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  • 301.
    Vikner, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Accent preference - stereotypes or individual?: Swedish university students' attitudes towards British and American varieties of English.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the attitudes of Swedish university students towards the British and the American variety of English. Many studies have shown that perceptions of the varieties are changing as a result of increasing exposure of the language. The present study analyses responses from a questionnaire on speech samples of the two varieties and compares them to a similar study made ten years ago, to investigate possible differences over time and between respondents. The data shows a more positive attitude towards the American variety in general, although female respondents are more prone to conform to the results of previous studies and favour the British variety in aspects of prestige and status. The data also show that this method of research is very sensitive to individual characteristics of the speakers used in the investigation and stresses the difficulties in receiving a reliable general result.

  • 302.
    Vikström, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    “[E]en strict offensive och defensive alliance” and “the danger this King and the 2 Queens were in”: News Reporting in Early Modern Swedish and English Diplomatic Correspondence2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The study of early cross-linguistic diplomatic epistolography was first introduced in Brownlees' (2012) comparative study of Italian and English personal newsletters. Given the field’s young age and the strong need for both further research and the retrieving of new, untranscribed and unanalysed data, the present study set out to help move this field forward by examining, at both a textual superstructure and semantic macrostructural level, two sets of unchartered diplomatic newsletters which representatives at foreign courts despatched back to their respective home countries. The first set of original manuscripts comprises periodical newsletters which Baron Christer Bonde, the Swedish ambassador-extraordinary to England, wrote to Charles X, King of Sweden, between 1655-6, whereas the second set consists of letters sent in 1680 by John Robinson, England’s chargé d’affaires in Sweden, to Sir Leoline Jenkins, Secretary of State for the Northern Department of England. The analysis has shown that whereas the textual superstructures of the two diplomats’ correspondences remain similarly robust, the instantiating semantic macrostructures display not only stylistic and compositional, but also narrative, variation.

  • 303.
    Vikström, Niclas
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Tudor and Stuart England and the Significance of Adjectives: A Corpus Analysis of Adjectival Modification, Gender Perspectives and Mutual Information Regarding Titles of Social Rank Used in Tudor and Stuart England2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study has been to investigate how titles of social rank used in Tudor and Stuart England are modified by attributive adjectives in pre-adjacent position and the implications that become possible to observe. Using the Corpus of Early English Correspondence Sampler (CEECS) the present work set out to examine adjectival modification, gender perspectives and MI (Mutual Information) scores in order to gain a deeper understanding of how and why titles were modified in certain ways. The titles under scrutiny are Lord, Lady, Sir, Dame, Madam, Master and Mistress and these have been analysed following theories and frameworks pertaining to the scientific discipline of sociohistorical linguistics.

       The findings of the present study suggest that male titles were modified more frequently than, and differently from, female titles. The adjectives used as pre-modifiers, in turn, stem from different semantic domains which reveals differences in attitudes from the language producers towards the referents and in what traits are described regarding the holders of the titles. Additionally, a type/token ratio investigation reveals that the language producers were keener on using a more varied vocabulary when modifying female titles and less so when modifying male titles. The male terms proved to be used more formulaically than the female terms, as well. Lastly, an analysis of MI scores concludes that the most frequent collocations are not necessarily the most relevant ones.

       A discussion regarding similarities and differences to other studies is carried out, as well, which, further, is accompanied by suggestions for future research. 

  • 304.
    Visnjar, Mojca
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Negotiating Identity: A sociolinguistic analysis of adult English speaking immigrants in Sweden2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to increased transnational migration and globalisation, English has come to have a high status in Sweden, and is used in daily communication. The purpose of this research is to investigate how immigrants with English as their first language, negotiate their identity in Sweden, how they construct the need to (not) speak Swedish, and, finally, how their linguistic trajectories inform us about their linguistic ideologies and reported practices. Identity, constantly performed on the border between the self and the other, is greatly dependent on the language. Recent research in the field has focused mainly on immigrants moving to English speaking countries, while migrants with English as their first language have been somewhat neglected. This study investigates identity negotiation based on linguistic repertoire, Spracherleben, and linguistic ideologies, based on data collected through interviews. The results indicate that the fact that all informants prefer to, and mostly do use English, has a meaning beyond the language. It is namely in the language choice itself that the participants negotiate and demonstrate their identity. Language, therefore, is not the main issue the informants find problematic. Instead, it is the sense of alienation and the inability to convey their message in the way they feel would best represent who they are. 

