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  • 301.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Revisiting Reduplication: Toward a description of reduplication in predicative signs in Swedish Sign Language2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the use of reduplication with predicative signs in Swedish Sign Language (SSL), and also the related phenomena doubling and displacement.

    Reduplication in SSL typically expresses plurality of events and/or referents, but may also express intensification, ongoing event or generic activity. There is a distinction between external and internal events with reduplication: external reduplication expresses some event happening over and over at different points in time and/or with different referents, and is associated with a frequentative/habitual reading; internal reduplication expresses some event consisting of several e.g. movements/actions and is associated with an ongoing reading. Only external expression seems to be applicable to stative constructions, as one would expect. The study also found a phenomenon not previously described: oral reduplication without manual reduplication. This process is found to have the ongoing functions with telic predicates, such that it focuses on the telic predicate as a single event in progress, and thus replaces the function of manual reduplication, which, with telic predicates, would instead express several events. The reading of reduplicated signs is associated with the semantics of the sign reduplicated, and it is also associated with the phonological citation form of the sign—monosyllabic signs tend to get pluractional reading; bisyllabic signs tend to get an ongoing reading. Also, the reading expressed by reduplication is connected to the presence/absence of oral reduplication.

    Reduplication generally does not occur in negative constructions. This study shows that inherently negative signs may be reduplicated, but reduplicated predicates are negated according to other strategies than for non-reduplicated predicates, thus reduplication has the largest scope.

    Doubling and displacement are both associated mainly with plural referents, and it is in this respect that they are related to reduplication, and they both occur frequently with reduplication.

  • 302.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Types and trends of name signs in the Swedish Sign Language community2017In: SKY Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 1456-8438, E-ISSN 1796-279X, Vol. 30, p. 7-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the domain of name signs (i.e., signs used as personal names) in the Swedish Sign Language (SSL) community. The data are based on responses from an online questionnaire, in which Deaf, hard of hearing, and hearing participants answered questions about the nature of their name signs. The collected questionnaire data comprise 737 name signs, distributed across five main types and 24 subtypes of name signs, following the categorization of previous work on SSL. Signs are grouped according to sociolinguistic variables such as age, gender, and identity (e.g., Deaf or hearing), as well as the relationship between name giver and named (e.g., family or friends). The results show that name signs are assigned at different ages between the groups, such that children of Deaf parents are named earlier than other groups, and that Deaf and hard of hearing individuals are normally named during their school years. It is found that the distribution of name sign types is significantly different between females and males, with females more often having signs denoting physical appearance, whereas males have signs related to personality/behavior. Furthermore, it is shown that the distribution of sign types has changed over time, with appearance signs losing ground to personality/behavior signs – most clearly for Deaf females. Finally, there is a marginally significant difference in the distribution of sign types based on whether or not the name giver was Deaf. The study is the first to investigate name signs and naming customs in the SSL community statistically – synchronically and diachronically – and one of the few to do so for any sign language.

  • 303.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Distribution and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language2016In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 143-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we investigate frequency and duration of signs and parts of speech in Swedish Sign Language (SSL) using the SSL Corpus. The duration of signs is correlated with frequency, with high-frequency items having shorter duration than low-frequency items. Similarly, function words (e.g. pronouns) have shorter duration than content words (e.g. nouns). In compounds, forms annotated as reduced display shorter duration. Fingerspelling duration correlates with word length of corresponding Swedish words, and frequency and word length play a role in the lexicalization of fingerspellings. The sign distribution in the SSL Corpus shows a great deal of cross-linguistic similarity with other sign languages in terms of which signs appear as high-frequency items, and which categories of signs are distributed across text types (e.g. conversation vs. narrative). We find a correlation between an increase in age and longer mean sign duration, but see no significant difference in sign duration between genders.

  • 304.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Jantunen, Tommi
    University of Jyväskylä.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Kimmelman, Vadim
    University of Amsterdam.
    Oomen, Marloes
    University of Amsterdam.
    de Lint, Vanja
    University of Amsterdam.
    Transitivity prominence within and across modalities2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The idea of transitivity as a scalar phenomenon is well known (e.g., Hopper & Thompson 1980; Tsunoda 1985; Haspelmath 2015). However, as with most areas of linguistic study, it has been almost exclusively studied with a focus on spoken languages. A rare exception to this is Kimmelman (2016), who investigates transitivity in Russian Sign Language (RSL) on the basis of corpus data. Kimmelman attempts to establish a transitivity prominence hierarchy of RSL verbs, and compares this ranking to the verb meanings found in the ValPal database (Hartmann, Haspelmath & Bradley 2013). He arrives at the conclusion that using the frequency of overt objects in corpus data is a successful measure of transitivity prominence, and that the prominence ranking of RSL verbs correlate with that found for spoken languages in Haspelmath (2015). In this paper, we expand on these intra- and cross-modal comparisons of transitivity prominence by introducing four other sign languages to the sample: Finnish Sign Language (FinSL), Swedish Sign Language (SSL), Sign Language to the Netherlands (NGT), and German Sign Language (DGS). FinSL and SSL are known to be historically related (cf. Bergman & Engberg-Pedersen 2010), while the other are not related, which allows us to look at both modality and relatedness effects in our sample. Of the 80 core verb meanings in the ValPal database, Kimmelman (2016) included the 25 most frequent verbs in his corpus. For our study, we have annotated all occurrences of these 25 verb meanings in a subset of the corpora of FinSL (2h 40min; 18,446 tokens), SSL (2h 5min; 16,724 tokens), NGT (≈80,000 tokens), and DGS (≈58,000 tokens). We annotate whether a verb occurs with an overt object as well as the type of object (direct, indirect, clausal, or a locative). Looking at the ValPal verb meanings with ≥5 sign tokens in all four new languages, we arrive at 12 verbs that are found in all five sign languages and the spoken languages (SpL) of the ValPal database – see Table 1. In Table 1, we see that there is a general agreement across languages – both signed and spoken – in how transitivity prominent a verb meaning is. Spearman’s rank correlation shows a significant (p<0.05) correlation between all possible pairs except SSL–SpL (p=0.091) and SSL– RSL (p=0.074), corroborating Kimmelman’s finding that there are patterns of transitivity prominence present across languages and modalities. It is interesting that SSL thus diverges from the other sign languages in this sample: this deserves further investigation. We also wanted to investigate the transitivity prominence as a property of individual languages. In order to do so, we took the individual languages of the ValPal database and measured each verb meaning in each language with regard to its transitivity prominence. This meant calculating how many of the verb forms associated with a specific verb meaning took a P argument. Note that this is quite different from calculating transitivity prominence based on corpus data: with corpora, we calculated the proportion of verbal tokens occurring with an overt object, and with the ValPal database, we calculated the proportion of transitive verb associated with a particular concept. We included the 12 verb meanings found across all languages (the five sign languages and 33 spoken languages). We then calculated mean distances across verb meanings and languages, and plotted this with multidimensional scaling in Figure 1. In the figure, we see that the five sign languages form a part of a cluster, suggesting either modality-based similarities, or similarities that come with the difference in data (corpus data rather than lexical data). On the other hand, sign languages as a group are not clearly opposed to spoken languages as a group, which implies that the corpus-based and lexical calculations of transitivity are comparable. Interestingly, FinSL and SSL are not more strongly associated than the other sign languages, which implies that their historical relatedness is not directly relevant to transitivity. In our presentation, we will present the results and the conclusions in more detail, as well as discuss the possibilities of using corpus data to establish valency patterns for languages in the signed modality.

