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  • 1. Ake-Kob, Alin
    et al.
    Blazeviciene, Aurelija
    Colonna, Liane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Čartolovni, Anto
    Dantas, Carina
    Fedosov, Anton
    Florez-Revuelta, Francisco
    Fosch-Villaronga, Eduard
    He, Zhicheng
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Klimczuk, Andrzej
    Kuźmicz, Maksymilian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Lukács, Adrienn
    Lutz, Christoph
    Mekovec, Renata
    Miguel, Cristina
    Mordini, Emilio
    Pajalic, Zada
    Pierscionek, Barbara Krystyna
    Santofimia Romero, Maria Jose
    Salah, Albert Ali
    Sobecki, Andrzej
    Solanas, Agusti
    Tamò-Larrieux, Aurelia
    State of the Art on Ethical, Legal, and Social Issues Linked to Audio- and Video-Based AAL Solutions2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambient assisted living (AAL) technologies are increasingly presented and sold as essential smart additions to daily life and home environments that will radically transform the healthcare and wellness markets of the future. An ethical approach and a thorough understanding of all ethics in surveillance/monitoring architectures are therefore pressing. AAL poses many ethical challenges raising questions that will affect immediate acceptance and long-term usage. Furthermore, ethical issues emerge from social inequalities and their potential exacerbation by AAL, accentuating the existing access gap between high-income countries (HIC) and low and middle-income countries (LMIC). Legal aspects mainly refer to the adherence to existing legal frameworks and cover issues related to product safety, data protection, cybersecurity, intellectual property, and access to data by public, private, and government bodies. Successful privacy-friendly AAL applications are needed, as the pressure to bring Internet of Things (IoT) devices and ones equipped with artificial intelligence (AI) quickly to market cannot overlook the fact that the environments in which AAL will operate are mostly private (e.g., the home). The social issues focus on the impact of AAL technologies before and after their adoption. Future AAL technologies need to consider all aspects of equality such as gender, race, age and social disadvantages and avoid increasing loneliness and isolation among, e.g. older and frail people. Finally, the current power asymmetries between the target and general populations should not be underestimated nor should the discrepant needs and motivations of the target group and those developing and deploying AAL systems. Whilst AAL technologies provide promising solutions for the health and social care challenges, they are not exempt from ethical, legal and social issues (ELSI). A set of ELSI guidelines is needed to integrate these factors at the research and development stage.

     

  • 2. Büscher, Monika
    et al.
    Wahlgren, PeterStockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.Liegl, Michael
    D12.2 BRIDGE Ethical, Legal and Social Issues: Current practices in Multi Agency EmergencyCollaboration2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Integrating information technology (IT) into emergency responseproduces complex intended and unintended, positive and negative consequences, reaching from enhanced efficienciesto new digital divides. This deliverable presents an analysis of core ethical, legal and socialissues that practitioners and other stakeholders currently encounter in multi-agency collaboration. The report provides a broad overview and an inventory of international coordination initiatives and standarisation activities. The focus lies on issues that are relevant to innovation in IT supported forms of multi-agency emergencyresponse. We examine current approaches and practices of managing these issues, combining literature review with insights from empirical investigations. The purpose of the work summarised here is to inform socio-technicalinnovation in system of systemapproaches to large-scale multi-agency emergency response, and this purpose defines the scope of discussions. Utilization of the document for this purpose is supported by a glossary and an extensive index. The report concludes with a summary.

  • 3.
    Colonna, Liane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Addressing the Responsibility Gap in Data Protection by Design: Towards a More Future-oriented, Relational, and Distributed Approach2022In: Tilburg Law Review, ISSN 2211-0046, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the extent to which technology providers are responsible to end users for embedding data protection rules in the AI systems they design and develop, so as to safeguard the fundamental rights to privacy and data protection. The main argument set forth is that a relational rationale, requiring a broader range of actors in the supply chain to share legal responsibility for Data Protection by Design (DPbD) is better suited to address infringements to these fundamental rights than the current model that assigns responsibility mainly to the data controller or data processor. Reconceptualizing the law in a more future-oriented, relational, and distributed way would make it possible to adapt legal rules – including those within the GDPR and the continuously evolving EU acquis – to the complex reality of technology development, at least partly addressing the responsibility gap in DPbD.

    A future-oriented conception of responsibility would require technology providers to adopt more proactive approaches to DPbD, even where they are unlikely to qualify as a controller. A relational approach to DPbD would require technology providers to bear greater responsibilities to those individuals or groups that are affected by their design choices. A distributed approach to DPbD would allow for downstream actors in the supply chain to bear part of the legal responsibility for DPbD by relying on legal requirements that are applicable to various actors in the supply chain supporting DPbD such as those found in contract law, liability law, and the emerging EU acquis governing AI, data, and information security.

