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  • 1.
    Vogiazides, Louisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A geographical path to integration? Exploring the interplay between regional context and labour market integration among refugees in Sweden2020In: Journal of ethnic and migration studies, ISSN 1369-183X, E-ISSN 1469-9451, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 23-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Migrant integration is an issue at the forefront of political debates in many immigrant-receiving countries. Within academia, a rich body of neighbourhood effects literature examines the significance of the residential environment for the socioeconomic integration of international migrants. Another strand of research explores the associations between immigrants’ initial region of residence and their subsequent socioeconomic integration. Existing research focuses on a single dimension of geographical context and on the neighbourhood scale. Using Swedish longitudinal register data, we estimate discrete-time event history models to assess how regional and neighbourhood contexts influence refugees’ entry into employment. Our study includes all refugees who arrived in Sweden between 2000 and 2009, distinguishing between three categories of refugees: refugees with assigned housing, refugees with self-arranged housing and quota refugees. Our results reveal a clear pattern where the most advantageous regions for finding a first employment are those at the extremes of the population density distribution: the Stockholm region and small city/rural regions. Refugees residing in Malmö have the lowest probability of entering the labour market. Our study also reiterates existing concerns regarding the negative effects of ethnic segregation at the neighbourhood level on labour market participation.

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  • 2.
    Carlsson, Christoffer
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology. The Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Rostami, Amir
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. The Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Mondani, Hernan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. The Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Sturup, Joakim
    Sarnecki, Jerzy
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Criminology. The Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Edling, Christofer
    A Life-Course Analysis of Engagement in Violent Extremist Groups2020In: British Journal of Criminology, ISSN 0007-0955, E-ISSN 1464-3529, Vol. 60, no 1, p. 74-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this exploratory study, individuals’ processes of engagement in violent extremist groups are analysed by drawing from criminological life-course theory and narrative-based understandings of crime. Based on interviews with individuals who have participated in violent extremism, it is suggested that the process of engagement consists of three steps: (1) a weakening of informal social controls, followed by (2) an interaction with individuals in proximity to the group and (3) a stage of meaning-making in relation to the group and one’s identity, resulting in an individual’s willingness and capacity to engaging in the group’s activities, including violence. In future theorizing about processes of engagement in violent extremism, the meanings of age, and the life-course stages of late adolescence and emerging adulthood in particular, should be given analytic attention.

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  • 3.
    Jónsson, Ari Klængur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A Nation of Bastards? Registered Cohabitation, Childbearing, and First-Marriage Formation in Iceland, 1994–20132020In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Jónsson, Ari Klængur
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Beyond a Second Demographic Transition? Fertility and family dynamics in Iceland2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis serves to bring Iceland into the realm of Nordic family-demographic and fertility research. Based on event-history techniques applied to Iceland longitudinal register data, I provide an overview of contemporary family-demographic trends during the last few decades. The thesis consists of four empirical studies. In Study I, I examine the childbearing trends in Iceland during 1982–2013. I find evidence of postponed motherhood during this period, with increases in fertility rates for women in their 30s and 40s. The propensity to have a second and third child did not decline during the study period; on the contrary, these birth intensities have increased since the mid-1980s. During a period of increased educational attainment and postponed family formation, the resilience of Icelandic fertility is intriguing. Study II provides further insight into recent childbearing dynamics in Iceland and how they may be linked to social-policy reforms and the intervention of the economic crisis in 2008. The findings indicate that changes in standardized birth rates coincided with a reformed family-policy package: A declining trend in standardized first-birth rates came to a halt, and the propensity to have a second and a third child increased. After the onset of the economic crisis, a trend of decreasing first-birth intensities reemerged, which was followed by declining second- and third-birth rates as well. The development in the post-2008 period indicates that even in the most gender-equal settings, the gender balance in family care is still fragile. Study III addresses the high nonmarital birth rate in Iceland. Nowhere in Europe is premarital childbearing as pervasive. Roughly 70% of children were born to unwed mothers in 2018, which, on the surface, puts Iceland at the vanguard of a development often associated with a Second Demographic Transition. In this study I investigate the union-formation behavior during a period of 20 years with the objective to gain insight into the interplay of childbearing, cohabitation, and marriage. I find a forceful postponement of registered cohabitation over time, but a stable portion of around 80% of women registering cohabitation. Around 70% of women have married by age 45, and the standardized marriage rates remained relatively stable during the study period. The findings suggest that within a context such as the Icelandic one most people eventually tend to marry, regardless of the prevalence of cohabitation. I suggest that registered cohabitation should be seen as providing a semi-regulated union status for prospective parents in relation to their childbearing. Marriage, on the other hand, could be seen as providing an elevated union status to couples. In Study IV the focus is on marital dissolution. Research findings usually suggest that premarital cohabitation is associated with increased risk of marital break-up. Data on registered cohabitation enable us to investigate the proposed association from a new perspective. The data allow us to focus on couples that intend to live together while weeding out couples that merely “drift” into coresidential unions. The estimates indicate that premarital registered cohabitation in Iceland is associated with lower risk of marital break-up, and that this finding is very robust. I interpret the Icelandic-specific findings in support of a trial marriage hypothesis, suggesting that premarital cohabitation produces lower risks of divorce.

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  • 5.
    Bygren, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Biased grades? Changes in grading after a blinding of examinations reform2020In: Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, ISSN 0260-2938, E-ISSN 1469-297X, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 292-303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Group differences in average grades prior to and after a step-wise introduction of blinded examinations at Stockholm University are examined. Relative to students with 'native' names, students with 'foreign' names appear to experience weak positive bias in the grading of their examinations, but the estimated effect is sensitive to model specification. No substantial effects of blinding examinations with respect to male-female gaps are found. The results suggest that examiners - when the names of students are disclosed to them - if anything have a weak tendency to positively discriminate for students perceived to have an immigrant background, but they do not appear to discriminate on the basis of gender.

  • 6.
    Weber, Rosa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Borders and Barriers: Studies on Migration and Integration in the Nordic and Mexico-U.S. Settings2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    International migration engages large numbers of people. Men, women and children break up from their homes and move to another country temporarily or permanently. Depending on the country of origin and the destination, this comes with varying degrees of uncertainties about where to settle, how much to invest in building a new life abroad and how to retain ties to the country of origin. In recent years, policies have become increasingly salient for migrants’ experiences. They impact entry possibilities and the ease of travelling back home. Increased policing of migrants can interfere in the building of a new life abroad and contribute to stress and apprehension felt among both migrants and their children. To some extent counteracting this, family and friends may provide newly arrived migrants with information on job opportunities and facilitate the transition into the new country.

    This dissertation analyses the links between migration and integration patterns and migrants’ ties to the home and destination country. It does this in two ultimately distinct settings when it comes to the borders and barriers that migrants face: the Nordic and Mexico-U.S. settings. Until recently, Swedish migration policy was among the most welcoming to migrants from different parts of the world. Migration within the Nordic countries, in particular, is characterised by open borders. By contrast, Mexico and the U.S. are separated by an increasingly militarised border and internal policing of migrants has risen dramatically. Consequently, these settings provide contrasting and interesting examples of the relationship between the policy context and migrants’ experiences.

    Study 1 shows that many moves are temporary and short term in the Nordic setting of free mobility. Still, the threshold to the first move is notably higher than for subsequent moves. Study 2 reveals that rising deportations of Mexican migrants in the U.S. are associated with a shift from savings brought home to the sending of remittances. Afraid of a sudden arrest or deportation, migrants maintain transnational ties by sending remittances back to Mexico rather than carrying savings across the border. Study 3 investigates the different roles that social contacts play for male and female migrants’ integration into the Swedish labour market. Whereas friends provide men with benefits in the labour market, women’s job search is often constrained by factors linked to having family in Sweden. Study 4 shows that the implementation of local level immigration enforcement in the U.S. has a negative impact on district level average educational achievement among Hispanic students. This indicates that integration and resulting ethnic achievement gaps are shaped by increased policing and surveillance of migrants.