  • 305.
    von Rettig, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Translating Expressive Prose using CAT Tools: An investigation into discerning the effects of segmentation in student translations2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Computer Assisted Translation tools continue to become more ubiquitous, but translation students do not necessarily receive much training in using them, and may therefore find translating when using them very different to translating freehand. An experiment was conducted where a three Master’s students were each asked to translate two texts; one in a CAT tool and the other freehand, and the resulting target texts were inspected to determine whether they may have been affected by the segmentation performed by the CAT tool compared to freehand translations of the same text, and if so, how. There were indications that in certain cases, such as very long sentences, the CAT tool may act as a visual aid, and also indications that certain students may be more prone to follow the segmentation provided by the CAT tool than others. However, the influence of personal translator style and translator’s habitus cannot be disregarded and as such the differences that are apparent cannot be entirely attributed to the CAT tool.

  • 306.
    Wahlström, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Gender and indirectness: A corpus study investigating imperatives and tag questions2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    There has been some controversy concerning the subject of gender and indirectness in discourse over the years. The goal of this essay is to investigate four major approaches to gender and indirectness for the purpose of distinguishing the most relevant one. The first three ways of approaching gender and indirectness, the theory of deficit, the theory of dominance and the theory of difference claim that there is a measurable difference between genders but they cannot concur on why such a difference exists. The theory of deficit and the theory dominance claim that the difference is socially structured, while the theory of difference claims it is because of inherent nature. The fourth approach, the dynamic/social constructionist approach, does not agree with previous approaches and claims instead that other factors are more important when analyzing why some people are more indirect than others, for example age, class and ethnicity. This essay investigates the topic of indirectness by studying tag questions and imperatives and the data used in this essay was collected from the British National Corpus. The search queries used in the British National Corpus were please and come for imperatives and hasn’t and wasn’t for tag questions. The result of this essay is consistent with the results from the fourth approach, the theory of dynamic/social constructionist as no measurable difference could be found between the genders.

  • 307.
    Wahlström, Sofie
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Feminism and Anti-Feminism in Harmony?: A Critical Discourse Analysis of Postfeminism in Women's Magazines2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay investigates postfeminist discourses in women’s magazines with the use of

    Fairclough’s (2014) critical discourse analysis (CDA). Additionally, it presents

    consumers’ perceptions of women’s magazines in order to explore how women’s

    magazines might influence readers’ constructions of identity. Postfeminism is mainly

    defined by Gill (2007, 2009) and McRobbie (2004) as an idea of feminism and antifeminism

    combined with the use of neoliberal views. Previous research conducted

    between 1990 and 2009 has stated that women’s magazines follow a postfeminist

    discourse and therefore give a contradictory message to their readers, emphasising the

    importance of individuality and empowerment as well as promoting a traditional

    feminine image. The magazines analysed in this essay were the January 2016 issue of

    Elle Magazine US and the February 2016 issue of Elle Magazine UK. The magazines

    follow a postfeminist discourse, and it is constructed with the use of wording and

    modality. To complement the CDA, an interview with a target group of women’s

    magazine readers was conducted. Findings indicate that the magazines both largely

    follow a postfeminist discourse, constructed through the use of rhetorical features such

    as wording and modality, and readers believe magazines affect their identity

    construction negatively. The article is concluded with a discussion on what the aim of a

    postfeminist discourse is.

  • 308.
    Wallermo, Yvonne
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Reading Success and Vocabulary Knowledge among advanced professionals with English as their second language (L2): A comparative study of Russian and Swedish medical professionals in Sweden2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 80 poäng / 120 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    It is vital you have advanced knowledge in English as a second language (L2) if you work and/or research as a medical specialist at the Swedish academic university hospitals in Sweden. Otherwise it will be impossible to communicate within your area of interest, either orally or in writing, or even by means of reading, not only internationally but also between co-workers. All communication between academic professionals from different countries as well as textbooks, articles, instructions, lectures and exchange of information are in English.

    Interviews and tests for this essay were made with advanced medical researchers and specialists at Karolinska Institutet and Karolinska University Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden.

    PURPOSE

    The aim of this research is to find out how closely estimated vocabulary size is related to successful reading.

    There has not been much research on advanced academic intellectuals when it comes to advanced reading comprehension. Some studies on children and younger adults have shown that reading proficiency is based on the size of their vocabulary, the bigger vocabulary they have the higher their reading proficiency, while other studies have shown that the more they read the more they understand and automatically their vocabulary increases. Are these the only reasons for their reading proficiency, or are there other aspects involved? Do their vocabulary sizes affect their understanding when they read? Or what other reasons help reading and comprehending the text?

    In comparing readers’ understanding of different domain-specific texts, it can be hypothesized that there are differences in comprehension between general and more specialized texts. It can also be thought that it is easier for Swedes to read and comprehend English as the same alphabet is used in English and Swedish, than for Russians, who are used to a different language structure with other typographical factors.

