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  • 1.
    Allard, Anna
    et al.
    Institutionen för Skoglig Resurshushållning .
    Skånes, Helle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Miljöövervakning via infraröda flygbilder, ett väl använt verktyg med goda framtidsutsikter i Sverige2010In: Kart- och bildteknik (Mapping and Image Science), Vol. 4, p. 20-23Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 2.
    Axelsson, Roger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Det medeltida Sverige: 4, Småland. 5, Tjust2008Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Ayalew Nurihun, Biruk
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    The relationship between climate, disease and coffee yield: optimizing management for smallholder farmers2023Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change and diseases are threatening global crop production. Agroforestry systems, which are characterized by complex multispecies interactions, are considered to provide nature-based solutions for climate change mitigation and pest and disease regulation. Understanding the role of the abiotic environment and species interactions in shaping diseases and yield in agroforestry systems would enable us to develop effective ecologically-informed pest and disease management under a changing climate, support sustainable agricultural practices, and maximize the benefits gained from agroforestry systems. To gain such a comprehensive understanding of what shapes pest and disease levels and yield in agroforestry systems, we need to investigate how the interactions between agroforestry system components, such as trees, crops and their associated organisms, vary in space and time, and how they are influenced by abiotic factors in terms of pests and diseases and yield. 

    In this thesis, my overarching goal was to understand how microclimate and management impact major coffee pests and diseases, their natural enemies, and coffee yield, as well as farmers’ perceptions of climate change and climate-mediated changes in disease dynamics and yield, with the aim of using these insights to optimize management decisions for smallholder farmers in southwestern Ethiopia. With this aim, I selected 58 sites along a gradient of management intensity, ranging from minimal management in the natural forest to moderate management in smallholder farms and intensive management in commercial plantations. As an approach, I combined observational and interview studies to examine i) the impact of shade tree species identity and canopy cover on coffee pests and diseases, ii) the effect of climate and management on coffee berry disease and yield, iii) the impact of climate on a host-hyperparasite interaction, and iv) farmers’ perceptions of climate change and climate-mediated changes in disease dynamics and yield. 

    I found that tree identity affected the incidence and severity of coffee diseases, whereas insect pests were strongly affected by canopy cover, but in a species-specific way (I).  Both climate and management affected coffee berry disease and yield. Importantly, the effect of climatic variables on disease and yield differed strongly between the developmental stages from flowering to ripening (II). In chapter (III), I found that the climatic niches of coffee leaf rust and its hyperparasite differed, with coffee leaf rust severity preferring high maximum temperatures, whereas the hyperparasite preferred cold nights. The interviews revealed that the majority of farmers perceived long-term changes in one or more aspects of the climate, and the majority of farmers perceived an increase in coffee leaf rust and a decrease in coffee berry disease. Climate data also supported farmers’ knowledge on climate-disease-yield relationships (IV). 

    Taken together, my thesis advances our understanding of the relationship between climate and management of coffee pests, diseases and yield, and this may contribute to the development of ecologically-informed pest and disease management strategies for coffee production and other agroforestry crops.

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  • 4.
    Berg, Håkan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lan, Thai Huynh Phuong
    Tam, Nguyen Thanh
    Trang, Duong Huyen
    Van, Pham Huynh Thanh
    Duc, Huynh Ngoc
    Da, Chau Thi
    An ecological economic comparison between integrated rice-fish farming and rice monocultures with low and high dikes in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam2023In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 52, no 9, p. 1462-1474Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study makes an ecological economic comparison between three different rice farming strategies in the Mekong Delta. Interviews were made with 30 farmers with two crops of rice and low dikes (2RLd), 30 farmers with three crops of rice and high dikes (3RHd) and 18 farmers with two crops of rice and one crop of fish (2RF). 2RF farmers had the highest annual net income and benefit cost ratio, because of low production costs and high yields of rice and fish. 2RLd farmers had the lowest annual net income. 3RHd had the highest annual rice yield, but also used the highest amount of rice seeds and agrochemicals, generating the lowest benefit cost ratio. Most farmers (70%) preferred two crops because of a higher production efficiency. High dikes and frequent use of pesticides and fertilizers were seen to decrease the water and rice quality, connectivity and biodiversity in farms with three crops. It is concluded that rice farming with two crops, and especially if integrated with fish and applying IPM, provides a sustainable alternative to rice farming with three crops and high dikes, because it makes use of the high connectivity within the rice-field ecosystem for an efficient production of healthy food through increased recycling of nutrients and  natural pest control mechanisms. 

  • 5. Björkman, Maria
    et al.
    Hambäck, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Växtekologi.
    Rämert, Birgitta
    Neighboring monocultures enhance the effect of intercropping in turnip root flies (Delia floralis).2007In: Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, Vol. 124, p. 319-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge of insect behaviour is essential for accurately interpreting studies of diversification and to develop diversified agroecosystems that have a reliable pest-suppressive effect. In this study, we investigated the egg-laying behaviour of the turnip root fly, Delia floralis (Fall.) (Diptera: Anthomyiidae), in an intercrop-monoculture system. We examined both the main effect of intercropping and the effect on oviposition in the border zone between a cabbage monoculture [Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata (Brassicaceae)] and a cabbage-red clover intercropping system [Trifolium pratense L. (Fabaceae)]. To investigate the border-effect, oviposition was measured along a transect from the border between the treatments to the centre of experimental plots. Intercropping reduced the total egg-laying of D. floralis with 42% in 2003 and 55% in 2004. In 2004, it was also found that the spatial distribution of eggs within the experimental plots was affected by distance from the adjoining treatment. The difference in egg-laying between monoculture and intercropping was most pronounced close to the border, where egg-laying was 68% lower on intercropped plants. This difference in egg numbers decreased gradually up to a distance of 3.5 m from the border, where intercropped plants had 43% fewer eggs than the corresponding monocultured plants. The reason behind this oviposition pattern is most likely that flies in intercropped plots have a higher probability of entering the monoculture if they are close to the border than if they are in the centre of a plot. When entering the monoculture, flies can pursue their egg-laying behaviour without being disrupted by the clover. As the final decision to land is visually stimulated, flies could also be attracted to fly from the intercropped plots into the monoculture, where host plants are more visually apparent. Visual cues could also hinder flies in a monoculture from entering an intercropped plot. Other possible patterns of insect attack due to differences in insect behaviour are discussed, as well as the practical application of the results of this study.

