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  • 501.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Standard and Special Negators in the Slavonic Languages: Synchrony and Diachrony2010In: Diachronic Syntax of the Slavonic Languages / [ed] Hansen, Björn and Jasmina Grkovic-Major, Vienna: Wiener Slawistischen Almanach , 2010, p. 197-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 502.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Standard and Special Negators in the Uralic Languages2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 503.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Standard and Special Negators: their evolution and interaction2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 504.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Suppletion2013In: Oxford Bibliographies, Oxford University Press, 2013Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 505.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Suppletion in Verb Paradigms2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 506.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Negative Existential Cycle Revisited2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 507.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Negative Existential Cycle Revisited2014In: Linguistics, ISSN 2072-8379, Vol. 52, no 6, p. 1327-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on crosslinguistic data and the postulation of six language types, the Negative Existential Cycle was proposed by Croft (1991) as a way of modeling the evolution of standard negation markers from existential negators. The current investigation tests this model by applying it to two language families, Slavonic and Polynesian, checking which cycle types are instantiated in these families and outlining pathways of transition between different types. In Slavonic, we observe one type without variation and two types with internal variation. All cycle types are instantiated in Polynesian, which is correlated with characteristics specific to this family. Three pathways are outlined for the partial or complete transfer of negative existentials into the verbal domain. The first is contingent on negative existentials being used in specific constructions and the direct inheritance or expansion of use of these constructions; the second involves negative existentials being used as emphatic negators external to the proposition and their subsequent reanalysis as clause internal negators without any additional pragmatic content. The third pathway, observed in Polynesian only, is through subordination processes leading to the re-interpretation of negative existentials as general markers of negation. Additionally, a time dimension needs to be added when modeling this cycle, as its completion, i.e., the negative existential turning into a full-fledged marker of standard negation, appears to take longer than 2,000 years.

  • 508.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The Negative Existential Cycle through the lens of comparative data2016In: The Linguistic Cycle Continued, Amsterdam/New York: John Benjamins Publishing Co. , 2016, p. 139-187Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 509.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Towards a typology of negation of non-verbal and existential sentences2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 510.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Typology of negation in existential sentences2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 511.
    Veselinova, Ljuba
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bond, Oliver
    SOAS.
    Sampling Isolates2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 512.
    Veselinova, Ljuba N.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Special Negators in the Uralic Languages: Synchrony, Diachrony and Interaction with Standard Negation2015In: Negation in Uralic Languages / [ed] Matti Miestamo, Anne Tamm, Beáta Wagner-Nagy, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2015, p. 547-600Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study covers data from 26 Uralic languages and has both a synchronic and a diachronic orientation. The synchronic part includes a detailed description of the negation strategies in sentences such as (i) Mary is not a nurse and (ii) There are no wild cats. The negators used in such clauses are referred to as special negators because they often differ from standard negation. Their formal and semantic features are discussed but they are also viewed in a broader typological setting. As regards diachrony, the origin of the special negators is traced and the Negative Existential Cycle (Croft 1991) is tested on the Uralic data. Some modifications of the model are suggested as a result of this application.

  • 513.
    Veselinova, Ljuba Nikolova
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Booza, J. C.
    Studying the Multilingual City: a GIS-based approach2009In: Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, ISSN 0143-4632, E-ISSN 1747-7557, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 145-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Work in two distinct disciplines, urban geography and sociolinguistics, readily points out the multiethnic and multilingual character of metropolitan areas. However, there is still demand for studies which establish the language structure of modern cities. For the purposes of this pilot study, we focus on the Detroit Metropolitan Area (DMA), Michigan. Geographical Information Systems (GIS) technology together with census data were used to arrive at an adequate description of the spatial distribution of languages currently spoken in Detroit and its immediate surroundings. Data from the 2000 US Census are entered into a GIS system and presented visually with a subsequent analysis of the emerging spatial patterns. Due to limitations of the data, we had to restrict the mapping to languages used at home. The study suggests one possible model for the initial stages of mapping the multilingual city; moreover, the data analysed here provide the infrastructure necessary for further research on phenomena such as language shift and language death as well as other aspects of a dynamic multilingual situation.

