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  • 1. Abubakar, Amin
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Social connectedness, life satisfaction and school engagement: moderating role of ethnic minority status on resilience processes of Roma youth2016Inngår i: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 13, nr 3, 361-376 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the influence of connectedness on school engagement and life satisfaction among Roma (n = 121) and Bulgarian (n = 143) mainstream adolescents (mean age 15.89, SD = 1.18). A set of measures on family, peer, school and neighbourhood connectedness were administered alongside life satisfaction and school engagement scales. Multigroup path analysis indicated that while the relationship between connectedness, life satisfaction and school engagement was largely the same across groups, the strength of such relationship differed among groups. A closer inspection of the model indicated that when it comes to school engagement, there was a salient difference in the role of different forms of connectedness between Roma and mainstream adolescents. For Roma adolescents, familial connectedness was especially salient for school engagement. The practical and theoretical implications of our findings for strengths and adaptive processes among Roma adolescents in Bulgaria are discussed.

  • 2. Abubakar, Amina
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Tair, Ergyul
    Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale Among Adolescents and Emerging Adults Across 23 Cultural Contexts2016Inngår i: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, ISSN 0734-2829, E-ISSN 1557-5144, Vol. 34, nr 1, 28-38 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of configural and partial measurement weights invariance models, indicating similar patterns and strengths in factor loading for both adolescents and emerging adults across various countries. We found insufficient evidence for scalar invariance in both the adolescents’ and the emerging adults’ samples. A multi-level confirmatory factor analysis indicated configural invariance of the structure at country and individual level. Internal consistency, evaluated by alpha and omega coefficients per country, yielded acceptable results. The translated BMSLSS across different cultural contexts presents good psychometric characteristics similar to what has been reported in the original scale, though scalar invariance remains problematic. Our results indicate that the BMSLSS forms a brief measure of life satisfaction, which has accrued substantial evidence of construct validity, thus suitable for use in cross-cultural surveys with adolescents and emerging adults, although evaluation of degree of invariance must be carried out to ensure its suitability for mean comparisons.

  • 3. Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Brief report: When does identity lead to negative affective experiences?: A comparison of Turkish–Bulgarian and Turkish–German adolescents2016Inngår i: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 47, 125-130 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine relationships between social identity domains (ethnic, national, and religious) and negative affect among Turkish–Bulgarian and Turkish–German youth. Path analysis confirmed a multiple social identities (MSI) factor that has negative relations to experiencing negative affect for Turkish youth in both countries. Beyond this negative relationship, the component of national identity showed a positive relationship to negative affect for Turkish–Bulgarians, but not for Turkish–Germans. Our findings indicate that beyond the generally adaptive effect of MSI on youth development, unique components of social identity may not always be an asset: In an assimilative acculturation context (i.e., Bulgaria), the endorsement of national identity was not adaptive. Our research therefore highlights the need for a contextually differentiated view on “healthy” identity formation among immigrants for research and practice.

  • 4. Buzea, Carmen
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Internal versus External Ethnic Identification of Roma: Implications for Social Inclusion in Romania2016Inngår i: Social Work Review, ISSN 1583-0608, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Roma represent the most relevant and sizable ethnic minority across Europe with estimates varying from 10 up to 15 million of people. However, discrepancy in external (ascribed by others) and internal or self-defined ethnic identification of Roma are largely present in Europe and Romania in particular. We set out to explore internal and external ethnic identification of Romanian Roma by investigating Roma communities from 58 Romanian sites (10 cities and 48 villages), based on data collected from local experts (policemen, teachers, social workers, religious leaders). Results showed that: a) external ethnic identification (identification made by others) is three times higher than the official census data and the extreme poverty is the common characteristic of Roma communities; b) according to local experts, main markers to identify Roma refer to geographic proximity, extreme poverty, poor living conditions and enlarged family size. Implications for social inclusion programs at local and European level are discussed along with directions for future research.

  • 5.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Cognitive dissonance leads to an abstract mindset2016Inngår i: Book of abstract, 2016, 38-38 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of cognitive dissonance on abstract thinking. According to action-identification theory, whenever people try to understand a situation in a new way, they activate an abstract mindset. Based on this premise, dissonance was hypothesized to put people in an abstract mindset. The induced compliance paradigm, in which participants are asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice (producing little dissonance) or high choice (producing more dissonance), was employed. Results showed that dissonance did in fact activate a more abstract mindset, and this effect was more pronounced for participants having a more concrete mindset to begin with. This suggests that increasing abstraction, as a reaction to cognitive conflict, is a way for people to resolve inconsistencies.

  • 6.
    Cancino-Montecinos, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    The effects of cognitive dissonance on abstract thinking: Dissonance leads to an abstract mindset2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we investigated how individuals’ abstract thinking increases when experiencing dissonance. Dissonance theory holds that people reduce dissonance by accommodating their attitudes in order to fit their most recent behavior. This process resembles the reasoning of action-identification theory (AIT), which postulates that people usually try to understand their actions in a meaningful and coherent way, and also that actions can take on new meanings when people move from a low-level to a high-level understanding of the action. Thus, acting inconsistently threatens the coherent understanding of ones action; and in order to regain a sense of consonance, people will try to find a new meaning of their action (e.g., via attitude change). However, this occurs when moving to a high-level understanding (i.e., thinking more abstractly) of ones action. However, the effect of dissonance on abstraction should be stronger for individuals with low level of abstraction to begin with – since AIT holds that people who naturally tend to think abstractly already have high-level understandings of their actions. We predicted that: (1) dissonance puts people in a more abstract mindset, and (2) this effect will be more apparent for individuals low in abstraction. First, we established participants’ natural tendencies to abstract thinking with the Gestalt Completion Test (GCT). This variable was later split into low and high GCT. Several days later, we employed the induced compliance paradigm, in which participants were asked to write a counter-attitudinal essay under either low choice or high choice. High-choice participants usually experience more dissonance. We also created a neutral condition (to serve as a comparison to the other conditions) in which individuals were asked to write a pro-attitudinal essay. After the induced compliance manipulation, the Behavior Identification Form (BIF) was used to measure abstraction. The sample consisted of 125 non-psychology students. A 3 (condition: high-choice vs. low-choice vs. neutral) ˙ 2 (GCT: low vs. high) between subjects factorial ANOVA showed that participants in the high-choice condition (who experienced more dissonance) did exhibit a more abstract mindset, and level of GCT moderated this effect. The following simple effects analysis showed a significant effect for the low-GCT groups: (F(2, 119) = 6.607, p = .002, &#951;2 = .100) and the pairwise comparisons revealed that high-choice participants exhibited a significantly more abstract mindset (M = 16.65, SD = 4.54) compared to both the low-choice participants (M = 13.18, SD = 4.45) p = .013, d = .77 and the neutral participants (M = 12.25, SD = 4.71) p < .001, d = .95. No significant effects were found when comparing the high-GCT groups (p = .398). The present study demonstrated that dissonance activates abstract thinking, which is thought to facilitate people’s understanding their recent actions. This finding has important implication for the future study of consequences of cognitive conflicts, and also the study of how abstraction enables people to find new meanings of their own actions. Hence, investigation on these mechanisms could shed more light on how people regulate their thoughts, emotions and behavior in real time.

  • 7.
    Clausén Gull, Ingela
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    The relation between Executive Functions and Emotion Regulation in Preschool Children2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Executive Functions (EF) and Emotion Regulation (ER) are essential for children´s ability to regulate and control thoughts, behavior and emotions but the developmental relations between them are unclear. The present study was performed within the project PsPATHS with the purpose to investigate the relation between EF and ER. Performance on cognitive tasks tapping inhibitory control, working memory and cognitive flexibility were combined with teacher report of ER in 55 four to five year old preschool children. Contrary to the hypothesis, no significant relations could be established between EF and ER in this sample. For the EF components, the result showed a significant association between inhibitory control and cognitive flexibility, however, no further associations could be evidenced. The study demonstrates an advantage in using multiple measures and suggests that attention along with motivational and affective aspects of EF should be considered in future research of children´s ability to regulate emotions.