  • 6.
    Brown, Ian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Polarimetric scattering from shallow firn and forests with snow cover2010In: Proceedings of the ESA Living Planet SymposiumBergen, Norway: (ESA SP-686, December 2010) / [ed] H. Lacoste-Francis, Noordwijk, Netherlands: European Space Agency , 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper the potential for inferring shallow firn depth from polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data at L- and C-band is investigated. Using ALOS PALSAR and Radarsat-2 SAR imagery, and field data including Ground Penetrating Radar profiles and shallow cores, we investigate the spatial distribution of backscatter and decompose backscatter using polarimetric methods to analyse how polarimetric scattering is affected by firn depth near the firn line. The investigation is aimed at a more refined delineation of glacier firn lines and a better understanding of scattering from firn, superimposed ice and the bare ice facies. We found that PolSAR can be used to infer shallow firn thicknesses up to depths of at least 2 m water equivalent (m w.e.) and that old and contemporary firn surfaces can be differentiated using PolSAR. Contrary to many previous investigations the importance of surface scattering in the firn area is also emphasised in the scattering decompositions. Volume scattering was found to have a secondary or tertiary importance. This has important implications for the analysis of backscatter using semi-empirical models.The effect of snow depth on backscatter in pro-glacial a sub-Arctic forest and its potential for improving forest mapping is also discussed. Snow depth data were acquired by manual probing and snowpit measurements. In addition forest stand densities were assessed in situ and NDVI and tasseled cap transformations were made in optical remote sensing data (SPOT-4) to parameterise the forest. Scatterer decomposition and pedestal height products were found to be related to snowpack depth. It was not possible to separate the influences of snow cover and forest structure due to the partial dependence of the former on the latter. Nevertheless it can be concluded that PolSAR improves our ability to map the forest margins of low density, sub-Arctic forests. Our findings have implications for the implementation of algorithms for the exploitation of future SAR missions including Sentinel-1.

  • 7.
    Caretta, Martina Angela
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Managing variability and scarcity. An analysis of Engaruka: A Maasai smallholder irrigation farming community2015In: Agricultural Water Management, ISSN 0378-3774, E-ISSN 1873-2283, Vol. 159, p. 318-330Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the common-pool regime of Engaruka, a smallholder irrigation farming community in northern Tanzania. Irrigation is a complex issue due to water asymmetry. Water use is regulated in Engaruka through boundary, allocation, input and penalty rules by a users’ association that controls and negotiates water allocation to avoid conflicts among headenders and tailenders. As different crops – maize and beans, bananas and vegetables – are cultivated, different watering schemes are applied depending on the water requirements of every single crop. Farmers benefit from different irrigation schedules and from different soil characteristics through having their plots both downstream and upstream. In fact, depending on water supply, cultivation is resourcefully extended and retracted. Engaruka is an ethnically homogeneous and interdependent community where headenders and tailenders are often the same people and are hence inhibited to carry out unilateral action. Drawing on common-pool resource literature, this study argues that in a context of population pressure alongside limited and fluctuating water availability, non-equilibrium behavior, consisting in negotiating water rights and modifying irrigation area continuously through demand management, is crucial for the satisfaction of basic and productive needs and for the avoidance of water conflicts.

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  • 8.
    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    1600-talet – det kallaste århundradet2011In: Sveriges historia : 1600–1721 / [ed] Nils Erik Villstrand, Stockholm: Norstedts , 2011, p. 441-445Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Global nedkylning: klimatet och människan under 10 000 år2009Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatet har förändrats både regionalt och globalt sedan senaste istiden tog slut, ofta med dramatiska konsekvenser för naturen och människan. Fastän det talas så mycket om klimatförändringar idag är det få som vet särskilt mycket om hur klimatet har varierat förr.

    Det är först under de senaste åren som forskningen börjat kunna beskriva vad som faktiskt hänt med klimatet under olika tider, på olika platser. Historikern Fredrik Charpentier Ljungqvist har tagit ett samlat grepp på den senaste forskningen och resultatet är en resa i vått och torrt, i hetta och kyla, jorden runt under 10 000 år. Vi får stifta bekantskap med många olika folk och kulturer – babylonier, romare, mayaindianer och vikingar – som alla under historiens gång varit utsatta för klimatförändringar.