    References Bergman, Brita & Elisabeth Engberg-Pedersen. 2010. Transmission of sign languages in the Nordic countries. In Diane Brentari (ed.), Sign languages: A Cambridge language survey, 74–94. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Hartmann, Iren, Martin Haspelmath & Taylor Bradley (eds.). 2013. Valency Patterns Leipzig. Leipzig: Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology. http://valpal.info/. Haspelmath, Martin. 2015. Transitivity prominence. In Andrej Malchukov & Bernard Comrie (eds.), Valency classes in the world’s languages: Vol 1 - Introducing the framework, and case studies from Africa and Eurasia, 131–148. Boston, MA: De Gruyter Mouton. Hopper, Paul J. & Sandra A. Thompson. 1980. Transitivity in grammar and discourse. Language 56(2). 251–299. Kimmelman, Vadim. 2016. Transitivity in RSL: A corpus-based account. In Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen & Johanna Mesch (eds.), Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining, 117–120. Paris: European Language Resources Association (ELRA). Tsunoda, Tasaku. 1985. Remarks on transitivity. Journal of Linguistics 21(2). 385. doi:10.1017/S0022226700010318.

  • 305.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Lepic, Ryan
    Commentary on Kita, van Gijn & van der Hulst (1998)2014In: Sign Language and Linguistics, ISSN 1387-9316, E-ISSN 1569-996X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 241-250Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 306.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Lepic, Ryan
    Belsitzman, Gal
    Articulatory plurality is a property of lexical plurals in sign language2016In: Lingvisticæ investigationes, ISSN 0378-4169, E-ISSN 1569-9927, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 391-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sign languages make use of paired articulators (the two hands), hence manual signs may be either one- or two-handed. Although two-handedness has previously been regarded a purely formal feature, studies have argued morphologically two-handed forms are associated with some types of inflectional plurality. Moreover, recent studies across sign languages have demonstrated that even lexically two-handed signs share certain semantic properties. In this study, we investigate lexically plural concepts in ten different sign languages, distributed across five sign language families, and demonstrate that such concepts are preferentially represented with two-handed forms, across all the languages in our sample. We argue that this is because the signed modality with its paired articulators enables the languages to iconically represent conceptually plural meanings.

  • 307.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Segmenting the Swedish Sign Language corpus: On the possibilities of using visual cues as a basis for syntactic segmentation2014In: Workshop Proceedings: 6th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Beyond the Manual Channel / [ed] Onno Crasborn, Eleni Efthimiou, Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Paris: ELRA , 2014, p. 7-10Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper deals with the possibility of conducting syntactic segmentation of the Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) on the basisof the visual cues from both manual and nonmanual signals. The SSLC currently features segmentation on the lexical level only, whichis why the need for a linguistically valid segmentation on e.g. the clausal level would be very useful for corpus-based studies on thegrammatical structure of Swedish Sign Language (SSL). An experiment was carried out letting seven Deaf signers of SSL each segmenttwo short texts (one narrative and one dialogue) using ELAN, based on the visual cues they perceived as boundaries. This was latercompared to the linguistic analysis done by a language expert (also a Deaf signer of SSL), who segmented the same texts into whatwas considered syntactic clausal units. Furthermore, these segmentation procedures were compared to the segmentation done for theSwedish translations also found in the SSLC. The results show that though the visual and syntactic segmentations overlap in manycases, especially when a number of cues coincide, the visual segmentation is not consistent enough to be used as a means of segmentingsyntactic units in the SSLC.

  • 308.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Sandler, Wendy
    Aronoff, Mark
    Sign Language Linguistics2014In: Oxford Bibliographies, Oxford University Press, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Towards an Annotation of Syntactic Structure in the Swedish Sign Language Corpus2016In: Workshop Proceedings: 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining / [ed] Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Paris: ELRA , 2016, p. 19-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes on-going work on extending the annotation of the Swedish Sign Language Corpus (SSLC) with a level of syntactic structure. The basic annotation of SSLC in ELAN consists of six tiers: four for sign glosses (two tiers for each signer; one for each of a signer’s hands), and two for written Swedish translations (one for each signer). In an additional step by Östling et al. (2015), all ¨ glosses of the corpus have been further annotated for parts of speech. Building on the previous steps, we are now developing annotation of clause structure for the corpus, based on meaning and form. We define a clause as a unit in which a predicate asserts something about one or more elements (the arguments). The predicate can be a (possibly serial) verbal or nominal. In addition to predicates and their arguments, criteria for delineating clauses include non-manual features such as body posture, head movement and eye gaze. The goal of this work is to arrive at two additional annotation tier types in the SSLC: one in which the sign language texts are segmented into clauses, and the other in which the individual signs are annotated for their argument types.

  • 310.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Iconic Locations in Swedish Sign Language: Mapping Form to Meaning with Lexical Databases2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics, NoDaLiDa / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 221-225, article id 026Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we describe a method for mapping the phonological feature location of Swedish Sign Language (SSL) signs to the meanings in the Swedish semantic dictionary SALDO. By doing so, we observe clear differences in the distribution of meanings associated with different locations on the body. The prominence of certain locations for specific meanings clearly point to iconic mappings between form and meaning in the lexicon of SSL, which pinpoints modalityspecific properties of the visual modality.

  • 311.
    Börstell, Carl
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Östling, Robert
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Visualizing Lects in a Sign Language Corpus: Mining Lexical Variation Data in Lects of Swedish Sign Language2016In: Workshop Proceedings: 7th Workshop on the Representation and Processing of Sign Languages: Corpus Mining / [ed] Eleni Efthimiou, Stavroula-Evita Fotinea, Thomas Hanke, Julie Hochgesang, Jette Kristoffersen, Johanna Mesch, Paris: ELRA , 2016, p. 13-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we discuss the possibilities for mining lexical variation data across (potential) lects in Swedish Sign Language (SSL). The data come from the SSL Corpus (SSLC), a continuously expanding corpus of SSL, its latest release containing 43 307 annotated sign tokens, distributed over 42 signers and 75 time-aligned video and annotation files. After extracting the raw data from the SSLC annotation files, we created a database for investigating lexical distribution/variation across three possible lects, by merging the raw data with an external metadata file, containing information about the age, gender, and regional background of each of the 42 signers in the corpus. We go on to present a first version of an easy-to-use graphical user interface (GUI) that can be used as a tool for investigating lexical variation across different lects, and demonstrate a few interesting finds. This tool makes it easier for researchers and non-researchers alike to have the corpus frequencies for individual signs visualized in an instant, and the tool can easily be updated with future expansions of the SSLC.

