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  • 1.
    Barclay, Kieron J.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics and Political Science, UK; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research Germany.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Birth Intervals and Health in Adulthood: A Comparison of Siblings Using Swedish Register Data2018In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 929-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing body of research has examined whether birth intervals influence perinatal outcomes and child health as well as long-term educational and socioeconomic outcomes. To date, however, very little research has examined whether birth spacing influences long-term health. We use contemporary Swedish population register data to examine the relationship between birth-to-birth intervals and a variety of health outcomes in adulthood: for men, height, physical fitness, and the probability of falling into different body mass index categories; and for men and women, mortality. In models that do not adjust carefully for family background, we find that short and long birth intervals are clearly associated with height, physical fitness, being overweight or obese, and mortality. However, after carefully adjusting for family background using a within-family sibling comparison design, we find that birth spacing is generally not associated with long-term health, although we find that men born after very long birth intervals have a higher probability of being overweight or obese in early adulthood. Overall, we conclude that birth intervals have little independent effect on long-term health outcomes.

  • 2.
    Barclay, Kieron
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. London School of Economics and Political Science, UK; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    The Long-Term Cognitive and Socioeconomic Consequences of Birth Intervals: A Within-Family Sibling Comparison Using Swedish Register Data2017In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 459-484Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the relationship between birth-to-birth intervals and a variety of mid- and long-term cognitive and socioeconomic outcomes, including high school GPA, cognitive ability, educational attainment, earnings, unemployment status, and receiving government welfare support. Using contemporary Swedish population register data and a within-family sibling comparison design, we find that neither the birth interval preceding the index person nor the birth interval following the index person are associated with any substantively meaningful changes in mid- or long-term outcomes. This is true even for individuals born before or after birth-to-birth intervals of less than 12 months. We conclude that in a contemporary high-income welfare state, there appears to be no relationship between unusually short or long birth intervals and adverse long-term outcomes.

  • 3. Björkman, Jenny
    et al.
    Jarrick, ArneStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Religionen tur och retur2017Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 4. Bursell, Moa
    et al.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Diversity preferences among employees and ethnoracial workplace segregation2018In: Social Science Research, ISSN 0049-089X, E-ISSN 1096-0317, Vol. 74, p. 62-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethno-racial workplace segregation increases already existing ethno-racial inequality. While previous research has identified discriminatory employers as drivers of workplace segregation, this study addresses the role of the employees. Sociological and social psychological theory suggest that people prefer to surround themselves with people who positively confirm their social identity or who contribute with higher group status. Through web-based surveys, we measure employee attitudes and preferences concerning ethno-racial workplace diversity, to what extent they differ by ethnicity/race, and if they contain intersectional patterns. Thereafter, we use simulation models to analyze the consequences for workplace segregation that these preferences would have, if realized. The main survey results showed that all ethno-racial groups favored their own in-group as colleagues, especially European Americans. As a secondary choice, the respondents preferred the out-group with the highest labor market status. Intersectional patterns were identified, as minority women were preferred as colleagues over minority men. Our simulation model, based on the results of two surveys on stated vs. indirectly revealed preferences, showed that employee preferences were at best not diverse enough to desegregate workplaces. When based on the most common preferences (i.e. excluding a few outliers), the simulations even suggested that these preferences can cause segregation. We relate these findings to Schelling's model of segregation.

  • 5.
    Cownden, Daniel
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. University of Glasgow, United Kingdom.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    A popular misapplication of evolutionary modeling to the study of human cooperation2017In: Evolution and human behavior, ISSN 1090-5138, E-ISSN 1879-0607, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 421-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To examine the evolutionary basis of a behavior, an established approach (known as the phenotypic gambit) is to assume that the behavior is controlled by a single allele, the fitness effects of which are derived from a consideration of how the behavior interacts, via life-history, with other ecological factors. Here we contrast successful applications of this approach with several examples of an influential and superficially similar line of research on the evolutionary basis of human cooperation. A key difference is identified: in the latter line of research the focal behavior, cooperation, is abstractly defined in terms of immediate fitness costs and benefits. Selection is then assumed to act on strategies in an iterated social context for which fitness effects can be derived by aggregation of the abstractly defined immediate fitness effects over a lifetime. This approach creates a closed theoretical loop, rendering models incapable of making predictions or providing insight into the origin of human cooperation. We conclude with a discussion of how evolutionary approaches might be appropriately used in the study of human social behavior.