  • 10.
    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Klimatkris på medeltiden2009In: Populär Historia, ISSN 1102-0822, no 12, p. 48-52Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 11.
    Cullhed, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History of Literature and History of Ideas, History of Literature.
    The Garden against History: Reflections on the Hortus Conclusus Theme in Premodern Literature2010In: Bulletin för trädgårdshistorisk forskning, ISSN 1652-2362, no 23, p. 6-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 12. Dahlström, Anna
    et al.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    The History (1620-2003) of Land Use, People and Livestock, and the Relationship to Present Plant Species Diversity in a Rural Landscape in Sweden2006In: Environment and History, ISSN 0967-3407, E-ISSN 1752-7023, Vol. 12, p. 191-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional agriculture in Europe favoured numerous plant and animal species that are presently declining. Integrated studies based on various sources are needed in order to unravel the complex relationships between changing landscapes and biological diversity. The objectives of this study were to describe changes in land use during c. 350 years in a Swedish agricultural landscape in relation to changes in human population and livestock, and to analyse relationships between historical land use and present-day plant species diversity. There were only minor long-term changes in land use, population and livestock between 1640 and 1854 in the two studied hamlets, but detailed data 1620-41 showed a large short-term fluctuation in livestock numbers. After 1854 larger changes took place. Grasslands were cultivated and livestock composition changed. After 1932, livestock number decreased and most of the former grazed outland (areas located outside the fenced infields) turned into forest by natural succession. 7 per cent of the study area is still grazed semi-natural grassland. The highest plant species richness is today found on semi-natural grassland with a long continuity of grazing. The distribution of five target species suggests that previous land use still has an important effect today. The majority of their occurrences are remnant populations located in previous outland pastures which are today forests.

  • 13. de Fraiture, Charlotte
    et al.
    Wichelns, Dennis
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Kemp-Benedict, Eric
    Eriyagama, Nishadi
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Hanjra, Munir A.
    Hoogeveen, Jippe
    Huber-Lee, Annette
    Karlberg, Louise
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Looking ahead to 2050: scenarios of alternative investment approaches2007In: Water for Food, Water for Life: A Comprehensive Assessment of Water Management in Agriculture / [ed] David Molden, London: Earthscan , 2007, p. 91-145Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Edvinsson, Rodney
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Harvests and grain prices in Sweden 1665-18702012In: Agricultural History Review, ISSN 0002-1490, Vol. 60, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the impact of harvests and international markets on Swedish grain prices, 1665-1870. The paper finds that harvests at a national level had a greater impact on domestic grain prices than international grain prices. However, at a regional level, grain prices tended to be affected more by harvests outside the region. Furthermore, in the long term, foreign prices became a more important determinant of national grain prices. The conclusion is that, under certain circumstances, grain prices can be used as an indicator of harvest fluctuations and to construct historical national accounts, at least at a sufficiently aggregated level. Such an endeavour needs to be combined with a careful analysis of the impact of prices in the surrounding area.

  • 15.
    Enfors, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Barron, Jennie
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Makurira, Hodson
    University of Zimbabwe.
    Rockström, Johan
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Tumbo, Siza
    Sokoine University of Agriuclture.
    Yield and soil system changes from conservation tillage in dryland farming: A case study from North Eastern Tanzania2011In: Agricultural Water Management, ISSN 0378-3774, E-ISSN 1873-2283, Vol. 98, no 11, p. 1687-1695Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yield levels in smallholder farming systems in semi-arid sub-Saharan Africa are generally low. Water shortage in the root zone during critical crop development stages is a fundamental constraining factor. While there is ample evidence to show that conservation tillage can promote soil health, it has recently been suggested that the main benefit in semi-arid farming systems may in fact be an in situ water harvesting effect. In this paper we present the result from an on-farm conservation tillage experiment (combining ripping with mulch and manure application) that was carried out in northeastern Tanzania from 2005 to 2008, testing this hypothesis. Special attention was given to the effects on the water retention properties of the soil. The tested conservation treatment only had a clear yield increasing effect during one of the six experimental seasons (maize grain yields increased by 41%, and biomass by 65%), and this was a season that received exceptional amounts of rainfall (549 mm). While the other seasons provided mixed results, there seemed to be an increasing yield gap between the conservation tillage treatment and the control towards the end of the experiment. Regarding soil system changes, small but significant effects on chemical and microbiological properties, but not on physical properties, were observed. This raises questions about the suggested water harvesting effect and its potential to contribute to stabilized yield levels under semi-arid conditions. We conclude that, at least in a shorter time perspective, the tested type of conservation tillage seems to boost productivity during already good seasons, rather than stabilize harvests during poor rainfall seasons. Highlighting the challenges involved in upgrading these farming systems, we discuss the potential contribution of conservation tillage towards improved water availability in the crop root zone in a longer-term perspective.

  • 16. Getachew, Merkebu
    et al.
    Boeckx, Pascal
    Verheyen, Kris
    Tolassa, Kassaye
    Tack, Ayco J. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Luca, Stijn
    Zewdie, Beyene
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Within and among farm variability of coffee quality of smallholders in southwest Ethiopia2023In: Agroforestry Systems, ISSN 0167-4366, E-ISSN 1572-9680, Vol. 97, no 5, p. 883-905Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The biophysical drivers that affect coffee quality vary within and among farms. Quantifying their relative importance is crucial for making informed decisions concerning farm management, marketability and profit for coffee farmers. The present study was designed to quantify the relative importance of biophysical variables affecting coffee bean quality within and among coffee farms and to evaluate a near infrared spectroscopy-based model to predict coffee quality. Twelve coffee plants growing under low, intermediate and dense shade were studied in twelve coffee farms across an elevational gradient (1470–2325 m asl) in Ethiopia. We found large within farm variability, demonstrating that conditions varying at the coffee plant-level are of large importance for physical attributes and cupping scores of green coffee beans. Overall, elevation appeared to be the key biophysical variable influencing all the measured coffee bean quality attributes at the farm level while canopy cover appeared to be the most important biophysical variable driving the above-mentioned coffee bean quality attributes at the coffee plant level. The biophysical variables driving coffee quality (total preliminary and specialty quality) were the same as those driving variations in the near-infrared spectroscopy data, which supports future use of this technology to assess green bean coffee quality. Most importantly, our findings show that random forest is computationally fast and robust to noise, besides having comparable prediction accuracy. Hence, it is a useful machine learning tool for regression studies and has potential for modeling linear and nonlinear multivariate calibrations. The study also confirmed that near-infrared spectroscopic-based predictions can be applied as a supplementary approach for coffee cup quality evaluations.

