 22,5 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to find out whether students participating in a study-abroad program for one and two terms improve their oral proficiency in speech rate and pronunciation of voiced and unvoiced dental fricatives. The participants consist of French, German and Spanish speaking students housed in an L3 environment and interacting with primarily L2 and bilingual speakers. This study was conducted by transcribing and analysing several pre-recorded interviews.

                          The results did not show any noteworthy progress in either speech rate or pronunciation, other than for the students who had the weakest oral proficiency at arrival. Nevertheless, all of the results are interesting because they indicate that oral proficiency must have many other influencing aspects. Hence, this survey suggests some reasons that partly may explain the results such as the level of previous knowledge, motivation, impact of lingua franca communities and different personality traits i.e. extroversion and introversion. Thus, the insight into how different features can affect acquiring an L2 may lead to improvements of today’s language learning environments.

  • 264.
    Sormunen, Linus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Non-native speakers’ self-deprecation towards their English accents: Swedish English and Finnish English assessed by native Finnish and Swedish speakers2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 265.
    Staaf, Katarina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Construction of Leadership in written Corporate Communication: How is a company’s vision visible in top management communication?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Leadership is a complex area studied in both organisational and business management theories. When performing leadership, the discourse is the core of the process and accordingly an area to be studied also within linguistics. Leadership in communication is done by giving employees a professional identity and a desired behaviour in line with the company’s vision, mission and corporate values. The Chairman’s Statement of an annual report illustrates how the top management leadership style can be visible in written communication, an area less studied than leadership in oral communication which can give a further insight into leadership discourse. In this qualitative study, it is shown that leadership is performed quite differently in four companies from three industry sectors. The vision and mission is clearly guiding all leaders in the study in their performance of their respective leadership as it is harmonised with the corporate identity of each company. Hence, the professional identity given to the employees differs from case to case. The discourse is largely affected on the specific situation for each company which emphasizes the need of analysing discourse in context of its professional practice and culture to understand it properly.

  • 266.
    Stacey, Bibi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Can minority languages survive around English?: An investigation into family language policy in the UK2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Family language policy (FLP) focusses on how languages are dealt with within the home; typically how languages are used and how they are maintained or promoted by family members. The present study investigates families living in the UK, where one parent is a native English speaker, and the other a native speaker of another language, the minority language. By use of a mixed-methods design, utilising questionnaires, interviews and logs, this paper answers the questions: what are the reported language practices of children and parents in bi- or multilingual families, what ideologies about FLP do parents in these families possess and what strategies do families reportedly employ in their homes. Through a nexus analysis approach, the paper establishes connections between the historical bodies, the interaction orders and the DIP of the families in order to account for their language behaviours in the home. The nexus analysis suggests that although parents show positive attitudes towards minority language use, it is the macro-level societal factors that are most powerful in determining language use within the home. That is, space plays an important role in choice of language practices. This finding suggests that children need more minority language exposure outside the home, therefore this paper suggests that the UK government could promote and encourage minority language maintenance through the implementation of language policy. 

  • 267.
    Staffansson, Martina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Mitt hjärta är bittert: En lexikal typologisk studie om smaktermer2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Smak är en komplex blandning av ett flertal faktorer och är mycket beroende av flera av våra andra sinnen. Studiet av smakers lexikalisering är mer begränsat i jämförelse med studiet av sinnena syn och hörsel och har inte haft en särskilt stor roll inom lexikal typologi hittills. Denna studie bygger på en triangulering där smaktermer och deras användning undersöks i ett tämligen representativt urval av världens språk samt i mer detalj i svenska. Studiens syfte är att utforska hur universellt ord för ”söt” är positivt och ord för ”bitter” är negativt konnoterade i individuella språk som svenska och mer generellt i världens språk. Detta görs genom att titta närmare på polysemirelationer, kolexifikationsmönster och metaforer i språken. Resultatet visar på att generella tendenser är likadana utifrån trianguleringens två studier, men att det finns skillnader på detaljnivå. Smaktermen söt används övervägande positivt och smaktermen bitter används övervägande negativt.

  • 268.
    Stormo Scheie, Karianne Eugenie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    El uso de la cortesía en las tertulias televisivas: Un análisis contrastivo entre una tertulia chilena y otra española2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo principal de este trabajo es realizar un análisis contrastivo sobre un corpus de dos entrevistas detertulias televisivas, una chilena llamada Más Vale Tarde y otra española que se llama Late Motiv. Investigaremos la estructura secuencial del habla, siguiendo la metodología del Análisis de la Conversación y el uso de cortesía basándonos en la teoría de la imagen pública (face) y la distinción cultural basada en la cortesía entre culturas de acercamiento y de distanciamiento.

    Nuestra hipótesis es que el sistema secuencial del habla del programa chileno Más Vale Tarde se inclinaría más hacia el discurso institucional con una alternancia de turnos predeterminada y que el sistema secuencial del habla del programa español Late Motiv se inclinaría más hacia el discurso conversacional de turnos no predeterminados. Además, sostendríamos que el conductor español Andreu Buenafuente utilizaría más estrategias que son representativos de la cultura de acercamiento, mientras que el conductor chileno Álvaro Escobar utilizaría más estrategias que son característicos de la cultura de distanciamiento.

