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  • 301.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Muravyova, Irina A.
    Alutor causatives, noun incorporation, and the Mirror Principle1993In: Causatives and transitivity / [ed] Bernard Comrie, Maria Polinsky, Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 1993, p. 287-314Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 302.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Plank, Frans
    Department of linguistics, University of Konstanz, Germany.
    Kinds of adnominals: adjectives, nouns and in-between2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 303.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rakhilina, Ekaterina
    Pochemu glagol lezt' tak trudno perevesti na shvedskij jazyk2002In: Explorare necesse est: hyllningsskrift till Barbro Nilsson / [ed] Per Ambrosiani, Elisabeth Löfstrand, Laila Nordquist, Ewa Teodorowicz-Hellman, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International , 2002, p. 133-148Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 304.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rakhilina, Ekaterina
    "Some like it hot" on semantics of temperature adjectives in Russian and Swedish2006In: STUF (Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung), a special issue on Lexicon in a Typological and Contrastive Perspective, Vol. 59, no 2, p. 16-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 305.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rakhilina, Ekaterina V.
    S samymi teplymi chuvstvami (po gorjachim sledam stokgol'mskoj èkspedicii)1998In: Tipologija i grammatika / [ed] Raxilina, E. & Ja. Testelec, Moskva, 1998Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 306.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rakhilina, Ekaterina
    Vanhove, Martine
    The semantics of lexical typology2015In: The Routledge Handbook of Semantics / [ed] Nick Riemer, Oxford: Routledge, 2015, p. 434-454Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter mainly focuses on lexical typology understood as cross-linguistic research on domain categorization. It introduces some of the critical theoretical and methodological issues inherent in it where lexical typology has to find its own way in balancing between the ambitions of theoretical semantics, lexicography and general typology. After that four different approaches are presented and discussed: componential analysis; Natural Semantic Metalanguage; denotation-based (or etic-grid) semantics, and combinatorial lexical typology. The two final sections are devoted to implicational vs. probabilistic semantic maps as representations of meanings and generalizations in lexical typology, and to future prospects in lexico-typological research.

  • 307.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Temperature in the Word Space: Sense exploration of temperature expressions using word-space modeling.2014In: Linguistic variation in text and speech, within and across languages / [ed] Szmrecsanyi, B. & Wälchli, B., Berlin/Boston: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 231-267Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter deals with a statistical technique for sense exploration based on distributional semantics known as word space modelling. Word space models rely on feature aggregation, in this case aggregation of co-occurrence events, to build an aggregated view on the distributional behaviour of words. Such models calculate meaning similarity among words on the basis of the contexts in which they occur and represent it as proximity in high-dimensional vector spaces. The main purpose of this study is to test to what extent word-space modelling is in principle suitable for lexical-typological work by taking a first little step in this direction and applying the method for the exploration of the seven central English temperature adjectives in three corpora representing different genres. In order to better capture and account for the potentially different senses of one and the same word we have suggested and applied a new variant of this general method, “syntagmatically labelled partitioning”.

  • 308.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Shmelev, A
    Aleshina s Mashej stat'ja (o nekotoryx svojstvax russkix pritjazhatel'nyx prilagatel'nyx)1994In: ScandoSlavica, Vol. 40, p. 19-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 309.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vanhove, MartineCNRS, France.
    New directions of lexical typology2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present issue brings together a cross-section of high-quality lexical-typological work which combines strong empirical results with a spectrum of methodological approaches. It emphasizes the methodological and theoretical concerns of lexical typology and the diversity of the existing and possible approaches within this research area, as well as highlights some important issues pertaining to the interface between lexical-typological research and theoretical linguistics. The nine papers in the issue cover a whole range of cognitive domains and topics. One of them, the domain of PAIN predicates, is a new addition to the crosslinguistic and typological research, while the others have been studied earlier. The articles enhance our knowledge by supplying new data and new views on the domains of PERCEPTION, EAT, EXISTENCE, LOCATION, SPATIAL RELATIONS, MOTION, DRINK, CUT, DIMENSION, BIOLOGICAL TAXONOMY, as well as on the topic of light verb constructions. Some of the articles deal with the onomasiological issues, others take a semasiological approach, still others focus mainly on the interaction between lexicon and grammar, while two papers finally combine the semasiological perspective with the close attention to the interaction between lexicon and grammar. The synchronic outlook is central for most of the papers, but in some cases diachronic considerations are also at stake, such as historical developments within the lexicon and their implications for historical comparative linguistics. In four of the papers the main interest lies in the methodological and/or theoretical aspects of lexical- typological research; two of the papers primarily bring in a wealth of new empirical data, whereas the last three papers contribute with new insights that are relevant from both the empirical, methodological and theoretical points of view.

  • 310.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sahlgren, Magnus
    "Hot and cold — universal or language-specific"?2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 311.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Circum-Baltic languages: an areal-typological approach2001In: The Circum-Baltic languages: typology and contact. Vol. 2 Grammar and typology / [ed] Östen Dahl, Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2001, p. 615-750Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 312.
    Kowalik, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Case and case alignment in the Greater Hindukush: An areal-typological survey2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns languages in the Greater Hindukush, the area in northern Afghanistan and Pakistan, where a total of about 50 languages are spoken. The thesis’ topic is case systems and case alignment systems of nouns in an areal-typological perspective. This is investigated by using a representative sample. The grammatical relations of S, A and P, and the cases marking these, are investigated. The three attested alignment systems are accusative, ergative and split, and are clearly geogra-phically distributed, which indicates that their status is areal-typological. Based on the sample, there seems to be a tendency for the languages in the Greater Hindukush to exhibit split align-ment systems built on tense-aspect. Most languages employ accusative alignment in imperfect-tive, and ergative alignment in perfective tense-aspects. A compa­rison with a worldwide sample (WALS) is only partly possible, as this sample uses more categories than accusative, ergative and split, but the present sample supports the results in those categories which can be compared. A predominant pattern in core case syncretism is observed, with an opposition of the nomi­native singular versus the nominative plural and the oblique in both numbers.

