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  • 1. Abel-Ollo, K.
    et al.
    Rahu, M.
    Rajaleid, K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Talu, A.
    Ruutel, K.
    Platt, L.
    Bobrova, N.
    Rhodes, T.
    Uuskula, A.
    Knowledge of HIV serostatus and risk behaviour among injecting drug users in Estonia2009Inngår i: AIDS Care, ISSN 0954-0121, E-ISSN 1360-0451, Vol. 21, nr 7, s. 851-857Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We used the findings from two, cross-sectional studies of HIV serostatus and risk behaviours to assess the effects of knowledge of HIV serostatus and risk behaviours (relating to sex and injection drug use) among injecting drug users (IDUs). Respondent-driven sampling was used simultaneously at two sites in Estonia (the capital Tallinn, and the second-largest city of Ida-Virumaa County, Kohtla-Järve). The research tool was an interviewer-administered survey. Biological samples were collected for HIV testing. Participants were categorised into three groups based on HIV testing results and self-report on HIV serostatus: HIV-negative (n=133); HIV-positive unaware of their serostatus (n=75); and HIV-positive aware of their serostatus (n=168). In total, 65% of the participants tested positive for HIV. Of those 69% were aware of their positive serostatus. HIV-positive IDUs aware of their serostatus exhibited more risk behaviours than their HIV-positive counterparts unaware of their serostatus or HIV-negative IDUs. Effective prevention of HIV among IDUs should therefore, include programmes to reduce high-risk sexual and drug use behaviours at the public health scale and enhanced prevention efforts focusing on HIV-infected individuals.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Klara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Perceived neighbourhood insecurity and psychosomatic health complaints among adolescents in Stockholm: Exploring district-level and gendered inequalities2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The neighbourhood is an essential arena for adolescents’ health development and research suggests that perceived neighbourhood insecurity (PNI) is associated with socio-economic status and self-rated health. The present study explored the distribution of adolescents’ PNI and its association with psychosomatic health complaints across districts. It also examined gender differences and whether family socio-economic position, foreign background and previous exposure to crime could explain part of the association. Data came from classroom-surveys within Stockholm municipality’s 14 districts in 2010, 2012 and 2014 (n=10,291). Linear and logistic multilevel regression models were applied. Results showed that the average level of PNI varied considerably between districts and were strongly connected to its socio-demographic composition. However, individual characteristics in terms of family background and previous exposure to crime only explained a minor part of the variation in PNI across districts. Girls reported more insecurity than boys in all districts. Gender differences in PNI decreased in absolute numbers, but increased in relative numbers, as the overall ‘neighbourhood safety’ increased. Between-district differences in health were minor, but PNI was still a strong predictor of individual-level health, especially for boys. Furthermore, the predictive power of PNI on health was stronger in districts perceived as safer.

  • 3. Adler, Niclas
    et al.
    Glassér, Charlotte
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    A collaborative research effort to bridge boundaries and support deviant youths in contemporary welfare systems.2005Inngår i: European Management Review, ISSN 1740-4754, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 88-99Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes the challenges of introducing new approaches to the care of deviant youths in contemporary welfare systems. The specific study of early intervention programs within the area of psychosocial disturbances will be used to explore the interplay between emerging research results and the introduction of new approaches in different functionally specialized welfare carrying organizations. This paper is based on a collaborative research effort between researchers from education, psychology, psychiatry, sociology, economics and business administration and key actors from schools, police, criminal care, social security administrations, municipal health care and municipal politicians and administrative managers. The paper demonstrates that successful introduction of new coping strategies necessitates significant efforts to support the bridging of boundaries, the challenging of legacies and the learning from evidence to change established structures.

  • 4.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Psykologiska institutionen.
    Antisocialitet ur ett neuropsykologiskt perspektiv: Ung med tung social problematik. Hur kan vi förstå, förutsäga och planera för framtida behandling?2002Inngår i: Ung med tung social problematik. Hur kan vi förstå, förutsäga och planera för framtida behandling?, Statens institutionsstyrelse , 2002, s. 49-64Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Psykologiska institutionen.
    Monoaminerga mekanismer kopplade till personlighet och olika former av psykosocial störningsbild, såsom missbruk och andra beteendestörningar. In Hur kan man minska nyrekrytering? Rapport nr 172006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 6.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Psychobiological patterns at adult age: relationships to personality and early behavior: Developmental Science and the Holistic Approach2000Inngår i: Developmental Science and the Holistic Approach, Erlbaum , 2000, s. 209-228Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 7.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Psykologiska institutionen.
    Tidiga problembeteenden. Personlighetsaspekter, rökning, alkohol och kriminalitet.: Den svenska supen i det nya Europa. Nya villkor för alkoholprevention: en kunskapsöversikt2002Inngår i: Den svenska supen i det nya Europa. Nya villkor för alkoholprevention: en kunskapsöversikt, Statens Folkhälsoinstitut , 2002, s. 95-110Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 8.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Underlying vulnerability influencing outcome factors/behaviors in psychosocial disturbances: Multiproblem violent youth: a foundation for comparative research on needs, interventions and outcomes2002Inngår i: Multiproblem violent youth: a foundation for comparative research on needs, interventions and outcomes, Amsterdam: IOS Press , 2002, s. 138-149Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    af Klinteberg, B
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Psykologiska institutionen.
    Alm, P. O.
    Oreland, L.
    Serotonin, personality and smoking [abstract]2000Inngår i: International Journal of Psychology, Vol. 35, nr 22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lang, S.
    Freidenfelt, J.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Alm, P.-O.
    Risk indicators and stress situations as related to pursuant disinhibitory psychosocial disturbances: Personality and extreme stress2004Inngår i: Personality and extreme stress, Gdansk Psychology Publishing , 2004, s. 83-99Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A new scale to assess pro-bullying attitudes, the Pro-Bullying Attitude Scale (PAS) was evaluated in 259 voluntarily recruited male juvenile delinquents in Russia. Exploratory factor analysis gave a two-factor solution: Callous Dominance (CD) and Manipulativeness/ Impulsiveness (MI). The subjects were divided into three groups (low, intermediate, high) according to their scores on PAS and its two factors. Low and high group Ss were compared and results indicated higher delinquent and aggressive behavior among high group Ss as assessed by the Youth Self Report (YSR) and violent behavior as assessed by the Antisocial Behavior Checklist (ABC), as well as higher scores on the personality trait Novelty seeking and lower on Cooperativeness as assessed by the Temperament and Character Inventory (Cloninger et al., 1994). High PAS and CD groups displayed significantly higher scores on psychopathy traits as assessed by the Childhood Psychopathy Scale (Lynam, 1997) significantly related to registered violent crime. Probullying attitudes are discussed as a link between personality and psychopathy on the one hand and antisocial and violent behavior on the other. The PAS is also discussed in terms of usefulness in identifying high-risk individuals for violent behavior among incarcerated delinquents and in preventing violence and bullying tendencies in juvenile forensic institutions.