  • 6.
    Enquist, Magnus
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Brooklyn College, USA; Graduate Center of the City University of New York, USA.
    The power of associative learning and the ontogeny of optimal behaviour2016In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 3, no 11, article id 160734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Behaving efficiently (optimally or near-optimally) is central to animals' adaptation to their environment. Much evolutionary biology assumes, implicitly or explicitly, that optimal behavioural strategies are genetically inherited, yet the behaviour of many animals depends crucially on learning. The question of how learning contributes to optimal behaviour is largely open. Here we propose an associative learning model that can learn optimal behaviour in a wide variety of ecologically relevant circumstances. The model learns through chaining, a term introduced by Skinner to indicate learning of behaviour sequences by linking together shorter sequences or single behaviours. Our model formalizes the concept of conditioned reinforcement (the learning process that underlies chaining) and is closely related to optimization algorithms from machine learning. Our analysis dispels the common belief that associative learning is too limited to produce ‘intelligent’ behaviour such as tool use, social learning, self-control or expectations of the future. Furthermore, the model readily accounts for both instinctual and learned aspects of behaviour, clarifying how genetic evolution and individual learning complement each other, and bridging a long-standing divide between ethology and psychology. We conclude that associative learning, supported by genetic predispositions and including the oft-neglected phenomenon of conditioned reinforcement, may suffice to explain the ontogeny of optimal behaviour in most, if not all, non-human animals. Our results establish associative learning as a more powerful optimizing mechanism than acknowledged by current opinion.

  • 7.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Per A.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    When is it appropriate to reprimand a norm violation? The roles of anger, behavioral consequences, violation severity, and social distance2017In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 396-407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Experiments on economic games typically fail to find positive reputational effects of using peer punishment of selfish behavior in social dilemmas. Theorists had expected positive reputational effects because of the potentially beneficial consequences that punishment may have on norm violators' behavior. Going beyond the game-theoretic paradigm, we used vignettes to study how various social factors influence approval ratings of a peer who reprimands a violator of a group-beneficial norm. We found that ratings declined when punishers showed anger, and this effect was mediated by perceived aggressiveness. Thus the same emotions that motivate peer punishers may make them come across as aggressive, to the detriment of their reputation. However, the negative effect of showing anger disappeared when the norm violation was sufficiently severe. Ratings of punishers were also influenced by social distance, such that it is less appropriate for a stranger than a friend to reprimand a violator. In sum, peer punisher ratings were very high for a friend reprimanding a severe norm violation, but particularly poor for a stranger showing anger at a mild norm violation. We found no effect on ratings of whether the reprimand had the beneficial consequence of changing the violator's behavior. Our findings provide insight into how peer punishers can avoid negative reputational effects. They also point to the importance of going beyond economic games when studying peer punishment.

  • 8.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Cownden, Daniel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. INgrooves, Canada.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Social learning may lead to population level conformity without individual level frequency bias2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 17341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A requirement of culture, whether animal or human, is some degree of conformity of behavior within populations. Researchers of gene-culture coevolution have suggested that population level conformity may result from frequency-biased social learning: individuals sampling multiple role models and preferentially adopting the majority behavior in the sample. When learning from a single role model, frequency-bias is not possible. We show why a population-level trend, either conformist or anticonformist, may nonetheless be almost inevitable in a population of individuals that learn through social enhancement, that is, using observations of others' behavior to update their own probability of using a behavior in the future. The exact specification of individuals' updating rule determines the direction of the trend. These results offer a new interpretation of previous findings from simulations of social enhancement in combination with reinforcement learning, and demonstrate how results of dynamical models may strongly depend on seemingly innocuous choices of model specifications, and how important it is to obtain empirical data on which to base such choices.

  • 9.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Procedural priming of a numerical cognitive illusion2016In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 205-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A strategy activated in one task may be transferred to subsequent tasks and prevent activation of other strategies that would otherwise come to mind, a mechanism referred to as procedural priming. In a novel application of procedural priming we show that it can make or break cognitive illusions. Our test case is the 1/k illusion, which is based on the same unwarranted mathematical shortcut as the MPG illusion and the time-saving bias. The task is to estimate distances between values of fractions on the form 1/k. Most people given this task intuitively base their estimates on the distances between the denominators (i.e., the reciprocals of the fractions), which may yield very poor estimations of the true distances between the fractions. As expected, the tendency to fall for this illusion is related to cognitive style (Study 1). In order to apply procedural priming we constructed versions of the task in which the illusion is weak, in the sense that most people do not fall for it anymore. We then gave participants both strong illusion and weak illusion versions of the task (Studies 2 and 3). Participants who first did the task in the weak illusion version would often persist with the correct strategy even in the strong illusion version, thus breaking the otherwise strong illusion in the latter task. Conversely, participants who took the strong illusion version first would then often fall for the illusion even in the weak illusion version, thus strengthening the otherwise weak illusion in the latter task.

