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  • 1.
    Asplund, L
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Löfstrand, K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Nylund, K
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, U
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in swedish marine and fresh water environment- an overview2010In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nylund,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, A.
    Monitoring of PBDE, metoxylated PBDE and PCB in blue mussels from the swedish coast line.2007In: Organohalogen Compd., Vol. 69, p. 1713-1716Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Athanasiadou, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs).2006In: J Mass Spectrom, ISSN 1076-5174, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 790-801Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4. Bignert, A.
    et al.
    Nyberg, E.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Berger, Urs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Wilander, A.
    Haglund, P.
    Metaller och organiska miljögifter i marin biota, trend- och områdesövervakning - Comments Concerning the National Swedish Contaminant Monitoring Programme in Marine Biota 20072007Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 5.
    Castro, Mafalda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Breitholtz, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Yuan, Bo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sobek, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Partitioning of Chlorinated Paraffins (CPs) to Daphnia magna Overlaps between Restricted and in-Use Categories2018In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 52, no 17, p. 9713-9721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high-production volume industrial chemicals consisting of n-alkanes (with 10 to 30 carbon atoms in the chain) with chlorine content from 30 to 70% of weight. In Europe, the use of short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) has been restricted by the Stockholm Convention on POPs due to their PBT (persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic) properties. Medium (MCCPs) and long chain (LCCPs) chlorinated paraffins are used as substitution products. In this work we studied the partitioning behavior of five different CP technical mixtures from the established categories (2 SCCPs, 1 MCCP, 1 LCCP and 1 CP technical mixture covering all categories) using passive dosing, by determining the partitioning coefficient of CP technical mixtures between silicone and water (Ksilicone-water) as well as between organic matter and water (Koc-water). We show that both silicone-water and organic carbon water partition coefficients overlap between different categories of CP technical mixtures. These results indicate that in-use MCCPs and LCCPs may be equally or more bioaccumulative than restricted SCCPs. For the tested mixtures, both chlorine content and carbon chain length showed a significant correlation with both Ksilicone-water and Koc-water.

  • 6.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Legradi, Jessica
    Legler, Juliette
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus) from two sites in the Baltic SeaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Legradi, Jessica
    Legler, Juliette
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Anthropogenic and naturally produced brominated substances in Baltic herring (Clupea harengus membras) from two sites in the Baltic Sea2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 2408-2414Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the eutrophicated Baltic Sea, several naturally produced hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been found in marine biota. OH-PBDEs are toxic to adult and developing zebrafish and shown to be potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Disturbed OXPHOS can result in altered energy metabolism and weight loss. In herring, the concentration of OH-PBDEs (i.e. 2'-OH-BDE68 and 6-OH-BDE47) has increased during the period 1980-2010 in the Baltic Proper. Over the same time period, the condition and fat content in Baltic herring have decreased. Given the toxicity and increasing trends of OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring it is important to further assess the exposure to OH-PBDEs in Baltic herring. In this study, the concentrations of OH-PBDEs and related brominated substances i.e. polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured in herring sampled in the northern Baltic Proper (Asko, n = 12) and the southern Bothnian Sea (Angskarsklubb, n = 12). The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g l.w.) at Asko and Angskarsklubb were; Sigma(2)PBPs: 4.3 and 9.6, Sigma 2PBAs: 34 and 20, Sigma 6OH-PBDEs: 9.4 and 10, Sigma 7MeO-PBDEs: 42 and 150, Sigma 6PBDEs: 54 and 27, respectively. 6-OH-BDE47 dominated the OH-PBDE profile and comprised 87% (Asko) and 91% (Angskarsklubb) of the Sigma OH-PBDEs. At Angskarsklubb the mean concentration of Sigma MeO-PBDEs (150 ng/g l.w.) was 15 times higher than Sigma OH-PBDEs. As other fish species are known to metabolically transform MeO-PBDEs to OH-PBDEs, high levels of MeO-PBDEs can be of concern as a precursor for more toxic OH-PBDEs in herring and their roe.

  • 8.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lindberg Chen, Vivian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Bergman, Åke
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in long-tailed duck (Clangula hyemalis) and their main food, Baltic blue mussel (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lindberg Chen, Vivian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Larsson, Kjell
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Swedish Toxicology Sciences Research Center (Swetox), Sweden.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) and their main food, Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis).2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 1475-1483Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-tailed ducks (Clangula hyemalis) that breed in northern Europe and western Siberia and commonly winter in the Baltic Sea, are threatened by a significant population decrease. The ducks are, by primarily feeding on Baltic blue mussels (Mytilus trossulus x Mytilus edulis) while wintering in the Baltic Sea, potentially subjected to high levels of toxic hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). To assess long-tailed ducks exposure to polybrominated phenols (PBPs), polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), livers of ten long-tailed ducks wintering in the Baltic Sea were analysed. Pattern and levels of analytes in long-tailed ducks (liver) and blue mussels sampled in March and May at nine sites in the Baltic Sea were compared. The geometric mean concentration (ng/g l.w.) in livers of long-tailed ducks and Baltic blue mussels were: Sigma(2)PBPs: 0.57 and 48; Sigma 2PBAs: 0.83 and 11; Sigma 7OH-PBDEs: 6.1 and 45; Sigma 7MeO-PBDEs: 3.8 and 69; Sigma 7PBDEs: 8.0 and 7.2, respectively. Based on an estimated daily intake of 450 g fresh blue mussel meat, long-tailed ducks daily dietary intake of brominated substances while foraging in the Baltic Sea in March-May was estimated to; 390 ng Sigma(2)PBPs, 90 ng Sigma 2PBAs, 370 ng Sigma 7OH-PBDEs, 590 ng Sigma 7MeO-PBDEs and 59 ng Sigma 7PBDEs. The low levels of PBPs, PBAs, OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs in the long-tailed duck livers compared to blue mussel, despite a continuous daily intake, suggest that these compounds are poorly retained in long-tailed ducks.