    This dissertation reveals a series of complex relationships between migration, integration and policies. Family and kin influence migration decisions also when barriers to movement are low. In the new country, kin can assist migrants’ job search or slow it down when newly arrived migrants are expected to care for them. Policing of migrants makes it more difficult to return and may affect migrants’ abilities to invest in building a new life, as indicated by negative effects for educational outcomes among groups targeted by immigration enforcement. Taken together, these factors shape the experiences and life chances of both migrants and their children in the new country.

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    Borders and Barriers
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    Omslagsframsida
  • 7. Spéder, Zsolt
    et al.
    Murinkó, Lívia
    Oláh, Livia Sz.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Cash support vs. tax incentives: The differential impact of policy interventions on third births in contemporary Hungary2020In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 39-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Following steep falls in birth rates in Central and Eastern European countries during the economic and institutional restructuring of the early 1990s, governments made substantial efforts to stop or at least reduce the fertility decline. In Hungary, parents with three or more children could benefit from specific new policy measures: the flat-rate child-rearing support paid from the youngest child's third to eighth birthdays (signalling recognition of stay-at-home motherhood) and a redesigned and upgraded tax relief system. However, the success of these policy measures, if any, is difficult to detect in aggregate statistics. Analysing data from the Hungarian Generations and Gender Survey, we rely on event history methods to examine the policies' effects on third birth risks, especially among different socio-economic groups. The results indicate that while the child-rearing support increased third birth risks among the least educated, the generous tax relief had a similar effect for parents with tertiary education.

  • 8.
    Ahmed, Arif
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lager, Anton
    Fredlund, Peeter
    Schafer Elinder, Liselotte
    Consumption of fruit and vegetables and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a 4-year longitudinal study among Swedish adults2020In: Journal of Nutritional Science, ISSN 2048-6790, E-ISSN 2048-6790, Vol. 9, article id e14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A low intake of fruit and vegetables is a significant contributor to the global burden of disease. The aim of this study was to estimate the size of the risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) of a low intake and to investigate possible sex differences. In this regard, this study used a longitudinal data from the Stockholm Public Health Cohort located in Sweden, collected in 2010 and 2014. The analysis included 14 718 men and 20 589 women aged 25 to 84 years. Fruit and vegetable intake, separately <2 servings/d or combined <4 servings/d (one serving corresponding to 100 g) was set as a cut-point for low intake. The sex difference at baseline was examined. Sex-stratified logistic regression was performed with onset of T2D as the outcome and fruit and vegetable intake at baseline as the exposure with adjustment for other known risk factors. Results indicate that men consumed significantly (P < 0.001) less fruit and vegetables compared with women. A 62 % higher risk to develop T2D over the 4-year period was observed in men who had low vegetable intake compared with high intake after adjusting for age, education, BMI, smoking, alcohol and physical activity (OR 1.62; 95 % CI 1.00, 2.63). In women, a significantly higher risk of T2D was also observed with a low intake of vegetables, but not after adjustment. The present study suggests that higher consumption of vegetables seems to be protective for the onset of T2D in men. Thus, increasing the intake of vegetables in men should be a public health priority.

  • 9.
    Dahlberg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Death Is Not the End: A Register-Based Study of the Effect of Parental Death on Adult Children’s Childbearing Behavior in Sweden2020In: Omega, ISSN 0030-2228, E-ISSN 1541-3764, Vol. 81, no 1, p. 80-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Macro-level studies have shown that rapid increases in mortality can affect fertility rates. Parental death has also been linked to negative psychological and physical outcomes, reduced relationship quality, and making bereaved children attach more importance to their families. No prior study has examined whether parental death influences adult children’s fertility at the microlevel. This study applies event history techniques to Swedish multigeneration registers listing 1.5 million individuals with micro data on mortality and fertility to investigate short-term (first birth risk) and long-term (childlessness at age 45) effects of parental death on adult children’s fertility. The principal finding is that parental death during reproductive age affects children’s fertility and this effect is mainly short term. The effects differ to some degree between men and women and depend on the stage of the life course in which the bereavement occurs. Younger individuals experiencing a parental death have a significantly higher first birth risk after the parental death compared with peers who did not experience a parental death. Individuals older than 23 who experience a parental death have no or lower first birth risk after the parental death compared with baseline. Men, compared with women, are more likely to end childless if they experience a parental death.

  • 10.
    Voytiv, Sofiya
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Deterritorializing Conflict, Reterritorializing Boundaries: Diaspora and Conflict in the "Homeland"2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnicized armed conflicts are usually studied in their territorial dimension and analyzed through the patterns of involvement of different direct and indirect actors. Mostly the focus lies on the multiple ways these direct and indirect actors affect the processes and outcomes of such conflicts. While direct actors mostly participate in the fighting itself, indirect ones can involve transnational advocacy organizations and diasporic groups. Diasporas in this perspective are usually considered to be either “peace-makers” or “peace-wreckers”. Less research has been done on the effects the ethnicized armed conflict in the “homeland” can have on diasporic communities.

    In this dissertation, I develop theoretical conceptualization of the intersection of armed conflict in the “homeland” and diaspora. I focus on a specific case of Ukrainian-Russian conflict and Ukrainian, Russian and conflict-generated diasporic groups in Sweden.

    I argue that the ethnicized armed conflict in the “homeland” can become deterritorialized. In other words, ideas, attitudes and ethnicized narratives of such conflicts can become detached from a certain geographical location and settle in the transnational space of interactions. Such conflict deterritorialization can in its turn trigger diasporization processes elsewhere. It can also mobilize the pre-existing diasporic organizations for “homeland”-related activism. If diasporic individuals and communities use the symbols, ideas and narratives of the conflict in the “homeland” in defining the Other, as well as their relationships and networks, another process – conflict reterritorialization – is at play. This process can subsequently shift group boundary making and maintenance processes.

    Together, the concepts of conflict deterritorialization and reterritorialization help explain the patterns and mechanisms of the armed conflict in its meaning dimension. In addition, such theoretical conceptualization enables the analysis of the effects the conflict might have in the diasporic setting, including the processes of politicization.

    Using the specific case of Ukrainian-Russian conflict (2014-ongoing) I analyze the collaboration networks of Ukrainian, Russian and conflict-generated organizations active in Sweden between 2013 and 2016 and interview Ukrainians and Russians from Ukraine living in Sweden. I show that both patterns of conflict deterritorialization and reterritorialization are present in this specific diasporic setting to different degrees.

    Study 1 theoretically conceptualizes conflict deterritorialization as a diasporization process using previous findings from different case studies. Study 2 investigates the mechanisms of diaspora politicization and the role of conflict-generated diasporas in facilitating these mechanisms. In Study 3 I find that during the most violent period of war in eastern Ukraine, the attitude towards the conflict might have become a leading factor for collaborations between diasporic organizations. And, finally, Study 4 explores the potentiality of armed conflict in the “homeland” to contribute to a shift in ethnic group boundary making processes in the diasporic setting.

    Taken together the four studies aim to shed light on the non-territorial meaning dimension of the ethnicized armed conflicts theoretically and empirically. Thus, the dissertation contributes to the development of the holistic understanding of war and diaspora while taking into account the importance of contexts, factors and conditions of the country of residence, the “homeland” and the transnational space.