  • 8.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Cohesion, similarity and value in parent-child representations of Albanian and Serbian immigrant and Italian native children2016Inngår i: Psychology. Journal of the Higher School of Economics, ISSN 1813-8918, Vol. 13, nr 1, 192-213 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of parent-child representations across cultures is important in order to obtain a proper understanding of the attributes, size and positioning of such figures as indicators of different interaction patterns across cultures. A thorough base of research evidence for the interpretation of children’s drawings may facilitate work in multicultural educational settings and enhance our understanding of cultural diversity in schools. Italy provides an ideal context for the study of parent-child representations, as the country has witnessed increasing cultural diversity in recent years with the immigration of various ethnic groups. This study examined the extent to which this context influences children’s representations in domains of Cohesion (interpersonal bonding), Similarity (affinity) and Value (spatial relevance) among parent-child figures because these domains inform important representational processes of interpersonal bonding with parents across specific cultures. The Pictorial Assessment of Interpersonal Relationships (PAIR) was used to codify drawings of 326 children with Albanian (n = 59), Serbian (n = 85) and Italian (n = 182) backgrounds. The results showed that in drawings made by Albanian and Serbian children parental figures were drawn similar to and close to the child figure representing their less independent reciprocal stance. The parental figures drawn by Italian children appear bigger and farther apart. Important implications may be derived from the results in facilitating work in multicultural educational settings, by enhancing knowledge regarding cultural diversity in schools.

  • 9.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Ingredients of good PhD supervision: evidence from a student survey at Stockholm University2016Inngår i: Utbildning och Lärande / Education and Learning, ISSN 2001-4554, Vol. 10, nr 1, 40-53 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Doktorandhandledning är en relevant fråga för en pedagogisk forskarutbildning vid univer-sitet vilket har betydande implikationer inom rad sammanhang, såväl inom industrin som för  grupper  av  arbetsgivare,  studentföreningar  och  akademiker.  Denna  studie  undersöker  centrala aspekter av handledning utifrån doktoranders perspektiv vid Stockholms universi-tet baserat på en undersökning med 761 forskarstuderande. En konfirmatorisk faktoranalys genomförd med strukturell ekvationsmodellering visade sig ge stöd åt en endimensionell modell för handledning som exemplifieras av givandet av konstruktiv kritik till studenter, handledarens tillgänglighet, tillräckligt med tid för handledning, möjlighet till självständigt arbete  och  en  kreativ  miljö  för  forskarutbildningen.  Handledningsindikatorerna  var  även  signifikant och positivt korrelerade. Att studera dessa indikatorer spelar stor roll för riktlinjer inom  utbildning  och  metoder  för  undervisning  i  avsikt  att  kunna  förbättra  forskarutbild-ningen. Studenter skulle kunna bli tydligt informerade om viktiga faktorer att överväga när de väljer samt påbörjar sina studier. Universitetsledning och handledare kan upprätthållas i sin roll att säkerställa en fullgod doktorandupplevelse för deras studenter.

  • 10.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi. Hiroshima University, Japan.
    Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu
    Acculturation orientations mediate the link between religious identity and adjustment of Turkish-Bulgarian and Turkish-German adolescents2016Inngår i: SpringerPlus, E-ISSN 2193-1801, Vol. 5, 1024Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing recognition of the need to examine religiousness and conduct research on its influence on acculturation and adjustment among ethnic minorities (Güngör et al. in Int J Behav Dev 36:367–373, 2012. doi:10.1177/0165025412448357). The present study compares Turkish minority youth in Bulgaria and Germany by examining relationships among religious identity, acculturation orientations (i.e., cultural maintenance and adoption) and acculturation outcomes (i.e., life satisfaction and socio-cultural adjustment to the Turkish and mainstream cultures). Participants were 161 youth in Bulgaria and 155 in Germany who completed measures on religious identity, acculturation orientations and adjustment. Results revealed that religious identity and Turkish culture maintenance are more important for Turkish-German, than for Turkish-Bulgarian youth. A multigroup path model showed that for both samples acculturation orientations partially mediated the link between religious identity and adjustment to the Turkish culture, whereas religious identity was directly related both to adjustment to the mainstream culture and to life satisfaction. Findings highlight the centrality of religious identity and Turkish domains of acculturation for positive adjustment outcomes for Turkish youth in Bulgaria and Germany.

  • 11.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Buzea, Carmen
    Tausova, Jitka
    Uka, Fitim
    Zakaj, Skerdi
    Crocetti, Elisabetta
    Relationships between identity domains and life satisfaction in minority and majority youth in Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania2018Inngår i: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 15, nr 1, 61-82 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine relationships between identity domains (educational and relational identity) and life satisfaction in a cross-national perspective, by targeting minority (Roma) and majority youth in Albania, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania. Based on the three-factor identity formation model, we investigated the interplay between three identity processes (i.e., commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment) and life satisfaction. Participants were 1860 adolescents aged 12–19 years from Albania (n = 350), Bulgaria (n = 398), the Czech Republic (n = 293), Kosovo (n = 542), and Romania (n = 277). They completed self-reports of the Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) and the Life Satisfaction Scale (SWLS). We adopted a structural equation modelling approach to test (a) measurement invariance of identity and life satisfaction models across groups and (b) associations between identity domains (educational and relational) and life satisfaction. Findings indicated measurement invariance for identity and life satisfaction measures across cultural groups. In the total sample, life satisfaction was consistently associated with high commitment, high in-depth exploration, and low reconsideration of commitment in the educational identity domain. Sample-specific associations highlighted important cultural differences. Implications of these findings for identity and well-being in minority and mainstream youth across the countries under investigation are discussed.

  • 12.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi. Hiroshima University, Japan.
    Chasiotis, Athanasios
    Bender, Michael
    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Identity and well-being of ethnic minority and mainstream adolescents in Bulgaria2017Inngår i: Current Issues in Personality Psychology, ISSN 2353-4192, Vol. 5, nr 1, 41-52 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    We study identity in the context of long-term sedentary groups in Eastern Europe in contrast to the frequently studied short-term immigrants in typical Western European or US American contexts. This paper provides a novel approach to youth identity in an Eastern European post-communist context for minority groups that are quite distinct from the mainstream group to advance the study of identity. Turkish-Bulgarians and Muslim-Bulgarians have been subjected to extensive assimilation campaigns, which prompted them to carefully negotiate their ethnic identity and sense of belonging.

    Participants and procedure

    Participants were 366 adolescents aged 16 to 18 years (M = 16.72, SD = 0.71) from South Central and South Western regions of Bulgaria. This sample included Turkish-Bulgarian (n = 145), Muslim-Bulgarian (n = 85), and (mainstream) Bulgarian (n = 136) youth who provided data on personal, ethnic, familial, and religious identity as well as psychological well-being.

    Results

    Turkish-Bulgarian youth scored higher on achievement, diffusion, and foreclosure but lower on moratorium and Bulgarian ethnic and familial identity than Muslim-Bulgarian and Bulgarian youth. Bulgarian mainstreamers scored significantly lower on religious identity compared to their Turkish-Bulgarian and Muslim-Bulgarian peers. Finally, Bulgarian mainstream identity significantly predicted well-being of youth from all groups, independent of their ethnic background.

    Conclusions

    A strong ethnic and familial identity results in beneficial psychological outcomes for youth, even in the face of adversity and assimilation.

