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  • 1.
    Aare, Kätlin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Włodarczak, Marcin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Backchannels and breathing2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 47-52Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated the timing of backchannel onsets within speaker’s own and dialogue partner’s breathing cycle in two spontaneous conversations in Estonian. Results indicate that backchannels are mainly produced near the beginning, but also in the second half of the speaker’s exhalation phase. A similar tendency was observed in short non-backchannel utterances, indicating that timing of backchannels might be determined by their duration rather than their pragmatic function. By contrast, longer non-backchannel utterances were initiated almost exclusively right at the beginning of the exhalation. As expected, backchannels in the conversation partner’s breathing cycle occurred predominantly towards the end of the exhalation or at the beginning of the inhalation. 

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    Backchannels and breathing
  • 2.
    Berger, Alexandra
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Hedström Lindenhäll, Rosanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Karlsson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nyberg Pergament, Sarah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Vojnovic, Ivan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Voices after midnight: How a night out affects voice quality2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 1-4Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate how different parameters of the voice (jitter, shimmer, LTAS and mean pitch) are affected by a late night out. Three recordings were made: one early evening before the night out, one after midnight, and one on the next day. Each recording consisted of a one minute reading and prolonged vowels. Five students took part in the experiment. Results varied among the participants, but some patterns were noticeable in all parameters. A trend towards increased mean pitch during the second recording was observed among four of the subjects. Somewhat unexpectedly, jitter and shimmer decreased between the first and second recordings and increased in the third one. Due to the lack of ethical testing, only a small number of participants were included. A larger sample is suggested for future research in order to generalize results.

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    Voices after midnight: How a night out affects voice quality
  • 3.
    Branderud, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Traunmüller, HartmutStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Proceedings FONETIK 2004: The XVIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference, held at Stockholm University, May 26-28, 20042004Conference proceedings (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 4.
    Branderud, Peter
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Traunmüller, HartmutStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Proceedings FONETIK 2009: The XXIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference, held at Stockholm University, June 10-12, 20092009Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 5.
    Engstrand, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Kylander, CatharinaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    PERILUS XIV: Papers from the symposium Current Phonetic Research Paradigma: Implications for Speech Motor Control, held in Stockholm, August 13-16, 19911991Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 6.
    Engstrand, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Traunmüller, HartmutStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    PERILUS V: Experiments in Speech Processes, Fall 1986 - Spring 19871987Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 7.
    Gardin, Emily
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Henriksson, Maria
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Wikstedt, Emilia
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Markelius, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Renner, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Consonant inventory of Swedish speaking 24-month-olds: A cross-sectional study2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 123-126Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-sectional study examines the consonant inventory of Swedish speaking twenty-four-month olds. The results are compared with English speaking children at the same age. 15 audio files recorded from 13 children were transcribed using independent analysis. Individual inventories where constructed for both word-initial and word-final consonants for each subject. The results are to a high degree consistent with the findings in the study compared. Anterior consonants are more frequent in the subject’s inventories than posterior ones in both initial and final word position. Word initial voiced plosives are more common in the inventories than voiceless with the reverse situation i.e. voiceless plosives are more frequent than voiced in word final position.