    RESEARCH ON READING

    Factors that Can Affect Reading Success

    - The Linguistic Threshold Hypothesis

    - Background knowledge

    - Prior knowledge

    - Interest and attitude

    General Questions

    1. How important is a L2 reader’s vocabulary size to his/her understanding of a text? Could other factors be more important?

    2. Is it possible for professionals with poor linguistic proficiency in English to read and understand domain specific texts due to their expert knowledge?

    3. Is professionals’ receptive proficiency similar within their domain specific areas and in general areas?

    4. Is there an effect of having lived in an English-speaking country on reading comprehension or vocabulary size?

    Hypothesis

    1. The L1 typology would make a difference.

    2. The Swedes would have a better vocabulary and a better general comprehension of general English, and thereby a better understanding of the domain-specific texts as well.

    METHOD

    Professionals often have English as their L2. They are assumed to read English texts as efficiently as they read texts in their L1. In this essay the focus was set on their reading ability and their vocabulary knowledge. Vocabulary was assessed as academic or infrequent, and reading was assessed by means of tests of word recognition, single sentence comprehension, evaluation of logical arguments based on two sentence recognitions, and reading domain-specific, medical articles as well as general articles.

    Data was collected from medical researchers and specialists during this empirical research. The specialists were presumed to read English journal articles on a daily basis in their area of expertise, medicine, and use English as their working language. Seven Russians and seven Swedes were interviewed between February and April 2007. They had chosen the date, time and place for their interviews.

    The testing took about 90 minutes and was divided into

    MATERIAL

    Each subject was asked to fill out a questionnaire about his/her educational and social background. This data could not be used in this essay, but would be interesting to use for research about the impact of social background on the proficiency of English as a L2.

    Then they were asked to continue with paper diagnostic tests, the Proficiency Test, testing their syntax skills and vocabulary size. The Proficiency Test is a part of DIALANG, a self-assessment test developed by the Project of the European Commission for use on the Internet, and it was used along with a test of academic vocabulary, and a test of infrequent vocabulary, divided into synonyms and antonyms.

    The computerized test, the SuperLab test, was divided into two sections. For the first section, Reading Proficiency, articles within the medical domain as well as various general domains were read and then retold orally. The retold stories were taped and the language used when retelling the story, L1 or L2, was decided by the subject, so they would feel comfortable when speaking. These interviews were transcribed and analyzed. The second part of the computerized sub skills, Reading Comprehension, consisted of word recognition and reading comprehension of one and more sentences.

    ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

    The Proficiency Test

    The Proficiency test tested vocabulary knowledge. Overall most of the subjects thought Part 2 Synonyms and Part 3 Antonyms were the most difficult parts of the whole test. Although they knew other languages, it was not possible to use that knowledge in this part of the test. One Swede thought the Part 3 Antonyms was the most difficult. Some words were recognised from earlier, from looking them up in dictionaries several times and then forgetting them again. Sometimes no alternative seemed to be correct. Another Swede commented that it was not obvious which alternative was the correct answer. Sometimes the synonym or antonym could be explained in his own words, but not with any of the alternatives. A third Swede commented that in reading a regular text you do not have to know every single word to get coherence.

    The SuperLab Test

    The computerized reading test, the SuperLab test, was to show reading comprehension of texts, sentences and word recognition. Since sentence comprehension did not correlate well with vocabulary size here, these results suggest that the size of the vocabulary above a certain level does not have an immediate impact on the logical judgement or comprehension of sentences At the same time it has to be remembered that the subjects are advanced academic professionals, and might not only use their vocabulary knowledge and size in a L2 when it comes to making conclusions and decisions.

    Reading Comprehension - Analysis

    The Reading Comprehension part of the test consisted of six different texts: three general texts and three medical texts. For each text there were a number of propositions that had to be correctly recalled to get points. The first text was on paper and the last five read and timed on the computer. It has to be kept in mind that the text read on paper, Text 1, presented the subjects with an opportunity to read as they usually do. Most of them seemed to read the title, skimmed the text and then read and reread the interesting or missed parts several times, until the message was clear. When the other five texts were read on the computer screen on the other hand, only one sentence was shown at a time, and disappeared when the next sentence was keyed for. This computerized way of reading the text forced the reader to remember what was read after each sentence, without knowing what came next. So, the ordinary way of reading a text was changed.

    Reading Comprehension - Results

    A conclusion of all propositions indicated that the Russians as a group had higher results than the Swedes. When looking at the individual answers a pattern can be shown. The Swedes on an average were a more homogenous group with a smaller span between the top result and the lowest. The Russians were a more heterogeneous group.