  • 13.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Chasiotis, Athanasios
    van de Vijver, Fons
    Adjustment Outcomes of Immigrant Children and Youth in Europe: A Meta-Analysis2016Inngår i: European Psychologist, ISSN 1016-9040, E-ISSN 1878-531X, Vol. 21, nr 2, 150-162 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Compared to natives, immigrants have been reported to display either more (migration morbidity) or fewer (immigrant paradox) adjustment problems. We examined these two perspectives using a meta-analysis from 51 studies (N = 224,197), reporting internalizing, externalizing, and academic outcomes among immigrant children and youth in Europe. Overall, migration morbidity was better supported than the immigrant paradox. Migration morbidity was supported for (a) externalizing outcomes in Northern Europe and adolescent samples; (b) academic outcomes for low SES and fewer girls across samples; (c) internalizing outcomes in Western Europe and preadolescent samples. Cultural diversity and long-term residence of immigrants are favorable factors for the paradox in externalizing outcomes, whereas immigrant family reunion was predictive for the paradox in internalizing and academic outcomes. Implications for future research and policy are discussed.

  • 14.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Crocetti, Elisabetta
    Buzea, Carmen
    Jordanov, Venzislav
    Kosic, Marianna
    Tair, Ergyul
    Tausova, Jitka
    van Cittert, Natasja
    Uka, Fitim
    The Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS) Measurement Invariance and Cross-National Comparisons of Youth From Seven European Countries2016Inngår i: European Journal of Psychological Assessment, ISSN 1015-5759, E-ISSN 2151-2426, Vol. 32, nr 2, 119-127 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Utrecht-Management of Identity Commitments Scale (U-MICS; Crocetti, Rubini, & Meeus, 2008) is a recently developed measure of identity that has been shown to be a reliable tool for assessing identity processes in adolescents. This study examines psychometric properties of the U-MICS in a large adolescent sample from seven European countries focused on the interplay of commitment, in-depth exploration, and reconsideration of commitment. Participants were 1,007 adolescents from Bulgaria (n = 146), the Czech Republic (n = 142), Italy (n = 144), Kosovo (n = 150), Romania (n = 142), Slovenia (n = 156), and the Netherlands (n = 127). We tested the U-MICS measurement invariance, reliability estimates in each language version, and compared latent identity means across groups. Results showed that the U-MICS has good internal consistency as well as configural, metric, and partial scalar invariance across groups in the sampled countries.

  • 15.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    del Carmen Domínguez Espinosa, Alejandra
    Factorial structure and measurement invariance of the Four Basic Dimensions of Religiousness Scale among Mexican males and females2017Inngår i: Psychology of Religion and Spirituality, ISSN 1941-1022, E-ISSN 1943-1562, Vol. 9, nr 2, 231-238 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Four Basic Dimensions of Religiousness Scale (4-BDRS) is a newly developed instrument based on 4 components of religion: believing (beliefs relative to external transcendence), bonding (rituals and emotions), behaving (adherence to norms and moral arguments), and belonging (community and social group cohesion; Saroglou, 2011). This paper provides empirical evidence to support the factorial structure and measurement invariance assumptions of 4-BDRS among 1,982 adults (mean age of 29.27 years) from Mexico, a country among the top 10 nations in the world for religious involvement. The fit indices indicate similar patterns and strengths in factor loadings, means, and intercepts across males and females. Gender comparisons showed that females score significantly higher on all 4 religiousness dimensions than males. We conclude that the 4-BDRS is a brief and valid measure of religiousness that is suitable for use in Mexican samples.

  • 16.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Positive Youth Development of Roma Ethnic Minority Across Europe2017Inngår i: Handbook on Positive Development of Minority Children and Youth / [ed] Natasha J. Cabrera, Birgit Leyendecker, Springer, 2017, 307-320 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Roma are one of Europe’s largest and most vulnerable ethnic minority groups, currently making up nearly 12 million people, and have historically experienced severe marginalization and discrimination. Roma children and youth in particular are globally recognized to be in need of support and their successful adaptation and optimal outcomes are of major interest to practitioners and policy makers. This chapter addresses resources within proximal contexts, such as peers and family contexts that have the potential to foster positive youth development in Roma ethnic minority populations in Europe. Roma are mainly a sedentary indigenous ethnic minority group characterized by strong family, community and peer bonds, thereby creating a unique and underrepresented context to study PYD. In this chapter, we provide a brief historical overview, current research and empirical findings on Roma children and youth within peer and family contexts. We draw on core theoretical models of PYD as well as selected developmental theories of normative development to highlight the applicability of these traditional frameworks to Roma ethnic minority groups. In so doing, we pay careful attention to the cultural, ethnic, and economic characteristics of Roma youth and their family context. In the conclusion, we explored the implications of the reviewed evidence to the development of resource-oriented policy and practice for Roma youth.

  • 17.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Pedagogical and Social Climate in School Questionnaire: Factorial Validity and Reliability of the Teacher Version2016Inngår i: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, ISSN 0734-2829, E-ISSN 1557-5144, Vol. 34, nr 3, 282-288 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study evaluated the factorial structure of the Pedagogical and Social Climate in School (PESOC) questionnaire among 307 teachers in Bulgaria. The teacher edition of PESOC consists of 11 scales (i.e., Expectations for Students, Unity Among Teachers, Approach to Students, Basic Assumptions About Students’ Ability to Learn, School–Home Relations, Teacher Cooperation, Teachers’ Professional Development, Teaching Activities, Student Valuation, Principal’s Pedagogical Leadership, and School Management). A confirmatory factor analysis conducted with structural equation modeling supported a bi-dimensional factor model (Students and Teachers; School Leadership and Management). School climate indicators were also significantly and positively correlated. PESOC is an asset to the literature on assessment of school climate with evidence for factorial validity and reliability in an underresearched international context.

  • 18.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Johnson, Deborah J.
    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, life satisfaction and school achievement of Roma ethnic minority youth2018Inngår i: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 62, 175-183 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Explaining Positive Adaptation of Immigrant Youth across Cultures.

    This study tested a mediation model of ethnic socialization (i.e., parental practices that promote children's knowledge about their history, heritage culture, cultural authenticity, and ethnic bias management) in Roma youth. Roma are the largest ethnic minority group in Europe subjected to severe discrimination, both currently and historically. Participants were 202 Roma youth aged 14 to 19 years old (M = 16.25, 53% females), who provided self-reports on their experience of ethnic socialization, ethnic identity, school achievement, and life satisfaction. Cultural pride reinforcement was related to better school achievement, whereas cultural coping with antagonism was positively related to life satisfaction. The study confirmed the model in that ethnic socialization was positively related to life satisfaction through effects on ethnic identity but negatively associated with school achievement. Findings have implications for adaptive cultural mechanisms promoting positive developmental outcomes among historically disadvantaged groups including those intersecting immigrant and multigenerational ethnic minority group categories.

  • 19.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Musso, Pasquale
    Naude, Luzelle
    Zahaj, Skerdi
    Solcova, Iva Polackova
    Stefenel, Delia
    Uka, Fitim
    Jordanov, Venzislav
    Jordanov, Evgeni
    Tavel, Peter
    National collective identity in transitional societies: Salience and relations to life satisfaction for youth in South Africa, Albania, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Kosovo and Romania2017Inngår i: Journal of Psychology in Africa, ISSN 1433-0237, E-ISSN 1815-5626, Vol. 27, nr 2, 150-158 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we investigated the salience of the construct of national collective identity and its associations with life satisfaction among adolescents living in transitional societies characterised by relevant change in the last decades. Participants were 1 066 adolescents (M = 15.35 years, SD = 1.35) from South Africa (n = 186) and five Central Eastern European countries, including Albania (n = 209), Bulgaria (n = 146), Czech Republic (n = 306), Kosovo (n = 116), and Romania (n = 103). They completed a questionnaire including national identity and life satisfaction scales. Data were analysed using confirmatory factor analysis and multi-group structural equation modeling. Results showed that national identity of adolescents in transitional societies is multidimensional and pertains to different salient dimensions (i.e., self-categorisation, evaluation, importance, attachment, and behavioural involvement). Importantly, the findings provided evidence to suggest that higher levels of national collective identity are associated with increased levels of life satisfaction.