  • 10.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Norrgran, Jessica
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hovander, Lotta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Recovery discrepancies of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum versus herring and long-tailed duck plasma2014In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 94, p. 97-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been identified as metabolites of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and/or as natural products. The OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols have come into focus over the last decade due to their abundance in biota and their potential adverse health effects. The present recovery study aims to validate a commonly used method (published by Hovander et al. 2000) for OH-PBDE analysis in human plasma. Further, the authors intended to determine the method's applicability to serum/plasma matrices from other species than humans. The investigated matrices were human plasma, cat serum, herring- and long-tailed duck plasma. The recovery study included nine OH-PBDEs, four polybromophenols and three methoxylated PBDEs (MeO-PBDEs). Five replicates of each matrix were spiked with these compounds at two dose levels; a low dose (0.5 ng) and a high dose (5 ng) and were cleaned up according to the Hovander method. The recovery of OH-PBDEs and polybromophenols in human plasma and cat serum were high and reproducible at both dose levels whereas the recovery for herring and long-tailed duck plasma were low and insufficient with great variability amongst OH-PBDE congeners at both dose levels. Our data show that the method can be fully applied to matrices like human plasma and cat serum but not for herring and long-tailed duck plasma without further method development. Hence care needs to be taken when applying the method onto other blood matrices without validation since the present study have demonstrated that the recoveries may differ amongst OH-PBDE congeners and specie.

  • 11.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Enhus, Carolina
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Eklund, Britta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Induced production of brominated aromatic compounds in the alga Ceramium tenuicorne2015In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 22, no 22, p. 18107-18114Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Baltic Sea, high concentrations of toxic brominated aromatic compounds have been detected in all compartments of the marine food web. A growing body of evidence points towards filamentous algae as a natural producer of these chemicals. However, little is known about the effects of environmental factors and life history on algal production of brominated compounds. In this study, several congeners of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs), hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and brominated phenols (BPs) were identified in a naturally growing filamentous red algal species (Ceramium tenuicorne) in the Baltic Sea. The identified substances displayed large seasonal variations in the alga with a concentration peak in July. Production of MeO-/OH-PBDEs and BPs by C. tenuicorne was also established in isolated clonal material grown in a controlled laboratory setting. Based on three replicates, herbivory, as well as elevated levels of light and salinity in the culture medium, significantly increased the production of 2,4,6-tribromophenol (2,4,6-TBP). Investigation of differences in production between the isomorphic female, male and diploid clonal life stages of the alga grown in the laboratory revealed a significantly higher production of 2,4,6-TBP in the brackish water female gametophytes, compared to the corresponding marine gametophytes. Even higher concentrations of 2,4,6-TBP were produced by marine male gametophytes and sporophytes.

  • 12. Dahlgren, Elin
    et al.
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Dahlgren, Henrik
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Lehtila, Kari
    Trophic transfer of naturally produced brominated aromatic compounds in a Baltic Sea food chain2016In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 144, p. 1597-1604Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Brominated aromatic compounds (BACs) are widely distributed in the marine environment. Some of these compounds are highly toxic, such as certain hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs). In addition to anthropogenic emissions through use of BACs as e.g. flame retardants, BACs are natural products formed by marine organisms such as algae, sponges, and cyanobacteria. Little is known of the transfer of BACs from natural producers and further up in the trophic food chain. In this study it was observed that total sum of methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) and OH-PBDEs increased in concentration from the filamentous red alga Ceramium tenuicorne, via Gammarus sp. and three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) to perch (Perca fluviatilis). The MeO-PBDEs, which were expected to bioaccumulate, increased in concentration accordingly up to perch, where the levels suddenly dropped dramatically. The opposite pattern was observed for OH-PBDEs, where the concentration exhibited a general trend of decline up the food web, but increased in perch, indicating metabolic demethylation of MeO-PBDEs. Debromination was also indicated to occur when progressing through the food chain resulting in high levels of tetra-brominated MeO-PBDE and OH-PBDE congeners in fish, while some penta- and hexa-brominated congeners were observed to be the dominant products in the alga. As it has been shown that OH-PBDEs are potent disruptors of oxidative phosphorylation and that mixtures of different congener may act synergistically in terms of this toxic mode of action, the high levels of OH-PBDEs detected in perch in this study warrants further investigation into potential effects of these compounds on Baltic wildlife, and monitoring of their levels.