  • 11.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Psykologiska institutionen.
    Rydelius, P.-A.
    Missbruk, kriminalitet och våld - Vad döljer sig bakom rubrikerna? Om vad forskningen visar2004Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    af Klinteberg, B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Psykologiska institutionen.
    von Knorring, L.
    Oreland, L.
    On the psychobiology of impulsivity: On the psychobiology of personality: Essays in honor of Marvin Zuckerman2004Inngår i: On the psychobiology of personality: Essays in honor of Marvin Zuckerman, Elsevier Science , 2004, s. 429-451Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Hur kan man minska nyrekrytering?: Monoaminerga mekanismer kopplade till personlighet och olika former av psykosocial störningsbild, såsom missbruk och andra beteendestörningar (s. 23-27)2006Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Kopplingen mellan personlighet, biologi och social anpassning2013Inngår i: Att studera människors utveckling: Resultat från forskningsprogrammet IDA 1965-2013 / [ed] Anna-Karin Andershed, Henrik Andershed, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2013, s. 171-185Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    The role of impulsivity in different forms of psychosocial disturbances2008Inngår i: 16th AEP Congress: Abstract Book / [ed] Cyril Höschl, Philippe H. Robert, Elsevier, 2008, Vol. 23(Supplement 2), s. S333-S333Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the role of impulsivity and aggressiveness in psychosocial disturbances. Despite scientific efforts, several aspects of the relationships between these personality features and Personality Disorders, alcohol/drug abuse, and violence are still controversial. A relevant question concerns the reciprocal relationships between impulsivity and aggressiveness, and their interaction with other “action” personality traits or temperamental traits, e.g., sensation seeking. Another controversial topic is the identification of biological and neuropsychological markers of impulsivity and aggressiveness in order to get more objective measures of these personality traits than those produced by subjects' self-reports, and to obtain a deeper understanding of the phenotypic aspects underlying impulsive and aggressive behaviours as manifested in different forms of psychosocial disturbances. Starting from these considerations, the aim is to shed some light on the implications and consequences of impulsivity for psychosocial disturbances, such as criminality, abuse, and violence. The issue will be discussed in terms of development, possible underlying factors, and attitudes, which can be particularly relevant from both forensic and prevention points of view.

  • 16.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Tidiga problembeteenden2008Inngår i: Narkotikan i Sverige - Metoder för förebyggande arbete: En kunskapsöversikt / [ed] Sven Andréasson, Östersund: Statens Folkhälsoinstitut , 2008, , s. 11s. 107-117Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudpunkter i detta kapitel:

    • Impulsivitet är ett karaktärsdrag hos individer med ohämmat beteende, till exempel alkoholberoende, självmordsbenägenhet, hyperaktivitet och psykopatiska tendenser.

    • Hyperaktivt beteende, tidig impulsivitet och antisocialt beteende sammanfaller i stort med sårbarhetsindikatorer som man funnit i studier av antisocial personlighetsstörning (APD).

    • Psykopati och andra personlighetsstörningar, särskilt APD, har en hög frekvens av samtidigt missbruk.

    • Beteendeproblem och våld har visat sig starkt kopplat till riskbruk hos både pojkar och flickor.

    • Det finns ett väl etablerat samband mellan utagerande impulsiva och aggressiva handlingar och svagheter i serotoninmetabolismen i centrala nervsystemet (CNS).

    • Biologiska markörer utforskas i relation till olika beteendeproblem och personlighetsdrag för att dessa i sin tur ska kunna bli fokus i utformandet av effektiva och tidiga interventionsprogram.

    • Hela beroendekarriären ses som en dynamisk process över tid som därigenom också behöver utforskas longitudinellt.

    • Impulsivitet och andra psykopatirelaterade personlighetsdrag har betydelse för individens benägenhet att utveckla drogmissbruk.