  • 20.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Tausova, Jitka
    Chasiotis, Athanasios
    Bender, Michael
    Buzea, Carmen
    Uka, Fitim
    Tair, Ergyul
    Ethnic, Familial, and Religious Identity of Roma Adolescents in Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania in Relation to Their Level of Well-Being2017Inngår i: Child Development, ISSN 0009-3920, E-ISSN 1467-8624, Vol. 88, nr 3, 693-709 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines ethnic, national, familial, and religious identity and well-being of 632 Roma minority and 589 majority adolescents (age: M = 15.98 years, SD = 1.34) in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Kosovo, and Romania. Results indicated that Roma showed lower endorsement of national identity but stronger religious identity than their majority counterparts. Path models showed positive associations of familial and religious identities with well-being, whereas Roma identity was negatively associated with well-being, particularly for Roma in Bulgaria and Kosovo (countries with a less active policy toward improving conditions of Roma). In the latter countries, Roma ethnic identity is less relevant and weakly associated with psychological well-being of youth.

  • 21.
    Eneroth, Mari
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Gustafsson, Karin Schenck
    Wall, Maja
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Threats or violence from patients was associated with turnover intention among foreign-born GPs - a comparison of four workplace factors associated with attitudes of wanting to quit one's job as a GP2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 35, nr 2, 208-213 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: General practitioners (GPs) are crucial in medical healthcare, but there is currently a shortage of GPs in Sweden and elsewhere. Recruitment of GPs from abroad is essential, but foreign-born physicians face difficulties at work that may be related to turnover intention, i.e. wanting to quit one's job. The study aims to explore the reasons to why foreign-born GPs may intend to quit their job. Design: Survey data were used to compare four work-related factors that can be associated with turnover intentions; patient-related stress, threats or violence from patients, control of work pace, and empowering leadership, among native-born and foreign-born GPs. These work-related factors were subsequently examined in relation to turnover intention among the foreign-born GPs by means of linear hierarchical regression analyses. The questionnaire consisted of items from the QPS Nordic and items constructed by the authors. Setting: A primary care setting in a central area of Sweden. Subjects: Native-born (n = 208) and foreign-born GPs (n = 73). Results: Turnover intention was more common among foreign-born GPs (19.2% compared with 14.9%), as was the experience of threats or violence from patients (22% compared with 3% of the native-born GPs). Threats or violence was also associated with increased turnover intention. Control of work pace and an empowering leadership was associated with reduced turnover intention.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Andersson, Per A.
    Stockholms universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för arkeologi och antikens kultur, Centrum för evolutionär kulturforskning. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Costly punishment in the ultimatum game evokes moral concern, in particular when framed as payoff reduction2017Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-1031, E-ISSN 1096-0465, Vol. 69, 59-64 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimatum game is a common economic experiment in which some participants reject another's unfair offer of how to split some money, even though it leaves them both worse off. This costly behavior can be seen as enforcement of a fairness norm and has been labeled “altruistic punishment”, suggesting that it is a moral thing to do. But is this behavior viewed as moral by participants? Is it viewed as punishment? And are the payoff consequences of the behavior sufficient to determine the answers to these questions? To investigate this we framed costly punishment in two different ways: either as rejection of an offer (the standard ultimatum game framing) or as reduction of payoff. In a series of paid and hypothetical experiments we found that moral concerns about costly punishment depended on the framing. Specifically, the reduction frame elicited more moral concern about, and less use of, costly punishment than did the rejection frame. Several implications are discussed.

  • 23.
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Reflections: Teaching Abroad2016Inngår i: International Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 20, nr 1, 32-32 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 24. Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Eninger, Lilianne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    The heterogeneity of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems: Cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment2016Inngår i: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 34, nr 3, 371-387 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the contributions of several important domains of functioning to attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms and conduct problems. Specifically, we investigated whether cognitive inhibition, emotion regulation, emotionality, and disorganized attachment made independent and specific contributions to these externalizing behaviour problems from a multiple pathways perspective. The study included laboratory measures of cognitive inhibition and disorganized attachment in 184 typically developing children (M age = 6 years, 10 months, SD = 1.7). Parental ratings provided measures of emotion regulation, emotionality, and externalizing behaviour problems. Results revealed that cognitive inhibition, regulation of positive emotion, and positive emotionality were independently and specifically related to ADHD symptoms. Disorganized attachment and negative emotionality formed independent and specific relations to conduct problems. Our findings support the multiple pathways perspective on ADHD, with poor regulation of positive emotion and high positive emotionality making distinct contributions to ADHD symptoms. More specifically, our results support the proposal of a temperamentally based pathway to ADHD symptoms. The findings also indicate that disorganized attachment and negative emotionality constitute pathways specific to conduct problems rather than to ADHD symptoms.

  • 25. Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Psychodynamic Foundations2016Inngår i: Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science / [ed] Viviana Weekes-Shackelford, Todd K. Shackelford, Springer, 2016, 1-5 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Westen (1998) has defined psychodynamic theories with five postulates: (1) much of mental life is unconscious; (2) mental processes operate in parallel so that people can have conflicting feelings that motivate them in opposing ways; (3) stable personality patterns begin to form in childhood, and childhood experiences play an important role in the developing personality, particularly in shaping social relationships; (4) mental representations of the self, others, and relationships guide people’s interactions with others and influence psychological symptomatology; and (5) personality development involves learning to regulate sexual and aggressive feelings but also the move from an immature, socially dependent state to a mature, interdependent one. According to this definition, attachment theory is a psychodynamic theory. However, Bowlby explicitly demarcated his attachment theory from the drive principles.

  • 26. Forslund, Tommie
    et al.
    Kenward, Ben
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Gredeback, Gustaf
    Brocki, Karin C.
    Diminished ability to identify facial emotional expressions in children with disorganized attachment representations2017Inngår i: Developmental Science, ISSN 1363-755X, E-ISSN 1467-7687, Vol. 20, nr 6, e12465Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of children's ability to identify facial emotional expressions has long been suggested to be experience dependent, with parental caregiving as an important influencing factor. This study attempts to further this knowledge by examining disorganization of the attachment system as a potential psychological mechanism behind aberrant caregiving experiences and deviations in the ability to identify facial emotional expressions. Typically developing children (N=105, 49.5% boys) aged 6-7years (M=6years 8months, SD=1.8months) completed an attachment representation task and an emotion identification task, and parents rated children's negative emotionality. The results showed a generally diminished ability in disorganized children to identify facial emotional expressions, but no response biases. Disorganized attachment was also related to higher levels of negative emotionality, but discrimination of emotional expressions did not moderate or mediate this relation. Our novel findings relate disorganized attachment to deviations in emotion identification, and therefore suggest that disorganization of the attachment system may constitute a psychological mechanism linking aberrant caregiving experiences to deviations in children's ability to identify facial emotional expressions. Our findings further suggest that deviations in emotion identification in disorganized children, in the absence of maltreatment, may manifest in a generally diminished ability to identify emotional expressions, rather than in specific response biases.