  • 312.
    Cabraja, Andreas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    The effects of video games on the receptive vocabulary proficiency of Swedish ESL students2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Playing video games is an activity that takes up an increasing amount of children’s and adolescent’s spare time. While some previous studies have highlighted the negative aspects of video games, little research has been carried out on the linguistic learning opportunities that video games present. This study primarily investigates if Swedish second language learners of English can increase their vocabulary proficiency in English with the use of video games. In order to answer the research questions, two quantitative data elicitation methods are used: a questionnaire which aims to gather attitudinal and behavioral data, and a Vocabulary Levels Test which elicits data about the participants’ receptive vocabulary proficiency. The participants consist of 25 students at an upper secondary school in Stockholm. The results show that participants who played video games scored higher on the Vocabulary Levels Test, indicating a higher receptive vocabulary proficiency. Furthermore, the results show that participants who played moderate to frequent amounts of time performed better in the Vocabulary Levels Test than infrequent players. The results also show that video games emphasizing co-operation and communication are preferable to use for vocabulary acquisition. Additionally, the study discusses if video games could be integrated into the Swedish upper secondary school system.

  • 313.
    Caliolo, Susanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages, French and Italian.
    Non skrattare!: Tipologie di errori nella produzione orale di bambini italo-svedesi2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [it]

    This thesis examines the different typologies of morphosyntactic and lexical errors committed in speaking by bilingual Swedish-Italian children, 7-9 years old, having Swedish as first dominant mother tongue and Italian as first weak mother tongue. Furthermore, this work tries to assess if performance or competence errors are committed. Stated by Green, the bilinguals’ languages are organized in separate subsystems that can be activated to different extents. For the speakers analyzed here, the frequency of use of Swedish implies their predilection for this language, whose ease of access causes a predominance of the Swedish language system over the Italian one. According to the Competition Model, by improving the knowledge of Italian, the subjects adopt the linguistic structures that they gradually acquire and the transfers from the dominant to the weak L1 gradually decrease. The collection of data has been carried out taking into account the theories defining code-switching, code-mixing and slips of the tongue. As expected, the results show that performance errors are prevalent in children with a good knowledge of Italian, especially in the morpho-lexical field (terms not occurring automatically during the production and often drawn from Swedish). On the other hand, competence errors prevail in children with a poor knowledge of Italian: having a very weak ability of normative control and being subject to a very strong interference and mixture with Swedish at every level, they often borrow terms or sentences not occurring in Italian from the dominant language.

  • 314. Callou, Dinah
    et al.
    Avelar, Juanito
    University of Campinas, Brazil.
    Preservação e mudança na história do português brasileiro: de possessivo a existencial2012In: Matraga, E-ISSN 2446-6905, Vol. 19, no 30, p. 224-235Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [pt]

    No português brasileiro (PB), o verbo haver ‘existir’ pode ser substituído pelo verbo ter ‘possuir’, em construções existenciais e um aspecto intrigante dessa variação reside no fato de o verbo ter perder as restrições de finitude nos complementos e de haver acionar essa restrição. A hipótese é a de que esse contraste seja resultante do fato de ter, embora tenha sido reanalisado como existencial, mantenha ainda as propriedades de seleção de sentenças possessivas. Os dados analisados (1528 construções existenciais do português falado contemporâneo e 200 construções com haver/ter-sentenças possessivas no português medieval (PM), do século XIII ao XVI) revelam um aspecto crucial das mudanças relevantes que tiveram lugar na história da língua portuguesa: a versão existencial de ter e haver herda os aspectos sintático-semânticos de sua versão possessiva, o que demonstra que um item pode emergir em um novo contexto sem mudar suas propriedades essenciais de seleção.

  • 315. Callou, Dinah
    et al.
    Avelar, Juanito
    University of Campinas, Brazil.
    TER/HAVER constructions and verbal agreement2013In: Journal of Portuguese Linguistics, ISSN 1645-4537, E-ISSN 2397-5563, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 187-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is twofold: (i) to analyze the use of the verbs ter and haver in the history of Portuguese and, more specifically, in a recent stage of Brazilian Portuguese, in which the possessive ter is used as an existential verb; and (ii) to discuss some properties involving ter and haver in possessive and existential domains, in both European and Brazilian Portuguese, pointing to the possibility of verbal agreement with ter/haver-existential constructions. Exploring results from previous analyses it is shown that some properties of existential constructions, in contemporary Brazilian Portuguese, can derive from changes involving subject position, related to the weakening of flectional paradigm.

  • 316.
    Camps Navajas, Mercè
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Estudio cualitativo de actitudes lingü.sticas: comparación entre estudiantes de bachillerato en Suecia con el español como lengua de herencia o como lengua extranjera2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has been, mainly since the decade of the 70ies a receptor of Spanish-speaking immigrants. Today, Spanish is the most popular modern language in Swedish schools. Thus, we find ourselves in a context characterized by the convergence of Spanish linguistic heritage —from 2nd and 3rd generations of immigrants— and the student’s interest to learn the language. This study is placed within this social circumstances and it aims to locate and analyse the attitudes towards linguistic variation of two groups of students of Spanish as a foreign language in a high-school (gymnasium) in the metropolitan area of Stockholm, one of which is formed by speakers of Spanish as a heritage language. We will therefore focus on the relationship between the interaction of different factors —mainly extralinguistics— and the profile of each subject. We will also take into account the how the academic context may have influenced these attitudes. In relation to the context, we would like to clarify that the students arecurrently enrolled in either Paso 5 (steg 5) or Paso 6 (steg 6) levels, according to the Swedish school system, which, according to the Marco Común Europeo de Referencia par alas Lenguas, corresponds to B1-B2 and B2 levels, respectively. In order to identify these factors and make sure that the results are representative of the attitudes of the subjects, we have decided to combine three methodologies: adirect one (qualitative interview), and two indirect ones (the matched-guise technique and the linguistic self-portraits). The results have showed that the idiosyncrasy of each subject is decisive in relation to the attitudes he shows. However, we determine that the attitudes of the students in the heritage language group are based on identity issues and linguistic pride, whereas motivation when learning the foreign language is the basis for the foreign language group’s attitudes.