    In this essay the focus has been on the reading quality. The results showed that there are other circumstances than simple language and reading proficiency to be aware of. There is a difference in their background knowledge. How much of their ‘recall’ do they actually remember from the text and how much do they know from beforehand?

    For example, the Reading Comprehension Test with the retelling of the five texts read in an unnatural way did not only test how much the subjects understood and recalled, but also how much they remembered. While reading the texts on the computer, one sentence at a time, the subjects had to focus on the meaning of each sentence in the text, memorize it and then read the next sentence. For the three first texts there was no demand for any previous knowledge to be able to read and understand the words and sentences separately. The subjects did not use any dictionaries, which they seldom do in their ordinary, everyday work either.

    The results also show that interest and background knowledge were important factors to be able to understand the whole contents of each text. The meaning of the text was more easily understood the more background knowledge the subjects had.

    DISCUSSION

    Hypothesis 1 - The L1 typology would make a difference.

    The tests did not show that the language background made a difference. The Russians lived in Sweden and spoke Russian among themselves but English with everybody else. They were well-educated academics, not only proficient in English within their own area, medical texts, but also very good at understanding general texts. When it came to reading comprehension the background knowledge seemed to be more important than the vocabulary skills.

    Hypothesis 2 - The Swedes would have a better vocabulary and a better general comprehension of general English, and thereby a better understanding of the domain-specific texts as well.

    It was not indicated at any time during the research for this essay that the Swedes had a better vocabulary and thereby would understand both general and domain-specific texts better. The understanding and comprehension seemed to be more based on attitude and background knowledge of the different texts.

    Tsui and Fullilove (1998) found in their studies that it was extremely difficult to process information which contradicted what they already knew. This particularly showed during this essay, with some of the Russians questioning and discussing the contents of the medical texts, exactly as Steffensen and Joag-Dev (1979) found in their study. The authors stated that readers seemed to dismiss information they found unimportant, add information they thought should be there, and focus on what they found important, all based on their world view and their opinion.

    Most of the Russians seemed to be more involved and questioning than the Swedes in this investigation. This study showed that the more background knowledge the subjects had, the more they understood the texts.

    During the testing he Swedes made a point of the difficulties of reading the texts on the computers, which did not agree with their reading strategies. These Swedes seemed to attempt to use more normal strategies when reading the texts on the computer screen than the Russians. The Russians appeared to read more slowly overall. Slow readers usually had difficulties putting things together towards the end of sentences and paragraphs. Probably the Russians used more background information than English reading proficiency and understanding when doing the test.

    Vocabulary Size and Reading Success

    During the work with this essay it was not proven that vocabulary size was directly linked to reading proficiency. The readers tested were advanced academic professionals, and might not only use their vocabulary but also their background knowledge when understanding the content of the texts used. The Russians were not a random selection, because those who participated were more confident with their English knowledge than those that did not participate.

    CONCLUSION

    There were of course some limitations during this study. One was fatigue among the subjects due to their hectic working environment and the long duration of the tests. Another issue was that most of the texts were on the screen, to be read sentence by sentence, and hence unnaturally read.

    Out of the results of these tests the conclusion could be drawn that even if you have a larger vocabulary, it would not necessarily mean you understand more.

    After having worked with the material for this essay and interviewing the scientists, brought up in an academic environment, I came to the conclusion that vocabulary knowledge and reading skills shown during a test did not show everything. Speed and accuracy of reading often correlate, but that was not the case in this study. Low proficiency did not seem to make an impact on the understanding of the text. The background knowledge was very important, but at the same time the attitude and interest of the subjects during the testing also had an enormous impact on their results.

    References

    Steffensen, M.S., Joag-Dev, C. and Anderson, R.C. 1979. A cross-cultural perspective on reading comprehension. Reading Research Quarterly, Vol. 15, No. 1 (pp. 10-29).

    Tsui, A.B.M. and Fullilove, J. 1998 Bottom-up or top-down processing as a discriminator of L2 listening performance. Ap

  • 309.
    Wallin Bååth, Sarah
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Who is Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?: A corpus-based study on the representation of wolves in metaphors in the English language2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As described by Lakoff and Johnson (1980), conceptual metaphors play a large part in how we understand and perceive the world we live in. Very often human traits are described using animal metaphors (Lawrence, 1993). To gain a better understanding, previous research on animal metaphors was examined and summarised. Few animals have been subject to such fierce public opinion as the wolf. Thus, the main focus of this essay has been to investigate whether such opinions are mirrored in the way that wolves are represented in metaphors.To get a proper overview of the occurrences and representations of wolves in metaphors in the English language of modern times, a corpus search was conducted in the COCA corpus (Davies, 2008-). The results from that search were then classified using the MIPVU-method (Steen et al., 2010) and further analysed to determine normative bias. The results were unanimous with previous research on the subject and in agreement with other studies. The wolf is exclusively used as a representative for less flattering human traits, both regarding physique and personality. It is plausible to conclude that the perception of the wolf as expressed in metaphors are similar to those in legends, fairy tales and stories from times long ago. The continuous usage of negative images associated with wolves maintains the image of the animal as danger and something to be feared.