  • 10.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Simpson, Brent
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Political double standards in reliance on moral foundations2019In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 440-454Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prior research using the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) has established that political ideology is associated with self-reported reliance on specific moral foundations in moral judgments of acts. MFQ items do not specify the agents involved in the acts, however. By specifying agents in MFQ items we revealed blatant political double standards. Conservatives thought that the same moral foundation was more relevant if victims were agents that they like (i.e., corporations and other conservatives) but less relevant when the same agents were perpetrators. Liberals showed the same pattern for agents that they like (i.e., news media and other liberals). A UK sample showed much weaker political double standards with respect to corporations and news media, consistent with feelings about corporations and news media being much less politicized in the UK than in the US. We discuss the implications for moral foundations theory.

  • 11.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Andersson, Per A.
    Aveyard, Mark
    Brauer, Markus
    Gritskov, Vladimir
    Kiyonari, Toko
    Kuhlman, David M.
    Maitner, Angela T.
    Manesi, Zoi
    Molho, Catherine
    Peperkoorn, Leonard S.
    Rizwan, Muhammad
    Stivers, Adam W.
    Tian, Qirui
    Van Lange, Paul A. M.
    Vartanova, Irina
    Wu, Junhui
    Yamagishi, Toshio
    Cultural Universals and Cultural Differences in Meta-Norms about Peer Punishment2017In: Management and Organization Review, ISSN 1740-8776, E-ISSN 1740-8784, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 851-870Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Violators of cooperation norms may be informally punished by their peers. How such norm enforcement is judged by others can be regarded as a meta-norm (i.e., a second-order norm). We examined whether meta-norms about peer punishment vary across cultures by having students in eight countries judge animations in which an agent who over-harvested a common resource was punished either by a single peer or by the entire peer group. Whether the punishment was retributive or restorative varied between two studies, and findings were largely consistent across these two types of punishment. Across all countries, punishment was judged as more appropriate when implemented by the entire peer group than by an individual. Differences between countries were revealed in judgments of punishers vs. non-punishers. Specifically, appraisals of punishers were relatively negative in three Western countries and Japan, and more neutral in Pakistan, UAE, Russia, and China, consistent with the influence of individualism, power distance, and/or indulgence. Our studies constitute a first step in mapping how meta-norms vary around the globe, demonstrating both cultural universals and cultural differences.

  • 12.
    Eriksson, Kimmo
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden; Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Andersson, Per A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Lindholm, Torun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Costly punishment in the ultimatum game evokes moral concern, in particular when framed as payoff reduction2017In: Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, ISSN 0022-1031, E-ISSN 1096-0465, Vol. 69, p. 59-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ultimatum game is a common economic experiment in which some participants reject another's unfair offer of how to split some money, even though it leaves them both worse off. This costly behavior can be seen as enforcement of a fairness norm and has been labeled “altruistic punishment”, suggesting that it is a moral thing to do. But is this behavior viewed as moral by participants? Is it viewed as punishment? And are the payoff consequences of the behavior sufficient to determine the answers to these questions? To investigate this we framed costly punishment in two different ways: either as rejection of an offer (the standard ultimatum game framing) or as reduction of payoff. In a series of paid and hypothetical experiments we found that moral concerns about costly punishment depended on the framing. Specifically, the reduction frame elicited more moral concern about, and less use of, costly punishment than did the rejection frame. Several implications are discussed.

  • 13.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Brooklyn College, USA; CUNY Graduate Center, USA.
    Can squirrel monkeys learn an AB(n)A grammar? A re-evaluation of Ravignani et al. (2013)2017In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 5, article id e3806Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ravignani et al (2013) abituated squirrel monkeys to sound sequences conforming to an ABnA grammar (n = 1, 2, 3), then tested them for their reactions to novel grammatical and non -grammatical sequences. Although they conclude that the monkeys consistently recognized and generalized the sequence AB(n)A, I remark that this conclusion is not robust. The statistical significance of results depends on specific choices of data analysis, namely dichotomization of the response variable and omission of specific data points. Additionally, there is little evidence of generalization to novel patterns (n = 4, 5), which is important to conclude that the monkeys recognized the AB(n)A grammar beyond the habituation patterns. Lastly, many test sequences were perceptually similar to habituation sequences, raising the possibility that the monkeys may have generalized based on perceptual similarity rather than based on grammaticality.

  • 14.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. City University of New York, United States.
    Studying associative learning without solving learning equations2018In: Journal of mathematical psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-2496, E-ISSN 1096-0880, Vol. 85, p. 55-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    I introduce a simple mathematical method to calculate the associative strengths of stimuli in many models of associative learning, without solving the models' learning equations and without simulating the learning process. The method applies to many models, including the Rescorla and Wagner (1972) model, the replaced elements model of Brandon et al. (2000), and Pearce's (1987) configural model. I illustrate the method by calculating the predictions of these three models in summation and blocking experiments, allowing for a degree of similarity between the training stimuli as well as for the effects of contextual stimuli. The method clarifies the models' predictions and suggests new empirical tests.