  • 4.
    Colonna, Liane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Exploring the Relationship Between Article 22 of the General Data Protection Regulation and Article 14 of the Proposed AI Act: Some Preliminary Observations and Critical Reflections2023In: Dataskyddet 50 År – Historia, Aktuella problem och Framtid / [ed] Martin Brinnen; Cecilia Magnusson Sjöberg; David Törngren; Daniel Westman; Sören Öman, Visby: Eddy.se , 2023, p. 443-465Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Colonna, Liane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Legal and regulatory challenges to utilizing lifelogging technologies for the frail and sick2019In: International Journal of Law and Information Technology, ISSN 0967-0769, E-ISSN 1464-3693, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 50-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lifelogging technologies have the capacity to transform the health and social care landscape in a way that few could have imagined. Indeed, the emergence of lifelogging technologies within the context of healthcare presents incredible opportunities to diagnose illnesses, engage in preventative medicine, manage healthcare costs and allow the elderly to live on their own for longer periods. These technologies, however, require coherent legal regulation in order to ensure, among other things, the safety of the device and privacy of the individual. When producing lifelogging technologies, it is important that developers understand the legal framework in order to create a legally compliant device. The current regulation of lifelogging is highly fragmented, consisting of a complex patchwork of laws. There are also a number of different regulatory agencies involved. Laws and regulations vary, depending on jurisdiction, making development of these technologies more challenging, particularly given the fact that many lifelogging tools have an international dimension.

  • 6.
    Colonna, Liane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Legal Implications of Using AI as an Exam Invigilator2021Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Universities around the globe have been profoundly affected by stay-at-home orders, which have required them to close their doors and shift to online teaching and learning. In an effort to avoid delaying or postponing examinations amid the Covid-19 outbreak, many higher-education institutions have turned to online proctoring tools, raising complex questions about how they can ensure the integrity of online assessments while at the same time respect ethical and legal constraints, especially regarding students’ fundamental rights to privacy, data protection and non-discrimination. In particular, universities are increasingly relying on AI-based facial recognition technologies (FRT) that can be used to authenticate remote users that connect from offsite the campus as well as to identify cheating and other dubious behavior throughout the online exam process.

  • 7.
    Colonna, Liane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Legal Implications of Using AI as an Exam Invigilator2022In: 2020-2021 Nordic Yearbook: Law in the Era of Artificial Intelligence / [ed] Liane Colonna; Stanley Greenstein, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute , 2022, p. 13-46Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
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  • 8.
    Colonna, Liane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Opportunities and Challenges to Utilizing Text-data Mining in Public Libraries: A Need for Legal Research2018In: Scandinavian Studies in Law, ISSN 0085-5944, Vol. 65, p. 191-196Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Colonna, Liane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    The AI Act’s Research Exemption: A Mechanism for Regulatory Arbitrage?2023In: The Yearbook of Socio-Economic Constitutions: Law and the Governance of Artificial Intelligence / [ed] Andreas Moberg; Eduardo Gill-Pedro, Cham: Springer, 2023Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Colonna, Liane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    The AI Regulation and Higher Education: Preliminary Observations and Critical Perspectives2022In: Law, AI and Digitalisation / [ed] Katja de Vries; Mattias Dahlberg, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2022, p. 333-356Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    De Lege
  • 11.
    Colonna, Liane
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Greenstein, Stanley
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Nordic Yearbook of Law and Informatics 2020–2021: Law in the Era of Artificial Intelligence2022Book (Refereed)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12. Corrales Compagnucci, Marcelo
    et al.
    Nilsson, Niclas
    Stankovski Wagner, Paul
    Olsson, Christoffer
    Fenwick, Mark
    Minssen, Timo
    Szkalej, Kacper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute. Lund University, Sweden.
    Non-fungible tokens as a framework for sustainable innovation in pharmaceutical R&D: a smart contract-based platform for data sharing and rightsholder protection2024In: International review of law computers & technology, ISSN 1360-0869, E-ISSN 1364-6885, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 66-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and development (R&D) in the pharmaceutical sector traditionally operated with in closed, siloed institutional settings, driven by intellectual property rights concerns that viewed data sharing as a threat. However, the evolving scientific landscape demands a more collaborative approach involving external engagement and dynamic partnerships. To address this, a hybrid contractual framework combining smart contracts, non-fungible tokens (NFTs), and traditional licensing schemes is introduced. This framework was developed through an experimental pilot platform that adhered to FAIR data principles, allowing participants to store, find, and reuse data related to drug discovery. The platform utilizes blockchain technology to document real-world assets in an immutable digital ledger. Smart contracts and NFTs offer an open and global collaborative platform for advancing drug research assets, overcoming hurdles related to standardization, interoperability, and disclosure. This framework aims to reconcile the conflict between the demand for greater data sharing and the protection of rightsholder interests in pharmaceutical R&D. By providing mechanisms for resolving practical challenges, it facilitates further cooperation and innovation in the field. 