  • 310.
    Waltin, Josefin
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning.
    När döva och hörande kollegor möts genom tolk: En etnografisk studie om tvåspråkighet på en arbetsplats2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Döva personer i Sverige och världen lever nästan uteslutande i ett hörande majoritetssamhälle och har således på ett eller annat sätt en fortlöpande kontakt med hörande människor i såväl privat- som arbetsliv. De flesta döva i arbetslivet arbetar som enda eller som en av få döva på en hörande arbetsplats och ofta anlitas tolk för möten mellan hörande och döva kollegor. Föreliggande uppsats är en etnografisk studie av tolksituationen på en arbetsplats där en döv samt ett tjugotal hörande kollegor arbetar tillsammans. Med hjälp av fältanteckningar, intervjuer och videofilmning har en bild av tolksituationen genererats. I resultaten visas tecken på att den döva deltagaren till stor del lider av informationsbrist på olika plan. Därtill verkar det finnas en stor kunskapslucka hos de hörande kollegorna gällande teckenspråk och dövas villkor i ett hörande samhälle. Resultatet visar även tendenser till att den döva deltagaren genom det omgivande majoritetsspråkssamhället själv medverkar till sin egen underordning. I den komplexa tolksituationen verkar tolken fungera som en grindvakt. Tolken kan ha en svår och inte alltid definierad roll att översätta och samordna turer mellan hörande och döva och föra samtalet framåt i en gemensam riktning. Det verkar även som att den döva deltagaren och hennes hörande kollegor har olika uppfattning om tolkens roll. Tolkens arbete verkar härigenom kunna försvåras, något som i sin tur skulle kunna påverka relationen mellan den döva deltagaren och hennes hörande kollegor. Resultaten har diskuterats utifrån ett poststrukturalistiskt perspektiv för att visa på samband mellan mikro- och makronivå med kopplingar till språkideologi, språkpolitik, maktrelationer samt teorin om Deafhood.

  • 311.
    Westerlund, Ida
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Linguistic differences between fantasy and science fiction: A Coh-Metrix analysis2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the potential linguistic differences between the genres fantasy and science fiction by using the computation tool Coh-Metrix to analyse texts by 15 different authors, out of whom five authors write texts in both genres. The data was analysed by conducting ANOVA, correlations, t-tests and general scrutinising of the data. The results showed a lot of weak correlations and significant differences, but a lack of patterns, when comparing the texts and texts groups to each other, both when looking at all indices and the different measures of Coh-Metrix. However, there were some discernible patterns. In general, the authors who write both fantasy and science fiction seem to conform more to the fantasy genre than the science fiction genre overall (based on a set of control texts), but for four out of the eleven measures of Coh-Metrix (descriptive, referential cohesion, LSA and lexical diversity), the authors writing texts in both genres seemed to conform more to science fiction than fantasy. The text easability principle component scores variable seemed to differentiate the genres as well. Patterns among the connectives variable, as well as the syntactic structure similarity index, agentless passive voice forms index and second language readability index implicated potential differences between the genres but were not supported by significant differences. The potential differences between the genres are all suggested for future research.

  • 312.
    Westerlund, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Frilansöversättningens status: En studie om frilansöversättares uppfattning om status i förhållande till uppdragsförmedlande språkföretag2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande studie undersöker frilansöversättares uppfattning om sin egen professionella status i förhållande till uppdragsförmedlande språkföretag i Sverige. Genom en enkätstudie inspirerad av Dam & Zethsens undersökningar, i kombination med en analys av offentligt publicerade texter från ett antal större svenska språkföretag, ämnar studien få en inblick i hur frilansöversättare upplever sin egen status, samt vilka krav som företagen ställer på översättarna. I förlängningen undersöks även graden av professionalisering som översättaryrket genomgått i Sverige. Resultaten visar att översättarna med få undantag uppfattar sin status som relativt låg, och att språkföretagen överlag ställer upp få formella, offentliga krav på sina översättare utöver yrkeserfarenhet av översättning och punktlighet. Översättaryrkets grad av professionalisering i Sverige bedöms därutöver som låg.