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    Consonant inventory of Swedish speaking 24-month-olds: A cross-sectional study
  • 8.
    Heldner, Mattias
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 20142014Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    Proceedings from FONETIK 2014
  • 9.
    Holmberg, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Aerodynamic measurements of normal voice1993Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Vocal fold vibration results from an alternating balance between subglottal air pressure that drives the vocal folds apart and muscular, elastic, and restoring forces that draw them together. The aim of the present thesis is to present quantitative data of normal vocal function using a noninvasive method. Measurements are made on the inverse filtered airflow waveform, of estimated average trans glottal pressure and glottal airflow, and of sound pressure for productions of syllable sequences. Statistical results are used to infer mechanisms that underlie differences across ( 1 ) normal, loud, and soft voice, (2) normal, high, and low pitch, and (3) between female and male voices. Interspeaker variation in group data and intra speaker variation across repeated recordings is also investigated. The results showed no significant female-male differences in pressure, suggesting that differences in other measures were not primarily due to differences in the respiratory systems . Most glottal waveforms showed a DC flow offset, suggesting an air leakage through a posterior glottal opening. Results suggested (indirectly) that the males in comparison with the females had significantly higher vocal fold closing velocities (maximum flow declination rate), larger vocal fold oscillations (AC flow), and relatively longer closed portions of the cycle (open quotient) in normal and loud voice. In soft voice, female and male waveforms were more alike. In comparison with normal voice, both females and males produced loud voice with significantly higher values of pressure, vocal fold closing velocity, and AC flow. Soft voice was produced with significantly lower values of these measures and increased DC flow. Correlation analyses indicated that several of the airflow measures were more directly related to vocal intensity than to pitch. Interspeaker variation was large, emphasizing the importance of large subject groups to capture normal variation. Intraspeaker variation across recording sessions was less than 2 standard deviations of the group means. The results should contribute to the understanding of normal voice function, and should be useful as norms in studies of voices disorders as well.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 10.
    Krull, Diana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Acoustic Properties as Predictors of Perceptual Responses: a Study of Swedish Voiced Stops1988Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In speech recognition algorithms and certain theories of speech perception the interpretation of the signal is based on " distance scores " for comparisons of the signal with stored references; in these theories, perception is seen as a product of stimulus and experience. The aim of the present thesis is to evaluate such distance measures by investigating the perceptual confusions of the Swedish voiced stops [b,d,q,g] in systematically varied fragments of vowel-consonantvowel stimuli providing 25 vowel contexts for each consonant. To what extent can perceptual identifications be accounted for in terms of the acoustic properties of  the stimuli? Short stimulus segments following stop release, chosen to elicit perceptual confusions, constituted the main material for this investigation. The resulting confusions were shown to form a regular pattern depending mainly on the acute/grave dimension of the following vowel. The acoustic distances calculated were based partly on formant frequencies at the consonant-vowel boundary, partly on filter-band spectra. B oth models provided distance measures which revealed regular patterns related in their essentials to the confusions. However, the predictive capacity of both models was improved by including the dynamic properties of the stimuli in the distance measures. The highest correlation between predicted and observed percent confusions, r=.85, was obtained with the fOlmant-based model. The asymmetries in the listeners' confusions were also shown to be predictable given acoustic data on the following vowel and were included in the calculations.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 11.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bjursäter, UllaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    PERILUS 2011: Symposium on Language Acquisition and Language Evolution2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume contains articles based on the authors’ contributions to the Symposium on Language Acquisition and Language Evolution which was held at The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm on the 1st and 2nd of December 2011, by initiative and funding from the Department of Linguistics at Stockholm University.

    The symposium was intended as an opportunity for scientists from different research areas to interact and discuss complex dynamic systems in relation to the general theme of “Language Acquisition and Language Evolution”. Complex dynamic systems are characterised by hierarchical and combinatorial structures that can be found in quite different scientific domains. From a broad perspective, there are general parallels in the way human language, biological organisms and ecological systems are organised and the symposium aimed at discussing those issues from an interdisciplinary point of view.

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    PERILUS 2011
  • 12.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    SUBIC: Stockholm University Brain Imaging Center2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014 Stockholm: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 133-141Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This contribution presents an outline of SUBIC (Stockholm University Brain Imaging Center, working name). SUBIC is conceived as an interdisciplinary infrastructure that will promote Stockholm University’s participation in international cutting-edge research focusedon the function and the morphologic evolution of the brain.

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    SUBIC: Stockholm University Brain Imaging Center
  • 13.
    Lindblom, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    PERILUS IV: Experiments in Speech Processes, Phonetics Research Seminar 1984-19851985Collection (editor) (Other academic)
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    FULLTEXT01
  • 14.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Turn-taking and early phonology: Contingency in parent-child interaction and assessment of early speech production2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on contingency in parent-child interaction, investigating it in the light of the linguistic capacity of the child and the status of the caregiver. Further, the thesis covers the development of two tools to assess the developmental maturity level of expressive phonology. A functional emergentist perspective on language acquisition is taken, which includes a phonetic perspective on phonological development. Both infant language development and factors that influence parent responsiveness are explored. 

    The thesis contains four studies. In the first study, durations of parents’ utterances and pauses in interaction with their 18-month-old infants were related to the infant’s vocabulary size. Recordings of interactions of fifteen children and their parents were made at home in daily life situations. The children were divided into three groups according to their vocabulary size: large, typical or small. The main finding is that parents in the large vocabulary size group responded faster to their children compared to the parents in the typical size vocabulary group, who in turn responded faster than the parents in the small vocabulary size group. 