  • 13.
    de Wit,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Haglund, M.
    Kierkegaard,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brominated flame retardants in sludge from 50 Swedish sewage treatment plants: Evidence of anaerobic degradation of HBCD and TBBPA.2007In: Dioxin 2007, Tokyo, Japan: 2-7 September, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 14.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Haglund, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brominated flame retardants in sludge from 50 Swedish sewage treatment plants: Evidence of anaerobic degradation of HBCD and TBBPA.2007In: Fourth International Worskhop on Brominated Flame Retardants BFR 2007: Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 24-27 April., 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 15.
    de Wit, Cynthia A.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Haglund, Malin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brominated flame retardants in sludge from 50 Swedish sewage treatment plants: Evidence of anaerobic degradation of HBCD and TBBPA.2007In: The 27th International Symposium on Halogenated Persistent Organic Pollutants (Dioxin 2007), Tokyo, Japan, 2-7 September, 2007., 2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Eriksson, Ulla
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hoikkala, H.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bäcklin, B.M.
    Czub,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Olsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) in Inner and Outer Blubber Layers in Baltic Grey Seal. Poster.2007In: Fourth International Worskhop on Brominated Flame Retardants BFR 2007, Amsterdam, the Netherlands: 24-27 April, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 17. Haglund, P.
    et al.
    Malmvärn,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bergek, S.
    Bignert, A.
    Kautsky, L.
    Nakano, T.
    Wiberg, K.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    On the sources of polybrominated dibezo-p- dioxins found in the Baltic proper fish and shellfish.2007In: Organohalogen Compd.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Haglund, P.
    et al.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bergek, S.
    Bignert, A.
    Kautsky, L.
    Nakano, T.
    Wiberg, K.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Are the sources of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins found in the Baltic Proper fish and shellfish anthropogenic of natural?2007In: BRF2007: April 25-27, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Kemiska institutionen.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Miljögiftsforskning.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Temporal Variations of Polybrominated Dibenzo-p-Dioxin and Methoxylated Diphenyl Ether Concentrations in Fish Revealing Large Differences in Exposure and Metabolic Stability2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 2466-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) and polybrominated methoxylated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were investigated in perch (Perca fluviatilis) collected from a Baltic Sea background contaminated area between 1990 and 2005. No temporal trend was found, but large variations were observed - up to 5-fold and 160-fold differences in MeO-PBDE and PBDD concentrations, respectively - between consecutive years, suggesting that retention of these compounds, particularly the PBDDs, is limited. Examination of the congener profiles using principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis indicated that MeO-PBDEs without adjacent substituents (6-MeO-BDE47) or with two adjacent substituents (2'-MeO-BDE68 and 6-MeO-BDE90) are retained more than MeO-PBDEs with three adjacent substituents (6-MeO-BDE85 and 6-MeO-BDE99) and that 1,3,6,8-tetraBDD and 1,3,7,9-tetraBDD are retained more than the other PBDDs which have vicinal hydrogen. Debromination could explain the limited retention of 6-MeO-PBDE85 and 6-MeO-BDE99 and the absence of 2-MeO-BDE123 and 6-MeO-BDE137, and cytochrome P-450 mediated oxidation could explain the limited retention of PBDDs containing vicinal hydrogen. The levels of organobromines, especially MeO-PBDEs, were found to covary with water conditions related to primary production, for example temperature, depth visibility, and inorganic nutrient concentrations, which also favor fish productivity. The results suggest natural production of MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs and imply that they fluctuate considerably over time, as do common marine toxins in fish. Thus, assessments of human and environmental risk should consider both the average and peak concentrations of these contaminants in marine biota.

  • 20. Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergek, Sture
    Bignert, Anders
    Kautsky, Lena
    Nakano, Takeshi
    Wiberg, Karin
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Are the sources of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins found in Baltic Proper fish and shellfish anthropogenic or natural?2007In: 4th International Workshop on Brominated Flame Retardants: BFR 2007 Amsterdam, 2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21. Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergek, Sture
    Bignert, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Kautsky, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Nakano, Takeshi
    Wiberg, Karin
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins - A new class of marine toxins?2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 3069-3074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) were measured in marine fish, mussels, and shellfish. PBDDs were nondetectable in samples from freshwater environments, and their levels were successively higher in samples from the marine environments of the Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, the West Coast of Sweden, and the Baltic Proper. In Baltic Proper littoral fish the levels of PBDDs generally exceeded those of their chlorinated analogues (PCDDs). This is alarming as some Baltic fish species already are contaminated by chlorinated dioxins to such an extent that they cannot be sold on the European market. By comparing spatial trends in PBDD and PCDD distributions, and PBDD patterns in fish, mussels, and algae, we show that the PBDDs are probably produced naturally, and we propose a route for their biosynthesis. We further show that the levels of PBDDs are high (ng/g wet weight) in mussels, and that the levels increase over time. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the PBDDs have adverse biological effects, and that the levels are increasing as a result of global warming and eutrophication.

  • 22. Haglund, Peter
    et al.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bergek, Sture
    Bignert, Anders
    Kautsky, Lena
    Nakano, Takeshi
    Wiberg, Karin
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Brominated dibenzo-p-dioxins: A new class of marine toxins?2007In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 41, no 9, p. 3069-3074Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Levels of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) were measured in marine fish, mussels, and shellfish. PBDDs were nondetectable in samples from freshwater environments, and their levels were successively higher in samples from the marine environments of the Bothnian Bay and Bothnian Sea, the West Coast of Sweden, and the Baltic Proper. In Baltic Proper littoral fish the levels of PBDDs generally exceeded those of their chlorinated analogues (PCDDs). This is alarming as some Baltic fish species already are contaminated by chlorinated dioxins to such an extent that they cannot be sold on the European market. By comparing spatial trends in PBDD and PCDD distributions, and PBDD patterns in fish, mussels, and algae, we show that the PBDDs are probably produced naturally, and we propose a route for their biosynthesis. We further show that the levels of PBDDs are high (ng/g wet weight) in mussels, and that the levels increase over time. Finally, we discuss the possibility that the PBDDs have adverse biological effects, and that the levels are increasing as a result of global warming and eutrophication.