  • 313.
    Lange, Noa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nominal plurality in languages of the Greater Hindukush2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Greater Hindukush is an area that stretches from northwestern–central Afghanistan, through Khyber Pakhtunkhwa and Gilgit–Baltistan of Pakistan and to Kashmir in northwestern India. It is home to some fifty languages of various genera including Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto- Burman, Turkic and the isolate Burushaski. It has long been of interest in areal typology, and there has been some discussion of phonological and lexical features shared between the languages, presumed to have evolved due to language contiguity and contact. The purpose of the present study is to research a grammatical feature, namely the plural marking of common nouns, in a selection of languages spoken in the Greater Hindukush area, and to discuss its salience as an areal or sub-areal feature. Several grammars have been consulted in the extraction and analysis of all relevant information on nominal plurality in the languages. The results indicate a correlation between stem modification as a means of marking nouns for plural, as well as optionality in the overt plural marking, and the contiguity of some languages. Conclusively, stem change as a method of expression displays some moderate degree of areality, while optionality of nominal plural marking in particular is suggested as a sub-areal feature of the area.

  • 314.
    Lebenswerd, Patric Joshua
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Distinctive features in Jewish Swedish: A description and a survey2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the contemporary speech used by Swedish Jews, and places it in the context of the most recent understandings in Jewish interlinguistics. Jewish Swedish derives most of its non-Swedish components from the main Jewish liturgical languages, Hebrew and Aramaic, in addition to the foremost ancestral language Yiddish. These components have provided Jewish Swedish with lexical, morpho-syntactic, phonological and semantic features, which distinguish it from Standard Swedish. The thesis, additionally, contains a survey, investigating the correlations between a number of socio-religious factors, and inter- communal variation in use of distinguishing features. The study reveals a great deal of variation between different age groups, social groups, religious groups, men and women, in terms of word knowledge and usage. This study will hopefully contribute to the field of contemporary Jewish linguistics, and the general understanding of speech used by minority communities.

  • 315.
    Lebenswerd, Patric Joshua
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Yiddish Imprint in Modern Hebrew Phonology: Tracing the regional Yiddish dialect(s) that founded Modern Hebrew phonology2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper argues that the native phonology of Modern Hebrew is derived from Yiddish phonology, specific of the regions from which the great majority of those involved in the Hebrew language revival emigrated, at the turn of the 20th century. This is evident from the striking similarities in their consonantal inventories, phonotactics and phonological rules. The regional Yiddish dialects that correspond best with Modern Hebrew phonology are situated in the mid-east speech territory, mainly the Ukraine and its surrounding areas. The study provides new data on Modern Hebrew voicing assimilation in sandhi, as well as new phonological parallels between Yiddish and Modern Hebrew.

  • 316.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A grammar of Palula2016Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This grammar provides a grammatical description of Palula, an Indo-Aryan language of the Shina group. The language is spoken by about 10,000 people in the Chitral district in Pakistan’s Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province. This is the first extensive description of the formerly little-documented Palula language, and is one of only a few in-depth studies available for languages in the extremely multilingual Hindukush-Karakoram region. The grammar is based on original fieldwork data, collected over the course of about ten years, commencing in 1998. It is primarily in the form of recorded, mainly narrative, texts, but supplemented by targeted elicitation as well as notes of observed language use. All fieldwork was conducted in close collaboration with the Palula-speaking community, and a number of native speakers took active part in the process of data gathering, annotation and data management. The main areas covered are phonology, morphology and syntax, illustrated with a large number of example items and utterances, but also a few selected lexical topics of some prominence have received a more detailed treatment as part of the morphosyntactic structure. Suggestions for further research that should be undertaken are given throughout the grammar. The approach is theory-informed rather than theory-driven, but an underlying functional-typological framework is assumed. Diachronic development is taken into account, particularly in the area of morphology, and comparisons with other languages and references to areal phenomena are included insofar as they are motivated and available. The description also provides a brief introduction to the speaker community and their immediate environment.

  • 317.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A survey of alignment features in the Greater Hindukush with special references to Indo-Aryan2014In: On Diversity and Complexity of Languages Spoken in Europe and North and Central Asia / [ed] Pirkko Suihkonen, Lindsay J. Whaley, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2014, p. 133-174Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hindukush Indo-Aryan (‘Dardic’) languages (Pakistan, Afghanistan, Kashmir) display a great range of variation in alignment patterns. The diversity is primarily evidenced in the case marking of core argument noun phrases and verbal person marking properties. Along these parameters, six distinct alignment types emerge, each, in combination with language-specific developments, reflecting contact-induced changes that can be attributed to three significant areas or subareas that conflate in the region: first, a large Persian-dominated area overlapping with the Western part of the region, characterized by overt patient marking; second, an area in the East with e.g. ancient Tibetan influences, characterized by overt agent marking; and third, an area in the South bordering on the influential Hindi-Urdu belt, stretching over large parts of the Indian Subcontinent, characterized by patient agreement in the perfective.

  • 318.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hindukush-Karakoram as a Linguistic Area: Problems and Prospects2015In: Abstract Book: The 2nd Kashmir International Conference on Linguistics, 2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Hindukush, Karakoram, and Western-most Himalayan mountain region – comprising northern Pakistan, northeastern Afghanistan and the territories of Kashmir on both sides of the LOC – is characterized by great linguistic and cultural diversity. The 40-50 distinct language varieties spoken in the region belong to various genera (Indo-Aryan, Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman, Turkic and the isolate Burushaski) and a number of different languages serve as lingua franca. It is also a transit zone between the cultural spheres of South Asia, Central Asia, and  the Himalayas.

    On the one hand, there are linguistic features shared by a large number of the region’s languages (Bashir 2003, 821–823; Tikkanen 1999; 2008), in some cases as the result of prolonged language contact, in others – such as in the so-called “Dardic” group of Indo-Aryan – due to shared retention (Morgenstierne 1961, 139; Strand 2001). On the other, there is also a good deal of structural diversity. Instead of trying to simplify the picture by proposing another Linguistic Area (or Sprachbund), this presentation aims at outlining a more nuanced, fine-tuned, and typologically-enlightened, profile of this region, a region that I henceforth will refer to as the Greater Hindukush Region. Certain features are identified as macroareal (i.e. as characteristic of a much larger area which this region forms only a small part of), other features as linking features (i.e. linking a part of the region with a geographically adjacent area), yet others as essentially regional (i.e. Hindukush-specific), or features with a significant sub-regional scope. The framework and the terms used are largely the ones proposed by Masica (2001).