  • 313.
    Westerlund, Marcus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Punktregel och precision: Kommenterad översättning av en EU-förordning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats utgörs av en kommenterad översättning av ingressen och det första kapitlet i artikeldelen av den franska versionen av Europaparlamentets och rådets förordning nr 528/2012 till svenska. En strategi för översättningen bestäms utifrån ett antal utgångspunkter, exempelvis översättningsvetenskapliga teorier och EU:s anvisningar för översättning av rättsakter. Översättningen och den befintliga svenska versionen av förordningen analyseras sedan i syfte att undersöka likheter och skillnader i översättningsstrategi. Denna analys fokuserar på tre faktorer: transposition, modulation samt meningsbyggnad och EU:s punktregel. Det framkommer att både författarens egen översättning och den befintliga EU-versionen är mycket källtexttrogna, men att den befintliga versionen är mer källtexttrogen än vad uppsatsens översättning är, vilket tyder på en stark norm att inte avvika alltför mycket från källtexten.

  • 314.
    Westling, Måns
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    A Qualitative Descriptive Translation Study of Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This essay is a qualitative descriptive translation study concerning two translations of Shakespeare’s Romeo and Juliet into Swedish. The purpose of the study is to investigate the translational behaviour of the translators and the translation norms that govern this behaviour.

    By thoroughly analysing stretches of the play, the study will attempt to locate translation shifts (linguistic changes) that occur in the translation from the source text to the target text. These changes are connected with the translators’ fidelity towards e.g. the metre of the verse or the sense transfer of puns. The analysis also comprises a survey of the translation norms that the translators adhere to. These norms, stated by the translators themselves, are connected to their translation approach. Thus, the study will reveal the differences of translation behaviour and analyse them from a wider perspective. The translations were made around 1840 and in 1982, respectively. The considerable space in time in itself suggests that linguistic differences will occur. However, the study will also find differences as regards the purposes of the translations. The older translation appears to be performed in a tradition of fidelity to the written text and its literary qualities, whereas the modern translation clearly has the purpose of being used for the stage performance. The latter is stated by the translator himself, who also argues that Shakespeare is to be considered drama and not literature.

  • 315.
    Widinghoff-Lillsund, Caroline
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för Asien-, Mellanöstern- och Turkietstudier, Avdelningen för japanska.
    Vem är "jag"?: Analyser av bruket av japanska personliga pronomen inom film2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 316.
    Wikström, Joakim
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Romanska och klassiska institutionen.
    La representación del empleo de los tiempos pretérito perfecto simple y pretérito imperfecto en libros de gramática, difundidos internacionalmente y en Suecia2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the comprehensibility of the preterite and imperfect explained in grammar books addressed to both international and Swedish audiences and how useful those explanations are in practice. One grammar book is in Spanish, one is in English and three are in Swedish, one of which is a textbook for teaching purposes. The aim of this study is to test whether a high abstraction level of the grammatical explanations could be counterproductive, while a low abstraction level could be incorrect. The analysis is based on five cases expressed in five Swedish sentences, with each sentence containing one verb which is to be put in the preterite or imperfect tense while transmitted into Spanish. The analysis shows that the abstract explanations of the Spanish monolingual grammar, and the lack of examples in Spanish and comparisons with other languages, make it difficult for the learner to choose between the preterite and the imperfect tense in the cases, while the short explanations of the Swedish grammars don’t always hold enough information to help the learner choose between the tenses. The grammar book with explanations in English has long explanations, many examples in Spanish and comparisons with English and a low abstraction level, which appears to provide the learner with the best help.

     

  • 317.
    Wojtysiak, Zofia
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Bara ett nagellack eller en iögonfallande kristallyta med djupa, klassiska färger?: Om översättning från svenska till polska av reklamtexter för Oriflame kosmetikaprodukter.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien har varit att utröna huruvida Oriflames svenska reklamtexter skiljer sig från sina polska översättningar samt om eventuella skillnader beror på kulturell anpassning till målkulturen. Vidare har en bildanalys genomförts med syfte att undersöka samspelet mellan text och bild samt hur detta samspel eventuellt kan påverka konsumenterna. Trots att den kvantitativa analysen visar att käll- och måltexterna inte skiljer sig åt särskilt mycket, avviker texterna dels innehållsmässigt, dels när det gäller de könsroller som konstrueras i de undersökta texterna.