  • 13.
    de Vries, Katja
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute. Lund University, Sweden; Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    You never fake alone. Creative AI in action2020In: Information, Communication and Society, ISSN 1369-118X, E-ISSN 1468-4462, Vol. 23, no 14, p. 2110-2127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Creative AI (notably GANs and VAEs) can generate convincing fakes of video footage, pictures, graphics, etc. In order to conceptualize the societal role of creative AI a new conceptual toolbox is needed. The paper provides metaphors and concepts for understanding the functioning of creative AI. It shows how the role of creative AI in relation to FAT ideals can be enriched by a dynamic and constructivist understanding of creative AI. The paper proposes to use Greimas’ actantial model as a heuristic in the operationalization of this type of understanding of creative AI.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 14.
    Fast Lappalainen, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Bevissäkring i molnet?: Reflektioner över teknikanpassningen av reglerna om bevissäkring med anledning av Högsta förvaltningsdomstolens dom HFD 2021 ref. 232022In: Skattenytt, ISSN 0346-1254, Vol. 2022, no 1, p. 48-61Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Användningen av molntjänster på internet har ökat markant under senare år och utgör redan en väsentlig del av företagens informationshantering. På motsvarande sätt tilltar behovet av insyn i och granskning av dessa ”utrymmen”, t.ex. för skattekontroll. Den tämligen gränslösa och flexibla molnmiljön är emellertid svårnavigerad då lagring sker externt och ibland över flera jurisdiktioner. Kontrollmöjligheterna är begränsade. I målet HFD 2021 ref. 23 klargjordes att bevissäkring i molnet inte är möjlig, då det saknas lagstöd. En teknikanpassad reglering av bevissäkringsreglerna framstår därför som angelägen. I artikeln företas en analys av gällande rätt om bevissäkring i molnet och diskussion om möjliga regleringsmodeller. 

  • 15.
    Fast Lappalainen, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Is There a Human Right to Human Contact? Preliminary Reflections on the Robotization of Caregiving2022In: Nordic Yearbook of Law and Informatics 2020-2021: Law in the Era of Artificial Intelligence / [ed] Liane Colonna; Stanley Greenstein, Stockholm: The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute , 2022, p. 81-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of personal care robots in caregiving raises many different ethical and legal dilemmas regarding privacy and personal data, as well as concerns in relation to human dignity and the prohibition of inhuman and degrading treatment. At a more fundamental level, this raises two central issues. First, the question is whether an inidivual can claim a right to human contact and to be cared for by humans, in an increasingly digitalized and robotized society. If so, a second question arises: on which legal grounds and to what extent, can such a right be asserted in relation to robotized caregiving? What would the ethical and legal consequences be if the care of humans were turned over to robots for long periods of time? The purpose of this paper is to provide certain reflections on the legal grounds for a possible right to human caregiving and related issues, which as a general legal framework could affect the way in which care robots can be introdced into caregiving. If there is a rigt to be left alone, is there also a right not to be left alone? 

  • 16.
    Fast Lappalainen, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Protecting Children from Maltreatment with the Help of Artificial Intelligence: A Promise or a Threat to Children’s Rights?2022In: Law, AI and Digitalisation / [ed] Katja de Vries; Mattias Dahlberg, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2022, 1:1, p. 431-466Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Predictive tools for child protection based on AI have, with varying success, been developed in different parts of the world. Some examples are the Vulnerable Children Predictive Risk Model of New Zealand from 2012, the Allegheny Family Screening Tool used by Allegheny County in Pennsylvania in the U.S. since 2014 and the Early Help Profiling System of Hackney County Council, London, U.K. In Scandinavia the Gladsaxe-model from Copenhagen, Denmark, seems to have been the first in the region as it was ready in 2018. In Sweden, the municipality of Norrtälje launched an AI tool to analyse cases based on preliminary warning referrals in 2020, to help in the detection of future cases of child maltreatment.

    It could be argued that such tools in general will help prevent maltreatment of children and enable social services to become more effective in their outreach work and thus the provision of support to children at high risk at a lower cost. The struggle to provide more effective child welfare and the reality of substantial funding cuts, common to the authorities in many European countries, increases the interest in such systems. Contrary to the promise and hopes for AI tools is the fact that the use of such tools for child protection, comes with multiple risks from a children’s rights perspective. This is certainly the case regarding the use of predictive risk modelling (PRM) in child welfare.

    The purpose of this paper is to give a preliminary overview and analysis regarding the design and use of AI tools to identify children at high risk of maltreatment in relation to relevant children’s rights. Are such child protection tools aligned with children’s rights as laid down in the UN Convention of the Rights of the Child (UNCRC), the European Convention of Human Rights and the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights? And to what extent?