    Los resultados revelaron que nuestra hipótesis se corroboró parcialmente: por un lado, el conductor español utilizó más cortesía valorizante, hubo una mayor diversidad de los mecanismos valorizantes, hubo intervenciones solapadas y el sistema secuencial se caracterizó por cotidianidad; por otro lado, el presentador chileno utilizó más cortesía mitigadora, hubo mayor diversidad de las formas de atenuación y el sistema secuencial indicó más formalidad. No obstante, hubo una diferencia mínima entre la cantidad de intervenciones solapadas y el resultado contrario a la hipótesis es que hubo mayor frecuencia de intervenciones colaborativas en la entrevista chilena, ambas características representativas de la cultura de acercamiento.

  • 269.
    Ståhl, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik. Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Folke vs Henry: En jämförelse av förståelse mellan syntetisk och mänsklig uppläsning av sammanhängande texter2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I en studie som kan vara den första i Sverige i sitt slag har vuxna testpersoner med och utan synnedsättning fått lyssna till texter som lästs upp med antingen unit selection-syntesen Folke eller en mänsklig röst. Genom förståelsefrågor till varje text har det undersökts om en syntetisk uppläsning av sammanhängande text ger en sämre förståelse än en mänsklig uppläsning. Genom testet har också faktorer som ansträngning samt korrelation med längd, svårighetsgrad och vana av syntetiskt tal undersökts. Testet visar att för relativt enkla texter som inte är längre än ca 700 ord eller inte har en uppläsningstid på mer än ca fem minuter så ger en syntetisk uppläsning inte någon påvisbar försämring i förståelse. Resultat och analys visar dock att det vid längre texter än så kan finnas en skillnad i förståelse mellan de två uppläsningssätten samt att det kan finnas en korrelation med textens längd och svårighetsgrad. Testpersonernas subjektiva uppfattning och det kvantitativa resultatet visar också delvis att syntetiska uppläsningar är mer ansträngande än mänskliga. Dock behöver ytterligare studier genomföras för att bekräfta en försämrad förståelse och större ansträngning.

  • 270.
    Ståhl, Mikael
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Grammatisk finithet i Cupeño2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i både traditionell och samtida syn på finithet har det uto-aztekiska språket cupeño studerats. Flera grammatiska markörer för såväl subjektskongruens som temporala, modala och aspektuella distinktioner definieras. Dessa markörer kan i huvudsatser i cupeño uppträda i antingen ett auxiliarkomplex i Wackernagels position eller som affix på verbet. Subjektskongruens och olika TMA-markörer definieras som två skilda grammatiska system. Framför allt markörerna för subjektskongruens kan bibehållas i underordnade satser, som också har speciella markörer för underordning. Även om skillnader finns mellan över- och underordnade satser så finns ingen distinktion mellan finita och icke finita verb. Förutom verbkonstruktioner i över- respektive underordnade satser definieras också verbkonstruktioner med nominal morfologi och imperativ som egna typer av verbkonstruktioner, som varierar i vilken utsträckning finita drag förekommer.

  • 271.
    Sundh, Lydia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The function of teacher questions in EFL classroom activities in Cambodia: A conversation analytic study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aims to examine teacher questions in an English as a foreign language (EFL) classroom with a conversation analytic (CA) approach. Specifically, the study focuses on the sequential position of the teacher questions, and on their function in the management of classroom activities. Two activities in an intermediate leveled English classroom in Cambodia with students aged 20-24 were recorded and subsequently transcribed according to CA conventions. Thereafter, the teacher questions were identified and categorized. The findings showed that there were five categories of questions used by the teacher; that is, understanding checks, activity managing questions, repair regarding understanding and repair regarding accomplishment of task and lastly topic elaboration questions. Each category of question was used in a specific time in order to manage classroom activities, however, the findings also reveal that questions can interfere with the pedagogical focus when they appear out of context and can limit students’ participation in class.

  • 272.
    Sundmalm, Sara Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Syntactic Origin of Old English Sentence Adverbials2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

     

    Languages rely on grammatical rules, by which even such variable constituents as adverbials are affected. However, due to the many different positions in Old English sentences taken up by adverbials, it is easy to wrongfully assume that there is an absence of grammatical rules regarding adverbials in Old English. Hence, it may be possible to detect patterns of behaviour among Old English adverbs if their different position and movement within various clauses is studied systematically. This paper has been focused on examining two conjunct adverbs, and two disjunct adverbs, functioning as sentence adverbials in prose, in order to contribute information of where they are base-generated within the syntactic structure of Old English clauses, and thus hopefully contribute to a better understanding of the grammatical system of Old English. 120 sentences of prose containing sentence adverbials have been examined according to the Government and Binding Theory, as introduced in Stæfcræft: An Introduction to Old English Syntax, in order to establish where the different textual constituents of Old English are base-generated.