  • 15.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    How training and testing histories affect generalisation: a test of simple neural networks2010In: Modelling Perception with Artificial Neural Networks / [ed] Colin R. Tosh, Graeme D. Ruxton, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010, p. 295-307Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Brooklyn College, USA; City University of New York Graduate Center, USA.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    On the Role of Responses in Pavlovian Acquisition2019In: Journal of experimental psychology: Animal learning and cognition, ISSN 2329-8456, Vol. 45, no 1, p. 59-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A defining feature of Pavlovian conditioning is that the unconditioned stimulus (US) is delivered whether or not the animal performs a conditioned response (CR). This has lead to the question: Does CR performance play any role in conditioning? Between the 1930s and 1970s. a consensus emerged that CR acquisition is driven by CS-US (CS, conditioned stimulus) experiences, and that CRs play a minimal role, if any. Here we revisit the question and present 2 new quantitative methods to evaluate whether CRs influence the course of learning. Our results suggest that CRs play an important role in Pavlovian acquisition, in such paradigms as rabbit eye blink conditioning, pigeon autoshaped key pecking, and rat autoshaped lever pressing and magazine entry.

  • 17.
    Ghirlanda, Stefano
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Brooklyn College, USA; Graduate Center of the City University of New York, USA.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Memory for stimulus sequences: a divide between humans and other animals?2017In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 4, no 6, article id 161011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans stand out among animals for their unique capacities in domains such as language, culture and imitation, yet it has been difficult to identify cognitive elements that are specifically human. Most research has focused on how information is processed after it is acquired, e.g. in problem solving or 'insight' tasks, but we may also look for species differences in the initial acquisition and coding of information. Here, we show that non-human species have only a limited capacity to discriminate ordered sequences of stimuli. Collating data from 108 experiments on stimulus sequence discrimination (1540 data points from 14 bird and mammal species), we demonstrate pervasive and systematic errors, such as confusing a red-green sequence of lights with green-red and green-green sequences. These errors can persist after thousands of learning trials in tasks that humans learn to near perfection within tens of trials. To elucidate the causes of such poor performance, we formulate and test a mathematical model of non-human sequence discrimination, assuming that animals represent sequences as unstructured collections of memory traces. This representation carries only approximate information about stimulus duration, recency, order and frequency, yet our model predicts non-human performance with a 5.9% mean absolute error across 68 datasets. Because human-level cognition requires more accurate encoding of sequential information than afforded by memory traces, we conclude that improved coding of sequential information is a key cognitive element that may set humans apart from other animals.

  • 18.
    Isaksson, Sven
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Archaeological Research Laboratory.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Envall, Ida
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology.
    A Novel Method to Analyze Social Transmission in Chronologically Sequenced Assemblages, Implemented on Cultural Inheritance of the Art of Cooking2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 5, article id e0122092Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we present an analytical technique for the measurement and evaluation of changes in chronologically sequenced assemblages. To illustrate the method, we studied the cultural evolution of European cooking as revealed in seven cook books dispersed over the past 800 years. We investigated if changes in the set of commonly used ingredients were mainly gradual or subject to fashion fluctuations. Applying our method to the data from the cook books revealed that overall, there is a clear continuity in cooking over the ages - cooking is knowledge that is passed down through generations, not something (re-) invented by each generation on its own. Looking at three main categories of ingredients separately (spices, animal products and vegetables), however, disclosed that all ingredients do not change according to the same pattern. While choice of animal products was very conservative, changing completely sequentially, changes in the choices of spices, but also of vegetables, were more unbounded. We hypothesize that this may be due a combination of fashion fluctuations and changes in availability due to contact with the Americas during our study time period. The presented method is also usable on other assemblage type data, and can thus be of utility for analyzing sequential archaeological data from the same area or other similarly organized material.

  • 19.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden; Linköping University, Sweden.
    Using register data to deduce patterns of social exchange2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 45, p. 56-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel method for deducting propensities for social exchange between individuals based on the choices they make, and based on factors such as country of origin, sex, school grades and socioeconomic background. The objective here is to disentangle the effect of social ties from the other factors, in order to find patterns of social exchange. This is done through a control-treatment design on analysing available data, where the treatment' is similarity of choices between socially connected individuals, and the control is similarity of choices between non-connected individuals. Structural dependencies are controlled for and effects from different classes are pooled through a mix of methods from network and meta-analysis. The method is demonstrated and tested on Swedish register data on students at upper secondary school. The results show that having similar grades is a predictor of social exchange. Also, previous results from Norwegian data are replicated, showing that students cluster based on country of origin.