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    fulltext
  • 17.
    Fast Lappalainen, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    The Evolution and Implementation of Whistleblower Protection in Sweden2023In: Europe’s New Whistleblowing Laws: Research Papers from the 2nd European Conference on Whistleblowing Legislation / [ed] Simon Gerdemann, Göttingen: Universitätsverlag Göttingen, 2023, p. 26-62Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 2019 EU whistleblowing directive (WBD) was enacted to strengthen the position of whistleblowers and provide more effective protection throughout the EU, not least through mandatory whistleblower functions now being implemented by large employers. The implementation of the directive in Sweden has been fairly swift, arguably as whistleblowing protection is already a part of Swedish legal culture.Whistleblower protection in Sweden has its historic roots in the 1766 Freedom of the Press Act. A reaction to corruption and secretive government, the drafters of the Act viewed the participation of citizens and civil servants through the freedom of informants and the right to access public documents as central checks on government. Over the centuries this freedom of informants has been strengthened through the addition of prohibitions on public agencies as to making inquiries into the identity of informants as well as reprisals. Nevertheless, it was not until 2016 that the first specific Whistleblower Act (WA) was introduced. The Act applies to both the public and private sectors. The WBD was implemented in 2021 through a new WA, lagen (2021:890) om skydd för den som rapporterar om missförhållanden, which builds on the 2016 Act but is significantly broader in scope. The aim of this paper is to analyze the evolution of whistleblower protection as well as the current system of the whistleblower legislation in Sweden leading up to the implementation of the WBD. Some reflections related to issues concerning legal culture are given, with the possible challenges regarding the integration of the new European rules in Sweden as well as an analysis of the effectiveness of the Swedish whistleblower protection system. The paper concludes that the implementation of the WBD in Swedish law strengthens whistleblower protection, but also creates a higher degree of complexity, which might lead to it being weakened in practice. Complexities might arise related to the fact that the constitutional protection has precedence over the WA. It might not be clear in all cases which provisions are to apply, which carries with it a risk that the current system will be confusing for potential whistleblowers. Another issue of concern is that the WA requires the whistleblower to follow certain procedures. Although this can create a comprehensible procedure and, in some ways, facilitate reporting of wrongdoings, it can also constitute a restraint on the freedom to report as the whistleblower sees fit together with, for example, a professional reporter. Furthermore, the fact that whistleblowers generally have to report through external reporting channels before he or she can go public might undermine the role of the media as the public watchdog as well as a corporate watchdog.     Moreover, there are still important access to justice issues related to whistleblowing in Sweden that need to be overcome, which has become clear in recent case law through e.g. the Grinnemo-case.     Despite these concerns, it is likely that whistleblower protection will evolve further with the new law and strengthen the safeguards for an effective whistleblower protection to the benefit of the transparency and the proper functioning of democratic societies. 

  • 18.
    Fast Lappalainen, Katarina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Vad händer med offentlighetsprincipen i den nya dataekonomin? Rättsliga reflektioner kring utvecklingen av den offentliga förvaltningens roll att tillgängliggöra offentliga data i det digitala informationssamhället2023In: Norstedts Juridik 200 år: Jubileumsskrift / [ed] Max Lyles; Filippo Valguarnera, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2023, p. 324-435Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the legal developments concerning the public administration’s role in making public data available to the public in accordance with the Swedish constitutional principle of publicity and the EU’s Public Sector Information legislation (PSI), including the open data directive, and the relationship between them. Furthermore, the study identifies trends and presents certain proposals for future legislation. 

    The public administration, with its large amounts of data, has in some sense always been data-driven. Nevertheless, through the development of big data over the past decades, the ability to store and analyze vast and varying amounts of data at an increasingly growing speed has made public data an even more valuable resource for different actors. This has led to the establishment of an information market based on public data. Public data can be made available for everyone either for a fee or for free in the form of for example Public Sector Information (PSI) or open data. Data from different agencies can be combined with one another and other private data sources, which continuously creates new areas of application. Within the EU this is framed as the data economy. 

    Public administrative bodies have therefore achieved a more active role as a catalyst for the data economy, which has been further institutionalized through legal regulations such as the act (2022:818) on the availability of public data, through which the EU open data directive has been implemented. 

    Nevertheless, this development entails important risks for both the individual and the nation state. There are underlying risks concerning mass surveillance, discrimination and disinformation. Democracy, the rule of law and fundamental rights, which form the basis of our legal order are at play and depend heavily on the choices we make regarding the use of this common resource. Moreover, there are important risks related to information security and not least national security, especially since it can turn into an impossible endeavor to sort out how and for what purposes these vast amounts of data are used or reused by unknown actors.   

    While there is a risk of abuse and overuse of public data, it can also be important to understand it can be a problem if we cannot use this resource in a manner which can lead to increased innovation, growth and welfare.