  • 318.
    Wysocka, Patrycja
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The study abroad experience: Self-reflecting on the development of intercultural competence and identity after one semester abroad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Study abroad programmes have become popular among students around the world nowadays. Thanks to the participation in the exchange, students are able to improve their intercultural skills, which may be beneficial for them in their future careers. This study investigates students’ development of intercultural competence and identity after spending one semester at the university in Hong Kong. Its main focus is to analyse how study abroad programmes impact students’ abilities in intercultural communication by analysing their self-reflections towards their re-invented identities as well as the overall experience of living and studying in a different country. The whole study is also based on the concept of linguistic repertoire, which is here being updated in the context of globalisation. In order to collect the data, four participants from the Netherlands, Germany and Canada were asked to fill in initial contact forms by providing information about one specific intercultural encounter that they have experienced during the study abroad period. This information then acted as the background knowledge used in the following interviews with each participant, where their opinions have been further developed in more detail. The results show that the participants further developed their skills in intercultural competence as well as enhanced their already interculturally-oriented identities. As for the impact on their linguistic repertoires, the interesting finding shows that the linguistic repertoires of the participants with English as a second language might have been affected slightly more than those of the native speakers. In the end, these results agree with the previous research on the development of intercultural skills after the study abroad period and highlight the importance of participating in study abroad programmes as students become prepared for their future careers in the highly globalised world.

  • 319.
    Yilmaz, Demet
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    Communicator-in-Chief: A study of the rhetorical strategies President Clinton (1993) and President Kennedy (1961) used in their inaugural addresses.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study has two main research goals. One goal consists in studying the patterns of

    the rhetorical figures of anaphora, chiasmus, antithesis and alliteration in President

    Kennedy and President Clinton‟s (1991) inaugural speeches. The uses of these

    rhetorical figures are reviewed and compared. The second goal of this study is

    reviewing, analysing and comparing the keywords and key phrases in both speeches.

    This was possible with transcripts of the speeches. Both presidents used all the

    aforementioned rhetorical figures in their speeches to convey their purpose of their

    speeches. They had different approaches to their use of the devices; however,

    similarities were found. The data collected concerning the keywords and key phrases

    were retrieved with the software program AntCon. The 50 most frequent words in both

    speeches were analyzed. There were some similarities in the frequent words used in the

    speeches; however, there were more differences in the choice of words since the two

    speeches conveyed different themes. Both presidents used similar rhetorical strategies to

    convey different messages. However, they did differ in their choices of words that

    seemed to act as themes for their speeches.

  • 320.
    Young, Nathan
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för lingvistik, Avdelningen för allmän språkvetenskap.
    Suburban Swedish maturing: Examining variation and perceptions among adult speakers of Swedish contemporary urban vernacular2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Up to now, adolescent speakers have been the primary focus when researching contemporary variation in the language of Sweden’s urban areas. This study contributes to the growing body of research on the topic by examining and reporting on adult speakers of what is here referred to as förortssvenska (English: Suburban Swedish). This study focuses specifically on formal speech registers of eight young working-class men from Stockholm along with the perception and reception of their speech by two independent native-listener groups.

    The paper is the first to present quantifiable data on what has been previously referred to as a “staccato” rhythm in Suburban Swedish. Strong correlations are shown between prosodic rhythm as measured by the normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) and speech speed to mean listener attitudes (R2=0.9). A strong correlation is also shown for nPVI’s influence on mean listener-projected ethnicity (R2=0.8). Alongside variation in rhythm, we also see phonemic variation that trends toward specific indexes of social identity as revealed by speaker interviews and native-listener assessments. Alongside linguistic variation among speakers, there is also significant variation within speaker peer groups.

    In addition to identifying specific linguistic features, the study examines social mechanisms revealed in interviews with and qualitative observations of speaker and listener participants. In exploratory fashion, ideas on variation, register ranges, meta-pragmatic stereotyping, and ethnic boundary-making are presented to make a case for treating contemporary urban variation in Swedish as a habitual semiotic extension of speaker identity. Indicators that contemporary urban variation in Swedish may be heading in the direction of sociolectal entrenchment are also discussed.

  • 321.
    Zetterström, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    The Battlefield of the Human Body Revisited – Metaphors and Cancer: A Comparison between Genres2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this essay is to examine metaphors in cancer contexts, and in particular war and military metaphors. A four step approach was performed for the examination. The use over time has been studied for metaphorical linguistic expressions including the words fight and battle in the Corpus of Contemporary American English in the categories Academic Journals, Magazines and Newspapers. A general corpus search for the word cancer in the same categories has been made to investigate what kinds of metaphorical linguistic expressions could be found. The goal was to examine possible development of the use of other expressions than the dominant martial ones for the period 2005 - 2011. The findings were also investigated to see which thematic role for the word cancer was the most frequent in the categories. To complement the corpus findings, an inquiry was sent out to explore how writers of research articles reason when they use expressions such as fight against cancer or battle with cancer in their texts.