  • 20.
    Jansson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Bursell, Moa
    Social consensus influences ethnic diversity preferences2018In: Social influence, ISSN 1553-4510, E-ISSN 1553-4529, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 192-208Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is widespread segregation between workplaces along ethnic lines. We expand upon previous research on segregation and social influence by testing the effect of the latter on personal diversity preferences, specifically in employees' selection into hypothetical workplaces. In a survey study with 364 European American respondents in three waves, participants complied with social consensus preferences for either more or less workplace diversity. The new preference was sufficiently internalized to be retained largely unaltered a week later. Simulations suggest a self-reinforcing effect, where accurate social consensus information may be sufficient to change preferences. Given that initial choices were polarized, perceived social consensus can vary highly between people in society, and influencing this perception may feed back into greater acceptance of minorities.

  • 21.
    Jarrick, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Den svåra vägen till kunskap2016In: Sans: existentiellt magasin i upplysningens anda, ISSN 2000-9690, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Jarrick, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Det finns inga häxor: en bok om kunskap2017Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 23.
    Jarrick, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Känslor i krig. Sensibilitet och emotionella strategier bland svenska officerare 1788–1814, Hugo Nordland, Agering, 2015, 282 s.2016In: Scandia, ISSN 0036-5483, Vol. 82, no 2, p. 122-124Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Jarrick, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Postmodernisternas dubbla budskap2016In: Sans: existentiellt magasin i upplysningens anda, ISSN 2000-9690, no 1Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25.
    Jarrick, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Samla er till större och färre frågor, humanister! En diskussion om det humanvetenskapliga uppdraget2016In: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens årsbok, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2016, p. 135-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Jarrick, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Skarpa argument mot konstruktivismen: Paul Boghossian, Rädslan för kunskap (Fear of Knowledge – Against Relativism and Constructivism)2016In: Respons : recensionstidskrift för humaniora & samhällsvetenskap, ISSN 2001-2292, no 3Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Jarrick, Arne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    The Scientific Mission and the Freedom of Research2013In: Transformation in Research, Higher Education and the Academic Market: The Breakdown of Scientific Thought / [ed] Sharon Rider, Ylva Hasselberg, Alexandra Waluszewski, Springer, 2013, p. 53-67Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter takes at its starting point that an academic scientist or scholar, regardless of discipline, must be to produce knowledge, rather than mere opinion. By virtue of his fulfilling this mission, he also supports and contributes to a form of deliberative dialog, the sine qua non for citizenship in liberal democracies, in which argument on the basis of fact and coherence, rather than rhetorical tricks and powers of persuasion, is decisive. Demands for social relevance and usefulness ought to be seen in light of this mission, rather than in terms of political utility or commercial gain. In this sense, the requirement that the university produce useful knowledge is entirely commensurable with academic freedom, provided that politicians, administrators, and business leaders recognize that they cannot determine what questions ought to be asked or how best to answer them, but leave that matter to scientists and scholars to decide.

  • 28.
    Jarrick, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Danielsson, Ulf
    Hansson, Göran K.
    Heldin, Carl-Henrik
    Häggström, Olle
    Lidén, Kerstin
    Moberg, Christina
    Svallfors, Stefan
    Wiberg, Marie
    Vill vi ha tio år av kortsiktig forskningspolitik?2016In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 29.
    Jarrick, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Myrdal, Janken
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    De stora forskningsfrågorna om människans villkor2015In: Respons : recensionstidskrift för humaniora & samhällsvetenskap, ISSN 2001-2292, no 5Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Jarrick, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Myrdal, Janken
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Wallenberg Bondesson, Maria
    Globalization and world history: An introduction to studies of methods2016In: Methods in world history: a critical approach / [ed] Arne Jarrick, Janken Myrdal, Maria Wallenberg Bondesson, Lund: Nordic Academic Press, 2016, p. 7-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Jarrick, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Myrdal, JankenStockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.Wallenberg Bondesson, Maria
    Methods in World History: A Critical Approach2016Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Jarrick, Arne
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Wallenberg Bondesson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    The Dynamics of Law-Making: A World History2018Book (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Dalarna University, Sweden.
    Aguilar, Elliot
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. University of Pennsylvania, United States of America .
    A model of contact-induced language change: Testing the role of second language speakers in the evolution of Mozambican Portuguese2019In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 4, article id e0212303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language change is accelerated by language contact, especially by contact that occurs when a group of speakers shifts from one language to another. This has commonly been explained by linguistic innovation occurring during second language acquisition. This hypothesis is based on historical reconstructions of instances of contact and has not been formally tested on empirical data. In this paper, we construct an agent-based model to formalize the hypothesis that second language speakers are responsible for accelerated language change during language shift. We compare model predictions to a unique combination of diachronic linguistic and demographic data from Maputu, Mozambique. The model correctly predicts an increased proportional use of the novel linguistic variants during the period we study. We find that a modified version of the model is a better fit to one of our two datasets and discuss plausible reasons for this. As a general conclusion concerning typological differences between contact-induced and non-contact-induced language change, we suggest that multiple introductions of a new linguistic variant by different individuals may be the mechanism by which language contact accelerates language change.