  • 273.
    Svahn, Elin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Allt är ju lika viktigt: En översättningssociologisk studie om översättningsnormer vid granskningsfasen inom Europeiska kommissionen2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen är en översättningssociologisk studie om översättningsnormer vid granskningsfasen vid Europeiska kommissionen (EK) och består av två delstudier. Den första studien är textbaserad och fokuserar på revideringar vid granskningsfasen. Materialet utgörs av fyra översättningar i tre stadier från franska till svenska från EK. Den andra delstudien består av intervjuer med två översättare vid EK. Metoden till den första delstudien är hämtad från Nordman (2009). Resultatet visar att majoriteten av revideringarna återfinns på textnivå, samt att den vanligaste normen är språkriktighet. Intervjuerna ger till viss del en annan bild av granskningsfasen. De samlingar med riktlinjer som finns tillgängliga framstår i båda delstudierna som värdefulla.

  • 274.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Discourse Markers in Dardic Languages: Palula ba and ta in a comparative perspective2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates discourse markers in Dardic languages (Indo-Aryan; Pakistan), focusing on the discourse markers ba and ta in Palula in comparison with other languages of the region, particularly Dameli in which two markers with the same form and similar functions have been observed. The results showed that Palula ba functions as a topic-marker, in addition to other functions, whereas ta only signals subsequence, except in an adversative construction ta... ba. In Dameli, both ba and ta function as topic-markers, in addition to other functions such as ta marking subsequence, and the ta... ba construction functions similarly to Palula. Interestingly, Kalasha and Gawri showed some similarities, as both have a topic-marker surfacing as ta and tä respectively, which can be used in the adversative constructions ta... o and tä... i respectively, both of which have another marker as the second element. No other language in the sample was found to have a construction similar to the ta... ba construction nor a marker similar in form and function to ba, but all have a subsequence marker resembling ta. These results indicated that the Palula markers ba and ta are part of an areal phenomenon encompassing at least the Chitral, Panjkora and Swat valleys, where Palula originally only had the Shina subsequence marker and later adapted the Dameli system into the language.

  • 275.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Grammatical gender in New Guinea2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the gender systems of 20 languages in the New Guinea region, an often overlooked area in typological research. The languages were classified with five criteria used by Di Garbo (2014) to classify gender systems of African languages. The results showed that the gender systems were diverse, although around half of the languages have two-gendered sex-based systems with semantic assignment, more than four gender-indexing targets, and no gender marking on nouns. The gender systems of New Guinea are remarkably representative of the world, although formal assignment is much less common. However, the gender systems of New Guinea and Africa are very different. The most significant difference isthe prevalence of non-sex-based gender systems and gender marking on nouns in Africa, whereas the opposite is true in New Guinea. However, gender in Africa is also less diverse largely due to the numerous Bantu languages. Finally, four typologically rare characteristics were found in the sample: (1) size and shape as important criteria of gender assignment, with large/long being masculine and small/short feminine, (2) the presence of two separate nominal classification systems, (3) no gender distinctions in pronouns, and (4) verbs as the most common indexing target. 

  • 276.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Selected Topics in the Grammar of Nalca2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study analyzes a selection of topics in the grammar of Nalca (Mek language; Papua), with a focus on verbs and nominals. No published grammar or dictionary is available for Nalca, but a translation of the New Testament was used as a parallel text. The results showed that Nalca is split-ergative, strongly suffixing and agglutinating, with subject-object-verb (SOV) as the dominant word order. Verbs consist of a stem and a series of suffixes expressing tense/aspect/mood, negation, number and person. The case alignment is ergative-absolutive for nouns, for which syntactic function is indicated by a series of postpositions. These postpositions agree with nouns in gender. Ergativity was not observed for pronouns; while the results were inconclusive, they appeared to show a nominative-accusative case alignment. The numeral system is an extended body-part system with the base 27. Many of the features found in Nalca are comparable with other Mek languages, with the gender system and split-ergativity being two major exceptions. Finally, the use of the New Testament as a parallel text was a success, with a basic description of the grammar of Nalca having been made, although further investigation is needed.

  • 277.
    Sánchez Abascal, Pablo
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    La aplicación del componente pragmático funcional en un manual sueco de español publicado tras el currículo Lgy 20112016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [es]

    El objetivo de esta monografía es el de analizar el modo en el que un manual didáctico para la enseñanza del español en el contexto educativo sueco de bachillerato aplica y desarrolla la competencia pragmática funcional en sus propuestas didácticas. Para la realización de dicho análisis usaremos como instrumento de medida, por una parte, las actividades de simulación, escenario y role-play que propone Sánchez Sarmiento (2005), y que se dirigen a la activación de la competencia pragmática de los estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras y, por otra, los criterios de transacciones e interacciones de colaboración para el desarrollo de la competencia pragmática funcional que se recogen en el §.5 del Marco Común Europeo de Referencia para las lenguas: aprendizaje, enseñanza, evaluación (MCER, 2002). La hipótesis de la que parte este estudio postula que el manual que analizamos (Caminando 5, Natur & Kultur, 2013), a pesar de estar compuesto de propuestas didácticas en las que se presentan el componente pragmático funcional, no enuncia de forma explícita el trabajo con ella, no conduce ni a su activación ni a su desarrollo, su frecuencia de aparición en el manual es irregular, y las actividades que forman parte de sus propuestas didácticas no proponen reflexiones metapragmáticas sobre los propios contenidos pragmáticos de la lengua. La investigación que hemos desarrollado confirma que, aunque en algunas propuestas didácticas del manual  se proponen actividades que activan y desarrollan algunos de los criterios de transacción e interacción colaborativa del MCER (2002), su tratamiento resulta poco exhaustivo y su explicitación es escasa. Sin embargo, se puede constatar que el manual representa un acercamiento a los principios metodológicos de los enfoques comunicativos y que su explotación didáctica, aunque no de forma explícita, conduce, en parte, al trabajo con algunos de los criterios pragmáticos funcionales que se proponen en el MCER (2002).