  • 23.
    Haglund, Peter S.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Siek, Kevin
    Leco Corporation.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Powerful GC-TOF-MS Techniques for Screening, Identification and Quantification of Halogenated Natural Products2013In: Mass Spectrometry, ISSN 2186-5116, Vol. 2, no Special Issue, p. S0018-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC TOFMS) and gaschromatography/high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-HRT) were used to detect and identify halogenatednatural products (HNPs) in tissue homogenate, in this case brominated analytes present in a marine snail. Two classes of brominatedanthropogenic compounds, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and brominated dibenzofurans, were analyzedfor comparison. Following conventional preparation, the sample was analyzed using GC×GC-TOF-MS. Isotope ratio scriptswere used to compile a list of putatively brominated analytes from amongst the thousands of features resolved in the twodimensionalchromatogram. The structured nature of the chromatogram was exploited to propose identifications for severalclasses of brominated compounds, and include additional candidates that fell marginally outside the script tolerances. Thesample was subsequently analyzed by GC-HRT. The high-resolution mass spectral data confirmed many formula assignments,facilitated confident assignment of an alternate formula when an original proposal did not hold, and enabled unknown identification.Identified HNPs include hydroxylated and methoxylated PBDE analogs, polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs)and hydroxyl-PBDDs, permitting the environmental occurrence and fate of such compounds to be studied.

  • 24. Helander, B.
    et al.
    Bignert, A.
    Asplund, L
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Using raptors as environmental sentinels: monitoring the white-tailed sea eagle Haliaeetus albicilla in Sweden.2008In: Ambio, Vol. 37, p. 425-431Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Jensen, Sören
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lipid extraction and determination of halogenated phenols and alkylphenols as their pentafluorobenzoyl derivatives in marine organisms2009In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 57, no 13, p. 5872-5877Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A method was developed for the extraction of lipids and analysis of halogenated phenols and alkylphenols in marine organisms. The extraction efficiency was evaluated by comparing the extractable lipid content and the recovery of 13 added phenols from three different marine species (herring, cod, and blue mussel), with the corresponding results from three well-established extraction procedures, the Bligh and Dyer (B&D), the Smedes (S), and the Jensen (J) methods. The J method and the new method, Jensen centrifugation (Jc), gave phenol recoveries of 80-100% for all species, whereas the B&D and S methods gave relatively low recoveries for the most acidic phenols, with recoveries of only 20-50% for pentachlorophenol (PCP) depending on the species. It was concluded that this effect was governed by the dissociation of the phenols and adsorption to the protein tissue during the extraction (due to ionic interactions). To increase the sensitivity of the analysis, the phenols were converted to their pentafluorobenzoyl esters, by using a tetrabutylammonium-catalyzed extractive acylation. The reaction was quantitative within 2 min at room temperature, and the formed derivatives were persistent enough to withstand treatment with concentrated sulfuric acid.

  • 26.
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    de Wit, Cynthia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thomas, G.O.
    Sweetman, A.J.
    Jones, K.C.
    Fate of Higher Brominated PBDEs in Lactating Cows2007In: Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 41, p. 417-423Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 27.
    Kierkegaard, Amelie
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    De Wit, Cynthia A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Thomas, Gareth O
    Sweetman, Andrew J
    Jones, Kevin C
    A mass balance of tri-hexabrominated diphenyl ethers in lactating cows.2009In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 43, no 7, p. 2602-2607Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beef and dairy products can be important vectors of human exposure to polybrominated diphenylethers (BDEs), and hence an understanding of BDE transfer from feed to cows' milk and tissue is important for BDE exposure assessment The fate of tri- to hexaBDEs in lactating cows exposed to a naturally contaminated diet was studied by analyzing feed, feces, and milk samples from a mass balance study. Tissue distribution was studied in one cowslaughtered afterthe experiment The carryover rates from feed to milk ranged from 0.15 to 0.35 for the major congeners. Lower values were observed for several of the tetrabrominated congeners, and this was attributed to metabolism. The dietary absorption efficiency decreased with increasing octanol-water partition coefficient of the BDE congener. The absorption behavior was consistent with a model based on chemical lipophilicity, but agreed less well with a model based on effective molecular diameter, and it violated Lipinski's "rule of 5". The lipid normalized concentrations were similar in all tissues analyzed including liver and milk, suggesting that tissue distribution is governed by partitioning into lipids. Overall, the behavior of the tri- to hexaBDEs was consistent with that observed for other classes of halogenated aromatic contaminants such as PCBs and PCDD/Fs, but it differed markedly from the behavior of the hepta- decaBDEs.

  • 28. Legradi, Jessica
    et al.
    Dahlberg, Anna-Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Cenijn, Peter
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Legler, Juliette
    Disruption of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) by hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) present in the marine environment2014In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, no 24, p. 14703-14711Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) are of growing concern, as they have been detected in both humans and wildlife and have been shown to be toxic. Recent studies have indicated that OH-PBDEs can be more toxic than PBDEs, partly due to their ability to disrupt oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), an essential process in energy metabolism. In this study, we determined the OXPHOS disruption potential of 18 OH-PBDE congeners reported in marine wildlife using two in vitro bioassays, namely the classic rat mitochondrial respiration assay, and a mitochrondrial membrane potential assay using zebrafish PAC2 cells. Single OH-PBDE congeners as well as mixtures were tested to study potential additive or synergistic effects. An environmental mixture composed of seven OH-PBDE congeners mimicking the concentrations reported in Baltic blue mussels were also studied. We report that all OH-PBDEs tested were able to disrupt OXPHOS via either protonophoric uncoupling and/or inhibition of the electron transport chain. Additionally we show that OH-PBDEs tested in combinations as found in the environment have the potential to disrupt OXPHOS. Importantly, mixtures of OH-PBDEs may show very strong synergistic effects, stressing the importance of further research on the in vivo impacts of these compounds in the environment