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  • 11.
    Sundberg, Mikaela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Differences in secondary adjustments among monks and nuns2020In: Current Sociology, ISSN 0011-3921, E-ISSN 1461-7064, article id 0011392120905339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do monks and nuns manage expectations regarding how to 'open their hearts'? What alternatives do they have and what are the consequences? Based on a multi-sited case study of Cistercian monasteries in France, this article compares the different situation of nuns and monks. The analysis shows how monks are free to choose who they will 'open their heart' to, whereas nuns are expected to rely on the abbess. While certain ways that nuns circumvent these expectations are illegitimate, some ways of distancing from the abbess align with, rather than diverge from, other central tenets of monastic life. Compared to monks, nuns face a double-penalty, being less free and facing more ambivalent expectations within this restricted space.

  • 12.
    Bygren, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Rosenqvist, Erik
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Elite Schools, Elite Ambitions? The Consequences of Secondary-Level School Choice Sorting for Tertiary-Level Educational Choices2020In: European Sociological Review, ISSN 0266-7215, E-ISSN 1468-2672Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We ask if school choice, through its effect on sorting across schools, affects high school graduates’ application decisions to higher education. We exploit a school choice reform that dramatically increased achievement sorting across secondary schools in the municipality of Stockholm, employing a before–after design with a control group of students in similar schools located outside this municipality. The reform had a close to zero mean effect on the propensity to apply for tertiary educational programs, but strongly affected the self-selection by achievement into the kinds of higher educational programs applied for. Low achievers increased their propensity to apply for the ‘low-status’ educational programs, on average destining them to less prestigious, less well-paid occupations, and high achievers increased their propensity to apply for ‘high-status’ educational programs, on average destining them to more prestigious, well-paid occupations. The results suggest that increased sorting across schools reinforces differences across schools and groups in ‘cultures of ambition’. Although these effects translate into relatively small increases in the gender gap, the immigration gap, and the parental education gap in educational choice, our results indicate that school choice, and the increased sorting it leads to, through conformity mechanisms in schools polarizes educational choices of students across achievement groups.

  • 13.
    Ma, Li
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Evertsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Fathers’ Uptake of Parental Leave: Forerunners and Laggards in Sweden, 1993-20102020In: Journal of Social Policy, ISSN 0047-2794, E-ISSN 1469-7823, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 361-381Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is often considered a forerunner in family change and developments towards less gendered family production patterns. In this study, we focus on recent developments towards more gender-equal sharing of parental leave in Sweden. We explore how fathers’ use of parental leave has changed over time before and since the turn of the century. As the parental leave benefit is individual and earnings-based, we examine how fathers’ individual socio-economic and demographic characteristics are associated with their parental leave uptake over time, to determine whether there are forerunners and laggards in recent family change. Multinomial logistic regression models were applied to data from national registers. Our study demonstrates a bifurcation in trends in recent decades. This is associated with the extension of reforms that reserve part of the leave for fathers, the so-called “daddy months”, but stretches beyond the impact of any such reforms. Taking a long leave of over two months was pioneered by better-educated residents of metropolitan areas and surrounding suburbs, as well as Swedish-born fathers. Young fathers, low-income earners and foreign-born fathers lagged behind in these developments. We regard the unstable labour market situation of the latter as a contributing factor in widening social inequalities in family-related behaviour.

  • 14. Lappegård, Trude
    et al.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Viklund, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersen, Synøve N.
    Garðarsdóttir, Ólöf
    Fathers' Use of Parental Leave and Union Dissolution2020In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With increasing union dissolution and changing gender behaviour, questions have emerged about possible links between gender equality and union stability. The aim of this article is to examine whether and how early fathers' involvement in child-rearing is associated with union dissolution in three Nordic countries. All three countries have reserved part of their parental leave to be used by one parent in order to promote fathers' engagement in child-rearing. Our analysis uses fathers' parental leave as a proxy for his involvement, and we distinguish between fathers who take no leave (non-conforming fathers), fathers who take only the reserved part (policy-conforming fathers) and fathers who take more than the reserved part (gender-egalitarian-oriented fathers). We find that couples in which the father uses parental leave have a lower risk of union dissolution than couples in which the father takes no leave. The pattern is consistent for all countries, for the whole study period 1993-2011, and for cohabiting and married couples. However, we do not find support for asserting that the couples with greatest gender equality, in which fathers take longer leave than the policy reserves, are the most stable unions, as the pattern is not uniform in the three countries. We attribute this to the fact that gender equality within the family in the Nordic countries is still an ongoing process, and the relationship between gender behaviour and union stability is still in flux.

  • 15. Cetorelli, Valeria
    et al.
    Wilson, Ben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics and Political Science, United Kingdom.
    Batyra, Ewa
    Coast, Ernestina
    Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting in Mali and Mauritania: Understanding Trends and Evaluating Policies2020In: Studies in family planning, ISSN 0039-3665, E-ISSN 1728-4465, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 51-69Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite international commitments to end female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), very little is known about the effectiveness of national policies in contributing to the abandonment of this harmful practice. To help address this gap in knowledge, we apply a quasi-experimental research design to study two west African countries, Mali and Mauritania. These countries have marked similarities with respect to practices of FGM/C, but differing legal contexts. A law banning FGM/C was introduced in Mauritania in 2005; in Mali, there is no legal ban on FGM/C. We use nationally representative survey data to reconstruct trends in FGM/C prevalence in both countries, from 1997 to 2011, and then use a difference-in-difference method to evaluate the impact of the 2005 law in Mauritania. FGM/C prevalence in Mauritania began to decline slowly for girls born in the early 2000s, with the decline accelerating for girls born after 2005. However, a similar trend is observable in Mali, where no equivalent law has been passed. Additional statistical analysis confirms that the 2005 law did not have a significant impact on reducing FGM/C prevalence in Mauritania. These findings suggest that legal change alone is insufficient for behavioral change with regard to FGM/C. This study demonstrates how it is possible to evaluate national policies using readily available survey data in resource-poor settings.

  • 16. Xie, Shao-Hua
    et al.
    Mälberg, Kalle
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lagergren, Jesper
    Geographical variations in the incidence of oesophageal cancer in Sweden2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, ISSN 0036-5521, E-ISSN 1502-7708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Geographical variations in the incidence and tumour stage distribution of oesophageal cancer in Sweden are not well characterised.

    Methods: Using data from the Swedish Cancer Registry over 45 years (1972-2016), we compared the age-standardised incidence rates of oesophageal cancer by histological type across all seven national areas (in five-year periods) and 21 counties (in 15-year periods) in Sweden, and assessed the geographical distribution of tumour stage at diagnosis since 2004.

    Results: The incidence rate of oesophageal adenocarcinoma increased in all national areas and counties and in both sexes over time, while the rate of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma decreased from the 1980s onwards. In the latest period (2012- 2016), the incidence rate of adenocarcinoma in men ranged from 3.5/100,000 person-years in West Sweden to 6.2/100,000 person-years in North Middle Sweden. At the county level, the rate of adenocarcinoma in men was lowest in Jamtland (2.7/100,000 person-years) and highest in Gotland (6.2/100 000 person-years) in 2002-2016. The incidence rates of both adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma in women were below 2/100,000 person-years in all national areas and counties in the latest calendar periods, i.e., 2012-2016 and 2002-2016, respectively. The proportion of patents with tumour stage IV ranged from 22% in Stockholm area to 31% in Middle Norrland, while at the healthcare region level it was lowest in Stockholm healthcare region (23%) and highest in North (30%) and Uppsala-orebro (29%) healthcare regions.

    Conclusion: There are considerable geographical variations in the incidence and tumour stage distribution of oesophageal cancer in Sweden.