  • 17.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Violent offending: Origins, development and consequences - some aspects.2006Inngår i: The Stockholm Criminology Symposium, Stockholm, June, 2006., 2006Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade there has been an increasing interest in the role of impulsivity and aggressiveness in psychosocial disturbances. Despite scientific efforts, several aspects of the relationships between these personality features and Personality Disorders and violence are still controversial. A relevant question concerns the reciprocal relationships between impulsivity and aggressiveness, and their interaction with other “action” personality traits or temperamental traits, e.g., sensation seeking. Another controversial topic is the identification of biological and neuropsychological markers of impulsivity and aggressiveness in order to get more objective measures of these personality traits than those produced by subjects' self-reports, and to obtain a deeper understanding of the phenotypic aspects underlying impulsive and aggressive behaviours as manifested in violence. Starting from these considerations, the present session aims at sheding some light on the implications and consequences of impulsivity for psychosocial disturbances, such as abuse and violence. The issue will be discussed in terms of development, possible underlying factors, attitudes and consequences, which can be particularly relevant from a clinical and forensic point of view.

  • 18.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Beijer, Ulla
    Karolinska institutet.
    Rydelius, Per-Anders
    Karolinska institutet.
    Family psychosocial characteristics influencing criminal behaviour and mortality - possible mediating factors: a longitudinal study of male and female subjects in the Stockholm Birth Cohort2011Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 11, s. 756-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Family psychosocial characteristics in childhood have been associated with children's development into criminal behaviour and mortality. This study explored these possible relationships and examined alcohol and/or drug use and mental problems as possible mediating factors, highlighting gender-specific patterns.

    Methods: Data from Swedish subjects born in 1953 (n = 14,294) from the Stockholm Birth Cohort study were examined. Several indicators of adverse family factors and individual problems were included in the present study. The information was derived from various data sources, covering different periods. Gender-specific associations with incidence of criminality (1966-1980) and mortality (1981-2009) were analysed using logistic regression. Furthermore, the population attributable fraction (PAF) was calculated for all variables in the fully adjusted models which were positively related to the outcome.

    Results: Overall incidence of criminality and mortality was (m/f 32.3/6.6) and (m/f 6.1/3.5), respectively. The results showed that all aspects of family psychosocial and individual problems studied were associated with criminality for both genders. Among males, individual problems seemed to partly mediate these relations, but the associations remained statistically significant. Interestingly, the PAF analysis revealed a reduction in criminality of 17.5% when individual problems with alcohol and/or drug use were considered. Among females, a significant impact of alcohol and/or drug use on the association between family psychosocial characteristics and subsequent criminality was obtained. Inclusion of father's occupational class only somewhat reduced the estimates for the genders. Concerning male mortality, father's alcohol abuse was significantly related to an increased risk. When individual criminality was accounted for, the association was substantially reduced but remained statistically significant. Among females, when adjusting for family psychosocial factors, only the association between parents' mental problems and females' mortality was significant. None of the individual problem variables managed to explain this association.

    Conclusions: Family psychosocial characteristics were associated with both subsequent criminal behaviour and mortality. These connections were partly explained by individual risk factors, especially by alcohol and/or drug use. The practical implications of the findings point to the importance of addressing the individual's alcohol and/or drug use in reducing criminal behaviour, which would also lower the mortality rates.

  • 19.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Granskaya, J
    Birath Scheffel, C
    Beijer, U
    Tsvetkova, L
    Personality characteristics and perceived health in Russian and Swedish female young adults with alcohol drinking habits2014Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, nr Suppl., s. S64-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Gacono, Carl
    Alm, Per Olof
    Projective risk variables in early adolescence and subsequent disinhibitory psychopathology2008Inngår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, Vol. 31, nr 3, s. 210-218Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to examine early adolescent projective risk indicators for the development of antisocial behaviour as related to adult personality traits, psychopathy, and violent behaviour over the life span. Assessment data included Rorschach (Rr) ratings (at age 11–14 years), personality inventories (EPQ-I and KSP scales), and a shortened Psychopathy Check List (PCL) (administered at age 32–40 years), obtained from a group of 199 male subjects; and smoking habits (at age 36–44 years) obtained from 125 of those subjects. Results, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups, as determined by level of total Rr risk scores, were (1) significantly higher on self-rated IVE Impulsiveness, the anxiety-related KSP Muscular Tension, and nonconformity traits, as compared to the low Rr risk group — the very high risk group also scoring significantly higher on the EPQ Psychoticism scale, related to aggressiveness and cruelty; (2) higher on clinically rated PCL total sum and factor scores; and (3) they were overrepresented among Ss with subsequent violent offence, and Ss with heavy smoking habits. The results are discussed in terms of the possible usefulness of psychodynamic oriented cognitive-emotional indicators in the search for underlying mechanisms in the development of disinhibitory psychopathology.

  • 21.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johansson, Sven-Erik
    Levander, Maria
    Alm, Per Olof
    Oreland, Lars
    Smoking habits – Associations with personality/behavior, platelet monoamine oxidase activity and plasma thyroid hormone levels2017Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 118, s. 71-76Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective was to outline results from our scientific studies on the associations among childhood behavior, adult personality, and biochemical factors in smoking habits. The studies consisted of: (1) follow-up of young criminals and controls, subdivided into risk for antisocial behavior groups, based on childhood rating levels of a projective test; and adult smoking habit groups; and (2) a large group of young adults examined on the same inventories. Personality in terms of KSP and EPQ-I scale scores, controlled for intelligence, indicated that the high and very high risk groups displayed significantly higher self-rated impulsiveness, anxiety, and nonconformity, as compared to the low risk group. Further, the very high risk group subjects, found to be overrepresented among subjects with heavy smoking habits, displayed lower mean platelet MAO-B activity and higher thyroid hormone levels than the low risk group. Thus, the higher the childhood risk for antisocial behavior, the clearer the adult personality pattern making subjects more disposed for smoking appeared; and the higher smoking habits, the stronger the relationships with biochemical measures. Results are discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms influencing personality and smoking habits.