  • 278.
    Säflund, Maud
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Comprehension: Differences and Similarities Between L1 and L2 Subjects2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay will deal with the questions of what impact knowledge of vocabulary has on L1 readers’ and L2 readers’ reading comprehension respectively. As Koda points out "Research consistently demonstrates that vocabulary knowledge correlates more highly with reading comprehension than other factors including morphosyntactic knowledge" (Koda 2004:49) Philip Shaw and Alan McMillion at Stockholm University are doing a research project called ‘Advanced Reading Project’with in all 140 students at university level. There was a gap-filling test on vocabulary and multiple choice questions for synonyms and antonyms. They have also set up a number of other tests to check reading comprehension etc. The aim of this work is to analyze the vocabulary tests’ data provided by Shaw and McMillion. This is done by entering the data into Excel files and sorting the answers and attempts made for each subject, and by comparing the numbers of correct answers and non- attempts to different questions, patterns could be detected that can show differences or similarities between the subjects. Through this analysis and further research we may find the answers to the questions: Which vocabulary items are easy or difficult for all British and Swedish subjects? And what differences and similarities can be found in the answers given by Swedes and British respectively? Are there any patterns which might suggest reasons for the findings? The vocabulary results will further be compared with the results from the reading comprehension tests. The research reported in this essay will test the thesis expressed by Koda 2004: "Successful comprehension is heavily dependent on knowledge of individual word meaning. The widely recognized relationship between vocabulary and reading comprehension attests to the crucial role word knowledge plays in text understanding among both L1 and L2 readers---". (Koda 2004: 48) Could there be other explanations for good reading comprehension other than vocabulary knowledge?

  • 279.
    Söderberg, Benny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    The Double Passive in Swedish: A case of creating raising verbs in the Scandinavian languages.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of this thesis is to map the syntactic and semantic nature, and the frequency of the Double Passive in Swedish. The results showed that the Double Passive is a control construction where the internal argument (OBJ) of the embedded verb is raised to subject of the s-passive matrix verb, and the verb of the infinitival complement co-occurs as an s-passive infinitive. In the thesis Lexical functional grammar (LFG) is used as a model for semantic and syntactic analysis. The analysis showed that when the AGENT in a Double Passive construction is suppressed, it creates an argument structure that triggers an equi verb to occur as a raising verb (cf. Ørsnes 2006:404). Overt agents within constructions containing the Double Passive showed an even lower frequency than the low frequencies documented in previous research of passive constructions by Silén (1997) and Laanemets (2010). The lower frequency is partly a result of the fact that agents in a Double Passive construction are suppressed twice. The results of a corpus study showed a frequency of 3.57 % of overt agents within constructions containing Double Passives. The complementizer att ‘to’ in the subordinated infinitive clause of a Double Passive is overtly expressed, partly depending on the degree of modality of the matrix verb (cf. Sundman 1983; Teleman 1999; Lagerwall 1999), and the degree of semantic bonding between the matrix verb and the complement (Givón 2001b). The data (matrix verbs) collected in the corpus study were analysed according to a categorising-system in SAG (Teleman et al. 1999) and in Givón (2001a) and Givón (2001b). The matrix verbs with strong nominal (lexical) properties, e.g. planera ‘plan’, showed a high frequency of co-occurrence with full infinitives, as compared to matrix verbs with largely grammatical meaning, e.g. avse ‘intend’.

  • 280.
    Söderholm, Joen
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Svenska/Nordiska språk.
    Standardiserad diskurs: En undersökning av kontextuella faktorers effekt på diskursen i en standard från SIS2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna studie undersöks kontextuella faktorers inverkan på diskursen i en standard, SS 624070, framtagen av det svenska standardiseringsorganet SIS, Swedish Standards Institute. Undersökningen går igenom vilka premisser och faktorer som gör att diskursen i standarden ser ut som den gör. Undersökningen omfattar även hur aktörerna ser på denna diskurs, och hur användandet av standarden ser ut. Materialet består av intervjuer och texter som har analyserats utifrån diskursanalytiska begrepp. Med hjälp av intertextualitet och tematisering försöker undersökningen ge svar på hur kontextuella faktorer påverkar både hur denna diskurs skapas och hur den förstås. Analysen sker främst på makronivå för att ge en övergripande bild av hur kommunikationssituationen ser ut, vilka problem som uppstår och vad man kan göra åt dessa problem.