    Arriving at the present, yet tentative, “profile”, an empirical study was undertaken, whereby a substantial number of traits (phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical—many of them overlapping with those of WALS (Haspelmath 2005), the World Atlas of Language Structure) were taken into account, drawing from the author’s own fieldwork in the region, collaboration with several native-speaker consultants, as well as from studies undertaken in the past by other scholars. Among the features discussed are: a tripartite differentiation within the affricate and fricative subsets (Tikkanen 2008, 255), the emergence of tonal contrasts (Baart 2003; Liljegren 2013), the display and degree of ergativity (Liljegren 2014), the presence vs. absence of gender distinctions, vigesimal numeral systems, multi-dimensional deictic contrasts, shared derivational pathways in kinship differentiation, double-marked contrastive constructions, and the prevalence of complex predicates (Liljegren 2010).

    While the treatment is primarily a synchronic one, we will also have to assume several layers of settlement and highly complex patterns of language contact even in a distant past. In addition, there are strong indications that several ancient substrata (the proto-language of Burushaski most likely one of them) have made important contributions to shaping the present-day typologies (Tikkanen 1988, 304; Zoller 2005, 16–18; Bashir 1996, 203).

  • 319.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Multi-level lexical convergence along the Silk Road2013In: 46th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea: Book of abstracts / [ed] Bert Cornillie and María Sol Sansiñena Pascual, Split, 2013, p. 213-214Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This preliminary study, partly based on fieldwork data, partly on available descriptions, looks at lexical convergence resulting from language contact in the Greater Hindu Kush (northern Pakistan, north-eastern Afghanistan, and Kashmir), a region characterized by a combination of linguistic diversity (including Indo-Iranian, Nuristani, Tibeto-Burman and the isolate Burushaski), a high level of multilingualism and by serving as an age-old transit zone between South, West, and Central Asia (Tikkanen 1988; Bashir 2003, 821–823). A few influential “culture carriers” of change are: Islam; a common Persian culture; poetry; and, in more recent times, media in which regional lingua franca-filtered English plays an increasing role. The lexical convergence can be observed on three interrelated levels: a) a micro-level characterized by shared internal semantic structure, b) a mid-level, whereby the structure of entire semantic domains display significant similarities, and c) a macro-level, with shared features of lexicon organization.

    The first level encompasses single lexemes across languages, e.g. shared specializations (Kamviri (Strand 2013): nuč ‘three days ago’, nutrí ‘the day before yesterday’, dus ‘yesterday’, strák ɡaaǰaar ‘today’, daalkẽ́ ‘tomorrow’, aatrí ‘the day after tomorrow’, aačǘ ‘three days hence’; Dameli (Morgenstierne 1942, 137–178, Emil Perder pc.): učoo/čoo diyoo,itrii, doos, mu(n)dya, beraa, truida, čoo/čooa ki, respectively), shared polysemy (Kalasha (Trail and Cooper 1999, 112): ɡríik; Pashto: axistəl ‘take’ – ‘buy’), and metaphorical extensions (Kashmiri: toon; Palula: šidáalu ‘cold’—‘hostile, unkind’). The second level is defined by semantic domains, and includes lexical relations between semantically related concepts (Khowar: ma oraru ɡoyan [lit. to-me sleep is coming] ‘I’m feeling sleepy’ vs. xaphosi parir ‘Xaposi sleeps’; Palula: asaám húluk dítu de [lit. on-us heat is fallen] ‘We were feeling hot’  vs. anú wíi táatu ‘This water is hot’; where the subjective experience is expressed as the stimulus coming to the experiencer) and shared derivational pathways, such as a participial ‘attaching’ marking the “manipulee” in causative constructions (Kalasha (Trail and Cooper 1999, 289; Bashir 2003, 823): a ísa aawái, ɡoník čhinawáis ‘I had him break the stick’; Kalam Kohistani (Baart 1999, 94–95): yä murād ā ǰämāl bakānt ‘I’m making Murad beat up Jamal’). The third level is probably the most interesting, as it facilitates lower-level convergence. One example is the gradual substitution of the single verb inventory by “new” complex predicates (Ladakhi: ban-coces (cf. indigenous satces); Indus Kohistani (Zoller 2005, 301): bʌ́n karʌ́v̄; Pashto bandawəl [lit. closed-do] ‘to turn off’, modelled on Urdu band karnaa). Other examples are the prevalence of co-lexicalized intensifiers (Burushaski (Berger 1998, 226–227): qhal-matúm ‘pitch black’; Gilgiti Shina: khutún šaróo ‘full autumn’, the first component often being a unique lexical unit) and the presence of cross-cutting pro-categories, reflecting multiple deictic contrasts (Kohistani Shina (Schmidt and Kohistani 2008, 97–98): paár ajóo ‘over there where I point’, paár adí ‘right over there’, paár asdí ‘right over there somewhere’, pér adí ‘over there (near, known but invisible)’, pér asdí ‘over there (out of sight)’; Kashmiri (Koul 2003, 914): kūtāh ‘how much?’, yūtāh ‘this much’, hūtāh ‘that much (within sight)’, tˈūtāh that much (out of sight)’).

    References

    Baart, Joan L. G. 1999. A Sketch of Kalam Kohistani Grammar. Islamabad: National Institute of Pakistan Studies  Quaid-i-Azam University and Summer Institute of Linguistics.

    Bashir, Elena L. 2003. “Dardic.” In The Indo-Aryan Languages, ed. George Cardona and Danesh Jain, 818–894. 1 Mul. London: Routledge.

    Berger, Hermann. 1998. Die Burushaski-Sprache von Hunza und Nager 3. Wörterbuch. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

    Koul, Omkar N. 2003. “Kashmiri.” In The Indo-Aryan Languages, ed. George Cardona and Danesh Jain, 895–952. 1 Mul. London: Routledge.

    Morgenstierne, Georg. 1942. “Notes on Dameli: A Kafir-Dardic Dialect of Chitral.” NTS 12: 115–198.

    Schmidt, Ruth Laila, and Razwal Kohistani. 2008. A Grammar of the Shina Language of Indus Kohistan. Beiträge Zur Kenntnis Südasiatischer Sprachen and Literaturen 17. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz.