  • 317.
    Canfora, Iraima
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Spanish, Portuguese and Latin American Studies.
    El pronombre sujeto en la interlengua (sueco L2) de un grupo de hispanohablantes2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    La presente investigación estudia la omisión del pronombre sujeto en la interlengua de un hablante nativo de español (L1) en el proceso de adquisición del sueco como (L2). La posibilidad de que un hispanohablante omita el pronombre sujeto, aceptado en español que es una lengua de sujeto nulo, a la hora de adquirir una L2 que no admite tal omisión, es una de las interrogantes a las que trataremos de dar respuestas, sobre todo si esta omisión se debe a transferencias de la L1 (lengua materna), en el caso que se compruebe que eso sí ocurre. Una hipótesis que nos planteamos es si el aprendiz que cuenta ya con conocimientos previos de la estructura gramatical de una lengua que no admite el pro-drop, comete menos el error de omisión del pronombre sujeto. Nuestro propósito es demostrar lo antes dicho mediante un estudio con aprendices hispanohablantes. Concluido el mismo, los resultados obtenidos muestran que aún sin tener otra lengua extranjera (LE), como por ej. el inglés, no necesariamente se omite el sujeto, a causa, como teníamos la creencia, de una sobregeneralización de reglas.

  • 318. Cap, Fabienne
    et al.
    Adesam, Yvonne
    Ahrenberg, Lars
    Borin, Lars
    Bouma, Gerlof
    Forsberg, Markus
    Kann, Viggo
    Östling, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Smith, Aaron
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Nivre, Joakim
    SWORD: Towards Cutting-Edge Swedish Word Processing2016In: Proceedings of SLTC 2016, 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite many years of research on Swedish language technology, there is still no well-documented standard for Swedish word processing covering the whole spectrum from low-level tokenization to morphological analysis and disambiguation. SWORD is a new initiative within the SWE-CLARIN consortium aiming to develop documented standards for Swedish word processing. In this paper, we report on a pilot study of Swedish tokenization, where we compare the output of six different tokenizers on four different text types. For one text type (Wikipedia articles), we also compare to the tokenization produced by six manual annotators.

  • 319.
    Careborg, Kristina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att ta sig vatten över huvudet: En studie om idiomförståelse ur ett tvåspråkighets- och andraspråksperspektiv2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur väl tvåspråkiga elever i årskurs 9 behärskade vanligt förekommande idiomatiska uttryck i skrivet språk. Tre faktorer som enligt tidigare studier visat sig påverka idiomförståelse är; semantisk transparens, om uttrycket står i en kontext samt tidigare kännedom om uttrycket. Läsförmågan kontrollerades med ett standardiserat avkodnings- och läsförståelsetest, och idiomförståelsen testades utifrån ett test med 45, främst transparenta frekventa idiomatiska uttryck, isolerade respektive i en kontext. Resultaten visade att typ av tvåspråkighet och nivå på läskunnighet påverkade idiomförståelsen. De successivt tvåspråkiga med svenska som andraspråk klarade inte av att använda kontexten vid tolkningen i lika hög grad som de simultant tvåspråkiga och successivt tvåspråkiga med svenska som förstaspråk. Däremot presterade båda grupperna bäst vid tolkningen av idiomatiska uttryck som de hade kännedom om sedan tidigare. Enligt utvecklingsmodellen, global elaboration model (GEM) börjar utvecklingsprocessen för figurativ kompetens i 8 årsåldern hos enspråkiga barn. Enligt resultaten i denna studie kunde successivt tvåspråkiga med svenska som andraspråk i årskurs 9 jämföras med enspråkiga barn i 7-8 årsåldern, medan gruppen med simultant tvåspråkiga och successivt tvåspråkiga med svenska som förstaspråk, kunde jämföras med enspråkiga barn mellan 9-12 år.

  • 320.
    Carlberg, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att förstärka sinnelag och sinnesstämning: En korpusstudie av förstärkande förled hos svenska adjektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is no description in the Swedish grammar regarding how adjectives can be reinforced with prefixes, also known as intensifiers. Research shows that this phenomenon have recieved greater attention in other languages. The purpose of this study was to describe and map the use of prefix reinforcements, and see if any patterns or rules could be found. The quantitative research is based on statistical data collected from informal blog texts in two Swedish corpora. Adjectives on two types of mood, solid and temporary, as well as positive and negative, were investigated. The results showed that some types were more inclined to take reinforcements than others. Temporary adjectives took on more than solid ones, negative more than positive, as well as the short and frequent adjectives where more often reinforced than the longer and uncommon ones

  • 321.
    Carlsson, Stina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Cromnow, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Egardt, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    En undersökning av sambandet mellan språklig och motorisk utveckling hos 8-16 månader gamla barn: En analys av föräldrars skattningar i testinstrumentet Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory (SECDI)2007Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föräldrar till barn i åldrarna 8-16 månader har i samband med en forskningsstudie vid Stockholms universitet skattat sina barns färdigheter och förmågor med hjälp av formuläret SECDI. För undersökning av motorisk och språkliga utveckling hos barn valdes barn i åldrarna 8, 10, 12, 14 och 16 månader ut. Barnens skattade språkliga förmågor jämfördes med deras skattade motoriska förmågor. Syftet med detta specialarbete är att utifrån föräldrarnas skattningar av sina barns färdigheter undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan motorisk och språklig färdighet hos små barn. Undersökningens resultat påvisar ett sådant samband. Summan av antal förstådda respektive sagda ord korrelerade starkt med summan av antal gester. En bakomliggande variabel tros vara barnens ålder vilket visar sig som en signifikant korrelation mellan barnens språkliga och motoriska utveckling samt ålder.

  • 322.
    Cedergren, Mickaëlle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of French, Italian and Classical Languages.
    L’écriture biblique dans la littérature du XIXe siècle finissant : le cas de Strindberg2008In: @nalyses, revue de critique et de théorie littéraire: Articles courants, XIXe siècle., ISSN 1715-9261, no printemps 2008, p. 6-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inferno constitutes a turning point in Strindberg’s literary production in that scriptural quotations appear more frequently and a new style emerges. This article presents the characteristics of the scriptural quotations appearing in Inferno (1897) and Jacob Wrestles (a fragment following Légendes, written in French and in Swedish in 1898). The linguistic analysis — with includes comparative, discourse, textual and intertextual approaches — is used to define the place and role of scriptural quotations in this literary corpus. This study has revealed three different types of biblical writings which show the spiritual disposition and the religious evolution of the narrator in each text.

  • 323.
    Chimbutane, Feliciano
    et al.
    Eduardo Mondlane University, Moçambique.
    Stroud, ChristopherStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Educação Bilingue em Moçambique: Reflectindo Criticamente sobre Políticas e Práticas2012Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 324.
    Chrystal, Judith-Ann
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Ekvall, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Skrivelyst og tekstkompetence - Hvad responssamtaler mellem 'svage' skribenter kan afsloere2012In: Skrivelyst i et specialpaedagogisk perspektiv / [ed] Sigrid Madsberg, Kristen Friis, Köpenhamn: Dansk psykologisk Forlag, 2012, p. 91-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 325.
    Cleve, Linn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Special Education.
    "Det ingår liksom att anstränga sig lite": En studie om pedagogers förhållningssätt och tankar om språkstimulerande arbetssätt för flerspråkiga barn i förskolan.2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to shed light on how some teachers with different backgrounds, in a homogenous Swedish-speaking and a more multicultural area, think about and work with multilingual children in preschool. My research questions concerned the teachers’ vision of how a language stimulating environment should be designed. If multilingual children need a particular design - plus positive and negative aspects of the work with multilingual preschool children, as well as if there’s differences between the statements of the various professional roles. I also wanted to find out whether children's mother tongue was spoken in the everyday praxis or not - or if the child’s origins were highlighted in other ways. Interviews were used as my reasearch metod.