  • 17.
    Morosow, Kathrin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    How Does Birth Order and Number of Siblings Affect Fertility? A Within-Family Comparison Using Swedish Register Data2020In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 197-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the sibling constellation in childhood is associated with later fertility behaviour of men and women in Sweden. Administrative register data are used to investigate how birth order affects completed fertility, how the number of siblings and birth order jointly affect completed fertility, and in both cases if there are gender differences in these relationships. Our data consist of all fully biologically related siblings in Sweden whose mothers were born between 1915 and 1935 (the younger generation is born primarily in the 1940s, 1950s and 1960s; N = 1,472,813). To study the direct effect of birth order on fertility, sibling comparison models are applied, while to analyse the joint effect of number of siblings and birth order, the sample was stratified by birth order. Results show that higher birth order has a negative effect on completed fertility for women; hence, earlier-born women show overall higher fertility than later-born women. Parity transitions indicate that later-born women are less likely to have two or more children, while no overall gradient for men can be found. The number of siblings is more positively associated with completed fertility for firstborn than for later-born individuals. We conclude that the position in the family of origin can be seen as an additional factor that influences fertility, although effect sizes are rather small.

  • 18.
    Winter, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    “I’ll Look Into it!” Lubricants in Conversational Coproduction2020In: Minerva, ISSN 0026-4695, E-ISSN 1573-1871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the interaction between civil servants and politicians in a planning committee in a Swedish county council. As the committees are venues for preparation of future decision-making, civil servants and others are invited to inform and report to the politicians on different topics. The aim is to explore this local interaction process based on an analysis of requests and responses. It is shown that the communication between civil servants and politicians is pervaded by sociability in the form of conversational routines. The article aims to recognize this sociability as an intrinsic part of knowledge coproduction processes. Civil servants and politicians negotiate different types of professional and common knowledge through routines that dislocate time, responsibility, roles, and protocol order. These lubricants – important but often circumvented in studies of policy-making – are explored as instances of conversational coproduction.

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  • 19.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lappegard, Trude
    Johansson, Mats
    Impact of a Reform Towards Shared Parental Leave on Continued Fertility in Norway and Sweden2020In: Population: Research and Policy Review, ISSN 0167-5923, E-ISSN 1573-7829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It has been argued that a generous family policy aimed at a gender-equal division of childcare and economic responsibility will have a positive impact on childbearing. In this study, we investigate whether fathers' parental leave use is related to continued childbearing and whether there has been a policy effect on fertility behavior due to the introduction of the father's quota in Norway and Sweden. Fathers' parental leave use may affect fertility by easing women's work burden at home and thus enhancing the degree of compatibility between childrearing and female employment, and it may increase fathers' interest in children and childcare. To distinguish causality from selection in the effects observed, we use the natural experiment of the introduction of the father's quotas. The results indicate that the reforms did not influence fertility in Norway but that Swedish couples with a lower income had a temporary higher third-birth risk. Fathers in this group showed the greatest increase in leave use after the reform.

  • 20.
    Barclay, Kieron
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Baranowska-Rataj, Anna
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Interpregnancy intervals and perinatal and child health in Sweden: A comparison within families and across social groups2020In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large body of research has shown that children born after especially short or long birth intervals experience an elevated risk of poor perinatal outcomes, but recent work suggests this may be explained by confounding by unobserved family characteristics. We use Swedish population data on cohorts born 1981-2010 and sibling fixed effects to examine whether the length of the birth interval preceding the index child influences the risk of preterm birth, low birth weight, and hospitalization during childhood. We also present analyses stratified by salient social characteristics, such as maternal educational level and maternal country of birth. We find few effects of birth intervals on our outcomes, except for very short intervals (less than seven months) and very long intervals (>60 months). We find few differences in the patterns by maternal educational level or maternal country of origin after stratifying by the mother's highest educational attainment.

  • 21. Aspers, Patrik
    et al.
    Bengtsson, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dobeson, Alexander
    Market Fashioning2020In: Theory and society, ISSN 0304-2421, E-ISSN 1573-7853Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    How do markets come about? This article offers a first systematic analysis of three different ideal types of market fashioning: mutual adjustment, organization, and fields. Although aspects of these are identifiable in most empirical markets, these three ideal types provide analytic tools for students of real markets and marketplaces. After going through this comprehensive literature, it is argued that mutual adjustment, which refers to non-planned processes, is affinity with markets in which products are differentiated, for example, producer markets. Organization refers to process driven by attempts to decide for others and shows affinity with markets for standardized and homogenous products, for example, stock exchanges. Organization also accounts for the making of marketplaces. The broader notion of fields does not refer to any specific process, but accounts for the context of market fashioning and its respective power struggles.

  • 22. Bijlsma, Maarten J.
    et al.
    Wilson, Ben
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Modelling the socio-economic determinants of fertility: a mediation analysis using the parametric g-formula2020In: Journal of the Royal Statistical Society: Series A (Statistics in Society), ISSN 0964-1998, E-ISSN 1467-985X, Vol. 183, no 2, p. 493-513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theories predict that the timing of childbearing and number of children born are determined by multiple socio-economic factors. Despite this, many methods cannot investigate the interrelationships between these determinants, including the direct and indirect influence that they have on fertility over the life course. Here we use the parametric g-formula to examine the interdependent influences of time-varying socio-economic processes-education, employment status and partnership status-on fertility. To demonstrate this approach, we study a cohort of women who were born in the UK in 1970. Our results show that socio-economic processes play an important role in determining fertility, not only directly but also indirectly. We show that increasing attendance in higher education has a largely direct effect on early childbearing up to age 25 years, resulting in a substantial increase in childlessness. However, childbearing at later ages is dominated by an indirect effect of education on fertility, via partnership status and employment status, that is twice as large as the direct effect. We also use the g-formula to examine bias due to unobserved heterogeneity, and we demonstrate that our results appear to be robust. We conclude that the method provides a valuable tool for mediation analysis in studies of interdependent life course processes.

  • 23.
    Westerman, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Motives matter: Intrinsic motivation in work learning and labor market performance2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation examines the importance of individual work motivation for two crucial dimensions of inequality: work learning and labor market performance. The first dimension relates to learning activities at work, and the second to wage attainment and knowledge-oriented task assignment. While motivation is a broad concept, the empirical analyses focus on task involvement and the motivation to learn. Job mobility is further used to indicate a motivational strategy aimed at gaining new labor market experiences. 

    These kinds of motivation are related to individual variation in intrinsic motivation, representing: pure curiosity and a strive for competence in novel environments, a focus on personal development rather than on proving ability, satisfaction gained from feelings of competence and autonomy during task performance, and experience of complete absorption in activities of learning and mastery. 

    The connection between intrinsic motivation and extrinsic labor market rewards (such as wage attainment) is theorized to follow from: (a) a higher level of performance in learning activities at work, (b) consequent assignment to more productive work tasks, and (c) a rise in material rewards (wages) linked to this assignment.

    Variation in the extent to which intrinsic motivation can be elicited in individuals, and the extent to which intrinsic motivation is targeted toward performance related activities in the labor market, is thus expected to matter for patterns of inequality. Intrinsic motivation, as a productive factor shaping inequality, is expected to grow in importance in paralell with an increase in the labor market value of skills, and a decline in bureaucratic and closely monitored production organization. As a research agenda, the analysis of intrinsic motivation is thus crucial for understanding evolving patterns of conflict and inequality in contemporary societies.