  • 22. Ahlberg, Mia
    et al.
    Ekéus, Cecilia
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Birth by vacuum extraction delivery and school performance at 16 years of age2013Inngår i: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 210, nr 4, s. 361.e1-361.8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective 

    The aim of the present study was to investigate cognitive competence, as indicated by school performance, at 16 years of age, in children delivered by vacuum extraction.

    Study design 

    This was a register study of a national cohort of 126,032 16 year olds born as singletons, with a vertex presentation, at a gestational age of 34 weeks or older, with Swedish-born parents, delivered between 1990 and 1993 without major congenital malformations. Linear regression was used to analyze mode of delivery in relation to mean scores from national tests in mathematics (40.2; scale, 10-75; SD, 14.9) and mean average grades (223.8; scale, 10-320; SD, 52.3), with adjustment for perinatal and sociodemographic confounders.

    Results

    Children delivered by vacuum extraction (-0.51; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.76 to 0.26) as well as by nonplanned cesarean section (-0.51; 95% CI, -0.82 to -0.20) had slightly lower mean mathematics test scores than children born vaginally without instruments, after adjustment for major confounders. Mean average grades in children delivered by vacuum extraction were -1.05 (95% CI, -1.87 to -0.23) and -1.20 (95% CI,-2.24 to -0.16) in children delivered by nonplanned cesarean section compared with children born vaginally.

    Conclusion

    Children delivered by vacuum extraction had slightly lower grades at age 16 years compared with those born by noninstrumental vaginal delivery but very similar to those delivered by nonplanned cesarean. This suggests that vacuum extraction and nonplanned cesarean are equivalent alternatives for terminating deliveries with respect to cognitive outcomes.

  • 23.
    Ahren, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Unga kvinnors psykiska hälsa2013Inngår i: Sociala skillnader i unga kvinnors hälsa: en kunskapssammanställning av KvinnorKan, Stockholm: Föreningen KvinnorKan , 2013, s. 20-33Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 24.
    Ahrén, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Barn till överskuldsatta: underlagsrapport till Barns och ungas hälsa, vård och omsorg 20132013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Ahrén, Jennie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Chiesa, F.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Magnusson, C.
    Goodman, A.
    We are family - parents, siblings and eating disorders: Introducing the Stockholm Youth Cohort2012Inngår i: European psychiatry, ISSN 0924-9338, E-ISSN 1778-3585, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. P-251-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Eating disorders (ED) are among the leading causes of disease burden, especially in women.

    Objectives: The overall aim is to explore role of parental social characteristics and family composition in the development of ED in adolescent males and females.

    Aims: We investigated associations of parental socioeconomic position, family type, number of siblings and half-siblings and history of psychiatric disease in parents with the incidence of eating disorders at age 12–23 years.

    Methods: The Stockholm Youth Cohort (N = 589,114) is a database created by record-linkage for all children and adolescents, 0–17 years, resident in Stockholm County during the period 2001–2007, their parents and siblings. Hazard rations were calculated using Cox regression. Cases of ED were identified in outpatient care.

    Results: A total of 3251 cases of ED (2971 females and 280 males) were recorded among 249,884 study subjects. There was an increased risk of ED in both male and female offspring of parents who had a history of alcohol and drug abuse or psychiatric ill-health. Higher parental education was a risk factors in females. Increasing number of full siblings had a protective effect (fully adjusted HR 0.91, 95% CI 0.87–0.96, per sibling) while increasing number of half-siblings appeared to increase risk of eating disorders in females.

    Conclusions: Risk factors for ED seem to differ between females and males. While parental psychiatric health is related to risk of ED in both sexes, family socioeconomic position and relationships within family appear to be of more importance for influencing risk of ED in females.

  • 26.
    Ahrén, Jennie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Chiesa, Flaminia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Psychosocial determinants and family background in anorexia nervosa: Results from the Stockholm Birth Cohort Study2012Inngår i: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 45, nr 3, s. 362-369Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the associations between psychosocial factors and family background and incidence of anorexia nervosa (AN) in a Swedish cohort.

    Method: The Stockholm Birth Cohort, SBC (N = 14,294) contains information on social background and general health in males and females, born in Stockholm 1953. Hospitalizations for AN, based on diagnoses from the ICD-8 through ICD-10, were recorded from 1969 to 2002. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to measure the association between psychosocial characteristics and family background and the risk of AN.

    Results: Higher maternal education was associated with a higher risk for hospitalization for AN. An increased risk for AN was also found among females who stated that they “often compare their future prospects with others.”

    Discussion: Although the study is based on a low number of cases, it confirms earlier findings of higher maternal education among individuals with eating disorders in similar cohorts.

  • 27.
    Ahrén, Jennie C.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Chiesa, Flaminia
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Dalman, Christina
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Goodman, Anna
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
    We are family - parents, siblings, and eating disorders in a prospective total-population study of 250,000 Swedish males and females2013Inngår i: International Journal of Eating Disorders, ISSN 0276-3478, E-ISSN 1098-108X, Vol. 46, nr 7, s. 693-700Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: We examined how parental characteristics and other aspects of family background were associated with the development of eating disorders (ED) in males and females.