  • 29.
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Dahlgren, Elin
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Biosynthesis of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and the correlation with photosynthetic pigments in the red alga Ceramium tenuicorne2017In: Phytochemistry, ISSN 0031-9422, E-ISSN 1873-3700, Vol. 133, p. 51-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) have been identified in a variety of marine organisms from different trophic levels indicating a large spread in the environment. There is much evidence pointing towards natural production as the major source of these compounds in nature. However, much is still not known about the natural production of these compounds. Seasonal trend studies have shown large fluctuations in the levels of OH-PBDEs in Ceramium tenuicorne from the Baltic Sea. Yet, even though indications of stimuli that can induce the production of these compounds have been observed, none, neither internal nor external, has been assigned to be responsible for the recorded fluctuations. In the present study the possible relationship between the concentration of pigments and that of OH-PBDEs in C. tenuicorne has been addressed. Significant correlations were revealed between the concentrations of all OH-PBDEs quantified and the concentrations of both chlorophyll a and Σxanthophylls + carotenoids. All of which displayed a concentration peak in mid-July. The levels of OH-PBDEs may be linked to photosynthetic activity, and hence indirectly to photosynthetic pigments, via bromoperoxidase working as a scavenger for hydrogen peroxide formed during photosynthesis. Yet the large apparent investment in producing specific OH-PBDE congeners point towards an targeted production, with a more specific function than being a waste product of photosynthesis. The OH-PBDE congener pattern observed in this study is not agreeable with some currently accepted models for the biosynthesis of these compounds, and indicates a more selective route than previously considered in C. tenuicorne.

  • 30.
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Jensen, Sören
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK). Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lipid-soluble conjugates of hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea2014In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 954-961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) of proposed natural origin have been detected throughout the food web of the Baltic Sea. Some OH-PBDEs have been shown to disrupt oxidative phosphorylation and the thyroid hormone system in exposed organisms. This paper describes an investigation into the fate of OH-PBDEs in the Baltic Sea's predominant specie, the blue mussel. The main focus was on the conjugation of OH-PBDEs with lipophilic moieties (e.g., fatty acids) and the potential role this transformation mechanism may have in heavily exposed mussels in nature. Analytical methods were developed to accurately determine the concentrations of these conjugates in blue mussels collected on different occasions during the summer in a coastal area of the Baltic proper. The measured concentrations of conjugated OH-PBDEs were compared to those of the unconjugated parent compounds, and it was found that in some cases, the levels of the conjugated derivatives can be equal or even higher than the levels of the unconjugated OH-PBDEs. This is, to our knowledge, the first study on lipid-soluble OH-PBDE conjugates, and the first study to investigate the occurrence of such conjugates of halogenated phenolic compounds in environmentally exposed mussels. The mussels were also found to contain hydrolysable water-soluble derivatives of OH-PBDEs (such as e.g., glucuronic acid and/or sulfate conjugates etc.). These were tentatively determined to be of lower concentration (by up to an order of magnitude) than that of the OH-PBDEs which were conjugated with lipophilic moieties.

  • 31. Lundstedt-Enkel, K.
    et al.
    Roos, A.
    Nylund, K.
    Asplund, L
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Contaminants in Baltic Sea male and female grey seals (Halichoerus grypus) of different ages.2008In: Organohalogen. Compd. 70: Dioxin 2008, Birmingham, UK, 2008, p. 000829-000832Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32. Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    et al.
    Bjerselius, Rickard
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Liu, Yang
    Södervall, Mathias
    Modeling Relationships between Baltic Sea Herring (Clupea harengus) Biology and Contaminant Concentrations Using Multivariate Data Analysis2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 23, p. 9018-9023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Baltic Sea herring (Clupea harengus) is a pelagic, zoo-planktivorous fish and young (2-5 years old) individuals of this species are sampled annually in the Swedish marine monitoring program. This study determined concentrations of organochlorines (OCs) and brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in dorsal muscle from herring (n = 60) of varying age (2-13 years), weight (25-200 g), and body length (16-29 cm) caught at three locations in the Swedish part of the Baltic Proper. In order to ensure that the fish biclogy was as varied as possible, though still similar from all sampling sites, the fish to be chemically analyzed were selected from a large number of fish with determined biology using Multivariate Design. In statistical evaluation of the data, univariate and multivariate data analysis techniques, e.g. principal components analysis (PCA), partial least-squares regression (PLS), and orthogonal PLS (OPLS), were used. The results showed that the fish are exposed to a cocktail of contaminants and levels are presented. Significant OPLS models were found for all biological variables versus concentrations of OCs and BFRs, showing that fish biology covaries with fish contaminant concentrations. Correlation coefficients were as high as 0.98 for e.g. beta HCH concentration (wet weight) versus the lipid content. Lastly, the DC concentrations in herring muscle were modeled against the BFR concentrations to determine whether concentrations of either could be used to predict the other. It was found that OPLS models allowed BFR concentrations to be predicted from OC concentrations with high, but varying, accuracy (R-2 Ys between 0.93 to 0.75). Thus, fish biology and contaminant concentrations are interwoven, and fish biological parameters can be used to calculate (predict) contaminant concentrations. It is also possible to predict the BFR concentrations in an individual fish from its concentrations of OCs with very high accuracy.