    The corpus findings show that the martial metaphorical linguistic expressions are more often used within the categories Newspapers and Magazines. In the category Academic journals the occurrences are fewer. The most common metaphor alternatives were within the area of sports. The study of semantic roles shows that the word cancer appears most often in the role of patient. The agent role occurred slightly more often in the newspaper category than in the other text categories investigated. The result of the inquiry suggests that some researchers use martial metaphors out of routine.

    The four step approach of the study reveals a complex image of the use of metaphors in cancer contexts. Detection of trends for the use of metaphorical linguistic expressions possibly demands a longer time interval than the studied period.

  • 322.
    Zou, Qi
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Engelska institutionen.
    An experimental on Chinese university students' perceptions and attitudes towards Asian English accents2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    With the use of English language world wide in different domains, English has undoubtely become the most dominant lingua franca (Parijs, 2011). This has had implication for English language teaching (ELT), both in terms of actual practices and people's attitudes towards English. Although there have previous been numerous attitudinal studies, few have focused on the Chinese context, where the number of people who learn and use English keep increasing. With its experimental design, this study investigates and compares 202 Chinese university students' perceptions and attitudes towards four Asian English accents. A modofied version of the questionnaire from Jenkins' attitudinal (2007) was adopted to explore the attitudes and perceptions of two groups of university students. The results suggest that native English accents are still prefered in both groups as there are more than 90% of the participants who rank the native accents as the first and second. Native accents are graded higher in correctness, acceptability and pleasantness. However, the experimental group which has received information about the basic concepts and ideologies of World Englishes (WE) before doing the questionnaires shows higher acceptance to Asian English accents and grades those accents higher than the control group without the introduction. Brief semi-structured interviews are carried out to follow up on the questionnaire results, to further explore the reasons underlying the attitudinal responses. The results show that the participants in the control group tend to believe that the non-native English accents are 'wrong' and should be corrected, while the experimental group tends to accept the impracticality of achieving near-native accents and shows higher tolerance to the non-native accents. It is preliminary try of a 'WE-awareness' experimental attitudinal study which gives inspiration for a future study in a larger scale. It aims for contributing to the realization of 'Linguistic Equality' and gives implication to the ELT and teacher education in China.

  • 323.
    Zwanenburg Widingsjö, Monique
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för baltiska språk, finska och tyska, Avdelningen för nederländska.
    Pippi Langkous: Een vergelijking van eerdere met latere drukken & een vertaalanalyse2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [nl]

    Inmiddels is Pippi een internationaal onderzoeksobject geworden. De Duitse literatuuronderzoekster Astrid Surmatz heeft een grote bijdrage geleverd met haar proefschrift Pippi Långstrump als Paradigma (2005b). Wat volgens mij nog ontbrak is een grondige analyse van de Nederlandse vertaling, en wat er met de boeken gebeurd is na hun oorspronkelijke vertaling.

    Het respect voor kinderboeken in vertaling laat nog al eens te wensen over en uitgeverijen nemen soms grote vrijheden. Geldt dat ook voor de Nederlandse uitgaven van Pippi Langkous?Deze scriptie geeft een aanzet tot het antwoord met behulp van een analyse van de vertaalnormen uit de Descriptive Translation Studies van Toury, aangevuld met de vertaalmethoden van Newmark.

    De conclusie is dat de eerste Nederlandse druk een adequate (Toury) of getrouwe (Newmark) vertaling is, en dat de wijzigingen in de volgende drukken er toe geleid hebben dat de tekst en de illustraties steeds meer zijn gaan afwijken van het Zweedse origineel, en dat er nu van een aanvaardbare (Toury), of idiomatische of zelfs vrije vertaling (Newmark) gesproken moet worden. Dat Nederlanders toch weten hoe Pippi door Astrid Lindgren is neergezet, is onder andere te danken aan de tv-serie, de films en de merchandise met de tekeningen van illustratrice Ingrid Vang Nyman.

  • 324.
    Ådin, Hanna
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för svenska och flerspråkighet, Tolk- och översättarinstitutet.
    Goggle-Eyes: en främmandegörande barnboksöversättning utifrån Bermans negativa analysverktyg2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna magisteruppsats är baserad på översättningen av de två första kapitlen i ungdomsboken Goggle-Eyes (1989) av den brittiska författaren Anne Fine. Uppsatsen undersöker effekterna av en främmandegörande översättningsstrategi med utgångspunkt i Antoine Bermans negativa analysverktyg och med avseende på undvikandet av förlust av ikoniska och klangfulla ord och förlust av uttryck och idiom inklusive namn. Analysen visar att det i många fall är möjligt att bevara ikoniska och klangfulla ord vid översättningen, utan att effekten på måltexten blir främmandegörande, medan bevarandet av uttryck och namn i flera fall kräver förtydliganden för att måltexten ska bli begriplig för målgruppen.

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