  • 27. Fransson, Mari
    et al.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Marciszko, Carin
    Hagekull, Berit
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Is middle childhood attachment related to social functioning in young adulthood?2016Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 57, nr 2, 108-116 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study (N = 69) was to examine whether middle childhood attachment, measured using the Separation Anxiety Test (Slough, Goyette & Greenberg, 1988), predicts aspects of social functioning (social initiative, prosocial orientation, social anxiety, loneliness) in young adulthood. Insecurity-avoidance at age 8.5 years was, as expected, negatively related to social initiative and prosocial orientation, and was also positively related to social anxiety and loneliness at age 21 years. In addition, insecurity-avoidance contributed to developmental change in social anxiety from middle childhood to young adulthood. Contrary to our expectations, the two security scales were generally unrelated to future social functioning. Taken together, these results extend previous research by showing that insecurity-avoidance is related to social functioning also beyond childhood and adolescence, and that it contributes to developmental change in social functioning over time. The scarcity of prospective links for the attachment security scales points to the need for future studies addressing when and why attachment does not contribute to future social functioning.

  • 28. Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    et al.
    Hultin, Hanna
    Dalman, Christina
    Engström, Karin
    Ferrer-Wreder, Laura
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Forsell, Yvonne
    Karlberg, Martin
    Lavebratt, Catharina
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Sundell, Knut
    Shou, Jia
    Almroth, Melody
    Raffetti, Elena
    School environment and mental health in early adolescence - a longitudinal study in Sweden (KUPOL)2016Inngår i: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 16, 243Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Longitudinal studies indicate strong associations between school proficiency and indicators of mental health throughout adulthood, but the mechanisms of such associations are not fully elucidated. The Kupol study is a prospective cohort study in Sweden set up in order to: (i) describe the association of school pedagogic and social environment and its specific dimensions with the risk of mental ill-health and psychiatric disorders in adolescence; (ii) evaluate the direct effects of school pedagogic and social environment on mental health and the effects mediated by the individual's academic achievements; and (iii) assess if school pedagogic and social environment are associated with mental ill-health through epigenetic mechanisms, in particular those involving genes regulating the response to stress.

    Methods: The Kupol cohort at baseline consists of 3959 children attending the 7th grade of compulsory school (13-14 years old) in 8 regions of central Sweden in the school years 2013-2014 or 2014-2015. Three follow-up surveys in subsequent years are planned. Teachers' and students' perceptions of the culture, climate and ethos of their schools, and students' mental ill-health are assessed at the whole school level by annual questionnaire surveys. In order to conduct epigenetic analyses saliva specimens are collected from a nested sample of students at inception and two years later. Further, class-, family-and child-level information is collected at baseline and during each year of follow-up. Self-reported information is being complemented with register data via record-linkages to national and regional health and administrative registers.

    Discussion: The topic being investigated is new, and the sample constitutes the largest adolescent cohort in Sweden involved in an ad hoc study. Epigenetic analyses centered on environmental cues to stress response are a thoroughly new approach. Finally a notable feature is the multi-informant and multi-method data collection, with surveys at the school, class, family, and student level. Collaboration and data access: interested investigators should contact the coordinating centre. Additional information is available on the study's website, http://kupolstudien.se/.

  • 29.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Attachment, emotion, and religion2016Inngår i: Issues in Science and Theology: Do Emotions Shape the World? / [ed] M. Fuller, D. Evers, A. Runehov, & K.-W. Saether, Springer International Publishing AG , 2016, 9-26 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper highlights how the development of emotion is intertwined with the development of attachment. I argue, also, that there are certain central emotions and affects associated with particular forms of attachment, which come to define the self in relation to others. Further, this emotion-attachment configuration is expressed in religion, especially in the religious individual’s perceived relationship with God. I describe pertinent findings from the scientific literature on the attachment-religion connection indicating that experientially based internal working models of self and other are generalized and lawfully expressed in the context of religion. Thus, attachment-related interactions will affectively color the individual’s perceived relationship with God. Yet, God and religion may also provide a source of surrogate attachments, which may aid in repairing negative working models of self and others. Finally, words of caution are offered to prevent misunderstandings of the implications arising from a consideration of how the emotion-attachment configuration is expressed in the context of religion.

  • 30.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Observations of disorganized behaviour yield no magic wand: Response to Shemmings2016Inngår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 18, nr 6, 529-533 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Hesse, Erik
    Fransson, Mari
    Main, Mary
    Hagekull, Berit
    Bohlin, Gunilla
    Prior participation in the strange situation and overstress jointly facilitate disorganized behaviours: implications for theory, research and practice2016Inngår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 18, nr 3, 235-249 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We seek to understand why a relatively high percentage (39%; vs the meta-analytic average, 15-18%) of disorganized/disoriented (D) classifications has accrued in the low-risk Uppsala Longitudinal Study (ULS) study, using experienced D coders. Prior research indicates that D behaviours do not always indicate attachment disorganization stemming from a history of frightening caregiving. We examined the role of two other presumed factors: participation in a previous strange situation and overstress. Our findings indicate that both factors were highly prevalent in the ULS sample and that they jointly predicted higher rates of D. First, participation in a previous strange situation was associated with significantly higher distress displays during the second visit than occurred among previously untested children, suggesting that prior participation in the strange situation had a sensitizing effect on child distress during the second visit. Second, unless separations were cut short in lieu of high distress during the second visit, re-tested children were disproportionately likely (ca 60%) to be classified D. We argue that these findings have important implications for theory, research, and practice. In particular, we conclude that practitioners must refrain from misattributing the appearance of any D behaviors observed to a history of maltreatment.

  • 32.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Kirkpatrick, Lee A.
    Attachment and religious representations and behavior2016Inngår i: Handbook of attachment: theory, research, and clinical applications / [ed] Jude Cassidy and Phillip R. Shaver, New York: Guilford Press, 2016, 3, 856-878 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter is divided into five major sections. In the first, we argue that people’s perceived relationships with God meet the defining criteria of attachment relationships reasonably well, and hence function psychologically much as other attachments do. We examine in the second section lifespan maturational issues involved in the development of attachment and religion. These first two sections deal with normative/typical aspects of the attachment–religion connection. In the third section, we review empirical connections between religion and individual differences in attachment. This section is subdivided into two subsections—the first focusing on a “compensation” pathway and the second describing a “correspondence” pathway to religion. We address in the fourth major section research findings and implications of the religion-as-attachment model with respect to psychological outcomes. In the final major section, which is new to this edition, we address the current state of theory and research on the attachment–religion connection.

  • 33.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Nkara, Frances
    Nature meets nurture in religious and spiritual development2017Inngår i: British Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0261-510X, E-ISSN 2044-835X, Vol. 35, nr 1, 142-155 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider nurture's (including culture's) sculpting influences on the evolved psychological predispositions that are expressed in religious and spiritual (R&S) development. An integrated understanding of R&S development requires a move away from the largely one-sided (nature-or-nurture) and additive (nature + nurture) accounts provided in the extant literature. R&S development has been understood as an expression of evolved cognitive modules (nature) on the one hand, and of socialization and social learning (nurture) on the other, or in similar albeit additive terms (e.g., nature produces the brain/mind, culture fills in the details). We argue that humans’ evolved psychological predispositions are substantially co-shaped by environmental/cultural input, such as relational experiences and modelling at the microlevel through belief and value systems at the macrolevel. Nurture's sculpting of nature is, then, expressed in R&S development. Finally, for heuristic purposes, we illustrate a fully integrated nature–nurture model with attachment theory and its application to R&S development.