    My results showed that all teachers stress the use of a nuanced, rich and naming language in everyday praxis. For children with a mother tongue other than Swedish, it becomes more important with language aid, like pictures and concrete materials, according to teachers. Problematic aspects of speaking several languages in preschool were partly organizational - to obtain staff with multilingual skills - and partly to keep a balance in also emphasizing Swedish. In two of the preschools’ everyday activity, teachers speak languages other than Swedish. They do this referring to the positive cognitive effects on the child. Contrary to this, a preschool teacher at another preschool chose not to speak other languages in everyday activity. She feels that this sends out negative signals to the children whose first language is not spoken by any of the teachers. In general, there was a position with the teachers that problems and difficulties are in the profession, making an effort forms a part of the occupation.

  • 326.
    Clyne, Michael
    et al.
    University of Melbourne.
    Norrby, Catrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages.
    Address in pluricentric languages: The case of German and Swedish2011In: Línguas Pluricêntricas Pluricentric Languages: Variação Linguística e Dimensões Sociocognitivas Linguistic Variation and Sociocognitive Dimensions / [ed] Augusto Soares da Silva, Amadeu Torres, Miguel Gonçalves, Braga, Portugal: ALETHEIA – Associação Científica e Cultural , 2011, p. 147-160Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on address practices in German and Swedish, which bring out contrasts in address in the national varieties. It draws mainly on a large-scale project on address in a number of languages in Europe (Clyne, Norrby, Warren 2009). Data were collected in key localities of the national varieties in focus groups, interviews, chat groups and through participant observation. The results demonstrate that the dominant variation between address in the German and Austrian national varieties of German is the much greater use of titles in Austria and the much more widespread use of T in the workplace, both to superiors and at the same level of seniority. There is also variation within Germany, which highlights the issue of whether East and West German were separate national varieties during the division of Germany. In Sweden-Swedish, the V form was virtually abandoned in the 1960s and is now restricted to addressing especially very old and frail people in service encounters. In Finland Swedish, V is still employed in a way that has been abandoned in Sweden – expressing status and formality, reflecting conservatism and the influence of the Finnish language. This means that controversy as to whether V is exclusionary in Sweden is not relevant in Finland-Swedish. Our study of German and Swedish also demonstrates that knowledge of address in others’ varieties is largely stereotypical.

  • 327.
    Clyne, Michael
    et al.
    Dept of Languages and Linguistics, The University of Melbourne.
    Norrby, Catrin
    Dept of Languages and Linguistics, The University of Melbourne.
    Warren, Jane
    Dept of Languages and Linguistics, The University of Melbourne.
    Language and Human Relations: Styles of Address in Contemporary Language2009 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The way in which people address one another is crucial to expressing social relationships and is closely linked with cultural values. In English we call some people by their first names, and others 'Mr' or 'Ms', followed by their surname. In some other languages there are different ways of saying 'you' depending on the degree of social distance. Exploring practices in the family, school, university, the workplace and in letters, this book reveals patterns in the varied ways people choose to address one another, from pronouns to first names, from honorifics to titles and last names. Examples are taken from contemporary English, French, German and Swedish, using rich data from focus group research, interviews, chat groups, and participant observation.

    • A revealing investigation into the different ways people choose to address each other • Data is derived from multiple sources, such as focus groups, interviews and participant observation • Explores address practices in a variety of situations including the family, school and the workplace

  • 328.
    Collantes, Sebastian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    Scrutinizing the use of online data: A critical study of the use of online forum texts in research2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has given researchers a convenient and accessible tool for collecting data. It enables researchers to find natural occurring language that gives them the opportunity to save time and partake of various advantages the Internet has to offer. Web forums are deep and complex message boards occupied by online communities. These web forums are a rich source for collecting naturally occurring language that can be used for various sorts of research. Several researchers have shown that these web forums have a generous amount of advantages when used as data (Yates, 1996; Hsiung, 2000; Joinson, 2001; Im & Chee, 2006; Newhagen & Rafaeli, 2006; Misoch, 2015). However, it is equally important to understand the nature of the flaws that web forum texts as data may have. The notion of anonymity and the overrepresentation of a certain demographic groups may mislead incautious researchers collecting data from web forums.

    This paper aims to analyse several research articles which uses web forum texts as data within two different disciplines, health and social care and linguistics, in addition to classifying them as either high-stakes or low-stakes research. The goal is to investigate how researchers handle possible limitations and risks of such data. Initial results showed that high-stakes are more thorough when discussing and reporting concerns regarding their data. Evidently, health and social care high-stakes research articles reported more concerns than linguistics research articles. Several recommendations based on these results were made in the end of the paper for researchers to use when conducting research based on web forum texts.

  • 329.
    Colliander, Martha-Paula
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Hen: mer än ett ord på tre bokstäver: En korpusbaserad studie om distributionen av olika funktioner hos pronomenet hen i sociala medier 2012-20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a corpus-based study, which aims to investigate both the distribution and function of the pronoun hen in social media platforms, during the time period 2012-2017. Since 2012, the year when a broad debate sparked regarding the use of hen, the pronoun has increasingly been incorporated into the Swedish language. By using the search-tool Korp, and the collection of texts provided by Språkbanken, 186 occurrences of hen have been analyzed. These occurrences were extracted from various social media corpora, specifically Bloggmix, Familjeliv, Flashback and Twittermix. The data were tagged into eight different categories: Könsöverskridande (Non-gender), Anonymising and Unknown-sex, Indefinite and generic, Meta, Nominalised, Non-human, Unclear and Other. The results show that the dominant function of hen are the anonymized- and unknown-hen, comprising up to 47% of all cases. Also, the second most prominent function is the Generic-hen, with a total of 28%. Finally, the function Meta-hen, covers about 13% of all occurrences. These result indicate that the pronoun is debated less in social media compared to results from previous studies where Meta-hen proved to be the dominant use in previous years (Ledin & Lyngfelt, 2013: 168). Instead it is more common to use hen in order to anonymize, for example, or when it is not possible to comment on the gender identity of a person when the sex is unknown, and that it is more common to generalize in different contexts instead. Moreover, it can be noted that the use of hen had increased on both Bloggmix and Familjeliv until 2016. Conversely, the data shows that its use on Flashback fluctuated over time, and showed a constant decline on Twittermix.