  • 17. Getachew, Merkebu
    et al.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Tolassa, Kassaye
    Tack, Ayco J. M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Ayalew, Biruk
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Boeckx, Pascal
    Landuyt, Dries
    De Frenne, Pieter
    Effects of shade tree species on soil biogeochemistry and coffee bean quality in plantation coffee2023In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 347, article id 108354Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shade trees are used in many coffee production systems across the globe. Beyond the benefits on biodiversity conservation, climate buffering, carbon sequestration and pathogen regulation, shade trees can impact the soil nutrient status via, for instance, litter inputs and nitrogen fixation. Since soil nutrients affect coffee quality and taste, there is also a potential indirect effect of shade tree species on coffee quality. Yet, in spite of the potentially large impact of shade tree species, quantitative data on the effects of shade trees on (i) soil biogeochemistry and (ii) the associated coffee bean quality remain scarce. To what extent four widely used shade trees species (Acacia abyssinica L., Albizia gummifera L., Cordia africana L. and Croton macrostachyus L.) in a plantation coffee agroforestry system impact soil biogeochemistry, and how this in turn affects coffee quality, measured as cupping scores and bean size. A significant negative impact of N-fixing shade tree species on soil pH and base cation concentrations was found. Plant-available and total phosphorus was enhanced by the presence of Albizia gummifera L. Thus, the present findings demonstrate that careful selection and integration of shade tree species such as Acacia abyssinica L. and Albizia gummifera L. into coffee production systems is a good practice for sustaining soil chemical properties in coffee agroecosystem. Despite the impacts on soil chemical characteristics, the shade tree species had no effect on coffee cup quality but did affect the bean mass. In this particular study, an attempt was made to quantify the impacts of widely used shade tree species on soil biogeochemistry and the subsequent effect on coffee bean quality in a plantation agroforestry system over the course of one season in southwest Ethiopia. However, it might be feasible to accommodate both relatively sparse time-series experimental data consisting of coffee farms from plantations and smallholders, which needs to be the goal of future research to accurately examine the impacts on the outcome variables.

  • 18.
    Green, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    A Lasting Story: Conservation and Agricultural Extension Services in Colonial Malawi2009In: Journal of African History, ISSN 0021-8537, E-ISSN 1469-5138, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historians have written extensively about agricultural extension services and the linkages between colonial administrations and rural communities in British Africa. Most studies argue that it is possible to identify a qualitative shift between inter- and post-war strategies. The former is characterised by modest attempts of promoting soil conservation, while the latter is described as a period when colonial governments in British Africa - guided by scientific knowledge - tried to transform peasant agriculture to increase production. The article questions this division by using colonial Malawi as a case. It reveals that the strategies and intensity of agricultural extension services changed over time but that the aim of intervention, i.e. to combat soil erosion remained the focal point throughout the colonial period. This shows that it is important to differ between strategies and scale of intervention on the one hand and their aims and contents on the other. Changes of the former took place within the conservation paradigm. Additionally, the article reveals that agricultural extension services were directed by colonial officials' perception about African farmers rather than detailed empirical knowledge about existing farming methods.

  • 19.
    Green, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Diversification or De-Agrarianization?: Income Diversification, Labor, and Processes of Agrarian Change in Southern and Northern Malawi, Mid-1930s to Mid-1950s2008In: Agricultural History, Vol. 82, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the links between market-oriented activities and subsistence production among peasant farmers in the Thyolo and Mzimba districts in Malawi, from the mid-1930s to the mid-1950s. The two districts were chosen because of their differences in terms of land-labor ratios, quality of soils, and structure of market engagement. Exploring the different paths of agrarian change in these two districts demonstrates that they were dependent on the structure of market engagement and its effects on the supply and flexibility of labor. African agricultural history is best understood when agricultural systems are viewed in connection to the overall economic activities of rural households. More simply put, the dynamics of agrarian change in rural Africa cannot be understood without linking such changes to the wider economy and their impact on local labor processes.

  • 20.
    Green, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Forces of Agrarian Change: Agricultural Commercialisation in Mzimba District in Northern Malawi, mid-1950s to late 1970s2008In: Malawi Journal of Social Sciences, ISSN 1028-298X, Vol. 20, p. 1-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between the mid-1950s and late-1970s an increasing number of farmers in Mzimba district in Malawi engaged in commercial agriculture. This article investigates why they reallocated labour from migrant work to commercial agricultural production. By use of archival sources, it traces the changes to political factors that limited the households’ ability to participate in the regional labour market, which forced them to find alternative sources of income. Increased commercial production was thus driven by push-factors. Rather than been a force of change, the processes of commercialisation was limited by existing farming systems, characterized by shortage of labour and its low levels of productivity.

  • 21.
    Gräslund Berg, Elisabeth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Historisk landskapsanalys E18 Lekhyttan-Örebro2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Holmlund, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Arvejord och äktenskap på den uppländska landsbygden under 1800-talet2003In: Hans och hennes: genus och egendom i Sverige från vikingatid till nutid / [ed] Maria Ågren, Uppsala: Historiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet , 2003, p. 241-266Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Holmlund, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Jord byter ägare: Jordöverföringar och social differentiering i Stora Tuna ca 1840-18201995In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, E-ISSN 2002-3812, Vol. 30, p. 45-64Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Holmlund, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Jorden vi ärvde: Ägostruktur och arvsstrategier i Estuna 1800-19302004In: Bebyggelsehistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0349-2834, E-ISSN 2002-3812, no 46, p. 81-96Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Israelsson, Carin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Djuröga, guld värt; Dagar präglade av kor; Utfodring för överlevnad: Människan och faunan2008In: Etnobiologi i Sverige, no 3Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Israelsson, Carin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Milk as a means of payment for farm labour: the dairy economy at a Swedish estate 1874-19132008In: Agricultural History Review, ISSN 0002-1490, no 2Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Israelsson, Carin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Swedish success story: supported by the small people2007In: Exploring the Food Chain: Food Production and Food Procesing in Western Europe 1850-1980, Brepol publishers , 2007Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Kumblad, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm University Baltic Sea Centre.
    Aronsson, Helena
    Hammer, Monica
    Inkludera näringsläckaget från hästgårdar i övergödningsarbetet2024Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hästhållning kan leda till betydande läckage av kväve och fosfor och därmed orsaka övergödning. Dessa utsläpp bör inkluderas bättre i nationella beräkningar och arbetet mot övergödning, så att åtgärder kan sättas in för att minska näringsläckaget.