  • 33. Löfstrand, K.
    et al.
    Malmvärn,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Haglund, P.
    Bignert, A.
    Bergman, Å.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    PBDD, MeO-PBDE, OH-PBDE and brominated phenols in blue mussels from the Swedish coast line.2007In: Organohalogen Compd.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Löfstrand, K
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, A
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Asplund, L
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Trends and exposure of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDEs in baltic BIOTA2010In: Organohalogen Compounds, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Athanassiadis, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    High concentrations of 6-hydroxylated - 2,2´,4,4´-tetrabromodiphenyl ether in herring (Clupea harengus) plasma from the Baltic Sea2008In: Svensk Norsk miljömöte 2008: SNMM 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 36.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Kautsky, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins in algae and blue mussels from the Swedish coast line - patterns and correlationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Liu, Xitao
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Beijing Normal University, PR China.
    Lindqvist, Dennis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Jensen, Sören
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Seasonal variations of hydroxylated and methoxylated brominated diphenyl ethers in blue mussels from the Baltic Sea2011In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 84, no 4, p. 527-532Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) found at high levels in the Baltic biota are mainly natural products, but can also be formed through metabolism or abiotic oxidation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The formation of OH-PBDEs is of concern since there is growing evidence of phenolic toxicity. This study investigates seasonal variations in levels of OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, focusing on an exposed species, the blue mussel (Mytilus edulis), sampled in the Baltic Sea in May, June, August and October of 2008. Both the OH-PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels in the mussels showed seasonal variations from May to October, the highest concentration of each congener appearing in June. The seasonal variation was more marked for OH-PBDEs than in MeO-PBDEs, but all congeners showed the same trends, except 6-MeO-BDE47 and 2′-MeO-BDE68, which did not significantly decline in concentrations after June. Biotic or abiotic debromination is suggested as a possible reason for the rapid decrease in methoxylated penta- and hexa-BDE concentrations observed in blue mussels from June to August, while the tetraBDE concentrations were stable. In addition, 1,3,7/1,3,8-tribrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins showed the same seasonal variation. The seasonal variations indicates natural formation and are unlikely to be due to transformation of anthropogenic precursors. The levels of PBDEs were fairly constant over time and considerably lower than those of the OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs. The timing of the peaks in concentrations suggests that filamentous macro-algae may be important sources of these compounds found in the blue mussels from this Baltic Sea location.

  • 38.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Bignert, Anders
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    PBDD, MeO-PBDE, OH-PBDE and brominated phenols in blue mussels from the Swedish coast line2007In: Organohalogen Compounds: Dioxin 2007, 2007, p. 287-290Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Löfstrand, Karin
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå Universitet, Kemiska institutionen.
    Bignert, Anders
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Miljögiftsforskning.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Environmental Chemistry.
    Brominated phenols, anisoles, and dioxins present in blue mussels from the Swedish coastline2010In: Environmental science and pollution research international, ISSN 0944-1344, E-ISSN 1614-7499, Vol. 17, no 8, p. 1460-1468Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction  

    Naturally occurring hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs), their methoxylated counterparts (MeO-PBDEs), and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs), together with their potential precursors polybrominated phenols (PBPs) and polybrominated anisoles (PBAs), were analyzed in blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) gathered along the east coast (bordering the Baltic Sea) and west coast of Sweden (bordering the North Sea). Brown algae (Dictyosiphon foenicolaceus) and cyanobacteria (Nodularia spumigena) from the Baltic Sea, considered to be among the primary producers of these compounds, were also analyzed for comparison.

    Materials and methods  

    The samples were liquid–liquid extracted, separated into a phenolic and a neutral fraction, and subsequently analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GS-MS).

    Results and discussion  

    The levels of OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and PBDDs were significantly higher in Baltic Sea mussels than in those from the west coast, whereas the levels of PBPs and PBAs displayed the opposite pattern. The blue mussels from the Baltic Sea contained high levels of all analyzed substances, much higher than the levels of, e.g., polybrominated diphenyl ethers. In addition, the GC-MS chromatogram of the phenolic fraction of the west coast samples was dominated by four unknown peak clusters, three of which were tentatively identified as dihydroxy-PBDEs and the other as a hydroxylated-methyl-tetraBDE.

    Conclusions  

    Clearly, all of the compounds analyzed are natural products, both in the Baltic and the North Sea. However, the geographical differences in composition may indicate different origin, e.g., due to differences in the occurrence and/or abundance of various algae species along these two coasts or possibly a more extensive dilution on the west coast.

  • 40.
    Malmvärn, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Kautsky, Lena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Bergman, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins in red alga and cyanobacteria living in the Baltic Sea2008In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 910-916Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-PBDEs) and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) are present in the ecosystem of the Baltic Sea. OH-PBDEs are known to be both natural products from marine environments and metabolites of the anthropogenic polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), whereas, MeO-PBDEs appear to be solely natural in origin. Polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PBDDs) are by-products formed in connection with the combustion of brominated flame retardants (BFRs), but are also indicated as natural products in a red alga (Ceramium tenuicorne) and blue mussels living in the Baltic Sea. The aims of the present investigation were to quantify the OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs present in C. tenuicorne; to verify the identities of PBDDs detected previously in this species of red alga and to investigate whether cyanobacteria living in this same region of the Baltic Sea contain OH-PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs and/or PBDDs. The red alga was confirmed to contain tribromodibenzo-p-dioxins (triBDDs), by accurate mass determination and additional PBDD congeners were also detected in this sample. This is the first time that PBDDs have been identified in a red alga. The SigmaOH-PBDEs and SigmaMeO-PBDEs concentrations, present in C. tenuicorne were 150 and 4.6ngg(-1) dry weight, respectively. In the cyanobacteria 6 OH-PBDEs, 6 MeO-PBDEs and 4 PBDDs were detected by mass spectrometry (electron capture negative ionization (ECNI)). The PBDDs and OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs detected in the red alga and cyanobacteria are most likely of natural origin.