    Resultaten visar att SS 624070, och standarder överlag, förmedlar en specifik standardiseringsdiskurs. Denna diskurs ser i stort sett likadan ut oavsett vilken standard det handlar om. Diskursen styrs väldigt kraftigt av bland annat tradition och skrivregler som bestämmer både på mikro- och makronivå hur standarder ska skrivas. Detta görs för att uppfylla flera olika syften. Syften som stämmer överens med hur standarder överlag fungerar . De ska vara likformiga och kompatibla med varandra, och behöver därför ha samma diskurs för att leva upp till det syftet. Samtidigt blir standardernas diskurs en del av SIS ansikte utåt. Den enhetliga diskursen visar på hur SIS arbetar med att göra världen mindre splittrad. Inte bara för externa parter utan även för sig själva. Diskursen har en funktion i sig, samtidigt som den visar mer övergripande på SIS egna funktion.

  • 281.
    Söderstedt, Jenny
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    En studie av blickar och pekningars språkliga funktion hos barn i interaktion.2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är att studera hur blickar och pekningar förhåller sig till barns verbala yttranden. Jag har använt ett videoinspelat material där 8 hörande barn med typisk utveckling mellan 0;8 och 5;10 år interagerar. Ur detta har jag klippt sekvenser som passar min frågeställning, implementerat dem i annotationsprogrammet ELAN, och sedan annoterat och analyserat materialet. Av 77 deklarativa-informativa pekningar i det slutliga materialet fann jag 68 ha den tidigare kända funktionen för denna pekningstyp, att förekomma i en vanlig påståendesats. De återstående 9 hade ett blickmönster som skilde sig från dessa. Jag anser att dessa pekningar tillför yttrandet en betonande funktion. Jag fann även ytterligare 7 pekningar i samband med interrogativa satser som inte är tidigare beskrivna. De följde samma blickmönster som de betonade pekningarna. De slutsatser jag drog var att blickar i kombination med pekningar hos barn kan ha en betonande och en interrogativ funktion.

  • 282.
    Tahbaz, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Beröringens roll för barns språkutveckling2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Beröring är en modalitet som visat sig spela en stor roll i människans utveckling. Föreliggande studie hade för avsikt att undersöka beröringens roll i barnets språkutveckling, utifrån hur beröring förändras över tid och hur det påverkar barnets produktiva ordförråd. Fri interaktion mellan förälder och barn analyserades utifrån annoteringar med information om beröring, som duration och beröring med eller utan hud-mot-hudkontakt. I undersökningen inkluderades alla former av beröring i den totala beröringsdurationen. Tio barn studerades under det första levnadsåret och då de var 24 månader gamla. Resultaten visar att en minskning av beröringsduration sker under barnens första två levnadsår. Resultatet indikerar några intressanta tendenser som diskuteras utifrån tidigare forskning. Beröring med hud-mot-hudkontakt verkar ha en annan roll än total beröring. Studien utformades explorativt och fann inget signifikant samband mellan beröring vid barns första och andra levnadsår och deras produktiva ordförråd vid 30 månader, varken med eller utan hud-mot-hudkontakt. Studien förser dock framtida forskning med tendenser som behöver studeras vidare.

  • 283.
    Tahbaz, Sofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Emblem use in parent-child interaction: A longitudinal study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates emblem use exploratory in parent-child interaction. Emblems are conventional gestures with a verbal equivalent. The aim of this study was to answer if emblem use facilitates language acquisition. Formulaic gestures – fixed gestures accompanying songs – were examined as a subgesture of emblems. 20 children and their parents’ emblem use were recorded when interacting freely at seven age points: 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24 months. Emblem use was correlated to the children’s productive vocabulary at 30 months. The results showed that parental emblem use at 24 months and child emblem use at 15 months predicted child productive vocabulary at 30 months. T-tests showed how emblem production of children in a lower productive vocabulary group differed from children in a higher productive vocabulary group. A difference between the children of the lower productive vocabulary group and the children of the higher productive vocabulary group emblem use was also found at 15 months, indicating emblem use being important in language acquisition. Formulaic gestures did not correlate to child productive vocabulary. Emblem use developed along with child age and probably inherently with word production. Parents adjust their emblem use to the child’s age and/or possibly language skills, suggesting that child-directed gesturing occurs in parent-child interaction.

  • 284.
    Tesfazion, Malin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Taltolkning av hörande teckenspråksanvändare: En fokusgruppstudie med tolkar och hörande teckenspråkiga som tecknar i tolkade sammanhang2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien behandlar och beskriver dels hur tolkar upplever att taltolka hörande personer som använder teckenspråk, dels hur hörande personer som använder teckenspråk upplever att bli taltolkade. Två fokusgrupper fick berätta om sina erfarenheter av denna företeelse; teckenspråkstolkar i en grupp och hörande teckenspråkiga i en annan grupp. Genom kvalitativ innehållsanalys identifierades fem teman med de viktigaste aspekterna i frågan. Dessa teman var: 1. Hörandes val av språk i tolkade sammanhang 2. Strategier för att hantera att bli taltolkad 3. Tolkens språkliga utmaningar 4. Ett gott samarbete är avgörande 5. CEFR – självbedömning är svårt. Genom dessa teman framkom att taltolkning av hörande är ett komplext fenomen som kräver särskild hantering. Ett väl utarbetat samarbete är en stor fördel och underlättar tolkens arbete. Det krävs också god kännedom om anledningen till att hörande ibland väljer att teckna i tolkade sammanhang. Det gör att tolken kan slappna av och koncentrera sig på tolkuppdraget. God insikt hos hörande gällande sin teckenspråkskompetens är också eftersträvansvärt. Vanan av att bli taltolkad underlättar situationen eftersom hörande då utarbetar strategier för att tåla att parallellt med den egna produktionen höra taltolkningen. 