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  • 29.
    Larsson, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Scandinavian Languages. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Medieval Studies.
    Örta- och läkeböcker i den Bröndegaardska boksamlingen2010In: Nycklar till kunskap: Om människans bruk av naturen / [ed] Håkan Tunón och Anna Dahlström, Stockholm, Uppsala: CBM, KSLA , 2010, p. 137-149Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 30. Latif, Muhammad
    et al.
    Zoon, Momel
    Adnan, Shahzada
    Ahmed, Rehan
    Hannachi, Abdelwaheb
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Mahmood, Rashed
    Umar, Muhammad
    Spatiotemporal analyses of temperature and equivalent temperature and their relationship with crop health across Pakistan’s cropland2024In: Journal of Theoretical and Applied Climatology, ISSN 0177-798X, E-ISSN 1434-4483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spatiotemporal variations in temperature (T) and equivalent temperature (Te) significantly impact agricultural production across Pakistan, highlighting the need for enhanced weather and climate modeling. This study utilized four reanalysis datasets spanning a 38-year period (1981–2018): the fifth-generation European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) atmospheric reanalysis (ERA5), Interim ECMWF reanalysis (ERA-Interim), Modern-Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications version 2 (MERRA2), and the Japanese 55-year reanalysis (JRA55). We employed National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (NOAA/AVHRR) Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, a proxy for crop health, to assess the relationship between T, Te, and NDVI. This relationship is examined via regression and correlation analyses, and significance is assessed using the Mann–Kendall test and t-test. Our results show that near-surface T significantly contributes to the magnitude of Te (> 90%), whereas specific humidity (SH) has a smaller impact (< 10%). Both T and Te increase significantly across the entire tropospheric column, at 0.15 – 0.31 and 0.38 – 0.77 °C/decade, respectively. Notably, the mid-tropospheric level exhibits less warming than the upper and lower tropospheric levels. Correlation analyses of T and Te with NDVI reveal that Te exhibits a significantly stronger relationship with NDVI compared to T on both seasonal and annual timescales. The highest correlation occurs in the warm and humid summer monsoon (June – August), with Te showing a correlation of 0.50 and T correlating at 0.22 with NDVI. This study suggests that Te can serve as an additional metric for analysing near-surface heating trends in relation to crop health.

  • 31.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Appendix - Projektbeskrivning: förmoderna kustmiljöer. Naturresurser, klimat och samhälle vid östersjökusten före 1800 - ett miljöhistoriskt projekt2006In: Människan anpassaren - människan överskridaren: natur, bebyggelse och resursutnyttjande från sen järnålder till 1700-tal med särskild hänsyn till östra Mellansverige och Södermanlands kust : rapport från projektet: Förmoderna kustmiljöer. Naturresurser, klimat och samhälle vid östersjökusten före 1800 - ett miljöhistoriskt projekt / [ed] Sven Lilja, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2006, p. 231-241Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet Förmoderna kustmiljöer. Natur, klimat och samhälle vid Östersjökusten före ca 1800 är en komparativ miljöhistorisk studie av lokalt resursutnyttjande och miljöpåverkan under förmodern tid (järnålder till tidigt 1800-tal). Projektets övergripande tema ”människoskapade miljöförändringarkontra naturprocesser” undersöks genom intensivstudier av några lokalakustsamhällens elasticitet och överlevnadsförmåga. Såväl långsiktiga somkortsiktiga förändringar studeras. Hur anpassade sig sådana samhällen tilllångsamma naturprocesser, och vilka strategier valdes för att hantera kortarehistoriska fluktuationer och förändringsförlopp? Vilka konsekvenser fick devalda anpassningsstrategierna för närmiljön? Projektet syftar till ett disciplinöverskridande samarbete mellan arkeologi, historia och geografi. Delprojekten behandlar kompletterande perspektiv, där yttre naturförhållanden(landhöjning, klimatförändringar och växlingar i den marinbiologiska faunanetc.), samt yttre samhällsförhållanden (närhet till stat och marknad) ställsmot lokalsamhällets inre anpassnings- och förändringsstrategier. Undersökningen är komparativ, med undersökningsområden i lokala kust- och skärgårdsmiljöer vid Östersjön. I första hand kommer Stockholms södra skärgård och Estlands kust, med Saaremaa (Ösel) och Hiumaa (Dagö), att studeras, men även områden i Finland och västra Ryssland.

  • 32.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Klimatet, döden och makten: 1690-talets klimatkris2008In: Leva vid Östersjöns kust: en antologi om naturförutsättningar och resursutnyttjande på båda sidor av Östersjön ca 800-1800 : rapport 2 / från projektet Förmoderna kustmiljöer, naturresurser, klimat, och samhälle vid östersjökusten före 1800 - ett miljöhistoriskt projekt / [ed] Sven lilja, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2008, p. 23-79Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln beskriver och analyserar den stora klimatkris som drabbade norra Sverige, Finland och Baltikum på 1690-talet. Den studerar de demografiska och ekonomiska aspekterna av krisen, med särskild hänsyn till mortalitet, skördeutfall och och klimat- och vädersituationen. Artikeln diskutera även kronans sätt att reagera på krissignalerna från agrarsamhället.