    Method: We used register data and record linkage to create the prospective, total-population study the Stockholm Youth Cohort. This cohort comprises all children and adolescents who were ever residents in Stockholm County between 2001 and 2007, plus their parents and siblings. Individuals born between 1984 and 1995 (N = 249, 884) were followed up for ED from age 12 to end of 2007. We used Cox regression modeling to investigate how ED incidence was associated with family socioeconomic position, parental age, and family composition.

    Results: In total, 3,251 cases of ED (2,971 females; 280 males) were recorded. Higher parental education independently predicted a higher rate of ED in females [e.g., adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 1.69 (95% CI: 1.42, 2.02) for degree-level vs. elementary-level maternal education], but not in males [HR 0.73 (95% CI: 0.42, 1.28), p < 0.001 for gender interaction]. In females, an increasing number of full-siblings was associated with lower rate of ED [e.g., fully adjusted HR 0.92 (95% CI: 0.88, 0.97) per sibling], whereas an increasing number of half-siblings was associated with a higher rate [HR 1.05 (95% CI: 1.01, 1.09) per sibling].

    Discussion: The effect of parental education on ED rate varies between males and females, whereas the effect of number of siblings varies according to whether they are full or half-siblings. A deeper understanding of these associations and their underlying mechanisms may provide etiological insights and inform the design of preventive interventions

  • 28.
    Ahrén, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lager, Anton
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Ungdomars psykosociala hälsa2012Inngår i: Den orättvisa hälsan: Om socioekonomiska skillnader i hälsa och livslängd / [ed] Rostila, M.; Toivanen, S., Liber, 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Neuropsychological aspects of eating disorders: A focus on diagnostic criteria2011Inngår i: International Handbook of Behavior, Diet, and Nutrition / [ed] Preedy, V. R., Watson, R. R. and Martin, C. R., New York: Springer , 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Skolan och ungdomars psykosociala hälsa2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Mothers’ social background and risk of eating disorders in daughters [abstract]2008Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 18, nr suppl. 1, s. 111-112Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Holmgren, Sven
    von Knorring, Lars
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Personality traits and self-injury behaviour in patients with eating disorders2008Inngår i: European eating disorders review, ISSN 1072-4133, E-ISSN 1099-0968, Vol. 16, nr 4, s. 268-275Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The interest in different aspects of personality and the neuropsychological basis for behaviour in eating disorder patients has increased over the last decade. The present study aims at exploring personality traits, self-injurious behaviour (SIB) and suicide attempts in a group of severely ill eating disorder patients. Patients with eating disorders (<i>N</i> = 38) and age-matched controls (N = 67) were examined concerning self-reported personality traits by means of the Karolinska scales of personality (KSP). Psychosocial history and SIB was collected from medical records. Depression was rated by means of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results indicated significantly higher anxiety-related and detachment traits in both anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) patients and higher hostility in BN patients than controls. No specific personality traits could be defined as typical for self-injurious or suicidal behaviour. The AN group was lower than the BN group on scales measuring impulsivity, guilt and anxiety. Furthermore, presence of SIB and suicide attempts was more frequent among the BN patients.

  • 33.
    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Lekander, Mats
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Stressforskningsinstitutet.
    von Blixten, Nils
    Rönnelid, Johan
    Holmgren, Sven
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6 in severely ill patients with eating disorders2011Inngår i: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 63, nr 1, s. 8-14Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The underlying pathophysiology of eating disorders (ED) is dependent on complex interactions between psychological, biological and social factors. The purpose of the present study was to examine a possible increase in cytokines indicating inflammation, as measured by tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in ED patients, and to explore possible relationships between cytokines and self-reported personality traits. Methods: Female patients with severe ED (n = 26) were recruited consecutively from an inpatient clinic and were compared to age-matched healthy females (n = 12). Commercial ELISA tests developed for the measurement of serum levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were employed. Personality traits were measured using Karolinska Scales of Personality. Results: The patient group displayed increased levels of the cytokine TNF-α and a tendency towards increased IL-6 levels. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to examine possible relationships between levels of cytokines and personality traits. The results showed that IL-6 levels were positively related to both somatic and psychic anxiety and to aggression scales, such as irritability and suspicion. Increased levels of TNF-α, in turn, were significantly correlated with high scores on the depression-related anxiety scale Inhibition of Aggression. However, increased levels of cytokines in the ED group did not seem to be mainly associated with symptoms of depression. Conclusion: We cannot rule out the possibility that comorbid conditions in the group contribute to the higher cytokine values. Further studies need to explore the possible influence of cytokines on the severity of ED and whether this might be mediated or moderated by specific personality traits.

  • 34.
    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Silverwood, Richard
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Koupil, Ilona
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Association of Higher Parental and Grandparental Education and Higher School Grades With Risk of Hospitalization for Eating Disorders in Females: The Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigenerational Study2009Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 170, nr 5, s. 566-575Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Eating disorders are a leading cause of disease burden amongyoung women. This study investigated associations of socialcharacteristics of parents and grandparents, sibling position,and school performance with incidence of eating disorders. Theauthors studied Swedish females born in 1952–1989 (n =13,376), third-generation descendants of a cohort born in Uppsalain 1915–1929. Data on grandparental and parental socialcharacteristics, sibling position, school grades, hospitalizations,emigrations, and deaths were obtained by register linkages.Associations with incidence of hospitalization for eating disorderswere studied with multivariable Cox regression, adjusted forage and study period. Overall incidence of hospitalization foreating disorders was 32.0/100,000 person-years. Women with morehighly educated parents and maternal grandparents were at higherrisk (hazard ratio for maternal grandmother with higher educationrelative to elementary education = 6.5, 95% confidence interval:2.2, 19.3, adjusted for parental education). Independent offamily social characteristics, women with the highest schoolgrades had a higher risk of eating disorders (hazard ratio =7.7, 95% confidence interval: 2.5, 24.1 for high compared withlow grades in Swedish, adjusted for parental education). Thus,higher parental and grandparental education and higher schoolgrades may increase risk of hospitalization for eating disordersin female offspring, possibly because of high internal and externaldemands.