  • 34.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Avelar, Juanito
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Álvarez López, Laura
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Contact, variation and change in Angolan Portuguese: the case of existential constructions in Cabinda2020In: Bulletin of Hispanic studies (Liverpool. 2002), ISSN 1475-3839, E-ISSN 1478-3398Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present paper deals with contact-induced change in existential constructions in the variety of Portuguese spoken in Cabinda, Angola. Portuguese is the official language of Angola, and the officially adopted norm is European Standard Portuguese. The focus of the analysis is on the use of the possessive verb ter ‘to have’ in existential constructions, rather than the existential haver ‘to exist’, which is the standard form in Portugal. The analysis is based on data from 40 interviews with 20 male and 20 female high school Cabinda students between 18 and 30 years of age. The aim is to investigate the role of language contact in the emergence of existential sentences with ter, as well as to verify if the use of ter in existential constructions in Cabinda has the same linguistic constraints as in Brazilian Portuguese. The paper also analyzes social factors related to multilingualism in order to discuss how social and linguistic constraints interact in shaping new varieties, such as Cabinda Portuguese. The conclusion is that the use of ter sentences as existentials in Cabinda Portuguese may be an effect resulting from the confluence of two linguistic factors: (i) changes linked with the pro-drop parameter in Portuguese emerging in Angola, and (ii) the transference of a grammatical property from Bantu languages to Portuguese, specifically, the morphological identity of possessive and existential verbs. Moreover, the only registered social influence over the presence of existential ter constructions is the level of use of Bantu languages, a finding that does not rule out that these constructions may initially have been triggered by more general acquisition effects.

  • 35.
    Jon-And, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Funcke, Alexander
    Is Language Less Cumulative than Other Culture? Indicators of Breakdown and Build-up of Complexityin Pidgins, Creoles and Non-contact Languages2018In: Applications in Cultural Evolution: Arts, Languages, Technologies: Conference abstracts, 2018, p. 18-19Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the study of cultural evolution, human culture is generally assumed to be cumulative, implying increasing complexity and diversity over time (Enquist et al. 2011, Lewis & Laland 2012). Recent studies suggest that evolutionary mechanisms operate differently in different cultural domains (Tamariz et al. 2016), but it has not been discussed whether all mechanisms result in cumulativity. Experiments have shown that compositional language structure emerge as a trade-off between learnability and expressivity (Kirby et al. 2008, 2015), but there is no evidence of languages generally becoming more compositional, or regular, over time. As all modern natural languages are expressive enough for human communicative needs and compressed enough for generational transmission, we suggest that linguistic complexity is 19 not currently cumulative but breaks down and builds up in cycles triggered by demographically determined variation in learnability and expressivity pressures. We focus on pidgins, a special case of natural languages where the expressivity pressure is presumably weaker and learnability pressure stronger than in other languages. We compare pidgins to creoles, where both expressivity and learnability pressures are presumably high, and non-contact languages where the learnability pressure is presumably lower, allowing for more complexity. We analyze compiled material from spoken and written pidgins, spoken creoles and non-contact languages and a parallel bible corpus, applying two complexity measures: the relation between word length and frequency, and pronominal morphology. We observe a smaller degree of exponentiality in the negative correlation between word length and frequency in pidgins than in their lexifiers, likely reflecting the loss of short and common grammatical words. Creoles expose a higher exponentiality in this correlation, which may reflect a newly built up analytical grammar. For pronouns, we observe expected reduced marking of person, number, case and gender in pidgins, increasing in creoles, being highest in non-contact languages.