  • 33.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Människan anpassaren - människan överskridaren: natur, bebyggelse och resursutnyttjande från sen järnålder till 1700-tal med särskild hänsyn till östra Mellansverige och Södermanlands kust : rapport från projektet: Förmoderna kustmiljöer. Naturresurser, klimat och samhälle vid östersjökusten före 1800 - ett miljöhistoriskt projekt.2006Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet "Förmoderna kustmiljöer" handlar om samspelet mellan kustmiljöernas förändring och människors liv huvudsakligen under de senaste 1500 åren. Projektet ställer naturprocesser mot samhälleliga förändringar i ett försök att förstå samspelet mellan människa och miljö. Kustens resurser bildar en fond mot vilken vi försöker förstå människornas verksamheter, strategier och tänkande. Naturens utmaning möter människors kamp och anpassning, och i den processen skapas landskap och miljöer. Förändringarna är ofta smygande, nästan omärkligt gradvisa, men ibland också kortsiktiga, tillfälliga och dramatiska. Projektet strävar efter att belysa utvecklingen ur båda dessa tidsperspektiv, i ett försök att se historiens riktning, upptäcka brytpunkter och eventuella "systemskiften".

  • 34.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Pre-modern coastal environments - project description2008In: Leva vid Östersjöns kust: en antologi om naturförutsättningar och resursutnyttjande på båda sidor av Östersjön ca 800-1800 : rapport 2 / från projektet Förmoderna kustmiljöer, naturresurser, klimat, och samhälle vid östersjökusten före 1800 - ett miljöhistoriskt projekt / [ed] Sven Lilja, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2008, p. 319-329Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The project Pre-Modern Coastal Environments has as its objective the studyof local resource use in selected coastal regions along the Baltic Sea. Thestudy’s main purpose is to determine the correlation between the effects ofhuman activities on the environment and the effects of naturally occurringenvironmental change. This will be achieved by using case studies focussingon the elasticity and survival capacity of specific coastal societies in easternSweden and western Estonia. The project will study settlement patterns,trade and industry, in relation to changes in the physical environment in thecontext of offshore displacement, climate changes, and changes in marinebiota. The project is a multidisciplinary cooperative effort of six researcherswho represent the disciplines of history, archaeology, human geography andphysical geography.

  • 35.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Skärgården och stormaktstidens Stockholm - impulser från en växande stad2009In: Skärgård och örlog.: Nedslag i Stockholms skärgårds tidiga historia. / [ed] Katarina Schoerner, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien. , 2009, första, p. 41-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Artikeln handlar om Stockholms inflytande på skärgården under stadens tillväxtperiod på 1600-talet. Den analyserar relationen mellan staden och skärgården ur tre parspektiv: stadens tryck mot skärgården, möjlilgheterna som skapades genom staden och stadens allmänna relationer till skärgården.

  • 36.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Teoretisk epilog2006In: Människan anpassaren - människan överskridaren: natur, bebyggelse och resursutnyttjande från sen järnålder till 1700-tal med särskild hänsyn till östra Mellansverige och Södermanlands kust : rapport från projektet: Förmoderna kustmiljöer. Naturresurser, klimat och samhälle vid östersjökusten före 1800 - ett miljöhistoriskt projekt / [ed] Sven Lilja, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2006, p. 197-220Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Lilja, Sven
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Teoretisk epilog2008In: Leva vid Östersjöns kust: en antologi om naturförutsättningar och resursutnyttjande på båda sidor av Östersjön ca 800-1800 : rapport 2 / från projektet Förmoderna kustmiljöer, naturresurser, klimat, och samhälle vid östersjökusten före 1800 - ett miljöhistoriskt projekt / [ed] Sven Lilja, Huddinge: Södertörns högskola , 2008, p. 265-276Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arftikeln är en teoretiskt orienterad sammanfatande analys av publikationens bidrag. Den anknyter till projektets övergriande målsättningar, och strävar efter att sätta antologins hvuudresultat i det större projektsammanhanget.

  • 38.
    Liljewall, Britt
    et al.
    Göteborgs stadsmuseum.
    Flygare, Iréne A.Lange, UlrichInstitutionen för kulturvård vid Göteborgs universitet.Ljunggren, LarsSöderberg, JohanStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Agrarhistoria på många sätt: 28 studier om människan och jorden. Festskrift till Janken Myrdal på hans 60-årsdag2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den överväldigande majoriteten av alla människor har varit verksamma i arbetet med jord och skog. Än idag är detta helt nödvändigt för vår överlevnad. Idag ställs även krav på landskapets biologiska och estetiska värden. Allt talar för att vi är i stort behov av agrarhistorisk kunskap. Boken ökar vår kunskap om dess kärna - om jorden, djuren och redskapen - men även de sociala, kulturella och politiska förhållandena som påverkat jordbruket. Bokens alla författare, både svenska och utländska, gör oss medvetna om mängden av agrarhistoriska källor och metoder. denna stora antologi är tillägnad Janken Myrdal, agrarhistoriens främste representant i Sverige, som låtit de mest skiftande och överraskande källmaterial och metoder komma till användning i sitt arbete.