    The current development regarding the further utilization of public information in what is now called the data economy is complex and multifaceted. This increases the need for an integrated regulatory framework. Currently, there are parallel regulations; 1) the national one which takes its starting point in the principle of openness which has its origin in a long tradition of the promotion of democracy and freedom of expression and counteracting corruption and 2) the EU’s PSI legislation with its market-oriented orientation. This in turn requires an overall strategy on the part of the legislator on how the regulations could be integrated in such a way that they enrich each other without putting fundamental values at risk.

    Another important issue is which data should be accessible for reuse. This is a matter which requires a complex balancing of interests. This can, for example, involve the weighing of certain fundamental rights, such as the protection of personal data and the freedom of information, as well as balancing the need for open government versus national security and information security. There seems to be an apparent need for a central public organ with the necessary competencies to carry out these complex balancing acts. 

    The complex decision-making that the current legislation requires also faces challenges at the conceptual level. Different terms are used within the various regulations in a manner that can cause confusion. Furthermore, certain unexplained discrepancies have also been found in relation to the concept of data within data science and the legislation, which in turn can adversely affect both legal certainty and efficiency.

    Another issue concerns the trend towards making public data available at low cost or for free. This is assumed to contribute to increased economic welfare in the form of increased employment, tax revenues and innovation, which is strongly reminiscent of the economic notion of dynamic effects. This should give rise to further evaluation, not least in order to make sure that other important interests are safeguarded both at the individual and the national level. It can also be argued that the fact that the companies involved are the beneficiaries of a state subsidy, as compared to most other business situations where the the “raw material” will not be provided by the state for free. Thus, there is a potential problem in relation to the principle of equality. 

    The study shows the need for finding ways to uphold and provide concrete meaning to the fundamental rights and values on which our legal order rests in the EU’s developing data economy.

  • 19.
    Fast Lappalainen, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, CeciliaStockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Författningssamling i rättsinformatik: 2023/242023Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Författningssamlingen är anpassad till kurser i Rättsinformatik vid Stockholms universitet. Avsikten är att materialet ska vara behändigt även vid annan utbildning och praktik som avser juridiken i det digitaliserade samhället. Författningssamlingen i rättsinformatik kompletteras av en rättsfallssamling inom samma ämnesområde. Författningarna återges som de lyder den 1 juli 2023. 

  • 20.
    Fast Lappalainen, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, CeciliaStockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute. Stockholm University.
    Rättsfallssamling i rättsinformatik: 2023/242023Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rättsfallssamlingen avspeglar kurser i Rättsinformatik vid Stockholms universitet. Avsikten är att materialet ska vara behändigt även vid annan utbildning och praktik som avser juridiken i det digitaliserade samhället. Innehållet är aktuellt per den 1 juli 2023. Rättsfallssamlingen i rättsinformatik kompletteras av en författningssamling inom samma ämnesområde. 

  • 21.
    Fast Lappalainen, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Melz, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, Stockholm Centre for Commercial Law.
    Zamboni, Mauro
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Sweden2022In: History and Taxation: The Dialectical Relationship between Taxation and the Political Balance of Power / [ed] Peter H.J. Essers, Amsterdam: International Bureau of Fiscal Documentation (IBFD), 2022, p. 633-656Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden as a state emerged during the Middle Ages out of the chaos of tumultuous battles between rival clans. Around 1000 AD the different clans seem to have united under the reign of one king and gradually common institutions and central offices developed as well as a class structure consisting of the commoners, the priesthood, the aristocracy and the King. A parliament, the Riksdag, consisting of representatives of the different classes was formed. The Riksdag elected the kings and made decisions regarding war and taxation.

    Sweden was an elective monarchy until the Riksdag of 1544, when Sweden was declared a hereditary monarchy. Kings were normally elected by the aristocracy and were usually of royal or aristocratic descent. Swedish kings were normally not as powerful as their European counterparts, being dependent on negotiations with the aristocracy in particular but also with the commoners. There were some rare exceptions involving periods of absolutism during the 17th Century  

    The dialectical relationship between taxation and the political balance of power in Sweden has therefore mostly been formed by negotiations and the power relations of different classes. Here the commoners and the aristocracy played an important part.    

    The development of taxation and democracy in Sweden can be attributed to many factors. Sweden did not become a more full-blown democracy until 1921. The road towards democracy in Sweden was not marked by war or revolution but occurred gradually over long periods of time. Although Sweden was a highly militarized state from the 16th Century to the 20th Century, Sweden has not endured any civil wars or revolutions.

    Taxation and democracy have been closely tied, since the right to political influence and later the right to vote was linked to the individual’s status as taxpayer. In order to fully grasp this evolution, there are certain periods that stand out in Swedish history rather than particular iconic events. These will be described briefly below. Principles and traditions of taxation in medieval Sweden paved the way for the Swedish Empire between 1611-1721, which in turn left its marks on the constitutions of the Age of Liberty between 1719-1772 and in the Constitution of 1809, which was in force until 1975.  

    In this chapter the tax history of Sweden is analyzed from the point of view of the dialectical relationship between taxation and the policical balance of power.