  • 41.
    Nordlöf,
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Helander, B.
    Bignert, A.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Polybrominated flame retardants in eggs from Swedish white-tailed Sea eagles (Haliaeetus Albicilla).2007In: Organohalogen Compd.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Nordlöf, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Helander, Bjorn
    Zebuhr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, Anders
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea2012In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 438, p. 166-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like non-ortho-PCBs were measured in white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eagle eggs collected along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea during the period 1992-2004. The eggs represent two different subpopulations with significantly different nestling brood sizes; the Baltic Proper (BP) with an approximately normal nestling brood size (1.62), and the south Bothnian Sea (sBS) with reduced nestling brood size (1.22) combined with a significantly higher rate of dead eggs. The aim was to investigate if this difference in reproductive outcome was linked to differences in exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Three eggs collected in Greenland in 2000 were included in the study to provide a reference sea eagle population outside of the Baltic Sea region. The concentrations of Sigma PCDD, Sigma PCDF and Sigma non-ortho-PCB in the two subpopulations from the Baltic Sea (BS) region ranged from 0.41-4.1, 1.2-5.3 and 180-970 ng/g lipids, respectively, while in the Greenland population the ranges were 0.11-0.16, 0.22-0.33 and 57-83 ng/g lipid, respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PCDF was the predominant congener in all areas and accounted for on average 31-49% of the total Sigma PCDD/F concentrations. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in sBS WTSEs were higher (approximately 39 ng TEQ/g lipid) than reported in eggs for many other birds, and the major contributors to the TEQ in the Baltic Sea were the non-ortho-PCBs. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a difference in congener pattern between the two Baltic regions that was statistically significant (Hotelling's T-2 test). We found no significant differences in the total TEQ between the two populations (sBS-BP) and thus no evidence was found linking the reproductive impairment in WTSE in sBS to the concentrations of PCDD/Fs or non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs.

  • 43.
    Nordlöf, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Helander, Björn
    Bignert, Anders
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Levels of brominated flame retardants and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles breeding in different regions of Sweden2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, no 1, p. 238-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forty-four unhatched eggs from white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), collected in four regions in Sweden in 1992–2005, were analysed for contents of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polybrominated biphenyl (PBB), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and naturally occurring methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs). Two freshwater areas—Lapland in the arctic zone (LAP) and inland lakes in central and southern Sweden (INL), and two brackish marine areas in the Baltic Sea—the south Bothnian Sea (SB) and the Baltic Proper (BP)—were chosen for comparison of the concentrations and congener distributions in white-tailed sea eagles with different diet and migratory patterns. The geometric mean (GM) concentrations (ng/g lipid weight (l.w.)) of ∑5PBDE (BDE-47, -99, -100, -153, and -154) were 720 (LAP), 1500 (INL), 4 100 (SB) and 4 300 (BP), whereas BDE-209 was not detectable in any of the samples. The GM concentrations for HBCD content in LAP, INL, SB and BP were 60, 90, 150 and 140 ng/g l.w., respectively, whereas the corresponding values for BB-153 were 20, 30, 100 and 120 ng/g l.w. In general, the eggs from all four regions demonstrated similar patterns of PBDE congeners, with concentrations in descending order of BDE-47, -100, -99, -153 and -154. The ∑3-MeO-BDEs (6-MeO-BDE47, 2′-MeO-BDE68, 5-Cl-6-MeO-BDE47) for these same regions (as above) were 80, 40, 340 and 240 ng/g l.w., respectively. ∑3-MeO-BDEs for LAP and INL (freshwaters) were significantly different, whereas those for SB and BP were not. The presence of MeO-PBDEs in all of the inland samples indicates that there is an as-yet-unidentified source of these compounds in the freshwater ecosystem. Between the two more contaminated subpopulations from the Baltic Sea coast, SB showed significantly lower productivity than BP, but no correlation was found between productivity and PBDE, PBB and HBCD at the concentrations found in this study.

  • 44.
    Nordlöf, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Helander, Björn
    Eriksson, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Comparison of organohalogen compounds in a white-tailed sea eagle egg laid in 1941 with five eggs from 1996 to 20012012In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 88, no 3, p. 286-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eggs laid by white-tailed sea eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla), one in 1941 and five eggs between 1996 and 2001, all from the same geographical region of the Baltic Sea, were screened for organohalogen substances. The 1941 egg contained hexachlorobenzene (HCB), but did not contain either of the pesticides hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) or p,p'-DDT, nor any metabolites of the latter. In contrast, the more recent eggs (REs) contained all of these compounds. Of the seven polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) analyzed (CB28, -52, -101, -118, -138/-163, -153 and 180), only the more highly chlorinated congeners were detected in the 1941 sample, with CB153 followed by CB180 showing the highest concentrations. All eggs demonstrated the same congener pattern with respect to the more highly chlorinated PCBs, but concentrations were approximately 70-230 times higher in the REs. All of the polychlorinated-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/Fs) congeners analyzed were detected in the eggs, with the dominant congener being 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF (1250pg/gl.w. in 1941 and 1540pg/gl.w. (GM) for the REs, respectively). None of the other congeners exceeded 400pg/gl.w., and the concentrations of 2,3,7,8-TCDD, 2,3,7,8-TCDF and 1,2,3,7,8-PeCDF were all lower in the REs. None of five congeners of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) found in the REs was detected in the egg from 1941. The three methoxylated brominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-BDEs) analyzed were found at similar levels and with a similar congener pattern in REs as in the egg from 1941. In conclusion, this study has shown the absence of DDE and PBDE and the presence of HCB and PCBs in a white-tailed sea eagle egg laid in 1941, and a strong increase of PCBs, DDE and PBDE in white-tailed sea eagle eggs from the same area in 1996-2001. The MeO-BDEs were found in similar concentrations in the analyzed eggs. The 1941 sample shows substantial concentrations of PCDD/Fs, noteworthy in the same magnitude as in the recent samples, illustrating the historical and recent exposure of these compounds.