  • 35.
    Ahrén-Moonga, Jennie
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    von Blixen, N.
    Ronnelid, J.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Levels of cytokines (TNF-α & IL-6) and personality in patients with eating disorders2008Inngår i: European Psychiatry, Vol. 23, nr Suppl. 2, s. S178-179Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 36. Alehagen, Siw
    et al.
    Wijma, Barbro
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Wijma, Klaas
    Fear, pain and stress hormones during labor and delivery2005Inngår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynaecology, ISSN 0167-482X, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 153-165Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: To investigate the course of fear, pain and stress hormones during labor, and the associations between fear, pain, stress hormones and duration of labor in nulliparous women with and without epidural analgesia (EDA).

    Method: One day during gestation weeks 37-39, urinary and salivary samples were collected to measure catecholamines and cortisol. Hourly during labor, the participants answered the Delivery Fear Scale and a pain intensity scale, and urinary and salivary samples were collected to measure stress hormones.

    Results: The course of fear, pain and stress hormones differed throughout labor in women with and without EDA. Pain and cortisol increased throughout labor in women without EDA. Women who received EDA had more fear, but not more pain, before the administration of the EDA than women who did not receive EDA. Pain, fear and catecholamines decreased when women received EDA, but fear and pain increased again later in labor. Fear and pain correlated, as well as levels of fear in the different phases of labor. During phase one of labor epinephrine and duration of the phase were negatively correlated.

    Conclusion: The course of fear, pain and concentrations of stress hormones differed, highly influenced by the administration of EDA. Fear and pain correlated more pronounced than stress hormones and fear, pain and duration of labor.

  • 37. Alfvén, G.
    et al.
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hjern, A.
    Stressor, perceived stress and recurrent pain in Swedish schoolchildren2008Inngår i: Journal of Psychosomatic Research, Vol. 65, s. 381-387Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38. Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hagström, Tom
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Pedagogiska institutionen.
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Gränslöst arbete.: Socialpsykologiska perspektiv på det nya arbetslivet.2006Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan 1970-talet har villkoren i arbetslivet förändrats till den grad att det finns fog för att tala om ”en industriell revolution”. Det svenska näringslivet har blivit alltmer internationaliserat och beroende av en global marknad. Som en följd av det har kraven på organisationer, fackföreningar, myndigheter och välfärdsstaten att anpassa sig ökat. Därmed förändras också förutsättningarna på arbetsmarknaden och i arbetslivet. Det nya arbetsliv som växer fram är betydligt mer oförutsägbart, skiftat och tävlingsinriktat än tidigare. Denna bok handlar om detta nya arbetsliv och de psykiska och sociala konsekvenserna det för med sig. Boken redogör för och diskuterar nya och flexibla organisationsformer och deras styrinstrument, de förändrade kraven på kunskaper och lärande i arbetslivet, den förändrade relationen mellan arbete och övrigt liv samt de nya förutsättningarna för stress och hälsa. Boken går inte bara igenom aktuella företeelser i samhället och arbetslivet, den redogör även för relevanta kunskaper, begrepp och teorier inom samhällsteori, organisation, socialisation, kognition och stress. Trots den breda utblicken ges en samlad bild av det nya arbetslivet som alltmer oreglerat, heterogent och individualiserat.

    Författarna är alla forskare inom området och boken bygger delvis på erfarenheterna från ett omfattande forskningsprogram om nya arbetsvillkor. Gränslöst arbete är tänkt att använda som kurslitteratur på universitet och högskolor inom såväl psykologi, pedagogik och sociologi som företagsekonomi. Boken kan även läsas av alla som är intresserade, och kanske drabbade, av villkoren i det nya arbetslivet.

  • 39.
    Allvin, Michael
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Aronsson, Gunnar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Hagström, Tom
    Johansson, Gunn
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Lundberg, Ulf
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS). Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Work without boundaries: psychological perspectives on the new working life2011Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Translated and adapted from a Swedish original, Work without Boundaries: Psychological Perspectives on the New Working Life tackles the human impact of the changing nature of work. It brings together strands of research from a variety of disciplines including work psychology, occupational health psychology, social psychology, and psychobiology. Written by two leading international researchers and writers in this field, Work without Boundaries delivers new levels of understanding in the field and charts the way forward for future research.