  • 330.
    Colonna Dahlman, Roberta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Presuppositions, again2019In: Philosophical Insights into Pragmatics / [ed] Piotr Stalmaszczyk, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Presupposition is surely one of the most debated notions in the linguistic and philosophical literature. Historically, there are two main theoretical approaches to presuppositions. According to the first one, the semantic view, presuppositions are semantic implications, that is, truth-conditional relations between propositions and statements. In this sense, presuppositions are considered properties of sentences and a presupposed proposition is a necessary condition for the truth of the presupposing statement. In the second approach, the pragmatic view, presuppositions are not properties of sentences but rather properties of speakers or of linguistic performances given a certain context of utterance. From this view, a presupposed proposition is a condition for the felicitous utterance of the presupposing statement in a given context.

    Traditionally, it is assumed that semantic presuppositions differ from classical entailments, as presuppositions, unlike classical entailments, project under negation: if we compare a context of entailment to a context of presupposition, we should see that entailments, but not presuppositions, disappear under negation. This presentation aims to propose a revision of the semantic notion of presupposition. I argue that most standard cases of presuppositions are classical entailments. Moreover, I claim that all presuppositions that are classical entailments are also pragmatic presuppositions, while not all pragmatic presuppositions are also classical entailments. I contend that factive verbs offer a paradigmatic example of this distinction, as the factivity related to know is semantic, hence a classical entailment, whereas the factivity related to regret is merely pragmatic. This claim stands in contrast to Karttunen’s (1971) well-known analysis of factive verbs and his distinction between true factives (that is, emotive factives) and semifactives (that is, cognitive factives).

  • 331.
    Cooper, Andrew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of English.
    A unified account of the Old English metrical line2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes the verse design of Old English poetry in terms of modern phonological theory, developing an analysis which allows all OE verse lines to be described in terms of single metrical design.

    Old English poetry is typified by a single type of line of variable length, characterised by four metrical peaks. The variation evident in the lengths of OE metrical units has caused previous models to overgenerate acceptable verse forms or to develop complex typologies of dozens of acceptable forms. In this study, Metrical phonology and Optimality theory are used to highlight some aspects of the relationship between syntax, phonology and verse metrics in determining how sentences and phrases interact with the verse structure to create variation.

    The main part of the study is a metrical model based on the results of a corpus analysis. The corpus is centred on the OE poems Genesis and Andreas, complemented by selected shorter poems. A template of a prototypical line is described based on a verse foot which contains three vocalic moras, and which can vary between 2 and 4 vocalic moras distributed across 1 to 4 syllables. Each standard line is shown to consist of four of these verse feet, leading to a line length which can vary between 8 and 16 vocalic moras. It is shown that the limited variation within the length of the verse foot causes the greater variation in the length of lines. The rare, longer ‘hypermetric’ line is also accounted for with a modified analysis. The study disentangles the verse foot, which is an abstract metrical structure, from the prosodic word, which is a phonological object upon which the verse foot is based, and with which it is often congruent. Separate sets of constraints are elaborated for creating prosodic words in OE, and for fitting them into verse feet and lines. The metrical model developed as a result of this analysis is supported by three smaller focused studies.

    The constraints for creating prosodic words are defended with reference to compounds and derivational nouns, and are supported by a smaller study focusing on the metrical realisation of non-Germanic personal names in OE verse. Names of biblical origin are often longer than the OE prosodic word can accommodate. The supporting study on non-Germanic names demonstrates how long words with no obvious internal morphology in OE are adapted first to OE prosody and then to the verse structure. The solution for the metrical realisation of these names is shown to be patterned on derivational nouns.

    The supporting study on compound numerals describes how phrases longer than a verse are accommodated by the verse design. It is shown that compound numerals, which consist of two or more numeral words (e.g. 777 – seofonhund and seofon and hundseofontig) are habitually rearranged within the text to meet the requirements of verse length and alliteration.

    A further supporting study discusses the difference between the line length constraints controlling OE verse design and those for Old Norse and Old Saxon verse. Previous studies have often conflated these three closely related traditions into a single system. It is shown that despite their common characteristics, the verse design described in this study applies to all OE verse, but not to ON or OS.

  • 332.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Mapping articulatory parameters on formant patterns: From articulations to acoustics non-stop2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional way of estimating the formant frequencies from articulatory data presupposes knowledge of how the vocal tract cross-sectional area varies for a given articulatory shape (Fant 1960/1970). Accordingly, in order to derive the formant pattern of a given articulation, the three-dimensional shape of the vocal tract (VT) needs to be known. In the past cross-sectional areas have typically been derived by means of ‘d-to-A rules’ that use the mid-sagittal cross-distance d at each point along the VT to produce a corresponding cross-sectional area A. X-ray and MRI data have been used to calibrate such rules (Heinz & Stevens 1964, Sundberg et al. 1987, Ericsdotter 2005). Although this procedure has produced many useful results it is time consuming and laborious. It is speaker-specific. It presupposes access to information on the three-dimensional shape of the VT, which is not experimentally readily accessible. Such observations raise the question whether sufficiently accurate alternative approaches can be developed. Is it possible to go straight from articulatory data to formant frequencies without having to construct a cross-sectional area function? If such methods could be developed it would have many uses both in phonetics and practical applications.

    This paper reports an attempt to map the time variations of selected articulatory parameters from X-ray profiles directly on the formant tracks using multiple regression analysis. Preliminary results for F1 indicate that multiple regression analysis can indeed be useful for making such predictions. The prospects of extending the present analyses to other formants are discussed.

  • 333.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    From movements to sound Contributions to building the BB speech production system2006Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In terms of anatomical geometry the infant Vocal Tract undergoes significant change during development. This research note reports an attempt to reconstruct an infant VT from adult data. Comparable landmarks were identified on the fixed structures of adult articulatory lateral profiles (obtained from X-ray images) and matching infant profiles (obtained from published data in the literature, Sobotta [Putz & Pabst 2001, and personal communication from author Prof. Dr. med. R. Pabst]. The x-coordinates of the infant landmarks could be accurately derived by a linear scaling of the adult data whereas the y-values required information on both the x- and the y-coordinates of the adult. These scaling rules were applied to about 400 adult articulatory profiles to derive a set of corresponding infant articulations. A Principal Components Analysis was performed on these shapes to compare the shapes of the infant and adult articulatory spaces. As expected from the scaling results the infant space is significantly compressed in relation to the adult space suggesting that the main articulatory degree of freedom for the child is jaw opening. This finding is in perfect agreement with published descriptions of the phonetics of early vocalizations. 

  • 334.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    From articulatory to acoustic parameters non-stop: Phonetics in the fast lane2008In: Proceedings FONETIK 2008Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports an attempt to map the time variations of selected articulatory parameters (from X-ray profiles) directly on the F1, F2 and F3 formant tracks using multiple regression analysis (MRA). The results indicate that MRA can indeed be useful for predicting formant frequencies. Since the results reported here are limited to preliminary observations of F1 only, further studies including F2 and F3 are needed to evaluate the method more definitively.