  • 45.
    Nordlöf, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Helander, Björn
    Nylund, Kerstin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, Anders
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and hydroxylated/methoxylated analogues in serum from white-tailed sea eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) nestlings from four different regions of SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Nordlöf, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Helander, Björn
    Zebühr, Yngve
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bignert, Anders
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non­-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic SeaIn: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Pettersson, M.
    et al.
    Hahlbeck, E.
    Katsiadaki, I.
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Bengtsson, Bengt-Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Survey of estrogenic and androgenic disruption in Swedish costral waters by the analysis of bile fluid from perch and biomarkers in the three-spined stickleback.2007In: Mar. Pollut. Bull., Vol. 54, p. 1868-1880Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Pettersson, Maria
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Parkkonen, Jari
    Förlin, Lars
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Fish bile used to detect estrogenic substances in treated sewage water2006In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 366, no 1, p. 174-186Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endocrine disrupting effects on fish associated with sewage treatment effluents have been demonstrated in several studies. To investigate if the effluents from two modem Swedish sewage treatment plants contained estrogenic substances, juvenile rainbow trout were exposed to sewage water before and after the last treatment step which is a sand filter. As a biomarker for estrogenic effect, vitellogenin was analysed in the blood plasma of the exposed fish. To identify substances possibly responsible for the effect, bile fluid from the exposed fish were analysed with GUMS. Elevated levels of vitellogenin were only seen in the fish exposed at one of the sewage treatment plants, the one with shorter residence time in the biological treatment steps, which suggests that the residence time is of importance for the ability to reduce the amount of estrogenic substances in the sewage water. The highest elevation of vitellogenin was seen in the fish exposed to water before the sand filter, which indicates that the sand filter contributes to further reduction of estrogenic substances in the sewage water. In bile from the same group of fish, considerably higher concentrations of estrone, bisphenol A and 4-nonylphenol (4.0 mu g/g bile, 23 mu g/g bile and 24 mu g/g bile, respectively) were observed compared to bile from control fish (< 0.04 mu g/g bile, 0.21 mu g/g bile, and 3.5 mu g/g bile, respectively). The more potent steroidal estrogens were suggested to be major contributors to the observed estrogenic effect, although xenoestrogens were detected at higher concentrations in the bile fluid.

  • 49.
    Sobek, Anna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    McLachlan, Michael S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Borga, Katrine
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Lundstedt-Enkel, Katrin
    Polder, Anuschka
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    A comparison of PCB bioaccumulation factors between an arctic and a temperate marine food web2010In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 408, no 13, p. 2753-2760Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To test how environmental conditions in the Arctic and the resulting ecological adaptations affect accumulation of persistent organic pollutants (POPS) in the marine food web, bioaccumulation of four polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in an arctic (Barents Sea 77 degrees N-82 degrees N) and a temperate marine (Baltic Sea 54 degrees N-62 degrees N) food web were compared Three different trophic levels were studied (zooplankton. fish, and seal), representing the span from first-level consumer to top predator. Previously published high-quality data on PCB water concentrations in the two areas were used for calculation of bioaccumulation factors (BAF) BAF was calculated as the ratio of the PCB concentration in the organism ([PCB](org); pg/kg lipid) to the dissolved water concentration (C-w, pg/L). The BAF(Arctic):BAF(Temperature) ratios were above 1 for all four PCB congeners in zooplankton (6.4-138) and planktivorous fish (2.9-5.0)), whereas the ratios were below 1 in seal The mean ratio between arctic and temperate BAFs for all trophic levels and congeners (BAF(Arctic) BAF(Temperate)) was 4.8. When the data were corrected for the seawater temperature difference between the two ecosystems, the ratio was 2 0 We conclude that bioaccumulation differences caused by ecological or physiological adaptations of organisms between the two ecosystems were well within a water concentration variability of 50%. Further, our data support the hypothesis that lower seawater temperature lead to a thermodynamically favoured passive partitioning to organic matrices and thus elevated ambient BAFs in the Arctic compared to the Baltic Sea This would imply that bioaccumulation in the Arctic may be described in the same way as bioaccumulation in temperate regions. e g by the use of mechanistic models parameterised for the Arctic.

  • 50. Teuten, Emma L.
    et al.
    Johnson, Carl G.
    Mandalakis, Manolis
    Asplund, Lillemor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Unger, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Marsh, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Chemistry.
    Reddy, Christopher M.
    Spectral characterization of two bioaccumulated methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers2006In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 197-203Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) were isolated from a True’s beaked whale (Mesoplodon mirus) and identified by NMR (1H, 1H–1H and 1H–13C) and high resolution mass spectrometry as 2-(2′,4′-dibromophenoxy)-3,5-dibromoanisole (6-MeO-BDE47) and 2-(2′,4′-dibromophenoxy)-4,6-dibromoanisole (2′-MeO-BDE68). Previously the structures of these bioaccumulated compounds have been determined by comparison of their mass spectra and gas chromatographic (GC) retention times with those of authentic standards. While this method is accepted and generally successful, NMR of the isolated compounds allows us to definitively identify the congeners. Our characterizations are consistent with those made for MeO-PBDEs in other organisms, identified by chromatographic methods.

12 1 - 50 of 61
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