  • 285.
    Thofelt, Unn
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för teckenspråk.
    Något om den konstruerade dialogen i svenskt teckenspråk2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Begreppen rapporterat tal och citat är missvisande, enligt Tannen (1986, 1989), eftersom den som lyssnar på en utsaga, noterar kärnan och budskapet i utsagan. Vi återberättande. lägger dennen in sin egen tolkning i återgivningen. Den berättadne minns inte ordagrant vad som sades, utan återger den ur sitt eget perspektiv och minne. Tannen (1986, 1989) menar att det är bättre att kalla dessa återgivningar konstruerad dialog (constructed dialogue)och har definierat olika kategorier i sammanhanget.

    Metzger (1995) undersöker bruket av konstruerad dialog, enligt Tannens kategorier, inom amerikanskt teckenspråk. Metzger (1995) menar att sex av tio kategorier går att applicera.

    Föreliggande arbete visar att sju av Tannens tio kategorier är applicerbara på svenskt teckenspråk. Fyra kategorier är desamma som Metzger funnit, men övriga skiljer sig åt. I de analyserade texterna använder de berättande sig av konstruerad dialog i form av kategorierna Dialog representerande vad som inte sades, Dialog som typexempel, Sammanfattning av dialog, Dialog i kör, Dialog som inre tal, Vag referent och Icke-mänsklig talare.

  • 286.
    Trolin, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    En tolk ska översätta, det är inte som att vara en lärare: Hur upplever skolledare, tolkar, lärare och elever tolkningen i specialskolan?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna undersökning intervjuades en skolledare, två tolkar, en lärare och två fokusgrupper med elever om sin syn på tolkning inom specialskolan. Data från de semistrukturerade intervjuerna analyserades enligt en kvalitativ innehållsanalys där liknande svar samlas i temagrupper. Tre teman valdes ut till resultat och dessa är: 1. Information om tolkning 2. Tolken som samordnare 3. Tolkens roll. Information om tolkning handlar om vilken information eleverna får och behöver ha för att tolkningen ska fungera. Tolken som samordnare utgår från Wadensjös (1998) syn på samordning som en reglering av det tolkade samtalet som tolken måste sköta. Tolkens roll undersöktes med främst Metzgers (1999) fundering kring huruvida tolken kan vara neutral. Resultatet pekar på att skolledare och lärare anser att eleverna får mycket information om tolkning, men det tycker inte eleverna själva. Tolkarna anser att mer information behövs för en förståelse för tolkprocessen. Tolkens roll, som neutral och samordnande, är tydlig för tolkar och elever, men inte när det är en lärare som tolkar. Tolkning inom specialskolan är något naturligt som sker ofta och som upplevs fungera till största delen väl när det är tolkar som utför uppdragen.

  • 287.
    Turunen, Riina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    English Vocabulary Proficiency of Synonyms Applied to Semantic Fields in Swedish Upper Secondary School2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    This study investigates the lexical synonym proficiency within semantic fields, of Swedish upper secondary school students studying English 5, 6 and 7. English is a language with large lexica (Lightbown & Spada, 2013, p. 61). Therefore, it may be assumed that vocabulary proficiency is essential to master English. In this study, vocabulary knowledge is highlighted as a fundamental factor in second language acquisition. Since the English lexicon contains many synonyms, the suggestion of learning synonyms in semantic fields to enhance vocabulary proficiency is explored. Paradigmatic semantic field theory is utilized as the framework for this study, since it supports structuring the lexicon by paradigmatic semantic relations, in this case synonymy. This study investigates empirical data from vocabulary tests and questionnaires to achieve perception concerning lexical synonym proficiency within the semantic fields of physical world, sense perception, social relations, religion & beliefs and emotion. From the five selected semantic fields, students know most synonyms within social relations and least synonyms within religion & beliefs and emotion. The results from the questionnaires reveal that the students from all tested groups agree to some extent that learning new words in semantic fields is helpful. In this study, testing and learning synonyms in semantic fields is suggested to assess and enhance vocabulary proficiency of Swedish upper secondary school students.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 

     

    Keywords

    Vocabulary Proficiency, Synonyms, Semantic Field, Paradigmatic Semantic Field Theory, Swedish Upper Secondary School, Second Language Acquisition.