  • 335.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Simko, Juraj
    University of Helsinki.
    Articulatory Consequences of Vocal Effort Elicitation Method2018In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2018, Hyderabad, India: The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2018, p. 1521-1525Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Articulatory features from two datasets, Slovak and Swedish, were compared to see whether different methods of eliciting loud speech (ambient noise vs. visually presented loudness target) result in different articulatory behavior. The features studied were temporal and kinematic characteristics of lip separation within the closing and opening gestures of bilabial consonants, and of the tongue body movement from /i/ to /a/ through a bilabial consonant. The results indicate larger hyper - articulation in the speech elicited with visually presented target. While individual articulatory strategies are evident, t he speaker groups agree on increasing the kinematic features consistently within each gesture in response to the increased vocal effort. Another concerted strategy is keeping the tongue response considerably smaller than that of the lips, presumably to preserve acoustic prerequisites necessary for the adequate vowel identity. While the method of visually presented loudness target elicits larger span of vocal effort, the two elicitation methods achieve comparable consistency per loudness conditions.

  • 336. Coull, Mia
    et al.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Fonetik.
    Kan en robot lära sig att prata?2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Kort notis om forskningsprojekt med robotmodeller av tidig språkutveckling (Vi föräldrar, 2007, Nr 13, s. 73)

  • 337.
    Coussé, Evie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Lexical expansion in the have and be perfect in Dutch: A constructionist prototype account2014In: Diachronica, ISSN 0176-4225, E-ISSN 1569-9714, p. 159-191Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 338.
    Coussé, Evie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Van de Velde, Freek
    Hulpwerkwoordselectie in drieledige perfecta met een modaal. Een alternatieve historische verklaring2014In: Patroon en argument: een dubbelfeestbundel bij het emeritaat van William Van Belle en Joop van der Horst / [ed] Freek Van de Velde et al., Leuven: Leuven University Press, 2014, p. 349-364Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 339.
    Coussé, Evie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Baltic Languages, Finnish and German.
    Von Mengden, Ferdinand
    Freie Universität Berlin.
    Usage-based approaches to language change2014Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Usage-based approaches to language have gained increasing attention in the last two decades. The importance of change and variation has always been recognized in this framework, but has never received central attention. It is the main aim of this book to fill this gap. Once we recognize that usage is crucial for our understanding of language and linguistic structures, language change and variation inevitably take centre stage in linguistic analysis. Along these lines, the volume presents eight studies by international authors that discuss various approaches to studying language change from a usage-based perspective. Both theoretical issues and empirical case studies are well-represented in this collection. The case studies cover a variety of different languages – ranging from historically well-studied European languages via Japanese to the Amazonian isolate Yurakaré with no written history at all. The book provides new insights relevant for scholars interested in both functional and cognitive linguistic theory, in historical linguists and in language typology.

  • 340.
    Couturier Kaijser, Vilma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Metaphorical uses of verbs of animal sounds in Swedish2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Animals often act as source domain is metaphorical shifts. In European languages, there are often several lexicalised verbs for specific sounds with a prototypical animal as subject. These verbs of animal sounds and their metaphorical meanings have been studied cross-linguistically, which have made it possible to create a classification of situations that tend to be expressed by animal metaphors. There are many verbs of animal sounds in Swedish, but their metaphorical uses are not investigated. The present study investigates the metaphorical use of verbs of animal sounds in Swedish blog text and news text. The classification is used as a starting point for analysing occurrences of 13 Swedish verbs. The study seeks to answer which situations can be expressed by the Swedish verbs, which different situations can one and the same verb express metaphorically, and how did the typological classification suit the Swedish data? The results showed that the verbs often have human subjects, and different verbs varies in the range of metaphorical uses they possess. Three types of changes were made to the classification to suit the Swedish data: situations were moved, situations were added, and situations were removed.

  • 341.
    Couturier Kaijser, Vilma
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Omöjlig, olycklig, oönskad: O-prefigerade adjektiv och particip i svensk blogg- och nyhetstext2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Affixal negation of adjectives occur in several Indo-European languages. Previous studies show recurring patterns: the affixed stem is derived and has a positive value. The affixation creates a negative antonym. This corpus-based study examines the prefix o- in modern Swedish. The form and value of prefixed stems are investigated. The results of this study show that 91.5 % of the 563 most frequent prefixed words have a derived stem and many are deverbal. Among the 100 most frequent words, the stems have a positive value. Asymmetry in the use of the prefix occurs. 11.2 % of the study’s prefixed stems do not have a non-prefixed form. 48 of the 100 most frequent words belong to the semantic type HUMAN PROPENSITY.

    The second part of this study investigates the antonymic relationship between prefixed and non-prefixed words. The prefixed word often has a more general and abstract meaning when there is no direct antonymic relationship. The prefixed word may also have an older meaning, which is no longer used today. This study shows no clear patterns in differences in generality and abstractness in meaning between the prefixed word and the lexical antonym to the non-prefixed word.

  • 342.
    Crasborn, Onno
    et al.
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Kooij, Els van der
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Waters, Dafydd
    UCL Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience.
    Woll, Bencie
    Deafness, Cognition and Language Research Centre, UCL.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Frequency distribution and spreading behavior of different types of mouth actions in three sign languages2008In: Sign Language and Linguistics, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 45–67-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we present a comparative study of mouth actions in three European sign languages: British Sign Language (BSL), Nederlandse Gebarentaal (Sign Language of the Netherlands, NGT), and Swedish Sign Language (SSL). We propose a typology for, and report the frequency distribution of, the different types of mouth actions observed. In accordance with previous studies, we find the three languages remarkably similar — both in the types of mouth actions they use, and in how these mouth actions are distributed. We then describe how mouth actions can extend over more than one manual sign. This spreading of mouth actions is the primary focus of this paper. Based on an analysis of comparable narrative material in the three languages, we demonstrate that the direction as well as the source and goal of spreading may be language-specific.

  • 343.
    Crasborn, Onno
    et al.
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Mesch, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Waters, Dafydd
    University College London.
    Nonhebel, Annika
    Radboud University Nijmegen.
    Woll, Bencie
    University College London.
    Bergman, Brita
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language Section.
    Sharing sign languague data online: Experiences from the ECHO project2007In: International Journal of Corpus Linguistics, ISSN 1384-6655, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 537-564Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    This article describes how new technological possibilities allow sign language researchers to share and publish video data and transcriptions online. Both linguistic and technological aspects of creating and publishing a sign language corpus are discussed, and standards are proposed for both metadata and transcription categories specific to sign language data. In addition, ethical aspects of publishing video data of signers online are considered, and suggestions are offered for future corpus projects and software tools.