  • 514. Wiemer, Björn
    et al.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Contact-induced grammatical change: Diverse phenomena, diverse perspectives2012In: Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact / [ed] Wiemer, Björn & Wälchli, Bernhard & Hansen, Björn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 3-64Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 515. Wiemer, Björn
    et al.
    Wälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.Hansen, Björn
    Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The volume presents new insights into two basic theoretical issues hotly debated in recent work on grammaticalization and language contact: grammatical replication and grammatical borrowability. The key issues are: How can grammatical replication be distinguished from other, superficially similar processes of contact-induced linguistic change, and under what conditions does it take place? Are there grammatical morphemes or constructions that are more easily borrowed than others, and how can language contact account for areal biases in borrowing (vs. calquing) of grammatical formatives? The book is a major contribution to the ongoing theoretical discussion concerning the relationship between grammaticalization and language contact on a broad empirical basis.

  • 516.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    L1 and L2 influence in L3 production: Evidence from language switches1997Report (Other academic)
  • 517.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language switches in L3 production: Implications for a polyglot speaking model1998In: Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0142-6001, E-ISSN 1477-450X, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 295-333Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 518.
    Williams, Sarah
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language switches in L3 production: Implications for a polyglot speaking model2009In: Processes in third language acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 28-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 519.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknown categories within and across languages2014In: Algorithmic typology and going from known to similar unknowncategories within and across languages: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Benedikt Smrecsanyi & Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 355-393Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper introduces three algorithms for the extraction of lexical and grammatical markers in parallel texts. The starting point for all of them is that trigger distributions are used as semantic cues. Automatic processing chains apply the same procedures (so-called “procedural universals”) to directly comparable texts of all languages. The domain-internal distribution of markers is usually highly diverse cross-linguistically due to polymorphy (there are many markers instantiating the same domain, but which also expressother meanings at the same time). Polymorphy structures a domain into subdomains in cross-linguistically different ways, and this structure canbe used for the aggregation of markers into cross-linguistically recurrent marker types and for assessing the domain-specific similarity relationships between languages.

  • 520.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Co-compounds2015In: Word-formation: an international handbook of the languages of Europe / [ed] Müller, Peter O., Ohnheiser, Ingeborg, Olsen, Susan, Rainer, Franz, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 707-727Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 521.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Grammaticalization clines in space: Zooming in on synchronic traces of diffusion processes2012In: Grammatical Replication and Borrowability in Language Contact / [ed] Wiemer, Björn & Wälchli, Bernhard & Hansen, Björn, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 233-272Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 522.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Indirect measurement in morphological typology2012In: Methods in Contemporary Linguistics / [ed] Ender, Andrea & Leemann, Adrian & Wälchli, Bernhard, Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton , 2012, p. 69-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 523.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ištiktukai "eventives": the Baltic precursors of ideophones and why they remain unknown in typology2015In: Contemporary approaches to Baltic linguistics / [ed] Peter Arkadiev, Axel Holvoet, Björn Wiemer, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2015, p. 491-521Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 524.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Logophoricity in Eastern Vidzeme: The Literary Latvian idiolect of Andrievs Niedra and Leivu Estonian2015In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 6, p. 141-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eastern Vidzeme is an important, hitherto neglected, area for the study of logophoricity in the Circum-Baltic languages. This paper shows, on the one hand, that logophoricity in Latvian is not restricted to Latgalian dialects, but is almost fully consistent in the writings of the novelist Andrievs Niedra (1871–1942) originating from Tirza, and on the other hand, that Leivu Estonian, a moribund South Estonian language island in Northeastern Vidzeme between Gulbene and Alūksne, is the only Estonian variety having developed a logophoric pronoun.

    Given the high diversity of logophoricity in Latvian, it is important to study idiolects with large corpora, and written language deserves more study. Like Finnish dialects and Leivu Estonian, Niedra’s idiolect uses logophoric pronouns even for marking the report addressee in questions. Unlike in the Latgalian tales discussed by Nau (2006), logophoricity can be extended beyond the domain of report to thought. A distinction between allophoric (frame and report speaker are different) and autophoric reports (frame and report speaker are the same) is introduced. It is argued that logophoric pronouns are a non-deictic and non-coreference-based strategy to mark reports, that their function is not primarily reference tracking, and that logophoric pronouns in Latvian are constructionalized rather than grammaticalized.