  • 39.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Hartel, Tibor
    Helm, Aveliina
    Prangel, Elisabeth
    Reitalu, Ttriin
    Ripoll-Bosch, Raimon
    Ecosystem services provided by semi-natural and intensified grasslands: Synergies, trade-offs and linkages to plant traits and functional richness2023In: Applied Vegetation Science, ISSN 1402-2001, E-ISSN 1654-109X, Vol. 26, no 2, article id e12729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Question: Semi-natural grasslands (SNG) are important for maintaining biodiversity and ecological processes in farmland. Current pasture-based livestock production mainly occurs on intensified grasslands (IG) that have been agronomically improved. Although it is documented that SNG and IG differ in terms of plant diversity, their ability to provide ecosystem services (ES) in farmland is less explored. Here, we review the role of SNG and IG in delivering ES, illustrate their trade-offs and synergies, and examine how ES can be assessed by using plant traits and functional richness.

    Results: We found that SNG generate a wider range of ES than IG. Trade-offs exist between ES that appear more pronounced in IG between high biomass production and other ES. SNG are good in providing habitat for biodiversity, supporting pollination and cultural services. SNG also have a significantly wider range of plant functional traits and a higher functional richness, suggesting that the potential to supply ES in SNG is partly driven by higher number of species and their functional diversity.

    Conclusion: Clearer trade-offs were found in IG compared with SNG, supported both by the literature and the functional richness. This suggests that functional knowledge could be a good complement to understand the mechanisms behind ES generation and could help with tailoring grassland management to sustain biodiversity, ecological functions and ES. Although both IG and SNG are likely needed for the long-term sustainability of food production, both could aim for a more balanced generation of ES, increasing biodiversity and functional redundancy at the landscape scale.

  • 40.
    Livsey, John
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sustainable agriculture: From global challenges to local land management2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the success of agriculture management practices in increasing the availability of food needed to meet the requirements of the expanding global population, there are increasing demands placed on the resources on which the sector depends. Opportunities for the development of agricultural systems are constrained by increasing competition, from other sectors, for shared resources. In tackling this constraint, agricultural management solutions are often narrowly focused on problems related to single resources. But this single focus may lead to unintended trade-offs. To make sound management decisions, there is a need to better understand trade-offs which may occur from resource use efficiency solutions implemented in the agricultural sector. With a particular focus on soil and water resources, the aim of this thesis was to investigate trade-offs that occur, when meeting demands placed on agriculture systems, if management solutions are narrowly focused. Broadly, we hypothesize that approaches to land management that take a more holistic view of agricultural systems being part of an ecosystem mosaic should be adopted to ensure sustainability. A global assessment of potential land requirements shows that national level production of sufficiently nutritious food may be constrained by land availability, such that allocation of land to nutritious crop production might come at the cost of lost land for other crops or uses. This constraint will be the most prevalent in African states. In further studies, we focused on the management of water resources, which are becoming particularly limiting for crops that have high water demands, such as rice. Through a meta-analysis of paired plot experiments, which assessed the effect of water saving irrigation in rice production, and soil sampling within An Giang, a major rice producing province of Vietnam, we examined the effect of water management practices on soil properties. The meta-analysis finds that significant reductions in soil organic carbon, and potentially organic matter bound nutrients, have been observed when water efficient practices replace continual flood irrigation. This suggests that, although yield reductions may not be seen in the short term, water saving irrigation may, over time, lead to reductions in soil fertility and yields. Within An Giang province, there are concerns regarding the loss of flood-borne, nutrient rich, sediments in fields where the annual flood waters have been completely regulated. However, we find that this complete regulation does not result in reduced soil nutrient properties when compared to areas where floods are only partially regulated. The effect of different land management practices on soil properties were further explored within the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. Comparing farming practices along a gradient of intensity, we found contrasting effects of irrigation and fertilization, with irrigation increasing soil organic carbon and fertilization reducing soil organic carbon. Overall, the results of this thesis highlight the importance of looking beyond meeting short term needs, which can have negative long term consequences. The success of land management practices implemented now do not, necessarily, equate to their continued success in the future. As demands placed on agriculture are going to increase, the long term trade-offs which may occur from present practices must be at the forefront of agricultural management.

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  • 41.
    Livsey, John
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Thi Da, Chau
    Scaini, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Thai Huynh Phuong, Lan
    Tran Xuan, Long
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Floods, soil and food – Interactions between water management and rice production within An Giang province, Vietnam2021In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 320, article id 107589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Rapid intensification of Vietnamese rice production has had a positive effect on the nation's food production and economy. However, the sustainability of intensive rice production is increasingly being questioned within Vietnam, particularly in major agricultural provinces such as An Giang. The construction of high dykes within this province, which allow for complete regulation of water onto rice fields, has enabled farmers to grow up to three rice crops per year. However, the profitability of producing three crops is rapidly decreasing as farmers increase their use of chemical fertilizer inputs and pesticides. Increased fertilizer inputs are partly used to replace natural flood-borne, nutrient-rich sediment inputs that have been inhibited by the dykes, but farmers believe that despite this, soil health within the dyke system is degrading. However, the effects of the dykes on soil properties have not been tested. Therefore, a sampling campaign was conducted to assess differences in soil properties caused by the construction of dykes. The results show that, under present fertilization practices, although dykes may inhibit flood-borne sediments, this does not lead to a systematic reduction in nutrients that typically limit rice growth within areas producing three crops per year. Concentrations of total nitrogen, available phosphorous, and both total and available potassium, and pH were higher in the surface layer of soils of three crop areas when compared to two crop areas. This suggests that yield declines may be caused by other factors related to the construction of dykes and the use of chemical inputs, and that care should be taken when attempting to maintain crop yields. Attempting to compensate for yield declines by increasing fertilizer inputs may ultimately have negative effects on yields.