  • 40.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Future orientation climate in the school class: Relations to adolescent delinquency, heavy alcohol use, and internalizing problem2016Inngår i: Children and youth services review, ISSN 0190-7409, E-ISSN 1873-7765, Vol. 70, s. 324-331Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well known, based on previous research, that adolescents' thoughts and feelings about their future are related to the risk of delinquency, alcohol use as well as health. However, other well-known facts are that adolescents' actions are substantially shaped in interaction with peers and that, during adolescence, individuals spend a considerable amount of the day at school, in interaction with classmates. Despite this, there is an almost complete lack of studies exploring to what extent the school climate, as measured by thoughts and feelings about the future, can influence individual adolescents. The aim of the current study is to investigate whether the future orientation (FO) climate, measured at the school class level, is related to delinquency, alcohol use and internalizing problems at the individual level, among a sample of Swedish students 14–15 years of age. The data used come from the Swedish part of the Youth in Europe (YES!) study, which is part of the larger project Children of Immigrants - Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU). In the present paper, we use data from the first wave, collected among 8th grade students in 2010/11 (n = 4119–4364). The method used was multilevel modeling (linear probability models (LPM) and linear regression analysis). The results showed that, in school classes where a high proportion of students had a positive future orientation, the risk of heavy alcohol use at the individual level was lower, also after adjusting for individual FO and for individual- and class-level socioeconomic conditions. A similar, but not statistically significant, tendency was found for delinquency. In addition, having a high proportion of students with a positive FO in a school class was associated with fewer internalizing problems, also after controlling for individual FO and socioeconomic conditions at the individual and school class level. We conclude that the surrounding school class, in terms of its general future orientation climate, may play a role for individual outcomes in the form of problem behaviors and mental health.

  • 41.
    Alm, Susanne
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutet för social forskning (SOFI).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The gendered mirror on the wall: Satisfaction with physical appearance and its relationship to global self-esteem and psychosomatic complaints among adolescent boys and girls2017Inngår i: Young - Nordic Journal of Youth Research, ISSN 1103-3088, E-ISSN 1741-3222, Vol. 26, nr 5, s. 1-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study investigated gender differences in satisfaction with physical appearance as a domain-specific aspect of self-esteem, and its association with global self-esteem and psychosomatic complaints. The data used was from the Stockholm School Survey, conducted among ninth grade students (15–16 years), with pooled information from six cross-sectional surveys in 2004–2014 (n = 32,117). Girls reported lower satisfaction with their appearance than boys. Satisfaction with appearance was more strongly associated with global self-esteem among girls, while the association with psychosomatic complaints was similar for both genders. There was a tendency towards a decline in satisfaction with appearance at the end of the study period for both genders, albeit more strong for girls. We conclude that satisfaction with appearance may contribute to our understanding of poor mental well-being among adolescent girls.

  • 42.
    Almquist B., Ylva
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Högnäs, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Only the lonely? All-cause mortality among children without siblings and children without friends2017Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, nr Suppl. 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In childhood, relations with siblings and friends lie at the core of social interaction. Lacking either type of relationship may reflect lower levels of social support. While social support is known to be negatively associated with premature death, there are still no long-term follow-ups of mortality risks among children without siblings (‘only-children’) and children without friends (‘lonely-children’). The aim of the present study was therefore to examine and compare all-cause mortality in these two groups.

    Methods: Cox regression analysis was based on a Stockholm cohort born in 1953 (n = 15,117). Individuals were identified as only-children if there were no records of siblings before age 18. Derived from sociometric data collected at age 13, lonely-children were defined as not being nominated by classmates as one of three best friends. The follow-up of all-cause mortality covered ages 20-56.

    Results: Both only-children and lonely-children had increased risks of premature mortality. When adjusted for a wide range of family-related and individual factors, the risk ratio for only-children increased in strength whereas the risk ratio for lonely-children was reduced. The former finding may be explained by suppressor effects: for example, both only-children and those whose parents had alcohol problems had higher mortality risks but only-children were less likely to have parents with alcohol problems. The latter finding was primarily due to adjustment for scholastic ability.

    Conclusions: It is concluded that while only-children and lonely-children have similar risks of all-cause mortality, the processes leading up to premature death appear to be rather different. Yet, interventions targeted at improving social learning experiences may be beneficial for both groups.

    Key messages:

    • Only-children have higher risks of premature mortality but the mechanisms remain unclear.

    • Lonely-children are at risk of premature mortality primarily due to poorer scholastic ability.

  • 43.
    Almquist B., Ylva
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Landstedt, Evelina
    Hammarström, Anne
    Associations between social support and depressive symptoms: social causation or social selection – or both?2017Inngår i: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, nr 1, s. 84-89Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated an association between social support and health, almost regardless of how social support and health have been conceptualised or measured. Even so, the issue of causality has not yet been sufficiently addressed. This issue is particularly challenging for mental health problems such as depressive symptoms. The aim of the present study is to longitudinally assess structural and functional aspects of social support in relation to depressive symptoms in men and women, through a series of competing causal models that, in contrast to many other statistical methods, allow for bi-directional effects. Methods: Questionnaire data from the Northern Swedish Cohort (n = 1001) were utilised for the years 1995 (age 30) and 2007 (age 42). Associations were analysed by means of gender-specific structural equation modelling, with structural and functional support modelled separately. Results: Both structural and functional support were associated with depressive symptoms at ages 30 and 42, for men and women alike. A higher level of support, particularly functional support, was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms over time among men. Among women, there were bi-directional effects of social support and depressive symptoms over time. Conclusion: Concerning social support and health, the social causation hypothesis seems relevant for men whereas, for women, the associations appear to be more complex. We conclude that preventive and health promoting work may need to consider that the presence of depressive symptoms in itself impedes on women’s capability to increase their levels of social support.

  • 44.
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Peer status in school and adult disease risk: A 30-year follow-up study of disease-specific morbidity in a Stockholm cohort2009Inngår i: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 63, nr 12, s. 1028-1034Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Children have a social status position of their own, apart from that of the family, that may have an impact on short-term and long-term health. The aim of the present study was to analyse the associations between childhood social status in school (ie, peer status) and disease-specific morbidity in adulthood.