  • 34.
    Granqvist, Pehr
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Sroufe, L. Alan
    Dozier, Mary
    Hesse, Erik
    Steele, Miriam
    van Ijzendoorn, Marinus
    Solomon, Judith
    Schuengel, Carlo
    Fearon, Pasco
    Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian
    Steele, Howard
    Cassidy, Jude
    Carlson, Elizabeth
    Madigan, Sheri
    Jacobvitz, Deborah
    Foster, Sarah
    Behrens, Kazuko
    Rifkin-Graboi, Anne
    Gribneau, Naomi
    Spangler, Gottfried
    Ward, Mary J.
    True, Mary
    Spieker, Susan
    Reijman, Sophie
    Reisz, Samantha
    Tharner, Anne
    Nkara, Frances
    Goldwyn, Ruth
    Sroufe, June
    Pederson, David
    Pederson, Deanne
    Weigand, Robert
    Siegel, Daniel
    Dazzi, Nino
    Bernard, Kristin
    Fonagy, Peter
    Waters, Everett
    Toth, Sheree
    Cicchetti, Dante
    Zeanah, Charles H.
    Lyons-Ruth, Karlen
    Main, Mary
    Duschinsky, Robbie
    Disorganized attachment in infancy: a review of the phenomenon and its implications for clinicians and policy-makers2017Inngår i: Attachment & Human Development, ISSN 1461-6734, E-ISSN 1469-2988, Vol. 19, nr 6, 534-558 s.Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Disorganized/Disoriented (D) attachment has seen widespread interest from policy makers, practitioners, and clinicians in recent years. However, some of this interest seems to have been based on some false assumptions that (1) attachment measures can be used as definitive assessments of the individual in forensic/child protection settings and that disorganized attachment (2) reliably indicates child maltreatment, (3) is a strong predictor of pathology, and (4) represents a fixed or static trait of the child, impervious to development or help. This paper summarizes the evidence showing that these four assumptions are false and misleading. The paper reviews what is known about disorganized infant attachment and clarifies the implications of the classification for clinical and welfare practice with children. In particular, the difference between disorganized attachment and attachment disorder is examined, and a strong case is made for the value of attachment theory for supportive work with families and for the development and evaluation of evidence-based caregiving interventions.

  • 35. He, Jia
    et al.
    Van de Vijver, Fons J. R.
    Fetvadjiev, Velichko H.
    Dominguez Espinosa, Alejandra de Carmen
    Adams, Byron
    Alonso-Arbiol, Itziar
    Aydinli-Karakulak, Arzu
    Buzea, Carmen
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Fortin, Alvaro
    Hapunda, Given
    Ma, Sang
    Sargautyte, Ruta
    Sim, Samantha
    Schachner, Maja K.
    Suryani, Angela
    Zeinoun, Pia
    Zhang, Rui
    On Enhancing the Cross-Cultural Comparability of Likert-Scale Personality and Value Measures: A Comparison of Common Procedures2017Inngår i: European Journal of Personality, ISSN 0890-2070, E-ISSN 1099-0984, Vol. 31, nr 6, 642-657 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate a number of procedures that have been proposed to enhance cross-cultural comparability of personality and value data. A priori procedures (anchoring vignettes and direct measures of response styles (i.e. acquiescence, extremity, midpoint responding, and social desirability), a posteriori procedures focusing on data transformations prior to analysis (ipsatization and item parcelling), and two data modelling procedures (treating data as continuous vs as ordered categories) were compared using data collected from university students in 16 countries. We found that (i) anchoring vignettes showed lack of invariance, so they were not bias-free; (ii) anchoring vignettes showed higher internal consistencies than raw scores where all other correction procedures, notably ipsatization, showed lower internal consistencies; (iii) in measurement invariance testing, no procedure yielded scalar invariance; anchoring vignettes and item parcelling slightly improved comparability, response style correction did not affect it, and ipsatization resulted in lower comparability; (iv) treating Likert-scale data as categorical resulted in higher levels of comparability; (v) factor scores of scales extracted from different procedures showed similar correlational patterning; and (vi) response style correction was the only procedure that suggested improvement in external validity of country-level conscientiousness. We conclude that, although no procedure resolves all comparability issues, anchoring vignettes, parcelling, and treating data as ordered categories seem promising to alleviate incomparability. We advise caution in uncritically applying any of these procedures.

  • 36. Ivarsson, Tord
    et al.
    Saavedra, Fanny
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Broberg, Anders G.
    Traumatic and adverse attachment childhood experiences are not characteristic of OCD but of depression in adolescents2016Inngår i: Child Psychiatry and Human Development, ISSN 0009-398X, E-ISSN 1573-3327, Vol. 47, nr 2, 270-280 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated whether adverse attachment experience might contribute to the development of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD). We interviewed 100 adolescents, 25 each with primary OCD, depressive disorder (DD), OCD plus DD and general population controls (CTRs) using the adult attachment interview to assess attachment experiences (AEs), including traumatic and adverse AE (TAE). Adolescents with OCD, OCD+DD and DD had little evidence of secure base/safe haven parental behaviour and their childhood attachment needs judged to be rejected as compared to the controls. Overprotection was not characteristic of OCD, and parents using the child for their own needs (elevated levels of involving/role reversal) occurred only in DD, with low levels in OCD, OCD+DD and CTR. Traumatic experiences, often multiple, and/or attachment related were reported significantly more often in the DD group, and was less common in OCD+DD, CTR and particularly in the OCD group. In OCD, little TAE was reported and adverse AE were less serious and seem unlikely to contribute directly to OCD aetiology. In DD and to some degree in OCD+DD serious AE/TAE may have some etiological significance for the depressive states.

  • 37.
    Johnson, Maarit
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Relations between explicit and implicit self-esteem measures and self-presentation2016Inngår i: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 95, 159-161 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Three explicit self-esteem measures with different conceptualization and item content were compared with regard to their association with implicit self-esteem (SE) and positive self-presentation. The results revealed a pattern where affective–experiential basic SE appears to have more similarity with implicit self-esteem than cognitive–evaluative general SE measures. Basic SE was the only explicit SE measure that predicted significantly implicit self-esteem. Most of the self-presentational styles lacked association with implicit SE and basic SE but played a substantial role for the general SE scales. The results suggest the importance of considering self-report measures potential to tap unbiased self-esteem.

  • 38.
    Johnson, Maarit
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Rasouli, Shahnaz
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen.
    Contingent self-esteem structures related to cardiac, exhaustive, and immunological disease: A comparison between groups of outpatients2017Inngår i: Cogent Psychology, ISSN 2331-1908, Vol. 4, nr 1, 1391677Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hostile resentful contra repressive avoidant behaviors, widely associated with different health processes, are considered to arise from people’s specific contingent self-esteem strategies. The present study examines competence-based self-esteem (CBSE), referring to self-critical strivings, and relation-based self-esteem (RBSE), referring to rejection sensitivity and compliance, in three groups of outpatients (n = 85) and healthy controls (n = 37). Patients diagnosed with exhaustion syndromes displayed significantly higher CBSE and RBSE than all other groups. Patients diagnosed with cardiac type of disease showed significantly higher CBSE than those with immunological type of disease and healthy controls, whereas the immunological group reported significantly higher RBSE than the cardiac group and healthy controls. Further, cardiac patients displayed significantly higher CBSE than RBSE, whereas immunological patients reported significantly higher RBSE than CBSE. A discriminant analysis, incorporating the theoretical constituents of the contingent SE scales, showed that the four groups could be predicted by their SE profiles. The systematic patterns found in the present results shed light on the role of self-esteem contingency for differential psychosocial coping and health processes.

  • 39. Kosic, Marianna
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi. Hiroshima Univesity, Japan.
    Collective identity assets for psychological well-being in Slovene minority and Italian majority adolescents in Italy2017Inngår i: Current Issues in Personality Psychology, ISSN 2353-4192, Vol. 5, nr 1, 53-64 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    We examined core assets of collective identity for enhanced psychological well-being among hardly investigated Slovene ethnic minority and Italian majority youth in Italy. The Slovene minority is an autochthonous minority living in Italy since the 6th century.