  • 22. Flórez-Revuelta, Francisco
    et al.
    Mihailidis, Alex
    Ziefle, Martina
    Colonna, Liane
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Spinsante, Susanna
    Privacy-Aware and Acceptable Lifelogging Services for Older and Frail People: the PAAL Project2018In: Proceedings 2018 IEEE 8th International Conference onConsumer Electronics - Berlin (ICCE-Berlin) / [ed] Reinhard Moeller, LucioLucio Ciabattoni, IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Developed countries around the world are facing crucial challenges regarding health and social care because of the demographic change and current economic context. Innovation in technologies and services for Active and Assisted Living stands out as a promising solution to address these challenges, while profiting from the economic opportunities. For instance, lifelogging technologies may enable and motivate individuals to pervasively capture data about them, their environment and the people with whom they interact, in order to receive a variety of services to increase their health, well-being and independence. In this context, the PAAL project presented in this paper has been conceived, with a manifold aim: to increase the awareness about the ethical, legal, social and privacy issues associated to lifelogging technologies; to propose privacy-aware lifelogging services for older people, evaluating their acceptability issues and barriers to familiarity with technology; to develop specific applications referred to relevant use cases for older and frail people.

  • 23.
    Färjare, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Juridiskt forum:  1997In: Juridisk tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, no 4, p. 1249-1257Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utbudet av elektroniska produkter med rättsinformation ökar. Likaså har möjligheterna att få tillgång till dessa breddats avsevärt. För inte alltför många år sedan fanns enbart ett fåtal on-line-databaser att tillgå. Att kunna nå en sådan via en uppringbar förbindelse var då något som var förunnat ett fåtal. Idag kan varje person med någon form av Internet-anslutning söka bland utlagda rättsinformationsprodukter. Några av dessa är renodlade Internet-tillämpningar.

    I denna artikel kommer Juridiskt forum, en Internet-tjänst som tillhandahålls av Juridisk Informationsteknologi AB, JIT, att beskrivas.

  • 24.
    Färjare, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Krönika: Summa summarum tack var Twitter2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Greenstein, Stanley
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Vem reglerar informationssamhället?2010Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 23:e Nordiska konferensen i rättsinformatik ägde rum i Stockholm 2008 och tog sig an temat ”IT Regulations and Policies: from Theory into Practice”. Huvudsyftet med konferensen var att formulera en juridisk agenda för reglering av IT och policy. De frågor som behandlades rörde bland annat hur man bör balansera kraven på ökad juridisk reglering och hur man bör ta hänsyn till de röster som vill ha mindre regler i informationssamhället. Därtill diskuterades vilka juridiska angreppssätt som är mest lämpliga.

    Konferensen tog också upp problem som har blivit relevanta som en följd av samhällets användning av informations- och kommunikationsteknologi, bland annat: 

    • Hur den personliga integriteten ter sig i framtiden.
    • Hur immaterialrätten påverkas i informationssamhället.
    • Hur man kan skydda den personliga integriteten och samtidigt främja informationssäkerheten.
    • Vad begrepp som semantic web och sociala media har för betydelse för utvecklingen av juristers informationssökning.
    • Hur kunskapshanteringssystem kommer att fungera i framtiden. 

    I denna utgåva av Nordisk årsbok i rättsinformatik presenteras bidrag från flera av de talare som medverkade på konferensen. Boken belyser på så vis både aktuella frågor och utvecklingstendenser i informationssamhället.

  • 26.
    Greenstein, Stanley
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Papapetrou, Panagiotis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Computer and Systems Sciences. Aalto University, Finland.
    Mochaourab, Rami
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Sweden.
    Embedding Human Values into Artificial Intelligence (AI)2022In: Law, AI and Digitalisation / [ed] Katja De Vries; Mattias Dahlberg, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2022, 1:1, p. 91-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 27.
    Kirchberger, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Freedom of information and privacy protection2005In: IT Law for IT Professionals — an introduction, Studentlitteratur, 2005 , 2005, p. 230-Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Kirchberger, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    International Encyclopaedia for Cyber Law - National Monograph Sweden2010In: International Encyclopaedia of laws - Cyber Law / [ed] Dumortier, Jos, Alphen aan den Rijn: Kluwer Law International , 2010, 1, , p. 248Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The series International Encyclopaedia for Cyber Law discusses legal issues that information and communication technology has given rise to. Each monograph in the Cyber Law Encyclopaedia covers the regulation of the ICT market, the protection of intellectual property, ICT contracts, electronic transactions, non-contractual liability, privacy protection and computer-related crime.