  • 525.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Morphosemantics, constructions, algorithmic typology and parallel texts2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike morphology (the internal formal structure of words) and semantics (the study of the meaning of words and sentences), morphosemantics is concerned with the link between marker and meaning. Traditional approaches to morphosemantics such as semiotics and construction grammar argue that the relationship between image acoustique and concept is symbolic. This works well if the links are known (in the “proficiency mode”). In this talk I argue that there is a statistical alternative which is particularly useful if the links are not known (in the “discovery mode”). Meanings and markers form collocations in texts which can be measured by means of collocation measures. However, there is a considerable non-isomorphism between marker and meaning. As is well known a marker can have many different meanings (polysemy). Somewhat less well known is that a meaning is often expressed by many different markers, both paradigmatically and syntagmatically (polymorphy).

            To make meanings and markers commensurable, they must be converted into units of the same kind. This same kind is the set of contexts in a text or corpus where a marker or meaning occurs. If the distribution of a meaning in a corpus is known, its corresponding marker complex can be determined which consists of a paradigmatically and syntagmatically ordered set of simple markers. The markers considered here are surface markers of two types: word forms and morphs (continuous character strings within word forms). More abstract marker types such as lexemes, grammatical categories and word classes might often be better markers than surface markers, but they are not available in the discovery mode.

            Marker complexes are a simple construction type. A procedural approach to construction grammar is adopted where marker complexes are viewed as an intermediate stage in a processing chain of increasingly more complex construction types from simple markers via marker complexes to syntactic constructions. Marker complexes have the advantage that they can be extracted automatically from massively parallel texts, i.e. translations of the same text into many languages, such as the New Testament used here. In parallel texts the same meanings (with certain restrictions) are expressed across different languages. This means that a functional domain can be defined as a set of contexts where a certain meaning occurs.

            The same procedure is applied to cross-linguistically similar material and the procedure applied to cross-linguistic data is fully explicit and therefore replicable. It can be implemented in a computer program and run without the intervention of a typologist (algorithmic typology). The underlying idea is that the procedure of extraction is invariant (procedural universal) whereas the extracted structures can be highly variable depending on the texts and languages to which they are applied.

            The talk considers to what extent surface markers are sufficient as input for the identification of constructions in a range of grammatical and lexical domains in a world-wide convenience sample of somewhat more than 50 languages. One of the domains considered in more detail is comparison of inequality. Comparison of inequality is expressed in most languages of the sample by an at least bipartite marker complex consisting of the parts standard marker (‘than’) and predicate intensifier (‘more’, ‘-er’). It will be argued here that both of them are intrinsic parts of the comparative construction. These findings are not fully in accordance with Leon Stassen’s typology of comparison – a classical study in functional domain typology – which is based exclusively on the encoding of the standard NP. Other domains considered in the talk include negation, ‘want’, future, and predicative possession.

  • 526.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Non-specific, specific and obscured perception verbs in Baltic languages2016In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 7, p. 53-135Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Opportunistic perception verbs (‘see’, ‘hear’, as opposed to explorative perception verbs, ‘look’, ‘listen’) express the opportunity for perception and are condition-oriented (exposure, i.e. the perceiver’s exposure to a percept), not participant-oriented, in their aspectual structure. The Baltic languages, as other languages in Central, East, and Northern Europe, have specific perception verbs, which are a subtype of opportunistic perception verbs, for the expression of restricted exposure. The lexical character of specificity in Baltic—unlike Russian where it is integrated into a rigid grammatical aspect system—is more favorable for uncovering the underlying semantic factors of specificity, which differ across perceptual systems. Restrictedness of exposure is a scale rather than a dichotomy, and cross-linguistic comparison in parallel texts reveals that specificity is a scale with much variation as to where the borderline between specific and non-specific perception verbs is drawn in the languages of the area. Obscured perception verbs, which emphasize difficulty in discrimination, are another set of condition-oriented perception verbs in Baltic and Russian and are closely related to specific verbs synchronically and diachronically.

    This paper describes non-specific, specific, and obscured perception verbs in the Baltic languages and attempts to capture their variability within six dimensions (morphology, area, diachrony, specificity, modality, obscured verbs). A precondition for this endeavor is a critique of earlier approaches to the semantics of perception verbs. Nine major biases are identified (nominalism, physiology, discrete features, vision, paradigmatic modelling, aspectual event types, dual nature models, participant orientation, and viewing activity as control). In developing an alternative, the approach greatly profits from Gibson’s ecological psychology and Rock’s theory of indirect perception. 