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  • 42. Michler, Lena M.
    et al.
    Kaczensky, Petra
    Oyunsaikhan, Ganbaatar
    Bartzke, Gundula S.
    Devineau, Olivier
    Treydte, Anna C.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Hohenheim, Germany.
    To move or not to move—factors influencing small-scale herder and livestock movements in the Dzungarian Gobi, Mongolia2023In: Regional Environmental Change, ISSN 1436-3798, E-ISSN 1436-378X, Vol. 23, no 4, article id 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Mongolia, where nomadic pastoralism is still practiced by around one-third of the population, increasing livestock numbers, socio-economic constraints and climate change raise concerns over rangeland health. Little empirical evidence explains what triggers camp moves of pastoralists in the Dzungarian Gobi in Mongolia, which factors influence grazing mobility around camps, and how altitudinal migration benefits small livestock. We combined GPS tracking data of 19 small livestock herds monitored from September 2018 to April 2020 with remotely sensed climate and environmental data. We used general linear-mixed models to analyse variables influencing camp use duration and daily mobility patterns. To understand the importance of the altitudinal migration, we compared climatic conditions along the elevation gradient and looked at seasonal body weight changes of small livestock. We found that available plant biomass and season best explained camp use duration. Daily walking distance and maximum distance from camp increased with camp use duration. Pasture time increased with increasing biomass and rising temperatures. We conclude that herders in the Dzungarian Gobi have optimized pasture use by reacting to changes in biomass availability at landscape and local scale, and by embracing altitudinal migration. Flexibility in grazing mobility seems to have enabled local herder communities to practise sustainable pasture use. Maintaining this mobility will most likely be the best strategy to deal with environmental change under the current climate change scenarios.

  • 43.
    Morell, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Agriculture in industrial society: 1870-19452011In: The agrarian history of Sweden: from 4000 BC to AD 2000 / [ed] Janken Myrdal, Mats Morell, Lund: Nordic Academic Press , 2011, p. 165-213Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Morell, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Böndernas jord: äga eller arrendera, ärva eller köpa2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: studier av de areella näringarnas geografi och histoira / [ed] Hans Antonsson, Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Kungliga Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien , 2011, p. 53-69-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Morell, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Husdjur och animalisk produktion2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: en kartografisk beskrivining / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Nordstedts , 2011, p. 86-95Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Morell, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Jordbrukets ekonomi och politik2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: en kartografisk beskrivning / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Nordstedt , 2011, p. 40-44Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Morell, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Produktionen på åker och i trädgård2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: en kartografisk beskrivning / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Nordstedt , 2011, p. 70-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 48.
    Morell, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Teknikutvecklingen i jordbruket2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: en kartografisk beskrivning / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Nordstedts , 2011, p. 45-55Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Morell, Mats
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Gadd, Carl-Johan
    Ekonomisk-historiska institutionen, Göteborgs universitet.
    Myrdal, Janken
    Institutionen för Ekonomi, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Statistical appendix2011In: The agrarian history of Sweden: from 4000 BC to AD 2000 / [ed] Janken Myrdal och Mats Morell, Lund: Nordic Academic Press , 2011, p. 257-270Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 50. Muleke, Albert
    et al.
    Harrison, Matthew Tom
    Eisner, Rowan
    de Voil, Peter
    Yanotti, Maria
    Liu, Ke
    Monjardino, Marta
    Yin, Xiaogang
    Wang, Weilu
    Nie, Jiangwen
    Ferreira, Carla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Navarino Environmental Observatory, Greece; Polytechnic Institute of Coimbra, Portugal.
    Zhao, Jin
    Zhang, Feng
    Fahad, Shah
    Shurpali, Narasinha
    Feng, Puyu
    Zhang, Yunbo
    Forster, Daniel
    Yang, Rui
    Qi, Zhiming
    Fei, Wang
    Gao, Xionghui
    Man, Jianguo
    Nie, Lixiao
    Sustainable intensification with irrigation raises farm profit despite climate emergency2023In: Plants, People, Planet, E-ISSN 2572-2611, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 368-385Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Societal Impact Statement

    Despite comprising a small proportion of global agricultural land use, irrigated agriculture is enormously important to the global agricultural economy. Burgeoning food demand driven by population growth—together with reduced food supply caused by the climate crisis—is polarising the existing tension between water used for agricultural production versus that required for environmental conservation. We show that sustainable intensification via more diverse crop rotations, more efficient water application infrastructure and greater farm area under irrigation is conducive to greater farm business profitability under future climates.

    Summary

    • Research aimed at improving crop productivity often does not account for the complexity of real farms underpinned by land-use changes in space and time.
    • Here, we demonstrate how a new framework—WaterCan Profit—can be used to elicit such complexity using an irrigated case study farm with four whole-farm adaptation scenarios (Baseline, Diversified, Intensified and Simplified) with four types of irrigated infrastructure (Gravity, Pipe & Riser, Pivot and Drip).
    • Without adaptation, the climate crisis detrimentally impacted on farm profitability due to the combination of increased evaporative demand and increased drought frequency. Whole-farm intensification—via greater irrigated land use, incorporation of rice, cotton and maize and increased nitrogen fertiliser application—was the only adaptation capable of raising farm productivity under future climates. Diversification through incorporation of grain legumes into crop rotations significantly improved profitability under historical climates; however, profitability of this adaptation declined under future climates. Simplified systems reduced economic risk but also had lower long-term economic returns.
    • We conclude with four key insights: (1) When assessing whole-farm profit, metrics matter: Diversified systems generally had higher profitability than Intensified systems per unit water, but not per unit land area; (2) gravity-based irrigation infrastructure required the most water, followed by sprinkler systems, whereas Drip irrigation used the least water; (3) whole-farm agronomic adaptation through management and crop genotype had greater impact on productivity compared with changes in irrigation infrastructure; and (4) only whole-farm intensification was able to raise profitability under future climates.
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