    Study I analyzes the relationship between task involvement and wage attainment, and shows that task involvement is moderately associated with higher wages in two datasets: the Swedish Level-of-Living Survey (LNU) and the European Social Survey (ESS). Study II analyzes the relationship between repeated job mobility (a ‘new experiences strategy’) and work learning. Two datasets are used: LNU and the Swedish part of the Programme for the International Assessment of Adult Competencies (PIAAC). Results show that repeated job mobility is positively associated with several, but not all, kinds of learning activities. Study III analyzes the associations that motivation to learn shares with knowledge-oriented task assignment and wage attainment using PIAAC data for 17 European countries. Results show that the motivation to learn is strongly correlated with knowledge-oriented task assignment, and moderately correlated with wage attainment. These correlations are similar across distinct levels of numerical proficiency, and across labor market contexts.

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  • 24.
    Berlin, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Out-of-Home Care and Educational Outcomes: Prevalence, Patterns and Consequences2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine educational stratification in the context of out-of-home care (OHC; foster family care, residential care) and to place one of society’s most vulnerable groups in the fields of social stratification and family complexity research. About 5% of the Swedish population experience OHC during childhood or adolescence. OHC is not only a matter of protecting children and youth; it is also intended to improve future opportunities and compensate for adverse childhood factors. However, a vast body of international research, including Swedish studies, shows that a substantial proportion of young people from OHC have poor school performance and low educational attainment as adults. Furthermore, this is strongly associated with their high risk of other adverse outcomes in life. To date there are no signs of improvement in this regard, and the disadvantage of having a low education is increasing in today’s knowledge-based society.

    Many previous OHC studies have relied on small, local samples, and longitudinal data are often lacking. In this respect, Swedish researchers are well positioned to contribute to the field through research based on our high-quality population registers. The main data source in this thesis – the Child Welfare Intervention Register – covers half a century of OHC data. Based on these data, an overview of OHC prevalence in Sweden and patterns of educational outcomes are presented in the introductory chapter. The thesis further consists of five individual studies investigating different aspects of the transition through the educational system to adult life among children and youth from OHC. Two of the five studies focus on children who spent most of their childhood in OHC and for whom society has assumed a long-term commitment of parental responsibilities.

    The descriptive data show that patterns of poor educational outcomes in the OHC population have remained stable as long as they can be followed in the registers. Study I shows that youth who exited long-term care were disadvantaged as compared to youth without OHC experience, both in terms of educational attainment and regarding the strong association between poor school performance and other adverse outcomes in young adulthood. Up to 55% of their excess risks of later psychosocial problems were statistically attributable to dismal school performance. Study II shows that 54% of clients in substance-misuse treatment in the 1980s had been in OHC, half before their teen years and half as teenagers. In this group, OHC was associated with excess mortality during the 30-year follow-up from exit from treatment, with statistical significance mainly for females who had entered OHC before their teens. School failure was more common in the OHC population than for misuse clients without OHC experience, and was strongly associated with the excess mortality of females. Two Nordic comparative studies (Studies III and IV) show that the OHC population had a substantially higher risk of not completing upper-secondary education across countries, and that poor performance in primary school inflicted a greater risk in OHC youth of being NEET in young adulthood than for their peers without OHC experience. Study V shows that the intergenerational transmission of education was weak and inconsistent in the foster care setting, and that living in a highly educated foster family did not have a robust positive effect on foster children’s educational outcomes.

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  • 25.
    Fallesen, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). The ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark.
    Gähler, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Post-Divorce Dual-Household Living Arrangements and Adolescent Wellbeing2020In: Divorce in Europe: New Insights in Trends, Causes and Consequences of Relation Break-ups / [ed] Dimitri Mortelmans, Springer, 2020, p. 337-354Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adolescents are increasingly living in two households, alternating between family contexts. It is timely to consider how these contexts may affect adolescent’s psychological wellbeing. We use data from the Children of Immigrants Longitudinal Survey in Four European Countries (CILS4EU), England, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden, including data on occurrence and extent of dual-household residency, to correlate 15 family types with adolescent’s internalizing problems, self-esteem, and life satisfaction. Analyses show that (i) adolescents in intact families exhibit better wellbeing than peers in different types of dissolved families, (ii) adolescents in reconstituted families exhibit less wellbeing than adolescents living with a single parent only, (iii) living in two households, where both parents are single or either of them is repartnered, is not associated with better wellbeing than living with a single parent only, (iv) adolescents in alternate living generally seem to do as well as their peers in intact families, but (v) there is a tendency that alternate living in a symmetrical family context, i.e., where both parents are either single or living with a new partner, is more positive for the adolescent than if one parent is in a new relationship and the other is not.

  • 26.
    Monti, Andrea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Re-emigration of foreign-born residents from Sweden: 1990-20152020In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 26, no 2, article id e2285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is an analysis of patterns and determinants of return and onward migration among foreign-born individuals residing in Sweden from 1990 to 2015. Who is emigrating, and where do they go? What are the determinants of return and onward migration? Increased diversity in international migration flows includes an increase in repeat migration. However, studies of re-emigration have often failed to appropriately distinguish emigration types and have traditionally been limited to economic analysis of labour migrants. Using high-quality register data from Sweden, this paper analyses re-emigration through the conditions upon first immigration and evolving social and economic integration in the host country. Although return migration is found to be the main form of remigration type, onward migration is more prominent among specific migrant groups such as forced migrants. Additionally, various determinants of return and onward migration stress the importance of treating them as distinct phenomena within the migration literature.

  • 27.
    Kridahl, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Silverstein, Merril
    Retirement and Aging Parents in the Swedish Population2020In: Journal of Population Ageing, ISSN 1874-7884, E-ISSN 1874-7876, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 81-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The workforce is aging in most developed countries. Simultaneously, the parents of workers nearing retirement age are more likely to still be alive and in need of care. This study investigated the association between retirement transition and parental vital status in Sweden. The data were derived from Swedish population registers of women and men born between 1940 and 1945. A discrete-time survival analysis using complementary log-log functions was employed. The outcome was individuals' retirement transition, and the main dependent variable was parental vital status, e.g., whether the mother, father or both parents were alive in the year that the individual retired. We also controlled for whether either one or both parents recently died prior to the retirement transition. This study's findings indicate that the parental vital status has an independent, but relatively small, influence on individuals' retirement transition and that the association is somewhat stronger and more consistent among women than men, particularly women with only a living mother or father (approximately 8 and 6% higher risk of retirement, respectively). Additionally, women had a higher risk of retirement during the immediate period after parental death, especially when the father was widowed (9% higher risk). In contrast, men had a 9% higher risk of retiring when either the mother or father had been widowed for some years. Moreover, siblings seem to moderate the effect of retirement, and the pattern was most noticeable among women. Overall, the risk of retirement was greater among individuals without siblings with both living parents or only a living mother or father. These findings indicate that individuals with parents who are vulnerable due to widowhood are able to work longer if they have larger families, which is consistent with the caregiving explanation. This relationship was more evident among women, providing support for the conclusion that care provision for parents may motivate labor force disengagement in the form of retirement.

  • 28.
    Billingsley, Sunnee
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sick leave absence and the relationship between intra-generational social mobility and mortality: health selection in Sweden2020In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Poor health could influence how individuals are sorted into occupational classes. Health selection has therefore been considered a potential modifier to the mortality class gradient through differences in social mobility. Direct health selection in particular may operate in the short-term as poor health may lead to reduced work hours or achievement, downward social mobility, unemployment or restricted upward mobility, and death. In this study, the relationship between social mobility and mortality (all-cause, cancer-related, cardiovascular disease-related (CVD), and suicide) is explored when the relationship is adjusted for poor health.

    Methods

    Using Swedish register data (1996–2012) and discrete time event-history analysis, odds ratios and average marginal effects (AME) of social mobility and unemployment on mortality are observed before and after accounting for sickness absence in the previous year.