  • 288.
    Tuva, Janhans
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    "The Only Woman in the Room": Female leaders in the Swedish gaming industry on creating and performing communication.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Female leaders in the gaming industry are a minority, and previous research states that

    women mould their identity to the male-dominated industry. Leadership is commonly

    associated with masculinity, and the feminine style of communication is viewed as

    subordinate. The present study investigates how female leaders in a male-dominated

    industry use language and communicate with their colleagues. A semi structured

    interview, field observation, and questionnaire was utilized. The results indicate that

    female leaders in the gaming industry utilize several speech strategies to communicate;

    however, favouring the masculine style. Three interesting points derived from the

    interviews; fear of misinterpretations; humour usage limitations; and, communication

    restrictions.

  • 289.
    Tönnes, Emma
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    SCUM på svenska: En uppsats om Sara Stridsbergs översättning av SCUM Manifesto och hennes tillhörande förord2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen har tre syften, alla beträffande Sara Stridsbergs översättning av amerikanskan Valerie Solanas radikalfeminstiska SCUM Manifesto från 1968: att göra en övergripande karaktäristik av översättningen, att undersöka och presentera nyckelord i översättningen, samt att beskriva samspelet mellan Stridsbergs förord och översättning. Med textanalysmodeller av Yvonne Lindqvist, Lennart Hellspong och Per Ledin genomförs textanalyser av översättningen i stort, av ett urval av nyckelord och av förordet. Resultaten visar på att Stridsberg gjort en fri översättning med fokus på språk och stil, och att förordet kompletterar översättningen och bjuder in läsaren till olika sätt att läsa manifesttexten på. I diskussionen avhandlas resultatens betydelse i förhållande till tidigare forskning och vad mina resultat betyder utifrån André Lefeveres teorier om att ideologiska och poetologiska faktorer är det viktigaste vid översättsval. Uppsatsens slutsats är att Stridsberg översatt texten i huvudsak som litterär text istället för som politisk kortare skrift eller längre pamflett, och att förordet presenterar Stridsbergs ingång till texten och hjälper läsaren att göra en litterär läsning av manifestet.

  • 290.
    Törnqvist, Jennifer
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Using Coh-Metrix to investigate changes in student texts: Comparing student writing from 1999 and 20092015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates Swedish students’ texts from two time periods: 1999 and 2009, in search of cohesive evidence indicating a change of quality influenced by the development of the Internet. The method used in this study is the application of a computational tool that provides measures of language and discourse called Coh-Metrix, which provides measures along several cohesion variables, including word concreteness, deep cohesion, verb cohesion and lexical diversity. The results showed that the student texts from 2009 had higher lexical diversity, suggesting a larger vocabulary, which is closely connected to text quality. The results also showed a higher use of deep cohesion in the texts from 2009, which suggest that the writers know how to use connectives. In contrast, the student texts from 1999 showed a higher use of verb cohesion, suggesting the texts being written in a more narrative style, which is often connected to younger students. By using Coh-Metrix to study evidence of cohesion, this study could contribute with relevant findings about how students’ written English has changed over a period of time. 

  • 291.
    Ullenius, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    L2 and L1 repairs: Speech production in a comparative perspective2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    I investigated and compared L2 and L1 speech errors and repairs. A speech error may be defined as a linguistic item that is partially or wholly articulated but disagrees with the speaker’s desired communicative intention. A self-repair usually comprises a speech error, a self-interruption, and a repair. Repairs reveal information about the speech production process and in particular about the monitoring component. Errors and repairs were collected from 24 L1 and L2 English speakers who were audio recorded while describing patterns of multi-coloured interconnected nodes. The methodology is a modified version of Levelt’s (1982; 1983) methodology in his study of L1 Dutch speakers, and his results are incorporated in the analysis section for comparison purposes. The hypothesis that L2 speakers produce more repairs than L1 speakers was confirmed. The hypothesis that they produce more lexical errors and less appropriateness errors compared to L1 speakers was confirmed in relation to the English L1 group but not in relation to Levelt’s Dutch L1 group. The hypothesis that L2 speakers leave a larger proportion of their lexical errors unrepaired was not confirmed. The significant differences in numbers and types of errors between the L1 and the L2 data may be related to Paradis’s (2009) theory of declarative knowledge and procedural competence, which entails a higher demand on attentional resources during L2 production. Data may be influenced by methodological inconsistencies, and may also be too small to generalise upon. 

  • 292.
    Untracht Forsberg, Mikaela
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Identity Buliding in Social Media: The role of mediated language in the online fitness industry2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The domain of social media and social network sites is a comparatively new and extensive phenomenon in today’s society. Since their introduction, social network sites, such as Facebook, Instagram, and Twitter have attracted millions of users and are distinguished as an element of immense time consumption in many people’s lives. This thesis investigates the use of Instagram, a social network site where users are able to share pictures, videos and texts with the community. The main focus of the study is the analysis of the relationship between language, gender, and identity building in this social network. Previous research has tackled many different aspects of social media related to gender and identity. However, the focus has mainly been on the general area of images and language devoid of finding specific connections between the authors behind the analyzed materials. Therefore, this study adds to previous studies by also integrating the focus of a specific field in the analyses, that of fitness as a lifestyle. To collect the data, a number of well-known English-speaking fitness bloggers were selected from different countries including Venezuela, Colombia, Germany, France, Australia, Puerto Rico and the USA. In order to analyze the data, multimodal discourse analysis is incorporated using the theory of systemic functional linguistics, developed by Halliday (1994), including ideational, interpersonal, and textual metafunctions. Conclusively, although certain posts appear to be ‘more masculine’ than others, there are many similarities in the use of language by both men and women. The language used in men and women’s posts does not differ vastly contingent on the gender of the bloggers.