    Participants and procedure

    We tested a model based on the notion that collective identity derives from familial, ethnic and religious identities as important sources of identification for youth in line with prior work on the salience and relations among these sources. Participants were 114 Slovene and 144 Italian adolescents (aged 14 to 18 years old) living in the North-East of Italy. They filled in standardized measures on ethnic, national, familial and religious identity, the Satisfaction with Life Scale and the Positive Affective Schedule.

    Results

    Path models showed that stronger collective identity was related to higher scores of perceived psychological well-being. Interestingly, for the Slovene minority youth, ethnic Slovenian identity was unrelated to collective identity. Overall, among all youth, all identity components loaded into a single factor of collective identity, confirming previous studies with bicultural minority youth.

    Conclusions

    The findings shed light on the path linking multiple aspects of collective identities together to adolescents' well-being and are useful in pragmatic terms for improving and facilitating assets of individual and social/ collective well-being and functioning of youth.

  • 40. Lindberg, Lene
    et al.
    Fransson, Mari
    Forslund, Tommie
    Springer, Lydia
    Granqvist, Pehr
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Maternal Sensitivity in Mothers with Mild Intellectual Disabilities is Related to Experiences of Maltreatment and Predictive of Child Attachment: A Matched-Comparison Study2017Inngår i: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148, Vol. 30, nr 3, 445-455 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Scientific knowledge on the quality of caregiving/maternal sensitivity among mothers with mild intellectual disabilities (ID) is limited and subject to many methodological shortcomings, but seems to suggest that these mothers are less sensitive than mothers without intellectual disabilities.

    Methods: In this matched-comparison study (= 48), the present authors observed maternal sensitivity for 20 min in four different laboratory play situations. The study also included semi-structured interviews to assess maternal experiences of maltreatment and child attachment.

    Results: The present authors found significantly lower sensitivity among mothers with intellectual disabilities than among a comparison group of mothers without intellectual disabilities. Among mothers with intellectual disabilities, low sensitivity was related to maternal experiences of maltreatment and predictive of disorganized child attachment. In the comparison group, high maternal sensitivity was related to partner presence and social support, and predictive of child intelligence.

    Conclusions: The present authors highlight the importance of attending to intellectual disabilities mothers' history of receiving care to understand their capacity for giving adequate care.

  • 41.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Memon, Amina
    Svenson, Ola
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Kognitiv psykologi.
    Social influences on dissonance reduction in medical decision making2016Inngår i: Book of abstracts, 2016, 28-28 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Two studies investigated social influences on dissonance reduction in medical decision making. Study 1 compared decision-consistent biases when individuals freely made-, or when another person made the decision. Participants read a scenario in which one of two patients should be prioritized for surgery. Facts about the patients were given on counter-balanced scales. Participants decided themselves whom to prioritize, or were told that a physician made the decision, and then reproduced the facts from memory. When choosing freely, participants distorted memories of facts to become more supportive of the choice. This effect was evident, albeit reduced, when the decision was made by a physician.

    Study 2 investigated majority/minority feedback effects on dissonance reduction for decisions concerning ingroup or outgroup members. Swedish participants decided whether a physician should comply or not to the request of a terminally ill patient, with a Swedish or a Turkish name, who asked for help to commit suicide. After making their decision, participants were informed that a majority or a minority had chosen the same alternative. Decisions about an in-group member were consolidated more if participants received minority, than majority feedback. This reversed for decisions on out-group member. Results suggest important social moderators of dissonance reduction strategies.

  • 42.
    Lindholm, Torun
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Yzerbyt, Vincent
    Compensation between competence and warmth in strategic self-presentation2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has noted two fundamental dimensions in our perceptions of others; warmth, concerning intent, and competence reflecting ability. Studies suggest that these dimensions are often negatively related, the compensation effect (Yzerbyt, Provost & Corneille, 2005). Extant research has focused on compensation in judgments of others (Kervyn, Yzerbyt, & Judd, 2010). In three experiments, the current project investigates people’s use of compensation between warmth and competence when self-presenting to reach a desired goal. We examined participants’ self-presentational strategies during a hypothetical job interview, and in the role of witnesses or suspects in a crime investigation. When competence is critical, as for job applicants and witnesses, people not only stress their competence, but also downplay their warmth, whereas in contexts where warmth is important, as for suspects, competence is downplayed. Findings suggest self-presenters are sensitive to warmth-competence dynamics in social perception.. Future research should detail situational and individual factors moderating the effect.

  • 43. Lindqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Bäck, Emma Aurora
    Vem tycker om hen?2016Inngår i: Språk & Stil, ISSN 1101-1165, Vol. 26, 101-129 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish is the first language that has a gender-neutral third-person singular pronoun, hen, that has spread from transgender and queer communities to the broader society and now exists in parallel with the two traditional gendered pronouns representing ‘she’ and ‘he’. Many strong emotions have arisen during this process, both for and against hen. This study aims at analyzing what background factors may explain the attitudes towards hen. In total, 240 individuals participated in our online questionnaire where they indicated their attitude towards hen, as well as responded to questions assessing attitudes towards sexist language (i.e. gender discriminating language), modern sexism (i.e. the belief that gender-discrimination is no longer an issue), political views (from left to right), interest in gender issues and their identification with their own gender identity. The results show no gender difference in attitudes towards hen, but participants strongly identifying themselves with their gender identity had a tendency to be more negative towards the word. Political view was not a significant predictor. However, participants with sexist attitudes had a tendency to dislike hen, whereas those who were interested in gender issues and were negative towards sexist language had a tendency to like the word. Finally, younger age implied a stronger tendency to like hen.

  • 44.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Hawley, Caitlin B.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Stanciu, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Body odor disgust sensitivity independently predicts authoritarian attitudes2016Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The behavioral immune system (BIS) provides us a set of emotional and behavioral responses to avoid the threat of pathogens. Individual differences in BIS can make some individuals endorse social values that minimize the contact with groups that might be perceived unfamiliar or deviant. Disgust is one of the emotions that is most consistently involved in the BIS and it has been found to be consistently related to socially conservative attitudes. Disgust sensitivity to body odors plays a crucial role in the BIS but it has been largely understated by research linking disgust sensitivity. We the developed a new scale that measures individual differences in body odors disgust sensitivity (BODS) and assessed how this measure related to conservative attitudes. We hypothesized that the BODS should relate to social, but not economic, conservatism, as only the latter should share common motives with the BIS. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the BODS should share more core motives with conservatism and thus it should at least partially mediate the relationship between general disgust sensitivity measures and conservatism. We developed a 30 items measure of BODS where participants had to rate how they would feel disgusted in five different scenarios involving six body odors consistently linked to disease detection. We ran three studies (N = 200, N = 159 and N = 269) through Amazon Mechanical Turk where we collected participants’ differences in: BODS, three domains of disgust (TDD) (studies 1-3), disgust sensitivity (DS, studies 2-3), Perceived Vulnerability to Disease (PVD, studies 2-3) and in social conservatism (Right-Wing Authoritarianism RWA, studies 1-3) and economic conservatism (Social Dominance Orientation, SDO, study 3). We ran zero order correlations to assess the relationship between BODS, other Disgust Sensitivity measures and conservatism measures. Akaike Information Criterion based stepwise model selection procedures were used to identify the variables that mostly accounted for participants’ variance in conservatism. Mediation analyses were ran to test the hypothesis that BODS could mediate, at least partially the relationship between general disgust sensitivity measures and conservatism.