    Results

    After adjusting for sickness absence, all-cause mortality remained lower for men after upward mobility in comparison to not being mobile (OR 0.82, AME -0.0003, CI − 0.0003 to − 0.0002). Similarly, upward mobility continued to be associated with lower cancer-related mortality for men (OR 0.85, AME -0.00008, CI − 0.00002 to − 0.0002), CVD-related mortality for men (OR 0.76, AME -0.0001, CI − 0.00006 to − 0.0002) and suicide for women (OR 0.67, AME -0.00002, CI − 0.000002 to − 0.00003). The relationship between unemployment and mortality also persisted across most causes of death for both men and women after controlling for previous sickness absence. In contrast, adjusting for sickness absence renders the relationship between downward mobility and cancer-related mortality not statistically different from the non-mobile.

    Conclusions

    Health selection plays a role in how downward mobility is linked to cancer related deaths. It additionally accounts for a portion of why upward mobility is associated with lower mortality. That health selection plays a role in how social mobility and mortality are related may be unexpected in a context with strong job protection. Job protection does not, however, equalize opportunities for upward mobility, which may be limited for those who have been ill. Because intra-generational upward mobility and mortality remained related after adjusting for sickness absence, other important mechanisms such as indirect selection or social causation should be explored.

  • 29. Erlangsen, Annette
    et al.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Haas, Ann
    Bjorkenstam, Charlotte
    Nordentoft, Merete
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Suicide among persons who entered same-sex and opposite-sex marriage in Denmark and Sweden, 1989-2016: a binational, register-based cohort study2020In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 74, no 1, p. 78-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background People belonging to sexual minority groups have higher levels of suicidality than heterosexuals. However, findings regarding suicide death are sparse. Using unique national data from two countries, we investigated whether individuals entering a same-sex marriage (SSM), a proxy group of sexual minority individuals, had higher suicide rates than those entering opposite-sex marriage (OSM).

    Methods A cohort study of all males and females who entered an SSM (n=28649) or OSM (n=3 918 617) in Denmark and Sweden during 1989-2016 was conducted. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) for suicide were calculated using adjusted Poisson regression models.

    Results In total, 97 suicides occurred among individuals who had entered an SSM compared with 6074 among those who entered an OSM, corresponding to an adjusted IRR of 2.3 (95% CI 1.9 to 2.8). For people who entered SSM, a 46% decline was noted over time from an IRR of 2.8 (95% CI 1.9 to 4.0) during 1989-2002 to 1.5 (95% CI 1.2 to 1.9) during 2003-2016. The excess suicide mortality was present in all age groups but most pronounced among younger individuals aged 18-34 years of age (IRR 2.7, 95%CI 1.5 to 4.8) and females (IRR 2.7, 95%CI 1.8 to 3.9).

    Conclusion This large register-based study found higher suicide rates among individuals who entered an SSM, compared with those who entered an OSM. A lower suicide rate was noted for individuals in SSMs in recent years. More research is needed to identify the unique suicide risk and protective factors for sexual minority people.

  • 30.
    Dennison, James
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. European University Institute, Italy; Harvard University, USA.
    Draege, Jonas
    The dynamics of electoral politics after the Arab Spring: evidence from Tunisia2020In: Journal of North African Studies, ISSN 1362-9387, E-ISSN 1743-9345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article uses new survey evidence from Tunisia, conducted shortly after the three first elections following the Arab Spring, to explain dynamics in electoral behaviour. We find that the strongest and most consistent predictors of vote choice were gender, religiosity and attitudes to the role of Islam in public life. Economic attitudes, other socio-demographics and clientelistic motivations were consistently less or not important factors. These findings support the notion of a paramount Islamist-Secular divide, which is distinct from the Western Left-Right divide, in the Arab World. We also find evidence that Tunisian voters underwent a learning process over the course of elections. Overall, we present evidence to suggest that the primacy of the Islamist-secular axis of political conflict is, in accordance with the evidence from other early divides in transitional democracies, elite-driven, and so is likely to decline in importance over time.

  • 31.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Namatovu, Fredinah
    Ineland, Jens
    Larsson, Daniel
    Ng, Nawi
    Stattin, Mikael
    The Persistence of High Levels of Living Alone Among Adults with Disabilities in Sweden, 1993-20112020In: Population: Research and Policy Review, ISSN 0167-5923, E-ISSN 1573-7829Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how the probability to live alone has developed among working age individuals with and without disabilities in Sweden during the period 1993-2011 when extensive political reforms to improve the integration of disabled individuals in society were implemented. The results show that individuals with disabilities are approximately twice as likely to be living alone when compared to individuals without disabilities. People with disabilities were also more likely to report low life satisfaction, and this was especially true among individuals with disabilities living alone. Men and women with disabilities also tend to experience longer periods of living as a one-person household than non-disabled people. Over time we find no indications of reduced differences in family outcomes between disabled and non-disabled individuals but rather evidence to the contrary. These differences are interpreted as being the result of the disadvantage disabled individual's experience in the partner market and that people with disabilities are less successful in forming partnerships that can lead to cohabitation and family formation. The results thus show how disabled individuals still face societal barriers that limit their possibilities to find and sustain relationships that result in stable cohabitation despite increased efforts to improve their inclusion in Swedish society.

  • 32.
    Berlin, Marie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    von Grieff, Ninive
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Skogens, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The relationbetween out-of-home care, early school failure, and prematuremortality: A 30-year follow-up of people treated for substancemisuse in Sweden2020In: Nordic Social Work Research, ISSN 2156-857X, E-ISSN 2156-8588Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence from Swedish and international studies show that a high proportionof children from out-of-home care (OHC) have poor school performanceand that this is strongly associated with their substantial risk ofadverse development in future life. However, risk factors for poor schoolperformance and adverse development are difficult to disentangle sincethey are often interrelated and enforce each other over the life course.This study examines premature mortality in relation to early school failure(drop-out from compulsory school) and OHC experience in childhood(0–17 years of age) among clients who were in treatment for substancemisuse in the early 1980s (N = 1,036). The analyses were based on recordlinkages between interview data collected during treatment and nationalregister data covering approximately 30 years of follow-up, from exit fromtreatment until 2013. Our results showed that 54 per cent had beenplaced in OHC as children, half before their teens and half as teenagers.The OHC population had a higher prevalence of school failure comparedwith clients who had not been exposed to childhood OHC. OHC wasassociated with an excess mortality, although this was only significantfor females who had entered OHC before their teens. Adjusting results forschool failure reduced their excess mortality by half, and additional lifecourse factors associated with mortality among people with substancemisuse adjusted for most of the remaining excess mortality. School failurewas strongly associated with the excess mortality of females, but not withthe excess mortality of males.

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  • 33.
    Rostami, Amir
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Sturup, Joakim
    Mondani, Hernan
    Thevselius, Pia
    Sarnecki, Jerzy
    Edling, Christofer
    The Swedish Mujahideen: An Exploratory Study of 41 Swedish Foreign Fighters Deceased in Iraq and Syria2020In: Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, ISSN 1057-610X, E-ISSN 1521-0731, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 382-395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyzes the demographics, criminality, and network relations of forty-one deceased Swedish foreign fighters. Our results show that most of the deceased Swedish foreign fighters were on average just under 26 years old when they died. Concerning network relations, nineteen out of the forty-one foreign fighters had at least one relationship (next-of-kin or friend) with another deceased foreign fighter. Two thirds were previously suspected of at least one crime. Based on our results, we argue that more attention needs to be given to tertiary and secondary prevention directed toward foreign fighter hubs.