  • 293.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Breaking paradigms: A typological study of nominal and adjectival suppletion2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Suppletion is a term used to describe the occurrence of unpredictable and irregular patterns. Although typological research has been devoted to verb suppletion, not as much attention has been given to suppletion in nominal and adjectival paradigms. The thesis presents the cross-linguistic distribution of nominal and adjectival suppletion. The lexical distribution as well as the features involved are presented. The results of nominal suppletion show that nouns referring to humans are most often suppletive, that number is the most common grammatical feature involved in nominal suppletion and that „child‟ is by far the most common noun to be suppletive cross-linguistically. The results on adjectival suppletion show that adjectival suppletion is well spread though not very common cross-linguistically. A study of 8 Semitic languages shows that „woman‟ versus „women‟ are stable suppletive forms in this language family.

  • 294.
    Vafaeian, Ghazaleh
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    The Finite Independency: A study of the relevance of the notion of finiteness in Hdi.2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that there is a finiteness distinction in Hdi and that the notion is of value for a description of the language. The definition of finiteness suitable for the language has been suggested to be the one given by Anderson (2007) combined with Bisang (2007). The finite clauses are argued to be the pragmatically independent ones while the non-finite clauses are argued to be the pragmatically dependent. However, no morphological reductions were found in the non-finite clauses relative to the finite ones. What is more, negation in Hdi shows a nontypical behaviour regarding finiteness properties as there are aspectual distinctions made for dependent clauses that are not made for independent. Verbless clauses and imperatives may be viewed as finite and non-finite depending on their capacity to licence independent predication or, alternatively, they may be viewed as not displaying finiteness properties at all. The latter is argued to be preferred in order to avoid a redundant definition of finiteness.

  • 295.
    Valentine Bordal, Heidi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Negation of existential predications in Swedish: A corpus study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this corpus study is to provide an adequate description of negation strategies in existential predications in Swedish. In Swedish, existential predications may be negated by a standard negative marker. Another possibility to negate existence is by using a negative indefinite pronoun. In negation of existential predications in Swedish, the choice between standard negation and indefinite pronouns, whether negative or not, has not been previously described in any descriptive or theoretical work. It is therefore the purpose of the current study to describe what factors determine the choice of negative marker in existential predications. The results of this study show that there is a strong preference to negate existential predications with a negative indefinite pronoun. Further, it is shown that the negative indefinite pronoun is frequently used as a modifier to the pivot, and thus states an unconditional absence. 

  • 296.
    Valentine Bordal, Heidi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik.
    Privativa adjektiv och deras motsatsord: En studie i hur frånvaro och närvaro av en egenskap uttrycks i svenska2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 297.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Anpassningsstrategier i lajvspråk2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 298.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Skarp, vass och sharp – semantiska relationer hos tre perceptionsadjektiv2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 299.
    Vikner, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Accent preference - stereotypes or individual?: Swedish university students' attitudes towards British and American varieties of English.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the attitudes of Swedish university students towards the British and the American variety of English. Many studies have shown that perceptions of the varieties are changing as a result of increasing exposure of the language. The present study analyses responses from a questionnaire on speech samples of the two varieties and compares them to a similar study made ten years ago, to investigate possible differences over time and between respondents. The data shows a more positive attitude towards the American variety in general, although female respondents are more prone to conform to the results of previous studies and favour the British variety in aspects of prestige and status. The data also show that this method of research is very sensitive to individual characteristics of the speakers used in the investigation and stresses the difficulties in receiving a reliable general result.

  • 300.
    Vikström, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    “[E]en strict offensive och defensive alliance” and “the danger this King and the 2 Queens were in”: News Reporting in Early Modern Swedish and English Diplomatic Correspondence2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The study of early cross-linguistic diplomatic epistolography was first introduced in Brownlees' (2012) comparative study of Italian and English personal newsletters. Given the field’s young age and the strong need for both further research and the retrieving of new, untranscribed and unanalysed data, the present study set out to help move this field forward by examining, at both a textual superstructure and semantic macrostructural level, two sets of unchartered diplomatic newsletters which representatives at foreign courts despatched back to their respective home countries. The first set of original manuscripts comprises periodical newsletters which Baron Christer Bonde, the Swedish ambassador-extraordinary to England, wrote to Charles X, King of Sweden, between 1655-6, whereas the second set consists of letters sent in 1680 by John Robinson, England’s chargé d’affaires in Sweden, to Sir Leoline Jenkins, Secretary of State for the Northern Department of England. The analysis has shown that whereas the textual superstructures of the two diplomats’ correspondences remain similarly robust, the instantiating semantic macrostructures display not only stylistic and compositional, but also narrative, variation.

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