    Strand, Richard F. 2013. “Richard Strand’s Nuristân Site: Lexicons of Kâmviri, Khowar, and Other Hindu-Kush Languages.” Accessed January 10. http://nuristan.info/lngFrameL.html.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1988. “On Burushaski and Other Ancient Substrata in Northwestern South Asia.” Studia Orientalia 64: 3030–325.

    Trail, Ronald L, and Gregory R Cooper. 1999. Kalasha dictionary with English and Urdu. Islamabad; United Kingdom: National Institute of Pakistan Studies, Quaid-i-Azam University ; Summer Institute of Linguistics.

    Zoller, Claus Peter. 2005. A Grammar and Dictionary of Indus Kohistani: Volume 1, Dictionary. Trends in Linguistics 21-1. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

     

  • 320.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Notes on Kalkoti: A Shina Language with Strong Kohistani Influences2013In: Linguistic Discovery, ISSN 1537-0852, E-ISSN 1537-0852, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 129-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents some novel and hard-to-access data from Kalkoti, an Indo-Aryan language spoken in northern Pakistan. The particular focus is on showing how this Shina variety in a relatively short time span has drifted apart from its closest known genealogical relatives and undergone significant linguistic convergence with a Kohistani variety in whose vicinity Kalkoti is presently spoken. Among other features, we explore what seems like an ongoing process of tonogenesis as well as structural “copying” in the realm of tense and aspect.

  • 321.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Profiling Indo-Aryan in the Hindukush-Karakoram: A preliminary study of micro-typological patterns2017In: Journal of South Asian languages and linguistics, ISSN 2196-0771, E-ISSN 2196-078X, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 107-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study is a typological profile of 31 Indo-Aryan (IA) languages in the Hindukush-Karakoram-Western Himalayan region (covering NE Afghanistan, N Pakistan, and parts of Kashmir). Native speakers were recruited to provide comparative data. This data, supplemented by reputable descriptions or field notes, was evaluated against a number of WALS- or WALS-like features, enabling a fine-tuned characterization of each language, taking different lin-guistic domains into account (phonology, morphology, syntax, lexicon). The emerging patterns were compared with global distributions as well as with characteristic IA features and well-known areal patterns. Some features, mainly syntactic, turned out to be shared with IA in general, whereas others do have scattered reflexes in IA outside of the region but are especially prevalent in the region: large consonant inventories, tripartite pronominal case alignment, a high frequency of left-branching constructions, and multi-degree deictic sys-tems. Yet other features display a high degree of diversity, often bundling subareally. Finally, there was a significant clustering of features that are not characterizing IA in general: tripartite affricate differentiation, retroflexion across several subsets, aspiration contrasts involving voiceless consonants only, tonal contrasts and 20-based numerals. This clustering forms a “hard core” at the centre of the region, gradually fading out toward its peripheries.

  • 322.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review: A Grammar of the Shina Language of Indus Kohistan by Ruth Laila Schmidt and Razwal Kohistani: (Beiträge zur Kenntnis südasiatischer Sprachen and Literaturen, 17. Herausgeben von Dieter B. Kapp)2008In: Himalayan Linguistics, ISSN 1544-7502, E-ISSN 1544-7502, no 6, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 323.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Supporting and sustaining language vitality in northern Pakistan2018In: The Routledge Handbook of Language Revitalization / [ed] Leanne Hinton, Leena Huss, Gerald Roche, New York: Routledge, 2018, p. 427-437Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern Pakistan is linguistically and culturally very diverse. Nearly 30 languages—representing a wide span, numerically and vitality-wise—are spoken in this mountainous region, sharing ties with adjacent areas of neighboring countries. Although most of these languages have received little outside recognition, there have been few restrictions for those wanting to promote their languages. Therefore, a number of sustaining efforts have been made in recent years, exemplified throughout the chapter: collaborative fieldwork, the formation of language organizations, training in documentation, the development of orthographies, publications, the introduction of mother-tongue schools, and lobbying for the region’s languages. Evaluating some of those activities and their effectiveness in terms of language maintenance and revitalization, some key factors stand out: community ownership, institutional support, pooling of resources, and multi-community collaboration. The observations and subsequent analysis are informed by the author’s own long-term involvement in the development of the Forum for Language Initiatives.

  • 324.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Dangari Tongue of Choke and Machoke: Tracing the proto-language of Shina enclaves in the Hindu Kush2009In: Acta Orientalia, ISSN 0001-6438, E-ISSN 1600-0439, no 70, p. 7-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Data from four little-studied varieties of Indo-Aryan (Southern Palula, Northern Palula, Sawi and Kalkoti) spoken in the Hindu Kush is analyzed and discussed from a historical-comparative perspective. Evidence is presented showing that Kalkoti, until recently only tentatively classified, is part of this particular cluster of closely-related Shina varieties. An attempt is made at reconstructing some phonological and grammatical features of a common source speech, here named Proto-Dangari, and the order in which the present-day varieties may have split off. An important conclusion drawn is that Southern and Northern Palula probably are more distantly related than present-day similarities seem to indicate, the high degree of synchronic similarity instead being due to relatively recent convergence taking place in southern Chitral. It is hypothesized that the present speech communities are the result of two different westward routes of migration, one geographically linking Southern Palula (Ashreti) and Sawi with Chilas, the other linking Northern Palula (Biori) and Kalkoti with Tangir, both located in the same general area of the main Indus Valley.

  • 325.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The linguistic identity of the Greater Hindu Kush, a transit zone between South and Central Asia2012In: 45th Annual Meeting of the Societas Linguistica Europaea: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Bert Cornillie and María Sol Sansiñena Pascual, Stockholm, 2012, p. 187-188Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Regardless of the particular view one takes on areality, there are a number of reasons for trying to characterize the accumulation of languages in the highland region between, or simultaneously belonging to, South Asia (or the Indian subcontinent) and Central Asia.  This region is, to borrow the words of one of the foremost experts on South Asian linguistics, “where conflicting areal patterns meet and interact, and many peculiar languages (‘Dardic’, Burushaski [a language isolate], the Pamir group of Eastern Iranian), at once archaic and innovating, find their home” (Masica 2001:225). To the aforementioned mix should be added Tibeto-Burman Balti, spoken in the eastern part of this region, and the Nuristani languages in the border region between northern Pakistan and Afghanistan, the latter now considered a third branch of Indo-Iranian (on par with Indo-Aryan and Iranian). Historically we will have to assume several layers of settlement and highly complex patterns of language contact in this extremely mountainous region, and there are strong indications that several ancient substrata (the proto-language of Burushaski most likely one of them) have made important contributions to the resulting typologies (Tikkanen 1988:304).