  • 527.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The dynamicity of stative resultatives2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 528.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The incomplete story of feminine gender loss in Northwestern Latvian dialects2017In: Baltic Linguistics, ISSN 2081-7533, Vol. 8, p. 143-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to show that Northwestern Latvian dialects (also called Tamian) are insufficiently characterized by placing them on a simple linear hierarchy of feminine gender loss, which is how they are traditionally approached in Latvian dialectology. While Lithuanian and Central and High Latvian dialects all have very similar and fairly canonical gender systems, various Northwestern Latvian dialects display a wealth of underexplored non-canonical gender properties, such as the reactivated topic marker gender relic, honorific feminine gender, pronominal adjectives behaving differently from attributive adjectives, the noun ‘boy’ turning into a hybrid feminine noun, and a third controller gender restricted to some diminutives. Feminine gender loss is traditionally explained by Livonian (Finnic) substrate. It is shown in this paper that the developments in NW Latvian have multiple causes, one of them being apocope (loss of short vowels infinal syllables), a common feature of NW Latvian dialects which prompted many developments making NW Latvian different from Central Latvian dialects and which is also ultimately due to language contact. Apocope and other developments made the system more complex. The non-canonical gender properties described in this paper are the effect of subsequent developments reducing system complexity again.

  • 529.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The rise of gender in Nalca (Mek, Tanah Papua): The drift towards the canonical gender attractor2018In: Non-canonical gender systems / [ed] Sebastian Fedden, Jenny Audring, Greville G. Corbett, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2018, p. 68-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 530.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Cysouw, Michael
    Lexical typology through similarity semantics: Toward a semantic map of motion verbs2012In: Linguistics, ISSN 0024-3949, E-ISSN 1613-396X, Vol. 50, no 3, p. 671-710Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper discusses a multidimensional probabilistic semantic map of lexical motion verb stems based on data collected from parallel texts (viz. translations of the Gospel according to Mark) for 100 languages from all continents. The crosslinguistic diversity of lexical semantics in motion verbs is illustrated in detail for the domain of 'go', 'come', and 'arrive' type contexts. It is argued that the theoretical bases underlying probabilistic semantic maps from exemplar data are the isomorphism hypothesis (given any two meanings and their corresponding forms in any particular language, more similar meanings are more likely to be expressed by the same form in any language), similarity semantics (similarity is more basic than identity), and exemplar semantics (exemplar meaning is more fundamental than abstract concepts).

  • 531.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ender, Andrea
    Wörter2013In: Sprachwissenschaft: Grammatik – Interaktion – Kognition / [ed] Peter Auer, Stuttgart: Verlag J. B. Metzler, 2013, p. 91-135Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 532.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Olsson, Bruno
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Exploring the cross-linguistic relationship between resultative constructions and participles2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 533.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Szmrecsanyi, Benedikt
    Introduction: The text-feature-aggregation pipeline in variation studies2014In: Aggregating Dialectology, Typology, and Register Analysis: Linguistic Variation in Text and Speech / [ed] Benedikt Szmrecsanyi & Bernhard Wälchli, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 2014, p. 1-25Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 534.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Sölling, Arnd
    The encoding of motion events: Building typology bottom-up from text data in many languages2013In: Variation and Change in the Encoding of Motion Events / [ed] Juliana Goschler & Anatol Stefanowitsch, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 77-113Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates eleven fundamental questions of motion event encoding from a massively cross-linguistic (i.e. typological) perspective in a bottom-up approach in parallel and original texts making use of quantitative and qualitative methods and various visualization methods. It is found that motion events can be encoded by lexical and grammatical means, by words and morphemes and tend to be expressed by constructions rather than simple markers (distributional spatial semantics). It is argued that local decomposition is more appropriate to address the semantics of motion events than global decomposition and that motion event typology consists of continuous rather than discrete variables. In motion event typology there are many features with only weak correlations (high heterogeneity). Both universal and culture-dependent aspects of motion event encoding are identified and areal trends in motion event typology are addressed (notably the deviant behavior of the North American continent).