    In study two, duration in vocal turn-taking between 6-month old infants and their caregivers was investigated, in terms of the status of the caregiver and the sex of the infant. Caregivers’ pauses were measured in 10-minute caregiver-infant interactions recorded at home. It was found that primary caregivers responded faster to their infants compared to secondary caregivers, and that in turn, infants responded faster to the primary caregiver than to the secondary caregiver. 

    Study three introduces the Word Complexity Measure for Swedish (WCM-SE), a tool for calculating phonological complexity in words or utterances. Calculations are based on ten parameters describing speech structures that are considered phonetically complex to produce. In the development of  the WCM-SE, both language-specific and language-general descriptions of speech development were considered, as well as universal acoustic and aerodynamic principles. 

    Study four documents the selection of Swedish words for the word lists in the test Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills for Swedish (PEEPS-SE). The selection was based on criteria of age of acquisition and word complexity, as measured by the WCM-SE. 

    The findings presented in this thesis contribute to our knowledge of early interaction and parents’ potential impact on the child’s early language and communication development. Further, the tools developed for the assessment of Swedish are valuable contributions both to the research field of early phonology and to clinical work in Sweden. 

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    Turn-taking and early phonology
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  • 15.
    Renner, Lena F.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The magic of matching – speech production and perception in language acquisition2017Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the relationship between speech production and speech perception in the early stages of phonological and lexical acquisition. Previous studies have mainly focused on independent investigations of speech production and perception abilities in language acquisition. This thesis connects the individual speech production capacities to the child's perception and is organized around three major studies: Study I explores methodological alternatives such as the combination of EEG and eye-tracking in different Swedish participant groups: adults, 17-month-olds, and 24-month-olds. Visual and auditory stimuli, as well as the connection between word production and word perception are explored. Study II investigates phonological capacities in terms of consonant inventory, percentage of correctly pronounced words, segmental errors, as well as phonological templates in relation to vocabulary size in a group of Swedish 18-month-olds. Study III studies the influence of the children's individual phonological and lexical capacities in speech production on their word recognition in a group of Swedish toddlers with a productive vocabulary size above 100 words.

    The general results show that children accept mispronounced word forms as appropriate word candidates when the word forms are related to their individual word production. The occurrence of segmental errors increases with vocabulary size, and phonological templates are more likely to be observed in children with a productive vocabulary size above 100 words. The results thus indicate an influence of the individual child's production on word recognition, and a relationship between phonological capacities and lexical knowledge. These insights contribute to theoretical debates in linguistics regarding the abstractness of phonological word form representations and reveal a closer relationship between production and perceptual abilities in toddlers than what has previously been shown.

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    Omslagsframsida
  • 16.
    Roug-Hellichius, Liselotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Babble, grunts, and words: a study of phonetic shape and functional use in the beginnings of language1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study follows in the tradition of those seeking to understand linguistic behavior from a cognitive and socio-biological perspective (Bates, Benigni, Bretherton, Camaioni and Volterra 1979, Lindblom 1992, Hauser 1996) by tracing the development of a non-linguistic vocal behavior in relation to communicative and early lexical advances. More specifically the study focuses on the occurrence of what are termed ìcommunicative gruntsî and their functional relationship to adult based word use in one Swedish boy from 11 to 19 months of age. The findings are based on audio and video recordings made bi-weekly in the childís home. The recordings have been subject to auditory and acoustic analysis of the childís vocal output and coding of co-occurring manual and visual gestures.

    The auditory results indicate that there is a progressive use of grunts over the first months of the second year of life and an increase in communicative grunts (as defined by co-occurring communicative gestures) prior to the onset of context-flexible word use. The auditory findings are corroborated by the results of the acoustic analysis where a shift in fundamental frequency, first and second formant frequency and utterance duration co-occurs with the onset of use of communicative grunts. Based on these findings it is concluded that there is a functional relationship between the use of words and the use of communicative grunts. Further, as the functional shift of the grunt co-occurs with changes in the phonetic domain, the communicative grunts are understood as adaptations to the articulatory and perceptual constraints governing speech communication.