  • 36. Jylha, Kirsti M.
    et al.
    Rydgren, Jens
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Strimling, Pontus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Radical right-wing voters from right and left: Comparing Sweden Democrat voters who previously voted for the Conservative Party or the Social Democratic Party2019In: Scandinavian Political Studies, ISSN 0080-6757, E-ISSN 1467-9477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As in many other European countries, the political system has undergone rapid changes in Sweden while a radical right-wing party - The Sweden Democrats (SD) - has grown from a negligible position into one of the country's largest parties. SD has been winning voters from both the right and the left sides of the political spectrum, and particularly from Sweden's two largest parties, the Conservative Party (Moderaterna, M) and the Social Democratic Party (S). The present study investigated the extent to which SD voters who previously voted for one of these two parties differ from each other, and compared these SD voters with current Conservative Party and Social Democratic voters. The results showed that 1) economic deprivation offers a better explanation for the past mobility from S, than from M, to the SD; 2) no group differences were found between previous M and S voters in attitudes connected to the appeal of an anti-establishment party; and 3) views on the profile issues espoused by the radical right, most importantly opposition to immigration, did not differ between SD voters who come from M and S. However, SD voters - particularly SD voters who had formerly voted for the Social Democratic party - differed from the voters of their previous parties in several aspects. It is thus possible that many SD voters will not return to the parties they previously voted for, at least as long as the immigration issue continues to be of high salience in the society.

  • 37.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Weak support for a U-shaped pattern between societal gender equality and fertility when comparing societies across time2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 27-48, article id 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND

    A number of recent theories in demography suggest a U-shaped relationship between gender equality and fertility. Fertility is theorized to be high in societies with low levels of gender equality, as well as in societies with high gender equality, with lower fertility in a transition phase.

    OBJECTIVE

    This study estimates the relationship between gender equality (as operationalized through female political empowerment) and fertility within societies over time, using yearly information on gender equality and fertility for 35 countries.

    RESULTS

    When examining societies across time there is no evidence of a U-shaped relationship between gender equality and fertility. In cross-sectional analyses across countries for recent periods, such a U-shaped relationship can be observed. For within-society analyses a negative relationship is clear at lower levels of gender equality, while no pattern can be observed in societies with high gender equality.

    CONTRIBUTION

    Theories that fertility would increase following increasing gender equality are not supported for changes over time within countries. Implications and robustness of the findings are discussed.

  • 38.
    Kolk, Martin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Barclay, Kieron
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany; London School of Economics and Political Science, UK.
    Cognitive ability and fertility among Swedish men born 1951–1967: evidence from military conscription registers2019In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 286, no 1902, article id 20190359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the relationship between cognitive ability and childbearing patterns in contemporary Sweden using administrative register data. The topic has a long history in the social sciences and has been the topic of a large number of studies, many reporting a negative gradient between intelligence and fertility. We link fertility histories to military conscription tests with intelligence scores for all Swedish men born 1951 to 1967. We find a positive relationship between intelligence scores and fertility, and this pattern is consistent across the cohorts we study. The relationship is most pronounced for the transition to a first child, and men with the lowest categories of IQ-scores have the fewest children. Using fixed effects models we additionally control for all factors that are shared by siblings, and after such adjustments we find a stronger positive relationship between IQ and fertility. Furthermore, we find a positive gradient within groups at different levels of education. Compositional differences of this kind are therefore not responsible for the positive gradient we observe - instead the relationship is even stronger after controlling for both educational careers and parental background factors. In our models where we compare brothers to one another we find that, relative to men with IQ 100, the group with the lowest category of cognitive ability have 0.56 fewer children, and men with the highest category have 0.09 more children. 

  • 39.
    Kridahl, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Kolk, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Institute for Futures Studies, Sweden.
    Retirement coordination in opposite-sex and same-sex married couples: Evidence from Swedish registers2018In: Advances in Life Course Research, ISSN 1569-4909, E-ISSN 1879-6974, Vol. 38, p. 22-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how married couples’ age differences and gender dynamics influence retirement coordination in Sweden. High-quality longitudinal administrative registers allow us to study the labor market outcomes of all marital couples in Sweden. Using regression analysis, we find that the likelihood of couples retiring close in time decreases as their age difference increases but that age differences have a similar effect on retirement coordination for couples with larger age differences. Additionally, retirement coordination is largely gender-neutral in opposite-sex couples with age differences regardless of whether the male spouse is older. Additionally, male same-sex couples retire closer in time than both opposite-sex couples and female same-sex couples. The definition of retirement coordination as the number of years between retirements contributes to the literature on couples’ retirement behavior and allows us to study the degree of retirement coordination among all couples, including those with larger age differences.

  • 40.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Bivarg Philanthus triangulum2017In: Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 112, no 3, p. 42-42Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Inget stöd för att kråkfåglar kan resonera2017In: Sans, ISSN 2000-9690, no 3, p. 10-15Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 42.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Mytomspunna vridvingar - om en dröm som gick i uppfyllelse2014In: Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 109, no 2, p. 2-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett tips på Facebook vägledde zoologen Johan Lind till hans livs entomologiska dröm, nämligen att få se och fotografera vridvingar. Dessa sällan observerade insekter har en fascinerande livscykel, som delvis pågår inuti sälgsandbin eller andra insekter.