  • 34. Meyer, Anna C.
    et al.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ahlbom, Anders
    Lambe, Mats
    Modig, Karin
    Trends in life expectancy: did the gap between the healthy and the ill widen or close?2020In: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, E-ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 18, no 1, article id 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background During the past decades, life expectancy has continued to increase in most high-income countries. Previous research suggests that improvements in life expectancy have primarily been driven by advances at the upper end of the health distribution, while parts of the population have lagged behind. Using data from the entire Swedish population, this study aims to examine the life expectancy development among subgroups of individuals with a history of common diseases relative to that of the general population. Methods The remaining life expectancy at age 65 was estimated for each year in 1998-2017 among individuals with a history of disease, and for the total Swedish population. We defined population subgroups as individuals with a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, hip fracture, or colon, breast, or lung cancer. We further distinguished between different educational levels and Charlson comorbidity index scores. Results Life expectancy gains have been larger for men and women with a history of myocardial infarction, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, and colon or breast cancer than for the general population. The life expectancy gap between individuals with a history of hip fracture or lung cancer and the general population has, however, been growing. Education and comorbidity have affected mortality levels, but have not altered the rate of increase in life expectancy among individuals with disease history. The female advantage in life expectancy was less pronounced among individuals with disease history than among the general population. Conclusions Life expectancy has increased faster in many subpopulations with a history of disease than in the general population, while still remaining at lower levels. Improvements in life expectancy have been observed regardless of comorbidity or educational level. These findings suggest that the rise in overall life expectancy reflects more than just improved survival among the healthy or the delayed onset of disease.

  • 35.
    Kolk, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Two Decades of Same-Sex Marriage in Sweden: A Demographic Account of Developments in Marriage, Childbearing, and Divorce2020In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 57, no 1, p. 147-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we provide demographic insight into the still relatively new family form of same-sex marriage. We focus on period trends in same-sex marriage formation and divorce during 1995-2012 in Sweden and the role of childbearing in same-sex unions. The period begins with the introduction of registered partnership for same-sex couples and also covers the introduction of formal same-sex marriage in 2009. We use register data for the complete population of Sweden to contrast patterns in male and female same-sex marriage formation and divorce. We show that female same-sex union formation increased rapidly over the period, while trends for male same-sex unions increased less. The introduction of same-sex marriage legislation in 2009 appears to have had little effect on the pace of formation of same-sex unions. In contrast, legal changes supporting parental rights in same-sex unions may have fueled the formation of female same-sex marriages as well as parenthood in such unions. Further, we show that divorce risks in the marital unions of two women are much higher than in other types of marriages. We find some convergence of divorce risks across union types at the end of our study period: male same-sex unions have the same divorce risk levels as opposite-sex marriages, and the elevated risks of divorce in female same-sex unions appear to have stabilized at somewhat lower levels than those observed in the late 1990s.

  • 36. Li, Chun-Hao
    et al.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Yang, Wen-Shen
    Chuang, Ying-Chang
    Uxorilocal marriage as a strategy for heirship in a patrilineal society: evidence from household registers in early 20th-century Taiwan2020In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 22-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In pre-industrial Taiwan, an uxorilocal marriage, in which a man moved in with his bride's family, was a familial strategy used to continue family lineage and to enhance family farm labor. We examine the prevalence and circumstances in which a family would call in a man for one of their unmarried daughters. Using data from the Taiwan Historical Household Registers Database (THHRD) from 1906-1945, we identify the individual-level factors (including parental status, sibling status, household heads' occupations, and the capacity of the family labor force) and a community-level factor - the prevalence of uxorilocal marriages by region, which are predictive of uxorilocal marriages. Our analyses first show that women without siblings and women with only female siblings were more likely to adopt the uxorilocal form of marriage. In addition, the effects of siblings' status were moderated by the presence or absence of parents. For women without any male siblings with at least one parent, especially a father, residing in the household, the likelihood of having an uxorilocal marriage was higher than for those without any parents. Second, an uxorilocal marriage was less common in families with more young family members in the labor force to fulfill the manpower needed for farming. Third, uxorilocal marriage was more likely to occur in families living in the poorest socioeconomic conditions, especially those families in which household heads did not own land and had to sell their labor for agricultural production. Our findings imply that the adoption of uxorilocal marriage varied not only from place to place but also from time to time; it was conditioned by the modes and the means of labor production.

  • 37.
    Duvander, Ann-Zofie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Fahlén, Susanne
    Brandén, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ohlsson-Wijk, Sofi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Who makes the decision to have children? Couples' childbearing intentions and actual childbearing2020In: Advances in life course research, ISSN 1040-2608, Vol. 43, article id 100286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how the childbearing intentions of women and men in couples affect actual childbearing over the following years with the aim to explore whether women's or men's intentions may be more important. The study is set in Sweden, a country known for ranking high in terms of gender equality and a country with relatively high fertility. We use the Young Adult Panel Study (YAPS), which gives information about both partners' long-term childbearing intentions in 2009, and follow these couples for five years with register data on childbearing. In 30 percent of the couples, both partners intended to have a child, and out of these about three quarters have a child. The results show that, in general, both partners need to intend to have a child for the couple to do so but that women's intentions tend to have more influence over the decision to have a second or third child. This phenomenon is interpreted as decision-making in relation to the cost and utility of children for women and men.

  • 38.
    Magnusson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI).
    Nermo, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    40 Years of Gender Inequality among Men and Women in High-Prestige occupations – Does the Story Differ among the Young?2019In: Gender, Age and Inequality in the Professions: Exploring the Disordering, Disruptive and Chaotic Properties of Communication / [ed] Marta Choroszewicz, Tracey L. Adams, Routledge, 2019Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Morosow, Kathrin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    A Family Leave Length Trade-off? Women’s Labour Force Status in Comparative Perspective2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A frequently cited aim of parental leave policies is to provide parents with the opportunity to combine work and family. The availability of additional childcare leaves prolongs mothers’ time out of the labour market, however, and thus may counteract women’s labour market participation. This study is the first to differentiate between the whole range of labour force status outcomes: employment, unemployment and inactivity. Using data for 20 countries from the Luxembourg Income Study, this study examines the relationship between paid family leave length and mothers’ labour market status. Calling on multinomial logistic regression with country fixed effects, this study finds that the provision of comparatively long paid family leave is associated with increased unemployment risks among mothers of 0 to 15-year olds. A slight peak when children are 4 to 6 years old and when leave is longer than two years suggests that mothers are most vulnerable when they re-enter the labour market after a longer leave. These results are in line with prominent theories of human capital depreciation, signalling or statistical discrimination. Leaves of over one year, on the other hand, are associated with reduced inactivity amongst mothers. Hence, results indicate a trade-off when it comes to leave length. Shorter leaves are associated with mothers dropping out of the labour market, especially when children are young, while longer family leaves are associated with increased unemployment risks.

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  • 40.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Sweden.
    Marklund, Emil
    A prelude to the dual provider family - The changing role of female labor force participation and occupational field on fertility outcomes during the baby boom in Sweden 1900-602019In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 149-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By investigating changes in the association between women's socioeconomic status, labor market activity and fertility outcomes during the Swedish baby boom 1900-60 this study reaches three main conclusions. First, the results show that a convergence of fertility behavior occurred across female socioeconomic strata during the peak baby boom period in the 1940s and 1950s in terms of a strong two child norm. Second, the negative socio-economic gradient of fertility found in Sweden before the baby boom declined sharply among women who came of age during the 1940s and 1950s, as white-collar women increased their fertility more than all the other strata. Third, this was especially the case for women engaged in the so called 'caring professions' that exhibit the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have a substantially higher fertility was thus formed in Sweden already during the 1940s and 1950s. The empirical finding fit with the interpretation that middle-class women employed in the public sector experienced stronger reductions in constraints to family formation compared to women employed in the private sector. We propose that the pronatalist polices implemented in the 1930s and 1940s, especially the extensive improvements in employment protection implemented for women who got married or became pregnant in the late 1930s in Sweden, is one important factor to consider when we try to understand why especially women employed in the public sector in education and healthcare increased their fertility more than other groups.