  • 344. Creese, Angela
    et al.
    Blackledge, Adrian
    Bhatt, Arvind
    Jonsson, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Juffermans, Kasper
    Li, Jinling
    Martin, Peter
    Muhonen, Anu
    Takhi, Jaspreet Kaur
    Researching bilingual and multilingual education multilingually: A linguistic ethnography2015In: The Handbook of Bilingual and Multilingual Education / [ed] Wayne E. Wright, Sovicheth Boun, Ofelia García, Wiley-Blackwell, 2015, p. 127-144Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 345.
    Cunningham, Una
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Growing up with Two Languages: A Practical Guide for the Bilingual Family2011 (ed. 3)Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 346.
    Cunningham, Una
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    How much linguistics do language teachers need?2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amount of linguistics required or available as part of an undergraduate degree with a major in a foreign language degree has varied through time and from country to country. Currently in New Zealand it is possible to graduate with a double major in in European or Asian languages without ever having come closer to linguistics than a grammar or pronunciation course. Language graduates may not have studied much in the way of linguistics during their degree study. This means that if they choose to enter initial secondary teacher education, they may be quite linguistically naive, despite years of language study.

     

    Current thinking on language education is that the combination of meaningful spoken and written input in the target language, and the possibility of meaningful interaction in the target language are enough to allow students to acquire communicative competence in the target language. However, all but the most radical believe that most learners will be helped by also learning about the target language – in effect learning something of the pragmatics, syntax, morphology, phonology and phonetics of the target language. Communicative competence is the goal for language education, and this paper examines the role of implicit and explicit linguistic knowledge and linguistic teaching in the learning and teaching of languages and the disconnect between language graduates’ linguistic understanding and language education.

  • 347.
    Cunningham, Una
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Language Education.
    Teachability and Learnability of English Pronunciation Features for Vietnamese-Speaking Learners2013In: Teaching and Researching English Accents in Native and Non-native Speakers / [ed] Ewa Waniek-Klimczak, Linda R. Shockey, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, p. 3-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anyone who has tried to learn a language with a very different sound system will understand the challenges faced by speakers of a language as different as Vietnamese who are attempting to learn to speak English in a way that is intelligible to non-speakers of Vietnamese. Many learners have very limited opportunity to hear model pronunciations other than their teacher’s, and no opportunity at all to speak in English outside the classroom. Vietnamese-accented English is characterised by a number of features which ride roughshod over English morphosyntax, resulting in speech that is extremely difficult to reconstruct for the non-Vietnamese-speaking listener. Some of these features appear to be more difficult to learn to avoid than others. Phonotactic constraints in L1 appear to be persistent even in L2, and L1 phonological rules will, apparently, often apply in L2 unless they are blocked in some way. Perception of salient (to native listeners) target pronunciations is often lacking, and learners may not be aware that their pronunciation is not intelligible. Despite years of language study, many learners are unable to produce some native speaker targets. Vietnamese learners typically exhibit a set of characteristic pronunciation features in English, and the aim of this study is to see which of these are susceptible to remediation through explicit teaching. This explicit teaching is compared with a less direct, less interactive kind of teaching, involving drawing native and native-like pronunciation of problematic features of English pronunciation to the learners’ attention. The results of this study can then be interpreted in terms of teachability and learnability, which do not always go hand in hand. If we understand what kinds of phonetic features are teachable and how learnability varies for different features, we can target those features where there is a good return for effort spent, resulting in efficient teaching.

  • 348.
    Cunningham, Una
    University of Canterbury.
    The role of blogs and forums in the linguistic expectations of pilgrims on the Camino to Santiago2013In: Computer mediated discourse across languages / [ed] Laura Álvarez López, Charlotta Seiler Brylla & Philip Shaw, Stockholm: Acta Universitatis Stockholmiensis, 2013, p. 137-154Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every year thousands of pilgrims from more than a hundred countries embark on a pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela in northwestern Spain. Many of them prepare for their pilgrimage physically and mentally.  Dozens of web pages, forums and blogs in a number of languages are dedicated to helping them with this preparation. This paper examines the role of blogs, web pages and forums in constructing pilgrims on the Camino de Santiago. One of the pervasive themes of these texts is the communitas that is experienced by pilgrims without regard to language or nationality. It appears to be unproblematic to communicate even when there is no or very limited common language. The hypothesis is that material accessed by pilgrims before beginning the journey leads them to expect to be able to communicate with everyone they meet, regardless of their actual language skills. This paper uses qualitative data analysis software (NVivo 10) to look at how the web-based material treats cross-linguistic communication in the multilingual liminal space of pilgrimage on the Camino, and at how pilgrims tell the story of their expectations after the pilgrimage is complete.

  • 349.
    Cárcamo García, Marina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Las actitudes y creencias de aprendientes brasileños de ELE hacia las variedades diatópicas del español: El caso de las formas de tratamiento2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, diatopic language variation gains importance in the teaching of Spanish as a foreign language, due to the geographic situation of Brazil between Spanish America and as a result of its economic and cultural relations, on the one hand, with the other Latin American countries, whose official language is Spanish, and on the other hand, with Spain. This paper focuses on the study of attitudes and linguistic beliefs towards diatopic varieties of Spanish by Brazilian students of Spanish as a Foreign Language (SFL), since such attitudes and beliefs play an important role in motivating students to learn, and therefore, in their acquisition level of the foreign language. Apart from systematically studying the perceptions and attitudes regarding the diatopic varieties of Spanish, this study seeks to specifically investigate attitudes towards the forms of address in Spanish (tú, vos, usted, vosotros and ustedes), because it is a variable linguistic topic, both geographically and stylistically. Furthermore, it studies the relationship between language proficiency of the students, their academic profile and their contact with speakers of varieties of Spanish as well as the general attitudes that they have towards Hispanic varieties. Based on empirical data, the discussion considers implications for teaching of SFL in a context where Spanish is conceived as a pluricentric language. To investigate all these variables, a questionnaire was distributed to 60 Brazilian students enrolled in the Spanish courses of the Language Learning Centre at the University of Campinas, who also follow their undergraduate and posgraduate studies at the same university. Using both direct and indirect observation techniques regarding attitudes, and quantitative and qualitative analysis, the paper concludes that there is a preference for the Latin American varieties compared to the Peninsular varieties amongst Brazilian students of Spanish. These results are different from the ones presented in previous research in this area. In the case of attitudes towards the forms of address in Spanish, the results show that there is no correspondence of these attitudes with the general attitudes towards diatopic varieties, since vos, which is exclusively characteristic of the Latin American varieties, is conceived as one of the least used and most unnecessary forms in Spanish.

  • 350.
    Dahl, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    "Uno nunca sabe lo que se puede encontrar": Las construcciones impersonales con referencia humana en la traducción española de la novela negra Det som inte dödar oss de David Lagercrantz2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [es]

    El pronombre man es muy usado en sueco, tanto en lengua escrita como en lengua hablada. Es un pronombre indefinido que puede referirse a una persona o a varias y que puede tanto incluir como excluir al hablante. En esta tesina vamos a estudiar cómo se traduce man al español peninsular ya que no existe un pronombre equivalente que valga para todas las ocasiones. El análisis de una traducción del género de la novela negra que contiene muchos diálogos nos permite ver si existen diferencias entre la traducción de la narración y de los diálogos. Además, comparamos las varias construcciones usadas para traducir el pronombre man con los resultados de estudios recientes sobre el uso de las construcciones impersonales en el español peninsular hablado.

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