    Methods: Data were derived from a longitudinal study using a 1953 cohort born in Stockholm, Sweden: The Stockholm Birth Cohort Study (1953–2003). Peer status was sociometrically assessed in sixth grade (1966). Hazard ratios for adult disease-specific morbidity based on information on inpatient care (1973–2003) were calculated by peer status category for men and women separately, using Cox regression.

    Results: The results indicate that the lower the childhood peer status, the higher the overall adult disease risk. There were, however, differences in the degree and magnitude to which disease-specific inpatient care varied with peer status. Some of the steepest gradients were found for mental and behavioural disorders (eg, alcohol abuse and drug dependence), external causes (eg, suicide) and various lifestyle-related diseases (eg, ischaemic heart disease and diabetes). The results were not explained by childhood social class.

    Conclusion: The present study underlines the importance of recognising children’s social position, apart from that of their family, for later health. Not only psychologically related diseases but also those related to behavioural risk factors demonstrate some of the largest relative differences by peer status, suggesting that health-related behaviour may be one important mechanism in the association between peer status and morbidity.

  • 45.
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Social isolation in the classroom and adult health:  A longitudinal study of a 1953 cohort2011Inngår i: Advances in Life Course Research, ISSN 1569-4909, E-ISSN 1879-6974, Vol. 16, nr 1, s. 1-12Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Empirical evidence of long-term health effects of social isolation in young people is limited. In childhood, the school class emerges as a central context, wherein social disadvantages may be detrimental for health development. The purpose of this study was to examine social isolation in the school class and its association with adult disease. Data was derived from a longitudinal study using a 1953 cohort born in Stockholm, Sweden (n = 14,294). Two types of social isolation in the classroom, friendlessness and marginalisation, were sociometrically assessed in 6th grade (1966). Information on adult health was gathered through registry-data on in-patient care (1973–2003). Analyses were based on logistic regression and Poisson regression. The results demonstrated that both types of social isolation in the school class were related to various adverse individual, school-related and family-related aspects. Moreover, while marginalisation was associated with the odds of becoming hospitalised, friendlessness was not. However, if ever being hospitalised, both types of isolates had significantly more hospital care events. These results were largely unexplained by the included individual, school-related and family-related aspects.

  • 46.
    Almquist, Ylva
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    The school class as a social network and contextual effects on childhood and adult health: Findings from the Aberdeen Children of the 1950s Cohort study2011Inngår i: Social Networks, ISSN 0378-8733, E-ISSN 1879-2111, Vol. 33, nr 4, s. 281-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about the health consequences of the school class as a social network. The present study asked whether overall school-class structure has contextual effects on psychiatric problems in childhood and adult self-rated health. From longitudinal data on a Scottish cohort, measures of school-class structure (centralisation, degree of reciprocity and proportion of isolates) were constructed based on sociometric information. Multilevel analysis demonstrated significant effects of centralisation on both health outcomes. It is suggested that highly centralised classes are characterised by inequality, resulting in a low level of integration, with subsequent negative consequences for health.

  • 47.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Childhood origins and adult destinations: The impact of childhood living conditions on coexisting disadvantages in adulthood2016Inngår i: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 25, nr 2, s. 176-186Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to analyse linkages between childhood living conditions and coexisting disadvantages in adulthood. Analyses were based on the Stockholm Birth Cohort, consisting of more than 14,000 individuals born in 1953, followed up until 2007. Based on education, labour market outcomes, economic poverty and health, four outcome profiles with varying levels of disadvantage were identified by means of latent class analysis. Coexisting disadvantages were present in approximately one-fifth of the individuals. Low educational attainment, social welfare recipiency and mental health problems simultaneously occurred in two of the profiles, suggesting that these dimensions are highly interconnected. Results from multinomial regression analysis showed that individuals who had experienced disadvantaged childhood conditions had particularly high risks of ending up in these two outcome profiles, with or without the presence of unemployment.

  • 48.
    Almquist, Ylva B
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hälsosamt samspel i skolan - långsiktiga effekter2014Inngår i: På väg in : ungdomars liv och försörjning: Rapport från forskarseminariet i Umeå 15–16 januari 2014, Stockholm: Försäkringskassan , 2014, , s. 73-82s. 73-82Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 49.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    School performance as a precursor of adult health: Exploring associations to disease-specific hospital care and their possible explanations2013Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 41, nr 1, s. 81-91Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: While past research has shown that school performance is associated with some specific health outcomes in adulthood, few studies have taken a general approach to the link between school performance and adult disease. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate sixth grade school performance in relation to disease-specific hospital care in adulthood and, moreover, to examine whether other conditions in childhood could account for any such associations. Methods: The data used was the Stockholm Birth Cohort, consisting of 14,294 individuals born in 1953. Associations between school performance and disease-specific hospital care were analysed by means of Cox regression. Results: Poor school performance was shown to be linked to a variety of diseases in adulthood, e.g. drug dependence, stomach ulcer, cerebrovascular diseases, and accidents. Some differences according to gender were found. Most associations, but not all, were explained by the simultaneous inclusion of various family-related and individual factors (e.g. social class, cognitive ability, and behavioural problems). Conclusions: In sum, the results of this study suggest that poor school performance may be an essential part of risk clustering in childhood with important implications for the individual's health career.

  • 50.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Brolin Låftman, Sara
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Hälsosamt samspel i skolan2012Inngår i: Framtider, ISSN 0281-0492, nr 3, s. 12-15Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
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