    In the present study a substantial number of features (phonological, morphological, syntactic, and lexical) are taken into account in order to arrive at a non-speculative typological profile of the region. The author draws from his own fieldwork in the region, collaborating with several native-speaker consultants,  as well as from language-specific studies carried out by other researchers. In an initial stage, an intragenealogical typology of the Indo-Aryan cluster, native to and linguistically dominant in the region (often, although controversially, referred to as ‘Dardic’, see Bashir 2003:822; Strand 2001:258; Zoller 2005:10–11), is established, by investigating a sample representing each of the tentatively classified subgroups of ‘Dardic’. This is meant to shed further light on the still ongoing but very challenging classification work. This is projected to be followed up by a more extensive cross-genera comparison of the same features.

    A number of convergence features that are of particular relevance to this region have been identified (many of them confirming suggestions made by Bashir (Bashir 2003:821–823) and Tikkanen (1999; 2008). Some of those are macroareal features that either characterize South Asia at large (or the larger part of it), such as the presence of retroflex stops and non-nominative experiencers, or large parts of Central Asia, such as a contrast between velar and uvular stops and the presence of a vigesimal numeral system. Other features are better described as subareal, some covering a substantial part of the region, such as a the presence of retroflex affricates as well as fricatives, contrasting with corresponding dental and palatal sounds, and the optionality of copula verbs in nominal and adjectival predication, other features characterizing more limited subsets of (often geographically adjacent) languages, such as grammaticalization of evidentiality and animacy distinctions, multi-differentiating deictic systems, a preferred order subordinate clause followed by main clause, the development of tonal/accentual systems, the use of co-lexicalized intensifiers, and a great variety in alignment patterns and in the display and degree of ergativity.

    References:

    Bashir, Elena L. 2003. “Dardic.” Pp. 818-894 in The Indo-Aryan Languages, edited by George Cardona and Danesh Jain. London: Routledge.

    Masica. 2001. “The definition and significance of linguistic areas: Methods, pitfalls, and possibilities (with special reference to the validity of South Asia as a linguistic area).” Pp. 205-267 in The yearbook of South Asian languages and linguistics 2001. London: SAGE.

    Strand, Richard F. 2001. “The tongues of Peristân. Appendix 1.” in Gates of Peristan: History, Religion and Society in the Hindu Kush, Reports and memoirs, edited by Alberto M Cacopardo and Augusto S Cacopardo. Rome: IsIAO.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1988. “On Burushaski and other ancient substrata in northwestern South Asia.” Studia Orientalia 64:3030-325. Retrieved January 4, 2012.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 1999. “Archaeological-linguistic correlations in the formation of retroflex typologies and correlating areal features in South Asia.” Pp. 138-148 in Archaeology and language. London: Routledge.

    Tikkanen, Bertil. 2008. “Some areal phonological isoglosses in the transit zone between South and Central Asia.” Pp. 250-262 in Proceedings of the third International Hindu Kush Cultural Conference. Karachi: Oxford University Press.

    Zoller, Claus Peter. 2005. A Grammar and Dictionary of Indus Kohistani: Volume 1, Dictionary. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

     

  • 326.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Where have all the verbs gone? On verb stretching and semi-words in Indo-Aryan Palula.2010In: Himalayan Linguistics, ISSN 1544-7502, E-ISSN 1544-7502, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 51-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of complex predicates consisting of a verb component (verbalizer) and a non-verb component (host) is well-known from descriptions of languages in large parts of West and South Asia. Looking particularly at data from the hitherto less-studied Indo-Aryan Palula (Chitral Valley, Pakistan), we will explore their position within the total verb lexicon. Instead of regarding the verbalizers and hosts as building blocks that due to their respective properties license particular argument structures, as has been done in some previous descriptions, I propose that it is the construction as a whole, and its semantics, that assigns case and selects arguments. Rather than seeing a strict dichotomy between verbalizers (also called “light verbs”) used in complex predicates and the corresponding simple verbs, a few highly generic verbs (BECOME, DO, GIVE) seem to be exposed to a high degree of “stretching”. As such they stand as syntactic models – basic argument templates (BAT) – when forming novel complexes, sometimes involving host elements that lack a lexical identity of their own (hence semi-words) in the language as of today.

  • 327.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Akhunzada, Fakhruddin
    Linguistic diversity, vitality and maintenance: A case study on the language situation in northern Pakistan2017In: Multiethnica. Meddelande från Centrum för multietnisk forskning, Uppsala universitet, ISSN 0284-396X, no 36-37, p. 61-79Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multilingual and multicultural region of northern Pakistan, which has approximately 30 distinct languages, is described and evaluated from the perspective of language vitality, revealing the diverse and complex interplay of language policies, community attitudes and generational transmission. Based on the experience of conscious language maintenance efforts carried out in the area, some conclusions are offered concerning the particular effectiveness of regional networking and non-governmental institution support to promote local languages and sustain their vitality in times of great change.

  • 328.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Facts, feelings and temperature expressions in the Hindukush2015In: The Linguistics of Temperature / [ed] Maria Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 440-470Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indo-Aryan Palula (Pakistan) is spoken in a part of the mountainous Hindukush region characterised by sharp climatic and altitude contrasts. In this study, five central temperature terms are investigated and related to tactile temperature, ambient temperature and experiencer-based (i.e. personal-feeling) temperature: táatu ‘hot/warm’, šidáalu ‘cold’, húluk ‘heat’, šidaloó ‘coolness’, and šid ‘coldness’. A few salient correlations between particular expressions and the type of experience involved are identified: First, temperature adjectives are restricted to the domain of rational experience, whereas temperature nouns typically are associated with expressions that refer to thermal (and subjective) comfort or ambient temperature. Second, while temperature evaluated or measured directly by touching an entity tends to be grammatically encoded as noun modification, the subjective experience is expressed with the temperature noun as a stimulus acting upon a non-nominative experiencer. Finally we discuss a few semantic extensions into the human temperament/propensity domain, such as ‘affection is warmth’ and ‘anger is heat’.