  • 535.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    von Waldenfels, Ruprecht
    University of Bern.
    Measuring morphosemantic language distance in parallel texts2013In: Approaches to Measuring Linguistic Differences / [ed] Lars Borin & Anju Saxena, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2013, p. 475-506Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 536.
    Young, Nathan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Suburban Swedish maturing: Examining variation and perceptions among adult speakers of Swedish contemporary urban vernacular2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Up to now, adolescent speakers have been the primary focus when researching contemporary variation in the language of Sweden’s urban areas. This study contributes to the growing body of research on the topic by examining and reporting on adult speakers of what is here referred to as förortssvenska (English: Suburban Swedish). This study focuses specifically on formal speech registers of eight young working-class men from Stockholm along with the perception and reception of their speech by two independent native-listener groups.

    The paper is the first to present quantifiable data on what has been previously referred to as a “staccato” rhythm in Suburban Swedish. Strong correlations are shown between prosodic rhythm as measured by the normalized pairwise variability index (nPVI) and speech speed to mean listener attitudes (R2=0.9). A strong correlation is also shown for nPVI’s influence on mean listener-projected ethnicity (R2=0.8). Alongside variation in rhythm, we also see phonemic variation that trends toward specific indexes of social identity as revealed by speaker interviews and native-listener assessments. Alongside linguistic variation among speakers, there is also significant variation within speaker peer groups.

    In addition to identifying specific linguistic features, the study examines social mechanisms revealed in interviews with and qualitative observations of speaker and listener participants. In exploratory fashion, ideas on variation, register ranges, meta-pragmatic stereotyping, and ethnic boundary-making are presented to make a case for treating contemporary urban variation in Swedish as a habitual semiotic extension of speaker identity. Indicators that contemporary urban variation in Swedish may be heading in the direction of sociolectal entrenchment are also discussed.

  • 537.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Radboud University, Netherlands.
    Courtaux, Servane
    Visual Iconicity Across Sign Languages: Large-Scale Automated Video Analysis of Iconic Articulators and Locations2018In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 9, article id 725Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use automatic processing of 120,000 sign videos in 31 different sign languages to show a cross-linguistic pattern for two types of iconic form–meaning relationships in the visual modality. First, we demonstrate that the degree of inherent plurality of concepts, based on individual ratings by non-signers, strongly correlates with the number of hands used in the sign forms encoding the same concepts across sign languages. Second, we show that certain concepts are iconically articulated around specific parts of the body, as predicted by the associational intuitions by non-signers. The implications of our results are both theoretical and methodological. With regard to theoretical implications, we corroborate previous research by demonstrating and quantifying, using a much larger material than previously available, the iconic nature of languages in the visual modality. As for the methodological implications, we show how automatic methods are, in fact, useful for performing large-scale analysis of sign language data, to a high level of accuracy, as indicated by our manual error analysis.

  • 538.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Gärdenfors, Moa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Universal Dependencies for Swedish Sign Language2017In: Proceedings of the 21st Nordic Conference on Computational Linguistics / [ed] Jörg Tiedemann, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, p. 303-308Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the first effort to annotate a signed language with syntactic dependency structure: the Swedish Sign Language portion of the Universal Dependencies treebanks. The visual modality presents some unique challenges in analysis and annotation, such as the possibility of both hands articulating separate signs simultaneously, which has implications for the concept of projectivity in dependency grammars. Our data is sourced from the Swedish Sign Language Corpus, and if used in conjunction these resources contain very richly annotated data: dependency structure and parts of speech, video recordings, signer metadata, and since the whole material is also translated into Swedish the corpus is also a parallel text.

  • 539.
    Östling, Robert
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Börstell, Carl
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wallin, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Sign Language.
    Enriching the Swedish Sign Language Corpus with Part of Speech Tags Using Joint Bayesian Word Alignment and Annotation Transfer2015In: Proceedings of the 20th Nordic Conference of Computational Linguistics: NODALIDA 2015, May 11-13, 2015, Vilnius, Lithuania / [ed] Beáta Megyesi, Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015, p. 263-268Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have used a novel Bayesian model of joint word alignment and part of speech (PoS) annotation transfer to enrich the Swedish Sign Language Corpus with PoS tags. The annotations were then hand-corrected in order to both improve annotation quality for the corpus, and allow the empirical evaluation presented herein.

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