    Two interpretations are provided to account for the significance of the communicative grunt to lexical development. The cognitive approach suggests that the functional relationship between words and communicative grunts holds as an index of cognitive readiness for adult based word use. The experiential approach suggests that the communicative grunt contributes to a representational reorganization allowing for the emergence of denotative word use in the child. Taking advantage of the different foci of the two interpretations, a third amalgamated view proposes that both motor advantages and internally defined conceptual functions may be relevant to an understanding of the phenomenon. It is thus suggested that the significance of the behavior may be that it provides the child with a vehicle by which conceptual content may be expressed, prior to the mastering of appropriate adult vocal forms.

  • 17.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Nazem, Atena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Olsson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Towards a contingent anticipatory infant hearing test using eye-tracking2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 35-40Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Early identification of infant hearing impairment is imperative to prevent developmental language difficulties. The current diagnostic method is Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA) in which infant response to sound isobserved to establish hearing thresholds. Together with the Karolinska Institute, we are developing an observer-independent contingent anticipatory infant hearing test using eye-tracking to increase reliability and significance levels of the current clinical practice. The present pilot study addresses in particular the first phase of the test in which the eye response is conditioned to occur at sound detection. The aim is to establish how well 6.5-month-olds associate the presence of sound to a certain location via a visual reward.

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    Schwarz et al. (2014)
  • 18.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Mother tongue - Phonetic Aspects of Infant-Directed Speech1998Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phonetic aspects of mother-infant interaction are discussed in light of a functionalist Mother-infant phonetic interaction (MIPhI) model. Adults addressing infants typically use a speech style (infant-directed speech, IDS) characterized by, for instance, extensive suprasegmental (prosodic) modulations. This type of speech seems to interest young infants whose active experience with the spoken language appears to focus their speech perception on the phonological properties of the ambient language during the first year of life.

    This thesis consists of four articles discussing phonetic modifications at the suprasegmental, segmental and phonological levels, based on data from six Swedish mothersí IDS to their 3-month-olds. The first study concerns the tonal word accent 2 in disyllabic words, and shows how the lexical, bimodal, tonal characteristics of this accent are enhanced in IDS as compared to adult-directed speech (ADS). The second is a cross-linguistic investigation of vowel formant frequencies in Swedish, Am. English and Russian IDS. It shows that vowels like /i/, /u/, and /a/ are more clearly separated in IDS than in ADS, in all three languages. The third study addresses the voiced /voiceless contrast in stop consonants as measured by voice onset time (VOT) and shows that stop consonants seem to be poorly separated in early IDS samples. The fourth study investigates the quantity distinction in V:C and VC: sequences and indicates that this phonological contrast is well maintained in the IDS.

    Adult data are discussed within the MIPhI model, assuming that suprasegmental and segmental specifications in IDS follow different phonetic specification paths adapted to the infantsí capacities as these develop over the first 18 months of life. The adultsí phonetic adaptations appear to reflect a selective strategy of presenting linguistic structure in a ìgift-wrappingî that is attractive and functional for the infant.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 19.
    Traunmüller, Hartmut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Conversational maxims and principles of language planning1991In: Experiments in speech processes / [ed] Olle Engstrand, Catharina Kylander, Mats Dufberg, Stockholm: The Institute of Linguistics, University of Stockholm , 1991, Vol. XII, p. 25-47Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Striking similarities can be observed between Grice's (1967) conversational maxims and Tauli's (1968) principles of language planning: In order to function well, a language must be such that it makes a well behaved conversation possible. Nevertheless, many ethnic languages as well as constructed interlanguages possess features which are incompatible with these principles. The paper contains an analysis of such cases: The compulsory expression of number and gender, which is in conflict with the principle of facultative precision; ambiguity and lack of distinctiveness in the names of the Latin letters; excessive length of certain morphemes; and restricted freedom to place sentence constituents in a pragmatically adequate order. The compulsory nature of certain distinctions, which cannot be understood on functional grounds, is ascribed to an excessive activity of "universal grammar", which is seen as one of the instincts of human beings. It is further shown that some constructed interlanguages (Volapük and Interlingua) clash with some of Greenberg's (1963) universals concerning the order of meaningful elements. While Esperanto is free from that type of deficiency, it is in conflict with the principle of facultative precision in the same way as most ethnic languages of Europe, as distinct from those of East Asia.

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