  • 329.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Forum for Language Initiatives, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Palula: Illustrations of the IPA2009In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 381-386Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 330.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Palula texts2015Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to "Towards a grammatical description of Palula" (Liljegren 2008) and "Palula vocabulary" (Liljegren & Haider 2011). A collection of texts representing various genres (historical narratives, ethnographic accounts, personal experiences, proverbs, etc.) have been transcribed and annotated, including morphological analysis, a free translation into English and an orthographic representation (Perso-Arabic based) of the transcribed text. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). Henrik Liljegren is a field linguist at Stockholm University, Sweden, and Naseem Haider, himself a native speaker of Palula, is a local researcher with the Forum for Language Initiatives in Islamabad.

  • 331.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Haider, Naseem
    Forum for Language Initiatives.
    Palula Vocabulary2011Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this volume is to provide a complement to Towards a grammatical description of Palula (Liljegren 2008). The 1460 main entries included in the present work are limited to those lexical items that are cited or exemplified in the aforementioned work. The work is the result of linguistic research in and with the Palula community (Pakistan). It contains much of the basic vocabulary used in today's Palula, presented along with illustrative example sentences, grammatical information, and comments on word origins. Henrik Liljegren is a field linguist at Stockholm University, Sweden, and Naseem Haider, himself a native speaker of Palula, is a local researcher with the Forum for Language Initiatives in Islamabad.

  • 332.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Khan, Afsar Ali
    Khowar: Illustrations of the IPA2017In: Journal of the International Phonetic Association, ISSN 0025-1003, E-ISSN 1475-3502, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Khowar (ISO 639-3: khw) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by 200,000–300,000 (Decker 1992: 31–32; Bashir 2003: 843) people in Pakistan's Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province (formerly North-West Frontier Province). The majority of the speakers are found in Chitral (a district and erstwhile princely state bordering Afghanistan, see Figure 1), where the language is used as a lingua franca, but there are also important pockets of speaker groups in adjacent areas of Gilgit-Baltistan and Swat District as well as a considerable number of recent migrants to larger cities such as Peshawar and Rawalpindi (Decker 1992: 25–26). Its closest linguistic relative is Kalasha, a much smaller language spoken in a few villages in southern Chitral (Morgenstierne 1961: 138; Strand 1973: 302, 2001: 252). While Khowar has preserved a number of features (phonological, morphological as well as lexical) now lost in other Indo-Aryan languages of the surrounding Hindukush-Karakoram mountain region, it has, over time, incorporated a massive amount of lexical material from neighbouring or influential Iranian languages (Morgenstierne 1936) – and with it, new phonological distinctions. Certain features might also be attributable to formerly dominant languages (e.g. Turkic), or to linguistic substrates, either in the form of, or related to, the language isolate Burushaski, or other, now extinct, languages previously spoken in the area (Morgenstierne 1932: 48, 1947: 6; Bashir 2007: 208–214). There is relatively little dialectal variation among the speakers in Chitral itself, probably attributable to the relative recency of the present expansion of the language (Morgenstierne 1932: 50).

  • 333.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Rönnqvist, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    From left-branching to right-branching: Syntactic changes in the Hindukush under pressure from languages of wider communication2014In: Book of abstracts, 2014, p. 251-252Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Hindukush languages spoken in the north-western regions of the Indian Subcontinent (particularly Indo-Aryan, sometimes referred to as “Dardic”), a variety of means are available within a complex construction to mark one clause as dependent on another. A subordinate clause may precede the main clause, whereby a complementizer is placed at the end of the subordinate clause: tu kíi baáanu thaní, khooǰóolu. ‘Where are you going? (he) asked‘ (Indo-Aryan Palula), or tu xató hatoɣoót doós reé, buhtuií astám,‘I was afraid that you might give him the letter’ (Indo-Aryan Khowar). A preposed subordinate clause can also be formed with a verbal noun, with or without case marker/postposition: nu ba asaám mhaar-anií the ukháatu de. ‘He had come up to kill us’ (Palula). Pre-nominal participials is another strategy, semantically corresponding to relative clauses in languages such as English: phaí, teeṇíi háa-tam čooṇṭéeli, rumiaál díti híni. ‘The girl gave him a handkerchief which she herself had embroidered’ (Palula). Alternatively, the subordinate clause can be placed after the main clause, in this case often making use of a complementizer ki (or something similar) preceding the subordinate clause: mhéeli i khooǰóolu, ki míi báabu koó. ‘(He) asked: Who is my father?’ (Palula), or, awá buhtaí astám, ki hatoɣóot doós reé. ‘I was afraid that you might give him the letter‘ (Khowar). In a survey covering an area from southern India through parts of southern Pakistan, Hook (1987) observed a significant pattern, whereby the order subordinate – main clause was gradually replaced by the order main clause—subordinate as one moves from the Dravidian South to the Iranian Northwest. While the survey did not include the Hindukush, Bashir (2003: 823), points out that left-branching (i.e. the order subordinate—main clause), like in Dravidian and in the Indo-Aryan languages spoken in their vicinity, is also characteristic of the extreme North of the Subcontinent. Bashir (1996: 177) proposes that left-branching in this northern region has come about as the result of ancient areal influences related to Central Asia, whereas right-branching (i.e. main clause—subordinate) and the use of ki is a feature more recently imported from influential languages spoken in South and West Asia. She further notes that the two constructions are used parallel in Khowar, and that the more recent construction may include the imported marker ki as well as the indigenous (a grammaticalization of ‘say’).In the present study, we investigated interlinear texts in a few Hindukush Indo-Aryan languages (Palula, Kalasha, Pashai, Gilgiti Shina, Kalam Kohistani), empirically testing Bashir‘s suggestion, and found that these, like Khowar, to a varying degree allow both constructions, with the left-branching alternative representing what seems like an older stratum of the languages, whereas the right-branching alternative most likely stems from massive Persian and, more recently, Urdu pressure as influential languages of literacy and wider communication. The distribution across different types of subordination within each language (Noonan 2007; Andrews 2007; Thompson et al. 2007), as well as quantitative differences between the languages in this regard, is presented and discussed.