  • 43.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Nobelkommittén gjorde inte hemläxan inför medicinpriset2014In: Svenska dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412, no 22 novemberArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Har Nobelkommittén missat ett sekel av beteendeforskning när de motiverar årets pris med uttalanden om råttors höga intelligens? Den frågar ställer Johan Lind, docent i etologi vid Stockholms universitet.

  • 44.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Näbbars ursprung2017In: Vår fågelvärld med Fågelvännen, ISSN 2002-2743, no 4, p. 20-24Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 45.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Tropikhavens okända djur2017In: Fauna och flora : populär tidskrift för biologi, ISSN 0014-8903, Vol. 112, no 2, p. 32-36Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Lind, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution.
    What can associative learning do for planning?2018In: Royal Society Open Science, E-ISSN 2054-5703, Vol. 5, no 11, article id 180778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a new associative learning paradox. The power of associative learning for producing flexible behaviour in non-human animals is downplayed or ignored by researchers in animal cognition, whereas artificial intelligence research shows that associative learning models can beat humans in chess. One phenomenon in which associative learning often is ruled out as an explanation for animal behaviour is flexible planning. However, planning studies have been criticized and questions have been raised regarding both methodological validity and interpretations of results. Due to the power of associative learning and the uncertainty of what causes planning behaviour in non-human animals, I explored what associative learning can do for planning. A previously published sequence learning model which combines Pavlovian and instrumental conditioning was used to simulate two planning studies, namely Mulcahy & Call 2006 'Apes save tools for future use.' Science 312, 1038-1040 and Kabadayi & Osvath 2017 'Ravens parallel great apes in flexible planning for tool-use and bartering. 'Science 357, 202-204. Simulations show that behaviour matching current definitions of flexible planning can emerge through associative learning. Through conditioned reinforcement, the learning model gives rise to planning behaviour by learning that a behaviour towards a current stimulus will produce high value food at a later stage; it can make decisions about future states not within current sensory scope. The simulations tracked key patterns both between and within studies. It is concluded that one cannot rule out that these studies of flexible planning in apes and corvids can be completely accounted for by associative learning. Future empirical studies of flexible planning in non-human animals can benefit from theoretical developments within artificial intelligence and animal learning.

  • 47.
    Lind, Johan
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Lönnberg, Sofie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Persson, Tomas
    Enquist, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Time Does Not Help Orangutans Pongo abelii Solve Physical Problems2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, article id 161Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many questions in animal intelligence and cognition research are challenging. One challenge is to identify mechanisms underlying reasoning in experiments. Here, we provide a way to design such tests in non-human animals. We know from research in skill acquisition in humans that reasoning and thinking can take time because some problems are processed in multiple steps before a solution is reached (e.g., during mental arithmetics). If animals are able to learn through similar processes their decision making can be time consuming, and most importantly improve if more time to process information is allowed. We tested if performance of two Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) increased in a two-choice experiment when they were allowed extra time before making their decisions, compared to when they were forced to decide immediately. We found that the performance of the orangutans did not depend on the time they were allowed to process the information before making their decisions. This methodology provides a potential avenue for empirical tests of mechanisms underlying reasoning in non-human animals.

  • 48.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Det är friheten vi måste försvara2017In: Sans, ISSN 2000-9690, no 3Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for Cultural Evolution. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Institute for Future Studies, Sweden.
    Divine Placebo: Health and the Evolution of Religion2019In: Human Ecology, ISSN 0300-7839, E-ISSN 1572-9915, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 157-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I draw on knowledge from several disciplines to explicate the potential evolutionary significance of health effects of religiosity. I present three main observations. First, traditional methods of religious healers seldom rely on active remedies, but instead focus on lifestyle changes or spiritual healing practices that best can be described as placebo methods. Second, actual health effects of religiosity are thus mainly traceable to effects from a regulated lifestyle, social support networks, or placebo effects. Third, there are clear parallels between religious healing practices and currently identified methods that induce placebo effects. Physiological mechanisms identified to lie behind placebo effects activate the body's own coping strategies and healing responses. In combination, lifestyle, social support networks, and placebo effects thus produce both actual and perceived health effects of religiosity. This may have played an important role in the evolution and diffusion of religion through two main pathways. First, any real positive health effects of religiosity would have provided a direct biological advantage. Second, any perceived health effects, both positive and negative, would further have provided a unique selling point for religiosity' per se. Actual and perceived health effects of religiosity may therefore have played an underestimated role during the evolution of religiosity through both biological and cultural pathways.

  • 50.
    Lindenfors, Patrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology, Animal Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Archaeology and Classical Studies, Centre for the Study of Cultural Evolution.
    Era argument ekar av USA:s kristna höger2017In: Aftonbladet, ISSN 1103-9000Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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