    Results: Across three studies we found that 1) BODS has good convergent validity with other measures of general disgust sensitivity (Studies 1-3) 2) BODS is consistently and independently related to RWA even when taking into account DS-R and/or TDD (Studies 1-3) 3) BODS relates to social, but not economic conservatism 4) BODS at least partially mediates the relationship between general disgust sensitivity measures and social conservatism (Studies 1-3). Our results show that body odor disgust sensitivity independently predicts socially conservative attitudes, and our findings suggest that the study of the biological basis of social attitudes would benefit from an increased focus on basic sensory-emotional processes. While our approach is broadly congruent with current theoretical frameworks emphasizing the evolutionary roots of disgust in basic chemosensory processes, an increased empirical focus on body odor perception might provide a unique link between pathogen detection and social regulation mechanisms.

  • 45.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Hawley, Caitlin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Olsson, Mats J.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Swedish Collegium of Advanced Study, Sweden.
    The Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS): Development and Validation of a Novel Olfactory Disgust Assessment2017Inngår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, nr 6, 499-508 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Disgust plays a crucial role in the avoidance of pathogen threats. In many species, body odors provide important information related to health and disease, and body odors are potent elicitors of disgust in humans. With this background, valid assessments of body odor disgust sensitivity are warranted. In the present article, we report the development and psychometric validation of the Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS), a measure suited to assess individual differences in disgust reaction to a variety of body odors. Collected data from 3 studies (total n = 528) show that the scale can be used either as a unidimensional scale or as a scale that reflects two hypothesized factors: sensitivity to one's own body odors versus those of others. Guided by our results, we reduced the scale to 12 items that capture the essence of these 2 factors. The final version of the BODS shows an excellent internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha s > 0.9). The BODS subscales show convergent validity with other general disgust scales, as well as with other olfactory functions measures and with aspects of personality that are related to pathogen avoidance. A fourth study confirmed the construct validity of the BODS and its measurement invariance to gender. Moreover, we found that, compared with other general disgust scales, the BODS is more strongly related to perceived vulnerability to disease. The BODS is a brief and valid assessment of trait body odor disgust sensitivity.

  • 46.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi. Magna Graecia University of Catanzaro, Italy.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Swedish Collegium of Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Sabiniewicz, Agnieszka
    Sorokowska, Agnieszka
    Body Odor Trait Disgust Sensitivity Predicts Perception of Sweat Biosamples2017Inngår i: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 42, nr 6, 479-485 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Body odors are potent triggers of disgust and regulate social behaviors in many species. The role of olfaction in disgust-associated behaviors has received scant attention in the research literature, in part because olfactory disgust assessments have required laboratory testing with odors. We have devised the Body Odor Disgust Scale (BODS) to facilitate research on olfactory disgust. In this study, we evaluated whether individual differences in BODS scores would be associated with the perception of disgust for sweat samples in a laboratory setting. Results show that BODS was a strong predictor of disgust ratings of sweat samples even when controlling for general disgust sensitivity. In contrast, odor intensity ratings were unrelated to BODS scores. Our findings suggest that the BODS scores reflect body odor disgust perception. The BODS scale might facilitate research on olfactory disgust responses and associated behaviors.

  • 47.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia M
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Diagnostic classification of mental health and developmental disorders of infancy and early childhood (DC:0-5): Implementation considerations and clinical remarks2016Inngår i: Infant Mental Health Journal, ISSN 0163-9641, E-ISSN 1097-0355, Vol. 37, nr 5, 523-524 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Diagnostic Classification of Mental Health and Developmental Disorders of Infancy and Early Childhood (DC: 0–3) gave infant mental health specialists a tool to describe behavioral symptoms during infancy, earlier often ignored as minor or transient baby problems. In a new form, called the DC: 0–5, the tool now aims to describe mental health problems during the first 6 years of life. In my commentary, I discuss some implications of the proposed changes.

  • 48.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Neander, Kerstin
    Trygghetscirkeln som stöd till späd- och småbarnsfamiljer - användbarhet och effekter2017Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 94, nr 4, 426-436 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln bygger på data hämtade från en svensk effektstudie av Trygghetscirkeln. Utvärderingar gjorda av gruppledare och 25 föräldrar presenteras tillsammans med förändringar av föräldrars inre representationer av barnet samt samspelskvalitet i föräldra-barnparet före och efter interventionen. Bedömningarna gjordes med Working Model of the Child Interview (WMCI) and Emotional Available (EA) scales. Gruppledare och föräldrar var enhälligt positiva till Trygghetscirkelns teori, begrepp och upplägg. Gruppledarna uttryckte att metoden underlättade föräldrarnas delaktighet i behandlingen, men betonade att uppväckta känslor måste ges utrymme för bearbetning mellan sessionerna. Uppföljningen visade att 10 föräldrars inre representation förändrats till balanserad och att 13 föräldra-barnpar förbättrat sin samspelskvalitet efter interventionen. Resultaten lyfter fram Trygghetscirkelns värde som komplement till sedvanlig behandling för familjer med späda och små barn.

  • 49. Steen Rostad, Ingrid
    et al.
    Fridner, Ann
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Arbets- och organisationspsykologi.
    Gustafsson Sendén, Marie
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi.
    Tevik Løvseth, Lise
    Paid Sick Leave as a Means to Reduce Sickness Presenteeism Among Physicians2017Inngår i: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 7, nr 2, 71-85 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recurrent international data show that physicians often attend work while ill, termed sickness presenteeism. The current study investigated if sickness presenteeism scores among European physicians varied according to national paid sick leave legislation. We hypothesized that prevalence of presenteeism was higher in countries with lower levels of paid sick leave. We used repeated cross-sectional survey data, phase I (2004/2005, N = 1326) and phase II (2012/2013, N = 1403), among senior consultants at university hospitals in Sweden, Norway, and Italy. Analyses of variances assessed cross-country differences in presenteeism. To assess the impact of country on presenteeism, we used multiple regression analyses controlled for sex, age, family status, work hours, and work content. The results from phase I supported the initial hypothesis. At phase II, presenteeism scores had decreased among the Italian and Swedish sample. The results are discussed with regard to changes in legislation on workhours and medical liability in Italy and Sweden between phase I and II.

  • 50.
    Syrjänen, Elmeri
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik.
    Liuzza, Marco Tullio
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Personlighets-, social- och utvecklingspsykologi. Magna Græcia University, Italy.
    Fischer, Håkan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Biologisk psykologi.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Psykologiska institutionen, Perception och psykofysik. Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study, Sweden.
    Do Valenced Odors and Trait Body Odor Disgust Affect Evaluation of Emotion in Dynamic Faces?2017Inngår i: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, nr 12, 1412-1426 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Disgust is a core emotion evolved to detect and avoid the ingestion of poisonous food as well as the contact with pathogens and other harmful agents. Previous research has shown that multisensory presentation of olfactory and visual information may strengthen the processing of disgust-relevant information. However, it is not known whether these findings extend to dynamic facial stimuli that changes from neutral to emotionally expressive, or if individual differences in trait body odor disgust may influence the processing of disgust-related information. In this preregistered study, we tested whether a classification of dynamic facial expressions as happy or disgusted, and an emotional evaluation of these facial expressions, would be affected by individual differences in body odor disgust sensitivity, and by exposure to a sweat-like, negatively valenced odor (valeric acid), as compared with a soap-like, positively valenced odor (lilac essence) or a no-odor control. Using Bayesian hypothesis testing, we found evidence that odors do not affect recognition of emotion in dynamic faces even when body odor disgust sensitivity was used as moderator. However, an exploratory analysis suggested that an unpleasant odor context may cause faster RTs for faces, independent of their emotional expression. Our results further our understanding of the scope and limits of odor effects on facial perception affect and suggest further studies should focus on reproducibility, specifying experimental circumstances where odor effects on facial expressions may be present versus absent.

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