  • 334.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svärd, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bisyndetic Contrast Marking in the Hindukush: Additional Evidence of a Historical Contact Zone2017In: Journal of Language Contact : Evolution of Languages, ISSN 1877-4091, E-ISSN 1955-2629, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 450-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A contrastive (or antithetical) construction which makes simultaneous use of two separate particles is identified through a mainly corpus-based study as a typical feature of a number of lesser-described languages spoken in the Afghanistan-Pakistan borderland in the high Hindukush. The feature encompasses Nuristani languages (Waigali, Kati) as well as the Indo-Aryan languages found in their close vicinity (Palula, Kalasha, Dameli, Gawri), while it is not shared by more closely related Indo-Aryan languages spoken outside of this geographically delimited area. Due to a striking (although not complete) overlap with at least two other (unrelated) structural features, pronominal kinship suffixes and retroflex vowels, we suggest that a linguistic and cultural diffusion zone of considerable age is centred in the mountainous Nuristan-Kunar-Panjkora area.

  • 335.
    Lindblom, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Dravidian languages: A descriptive typological study on verbal and non-verbal negation in simple declarative sentences2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Over the years the typology of negation has been much described and discussed. However, focus has mainly been on standard negation. Studies on non-verbal negation in general and comparative studies covering the complete domain of non-verbal negation in particular are less common. The strategies to express non-verbal negation vary among languages. In some languages the negation strategy employed in standard negation is also used in non-verbal negation. Several researchers have argued that languages express negation of non-verbal predications using special constructions. This study examines and describes negation strategies in simple declarative sentences in 18 Dravidian languages. The results suggest that the majority of the Dravidian languages included in this study express standard negation by the use of a negative suffix while non-verbal negation is expressed by a negative verb. Further distinctions are made in the negation of non-verbal predications in that different negation markers are used for attributive and existential/possessive predications respectively.

  • 336.
    Lindblom, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Romance languages: A micro-typological study on negation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Languages that are genealogically or areally related often exhibit similar typological features due to their affinity. Large scale typological studies aiming to explain universal patterns and structural variation tend to exclude data from genealogical and areally related languages not to compromise the validity of the results. This typological study investigates the micro- and the macro-typological relation by examining negation features as well as word order of negative markers in relation to the verb in a number of genealogically and areally related Romance languages. The hypothesis is that the selected languages, despite their close relatedness, will exhibit a high degree of variation in regards to negation features. Most likely, not all of the non-standard languages will exhibit the same negation features as their standard language. The results show no correlation between genealogical relatedness and negation features. Moreover, they show that standardization has no demonstrable effect on the negation constructions employed by non-standard languages and that language contact is relevant in regards to the position of the negative marker and a language's position in Jespersen's cycle. The results support the theory that the diachronic evolution of negation is governed by a language's need to emphasize negation.

  • 337.
    Lindmark, Carolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hungrig som en gnu och snäll som en karamell: En korpusstudie över nutida liknelser i svenska bloggtexter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien kartlägger vanliga adjektivliknelser i svenska bloggtexter ur två aspekter, vilka adjektiv och substantiv som förekommer tillsammans i konstruktionen ADJEKTIV som en/ett SUBSTANTIV samt deras grad av konventionalisering. Tidigare forskning visar att liknelser är svårdefinierade, vilket tas upp i bakgrunden. Materialet är hämtat från fem korpusar med svensk bloggtext. Resultaten visar att de vanligaste adjektivliknelserna föredrar att knyta an till ett eller några substantiv. Däremot finns det visst utrymme för produktivitet. Studien är en preliminär kartläggning över hur pass konventionaliserade liknelserna är. Möjliga källor för uppkomst av liknelserna diskuteras i diskussionen. Resultaten belyser även att det finns en ytterligare dimension i definitionen av liknelser utöver kontinuumet mellan bokstavlighet och figurativitet, nämligen en distinktion mellan exaktare måttangivelse och figurativitet.

  • 338.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Animacy in Interrogative Pronouns1995In: Papers from the XVth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, University of Oslo, January 13–15, 1995 / [ed] Inger Moen, Hanne Gram Simonsen, Helge Lødrup, Oslo: Department of Linguistics, University of Oslo , 1995, p. 307-315Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper presents a typological investigation of whether languages make an animacy distinction in their independent nominal interrogative pronouns. The data comprises 24 languages and was taken mainly from grammatical descriptions. 3rd person pronouns and relative pronouns are included for comparison. The outcome of the survey is that the vast majority of the sample languages do make a ‘who’ vs. ‘what’ distinction. Constructions special to questions, in particular fronting and its possible implications for the question words, are discussed, as is the role of case marking on interrogative pronouns.

  • 339.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gender in Kuot, an East Papuan Isolate2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 340.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language complexity and interlinguistic difficulty2008In: Language Complexity: Typology, contact, change / [ed] Matti Miestamo, Kaius Sinnemäki, Fred Karlsson, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2008, p. 217-242Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the related but distinct issues of linguistic complexity and difficulty, as from the viewpoint of an adult learner. Language complexity is seen as an objective property of a system, which could in principle be computed mathematically, while difficulty is grounded in the particular person who experiences the difficulty, involving factors such as the linguistic categories present and the nature of their marking in the learner’s own language. Th is reasoning will be illustrated with one non-Austronesian language, Kuot, and its three Austronesian neighbours, Nalik, Notsi and Madak, of north-central New Ireland, Papua New Guinea.

  • 341.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Linguistic classification: Sprachklassifikation2013In: Wörterbücher zur Sprach- und Kommunikationswissenschaft (WSK) Online: Theories and Methods in Linguistics / [ed] Schierholz, Stefan J. & Wiegand, Herbert Ernst; Kortmann, Bernd, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter , 2013, onlineChapter in book (Other academic)
  • 342.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Literacy in a Dying Language: The Case of Kuot, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea2007In: Language Planning and Policy: Issues in Language Planning and Literacy / [ed] Anthony J. Liddicoat, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2007, p. 185-208Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kuot is a language in a critical situation. Most adults of lower middle age and older are full speakers but children are not learning it. In other words, it will become extinct in a few decades if nothing is done; but it is not too late if the community decides to turn it around, and do so fast. Thus far, the community has shown little interest. Into this situation, vernacular elementary education was introduced. While the community expects this to work for language survival, the aim of the education policy is the eventual transfer of literacy skills to English. This paper describes the tensions between these conflicting goals, and the various components that make up the specific situation of Kuot, including vernacular literacy, orthographic considerations arising from the language’s precarious situation, and the eventual extension of the internet era to Melanesia.