    Besides editor and main author Christine Kirchberger, who covered intellectual property rights, electronic commerce and privacy protection, other colleagues and lawyers contributed with specific chapters. Johan Kahn, Law Firm Delphi, wrote on ICT contracts, Per Nordenson, Nordenson Law Firm, on alternative dispute resolution within the IT sector, Ulf Isaksson, Danowsky & Partners, on liability, Stanley Greenstein, Swedish Law & Informatics Research Institute, discussed cryptography and standardisation, Henrik Nilsson, Bird & Bird, focused on the regulation of the electronic communications sector, and Erik Wennerström, Swedish Ministry for Foreign Affairs, presented legal issues of computer-related crime.

    The countries included in the Cyber Law Encyclopaedia are, among others, Australia, China, Denmark, Ireland, Italy, South Africa, Spain and the United Kingdom. Sweden is the 27th country to join the series, which is edited by Prof. Dr. Jos Dumortier, K.U. Leuven, Belgium.

  • 29.
    Kirchberger, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Rechtsinformation als Werkzeug – eine schwedische Perspektive2007In: 10 Jahre IRIS: Bilanz und Ausblick: Tagungsband des 10. Internationalen Rechtsinformatik-Symposions IRIS 2007, 2007, p. 504-Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Kirchberger, Christine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    The "i" in Legal Information Retrieval2010In: Vem reglerar informationssamhället?  : Nordisk årsbok i rättsinformatik / [ed] Stanley Greenstein, Stockholm: Jure AB , 2010, p. 205-211Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Koch, Stellan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Ansvar för personuppgifter i publika blockkedjor: En teknologi förenlig med GDPR?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While the Internet provides enormous opportunities within development of communications and database systems it also endangers the processing of personal data unlawfully. With traditional database structure in focus the responsibility and accountability of said processed personal data was somewhat clear as the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) entered the legal framework of the European Union’s member states in May 2018. Blockchain technology being the latest innovation in database structure challenges the applicability of the new regulation by introducing cryptography and a peer-to-peer distributed ledger technology. This thesis is the result of an attempt to analyze the personal data processed in public blockchains, i.e. Bitcoin, and its compliance with certain fundamental data protection rights stipulated in the GDPR such as the right to erasure of personal data.

    Furthermore, in relation to fundamental data protection rights violations are also subjects of accountability. While the new distributed ledger technology vastly increases the difficulty to determine a target for accountability the thesis also considers the traditional view on databases on which the GDPR was built upon. Thus, the thesis aims to further explore the relation between participants on the innovative blockchain and fundamental personal data protection rights in the GDPR.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 32.
    Kuzmicz, Maksymilian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    A Concept of Balance of Interest in the Context of Active Assisted Living2023In: Digital Society, ISSN 2731-4650, Vol. 2, no 3, article id 51Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the concept of balancing interests within the context of Active Assisted Living (AAL). AAL technologies hold great promise for addressing the care and support needs of older adults. However, they also raise ethical and social considerations that necessitate a careful balance of interests among various stakeholders. The objective of this study is to comprehensively examine the notion of balance shedding light on its multifaceted dimensions and discuss practical implications for the AAL. Drawing on a thorough literature review and interdisciplinary insights, the research unfolds in three stages. First, it recognizes four key dimensions of balance: equilibrium, avoidance of extremes, proportion, and compromise. Subsequently, the study explores arguments both in favor of and against balancing, addressing issues such as absolute values, methodological concerns, benefits of imbalances, and alternative approaches. This examination offers a comprehensive perspective on the complexities surrounding the concept of balance. Finally, the paper investigates the implications of the conceptual framework within the AAL context, examining what the process of balancing interests could mean from this perspective. 

  • 33.
    Kuzmicz, Maksymilian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Naked in the Eyes of the Law: Criminal Law Perspective on Nudity in Chosen European Jurisdictions in the Context of Innovative Technologies2023In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, ISSN 0928-9569, E-ISSN 1571-8174, Vol. 31, no 3-4, p. 325-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper conducts a legal analysis of the concept of nudity in the context of innovative technologies in selected European jurisdictions. The laws of Poland, Ireland, and the European Union are examined and compared in terms of their approach to the protection of nudity. The research finds that while there are similarities in the criminal laws of Poland and Ireland, there are also notable differences in the understanding of nudity. Additionally, the proposed EU Directive on combating violence against women and domestic violence is examined in relation to the non-consensual distribution of intimate and manipulated images. The study concludes by recommending further research to clarify the legal definition of nudity, and to address the concerns of different individuals and groups with varying sensitivity towards nudity.