  • 41. Guillot, Michel
    et al.
    Khlat, Myriam
    Wallace, Matthew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Adult mortality among second-generation immigrants in France: Results from a nationally representative record linkage study2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 1603-1644, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND France has a large population of second-generation immigrants (i.e., native-born children of immigrants) who are known to experience important socioeconomic disparities by country of origin. The extent to which they also experience disparities in mortality, however, has not been previously examined. METHODS We used a nationally representative sample of individuals 18 to 64 years old in 1999 with mortality follow-up via linked death records until 2010. We compared mortality levels for second-generation immigrants with their first-generation counterparts and with the reference (neither first- nor second-generation) population using mortality hazard ratios as well as probabilities of dying between age 18 and 65. We also adjusted hazard ratios using educational attainment reported at baseline. RESULTS We found a large amount of excess mortality among second-generation males of North African origin compared to the reference population with no migrant background. This excess mortality was not present among second-generation males of southern European origin, for whom we instead found a mortality advantage, nor among North African- origin males of the first-generation. This excess mortality remained large and significant after adjusting for educational attainment. CONTRIBUTION In these first estimates of mortality among second-generation immigrants in France, males of North African origin stood out as a subgroup experiencing a large amount of excess mortality. This finding adds a public health dimension to the various disadvantages already documented for this subgroup. Overall, our results highlight the importance of second-generation status as a significant and previously unknown source of health disparity in France.

  • 42.
    Stern, Lotta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Weidenstedt, Linda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sideras, Georgios
    Anställningsskyddets avsedda och oavsedda konsekvenser: Företagarnas perspektiv2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lagen om anställningsskydd är omdebatterad och skapar friktioner på svensk arbetsmarknad. Å ena sidan finns arbetsgivare som vill ha flexibla företag och rätten att leda och fördela arbetet för att främja verksamheten. Å andra sidan finns arbetstagare som vill ha trygga anställningar och rätt till en icke-godtycklig behandling. På aggregerad nivå får lagstiftningens avsedda och oavsedda konsekvenser förhållandevis mycket utrymme i debatterna såväl som inom forskningen, där studier exempelvis visar att ett strikt anställningsskydd hämmar företagens produktivitet. Mer sällan ställs frågan hur lagstiftningen tillämpas och upplevs fungera lokalt och i praktiken, det vill säga ute på företagen.

    Den här studien syftar till att bidra med sådan konkret och lokal kunskap i syfte att undersöka avsedda och oavsedda konsekvenser av anställningsskyddets utformande i företagens dagliga verksamhet. Frågan undersöks genom tolv intervjuer med företagsledare i medelstora tillverkande företag med erfarenhet av att avsluta anställningar. Företagsledarna fick berätta om vad som hände, hur och när processen initierades, och när - men också hur - de upplevde att processen fungerade.

    Resultaten visar att företagsledarna principiellt har en positiv inställning till anställningsskydd, men upplever att lagstiftningen inte fungerar väl i praktiken. Exempelvis står turordningsreglerna i konflikt med företagsledningens fokus på att vid arbetsbrist behålla rätt kompetens. Vidare menar de att avslut av anställningar på grund av personliga skäl är näst intill omöjligt.

    Rapportens slutsats mynnar ut i att anställningsskyddslagstiftningen - sett ur ett företagsledningsperspektiv - har viktiga oavsedda konsekvenser: Man kan frångå turordningsreglerna, men det är dyrt. Man kan avsluta anställningar som inte fungerar, men bara genom låtsad omorganisering och konstruerad arbetsbrist. Sammanfattningsvis framkommer många, av lagstiftaren oavsedda, oförutsedda, och oönskade, konsekvenser ur intervjuerna som framkallar frågan i vilken utsträckning lagstiftningen i praktiken uppfyller sitt egentliga syfte.

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  • 43. Bernard, Aude
    et al.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Are Young Swedes Moving More? A Cohort Analysis of Internal Migration by Move Order2019In: European Journal of Population, ISSN 0168-6577, E-ISSN 1572-9885Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While levels of migration within countries have been trending down in a number of advanced economies, Sweden has recorded a rise in internal migration among young adults. An increase in aggregate migration levels can be the result of a decline in immobility (i.e. the absence of migration), an increase in repeat movement or a combination of both. In this paper, we draw on retrospective survey and longitudinal register data to explore the demographic mechanisms underpinning the rise in internal migration among young Swedes born in the 30 years to 1980 and we compare the migration behaviour of the youngest cohort to that of their European counterparts. Of all 25 European countries, Sweden reports the highest level of migration among young adults, which is the result of very low immobility combined with high repeat movement. The increase in migration has been particularly pronounced for inter-county moves for the post-1970 cohorts. Analysis of order-specific components of migration shows that this is the result of a decrease in immobility combined with a modest rise in higher-order moves, whereas it is the rise in higher-order moves that underpins the increase in inter-parish migration. This upswing has been accompanied by a shift in the ages at migration, characterised by an earlier start and later finish leading to a lengthening of the number of years young adults are mobile. The results indicate that change in migration behaviour is order-specific, which underlines the need to collect and analyse migration by move order to obtain a reliable account of migration trends.

  • 44.
    Juárez, Sol
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Mussino, Eleonora
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Hjern, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Public Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Being a refugee or having a refugee status? Birthweight and gestational age outcomes among offspring of immigrant mothers in Sweden2019In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 47, no 7, p. 730-734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: to evaluate whether the information on refugee status based on the residence permit is a useful source of information for perinatal health surveillance. Methods: using the Swedish population registers (1997-2012), we use multinomial regression models to assess the associations between migration status (refugee and non-refugee) and birth outcomes derived from birthweight and gestational age: low birthweight (lBW) (<2500 g), macrosomia (≥4000 g); preterm: (<37 w) and post-term (≥42 w). The Swedish-born population was used as a reference group. Results: Compared to the Swedish-born population, an increased OR (odds ratio) of lBW and post-term was found among migrants with and without refugee status (respectively: OR for refugees: 1.47 [95% CI: 1.33-1.63] and non-refugees:1.27 [95% CI: 1.18-1.38], for refugees: 1.41 [95% CI: 1.35-1.49] and non-refugees:1.04 [95% CI: 1.00-1.08]) with statistically significant differences between these two migrant categories. However, when looking at specific regions of origin, few regions show differences by refugee status. Compared to Swedes, lower or equal ORs of preterm and macrosomia are observed regardless of migratory status. Conclusions: Small or no differences were observed in birth outcomes among offspring of women coming from the same origin with different migratory status, compared to their Swedish counterparts. This suggests that information on migration status is not a relevant piece of information to identify immigrant women at higher risk of experiencing adverse reproductive outcomes. Our results however might be explained by the large proportion of women coming to Sweden for family reunification who are classified as non-refugee migrants.

  • 45. Comolli, Chiara Ludovica
    et al.
    Neyer, Gerda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Andersson, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dommermuth, Lars
    Fallesen, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, The Swedish Institute for Social Research (SOFI). ROCKWOOL Foundation, Denmark .
    Jalovaara, Marika
    Jónsson, Ari
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lappegård, Trude
    Beyond the Economic Gaze: Childbearing during and after recessions in the Nordic countries2019Report (Other academic)