  • 343.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Literacy in a Dying Language: The Case of Kuot, New Ireland, Papua New Guinea2005In: Current Issues in Language Planning, ISSN 1466-4208, E-ISSN 1747-7506, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 200-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kuot is a language in a critical situation. Most adults of lower middle age and older are full speakers but children are not learning it. In other words, it will become extinct in a few decades if nothing is done; but it is not too late if the community decides to turn it around, and do so fast. Thus far, the community has shown little interest. Into this situation, vernacular elementary education was introduced. While the community expects this to work for language survival, the aim of the education policy is the eventual transfer of literacy skills to English. This paper describes the tensions between these conflicting goals, and the various components that make up the specific situation of Kuot, including vernacular literacy, orthographic considerations arising from the language’s precarious situation, and the eventual extension of the internet era to Melanesia.

  • 344.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Påminnande: en funktion av demonstrativer i samtalssvenska2000In: ASLA Information: Denna – den här – den där. Om demonstrativer i tvärspråklig belysning. En minnesskrift till Elsie Wijk-Andersson, ISSN 1100-5629, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 93-102Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta bidrag redovisar några av resultaten från en studie av demonstrativerna den här/den där (etc) i svenska samtal. Ett lite förvånande resultat av studien var att mer än en tredjedel av förekomsterna av dessa demonstrativer utgjorde förstaomnämnanden. Detta finner sin främsta förklaring i deras funktion att påminna; att signalera att en viss referent förväntas vara bekant för lyssnaren.

    Svenska demonstrativer har tre formtyper: den/det/de, denna/detta/dessa, och den/det/de här/där. Den senare typen är som grupp föremål för den studie som redovisas här. (Proximitetsskillnaden i uttrycken kommer inte att behandlas, och inte heller faktorer som har med genus eller numerus att göra.) De förekommer framför allt i talspråket och är inte så väl representerade i skriven svenska (se Fraurud, denna volym).

    Med ”påminnande” menas här att talaren signalerar att lyssnaren förväntas kunna identifiera en icke-topikal referent via kunskap som inte nödvändigtvis förmedlats i det aktuella samtalet. Exempel (1) illustrerar principen:

    (1) A ja ja just det vi pratar den här killen som var hos oss i somras som [ohörbart] konstitutionen

    B amerikanen

    Det är tydligt att A väntar sig att B känner till referenten, vilket bekräftas i Bs yttrande, och det är också klart att referenten inte är aktiverad för B.

    Påminnande visar sig vara en typisk funktion för den aktuella gruppen demonstrativer. Denna funktion är mig veterligen inte tidigare beskriven för svenska. Funktionen har också en koppling till sökande efter ord och avbrutna eller reparerade yttranden.

  • 345.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. La Trobe University, Australia.
    Referring to Space: Studies in Austronesian and Papuan Languages: Ed. by Gunter Senft2001In: Language: Journal of the Linguistic Society of America, ISSN 0097-8507, Vol. 77, no 1, p. 175-176Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 346.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Some Uses of Demonstratives in Spoken Swedish2000In: Corpus-based and Computational Approaches to Discourse Anaphora / [ed] Botley, S.P. & McEnery, A.M., Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2000, p. 107-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents work in progress on some aspects of the use of one set of demonstrative expressions in a corpus of conversational Swedish. The demonstratives under study are the compound forms den här and den där (Eng. approx. ‘this’, ‘that’), both as pronouns and determiners. These forms belong mainly to the spoken language, and have not received much attention in previous studies of Swedish. Typical cases of deictic, first-mention and anaphoric uses are illustrated, and cases that cause problems for the distinction between first mention and anaphor are discussed. A surprisingly large number of first mentions with demonstratives were found, many of which are used in what is here called the “you know” function of demonstratives, i.e., a means for the speaker of signalling his or her assumption of the listener having a previous representation of the intended referent. Among anaphoric uses, some interesting occurrences are discussed, which resemble cases previously described as ‘identificationally overspecified’ (Maes and Noordman, 1995).

  • 347.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Body in Expressions of Emotion: Kuot2002In: Pragmatics & Cognition, ISSN 0929-0907, Vol. 10, no 1-2, p. 159-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution examines the use of body terms in expressions of emotion in Kuot, a non-Austronesian language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. It is found that expressions involving the word for ‘stomach’, daləp, correspond mainly to what we would consider to be psychological states, while expressions making use of neip ‘skin; body’ are largely concerned with physical states. Some other body parts also form part of emotive expressions.

  • 348.
    Lindström, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Remijsen, Bert
    Aspects of the prosody of Kuot, a language where intonation ignores stress2005In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, Vol. 43, no 4, p. 839-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes the basic system of intonation and lexical stress in Kuot, a non-Austronesian language of New Ireland, Papua New Guinea. Kuot employs pitch (F0 variation) primarily to express structural information about the clause. Some intonation contours express functions that are commonly expressed by intonation crosslinguistically, such as final vs. nonfinal clauses and parts of clauses, and yes/no questions. In addition, Kuot has particular contours (or tunes) for question-word questions and negated sentences. Word stress, on the other hand, does not interact with intonation in terms of its encoding. It displays a very stable correlation with duration but no association with F0; in other words, there is no consistent marking of stress by means of F0 in Kuot. The position of Kuot word stress is lexically determined, yielding minimal stress pairs.

    In this article, we present a description of Kuot intonation on the basis of pitch extractions made from spontaneous speech. The results reveal that intonation in Kuot is anchored only at the boundaries of intonational phrases. A phonetic analysis of minimal stress pairs recorded in controlled environments demonstrates that lexically stressed syllables do not correlate with pitch.

    The findings are discussed against a background of prosodic typology.

  • 349.
    Lindström, Eva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Terrill, Angela
    Radboud University, Nijmegen.
    Reesink, Ger
    Dunn, Michael
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    The Languages of Island Melanesia2007In: Genes, Language, and Culture History in the Southwest Pacific / [ed] Friedlaender, Jonathan S, New York: Oxford University Press , 2007, p. 118-140Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 350. Lockwood, Hunter
    et al.
    Vejdemo, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    There is no thermostat in the forest - the semantics and sociolinguistics of temperature in Ojibwe2010Conference paper (Other academic)
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