  • 34.
    Kuźmicz, Maksymilian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Inspirations from EU financial law for privacy protection by information obligations in Active and Assisted Living technologies2023In: Internet. Hacking / [ed] Agnieszka Gryszczyńska, Grażyna Szpor, Wojciech Wiewiórowski, Warsaw: C.H. Beck, 2023, p. 172-197Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper shows how experiences from the area of EU financial law can be used to strengthen privacy protection in Active and Assisted Living (AAL), by fulfilling information obligations. Firstly, the importance of the information obligation in the fields of law, society, and economics is explained. A reluctance to accept new technology often comes from a lack of understanding thereof. In economics, it is assumed that people make informed choices, and that the main tool for consumer protection is the provision of information (the information paradigm). That is why the law requires us to provide information, sometimes making it a condition of a transaction’s validity. Two main EU legal acts vital for computer systems and assistive technology,i.e., the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and the Artificial Intelligence Act (AI Act) proposed by the Commission in 2021, are analysed to identify information obligations: They specify different information obligations, including rules on informed consent, without which several systems and their functions cannot be used. The purpose of the requirement of informed consent is to provide data subjects with tools to protect their privacy, allowing them to decide how their personal data may be processed. The information obligation is similarly applied in the field of consumer protection. In this paper, I suggest verifying the development of regulations concerning consumer protection by information obligation in EU banking and investment law. After the crisis of 2008, a long legal trajectory occurred – from the detailed prospectus, through the simplified prospectus and the Key Investor Information Document (KIIDs), to the current standardised and shorter Key Information Document (KID). Changes were introduced, as a result of behavioural research into people’s perceptions and understanding. That experience may be useful in assisting technologies to fulfil the legal information obligations most effectively and, therefore, strengthen data privacy protection.

  • 35.
    Kuźmicz, Maksymilian Michal
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Video-Based AAL and Intimate Pictures – Criminal Liability in European, Irish, and Polish Law2023In: Assistive Technology: Shaping a Sustainable and Inclusive World / [ed] Dominique Archambault, Georgios Kouroupetroglou, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2023, p. 105-112Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active and Assisted Living (AAL) technologies offer solutions for addressing healthcare challenges associated with ageing societies and a shortage of care personnel. At the same time, these technologies raise significant privacy issues, which may constitute a barrier to the sustainable adoption and acceptance of AAL. In particular, concerns arise from the presence of cameras in intimate situations, including nudity, and the potential production and dissemination of intimate pictures, which constitutes a risk for AAL users. The paper compares the regimes of criminal liability for making and disseminating intimate pictures under EU, Irish, and Polish law. The study aims to help AAL users understand their legal protection, and give providers and developers more insight into their legal responsibilities. The paper first presents different understandings of an intimate picture in each jurisdiction, followed by a discussion of what the crime entails and who may be liable for it. The conclusion includes a checklist of rules concerning criminal liability, which may be useful for AAL users and providers, and conclusions de lege ferenda.

  • 36.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Constitutional Rights and New Technologies in Sweden2007In: Constitutional Rights adn New Technologies: A Comparative Studiy, TMC Asser Press, The Hague , 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Den svåra avvägningen: Kan rättssäkerhetsgarantier kompensera för ett försvagat integritetsskydd2010In: Overvåking i en rettsstat / [ed] Dag Wiese Schartum, Bergen: Fagbogforlaget , 2010, p. 84-94Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Elektronisk rättsinformation- en angelägenhet för rättsväsendet.2009In: Regeringsrätten 100 år / [ed] Anna-Karin Lundin..., Uppsala: Iustus förlag , 2009, p. 301-309Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    En rättslig ram för e-lärande – integritetsskydd m.m.2016In: Liber Amicorum Jan Rosén / [ed] Gunnar Karnell et al., Visby: eddy.se , 2016, p. 523-537Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Introduction to data protection in Sweden2019In: Betrieblicher Datenschutz: Rechtshandbuch / [ed] Eds. Nikolaus Forgó, Marcus Helfrich, Jochen Schneider, C.H. Beck, 2019, p. 1532-1536Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Legal Information Supply and the Digital Divide2007In: What is Scandinavian law? Social Private Law, 2007Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Personuppgiftslag (1998:204) 49 §: Lexino - djupa lagkommentarer2016Other (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Personuppgiftslagen (1998:204): On-line lagkommentar i Lexino2014Other (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Rättsinformatik: Juridiken i det digitala informationssamhället2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Rättsinformatik: Juridiken i det digitala informationssamhället2021Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Säkerhetshot riktade mot persondata – Hur skyddar EU sina medborgare?2016In: EU och de nya säkerhetshoten / [ed] Antonina Bakardjieva Engelbrekt, Anna Michalski, Lars Oxelheim, Stockholm: Sanérus , 2016, p. 199-228Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Furberg, Per
    SMS-meddelanden och handlingsoffentlighet2009In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, no 1, p. 166-169Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law.
    Seipel, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Juridisk informationssökning i digitala miljöer2017In: Finna rätt: Juristens källmaterial och arbetsmetoder, Stockholm: Wolters Kluwer, 2017, 14Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Svantesson, Dan Jerker B
    "Sexting" - hur hanterar vi elektroniska meddelande av sexuell natur?2011In: Juridisk Tidskrift, ISSN 1100-7761, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 263-268Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Magnusson Sjöberg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Westman, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Law, Department of Law, The Swedish Law and Informatics Research Institute.
    Studiematerial Rättsinformatik2008Chapter in book (Other academic)
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