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  • 1.
    Alavaisha, Edmond
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. The Nature Conservancy, USA.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Assessment of Water Quality Across Irrigation Schemes: A Case Study of Wetland Agriculture Impacts in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania2019In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 671Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coupled change in land and water use due to increased farming intensity is a main factor affecting water quality and quantity, ecological functions and biodiversity globally. Prolonging growing seasons and increasing productivity in wetlands through irrigation have been targeted for increasing food security, particularly in developing countries. Nevertheless, irrigation and drainage have often been associated with degradation of water quality through increased agrochemical and fertiliser runoff and leaching at local scales. In this study, we investigated water quality in streams used for irrigation in a wetland area in Kilombero Valley, Tanzania. We measured physical-chemical water parameters and collected macroinvertebrates with different sensitivity to water quality across several small irrigation schemes covering various conditions. Turbidity, temperature, nitrate-N, and ammonium-N were significantly higher at sampling sites downstream of irrigation compared to upstream. Macroinvertebrate diversity, richness and average score per taxa (ASPT) were higher in general in sampling sites upstream of irrigation, with more sensitive macroinvertebrates decreasing in abundance downstream. There was a positive correlation between physical-chemical parameters and macroinvertebrate indices across the sites. We demonstrate that macroinvertebrate indices can be used as a quick assessment of water quality in response to irrigation schemes in small-scale farming systems of Tanzania. This in turn can allow us to track changes affecting wetland ecosystem function and biodiversity at higher trophic levels and across larger scales, thereby providing useful early warnings to help avoid widespread degradation under widespread agricultural intensification.

  • 2.
    Alavaisha, Edmond
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Manzoni, Stefano
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Different agricultural practices affect soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous in Kilombero -Tanzania2019In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 234, p. 159-166Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Converting natural and semi-natural vegetation to agriculture is currently the most significant land use change at global scale. This conversion leads to changes in soil nutrients and increased CO2 emissions. However, knowledge of how soil organic carbon and nutrients change under various farming management is still limited, especially for small scale farming systems. This study evaluated the effects of different farming systems on soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorous (TP) in subsistence farming at Kilombero, Tanzania. We applied an in-situ experimental setup, comparing maize and rice farming with and without irrigation and difference in fertilizers, with replicated soil sampling at five soil depths to a depth of 60 cm. The results show that irrigation had a positive effect on profile-averaged concentrations of SOC and TN, while fertilization had a positive effect on TN. Higher concentrations and stocks of TN were found in maize field soils compered to rice fields. In the vertical profile, irrigation and fertilization had positive effects on concentrations of SOC and TN of top soil layers, and the interaction between irrigation and fertilization extended the effect to deeper soil layers. Our results indicate that moderate irrigation and fertilization can help to improve carbon storage and nutrient availability (TN) in small-scale farming soils in Africa.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Species Richness and Assemblages in Landscapes of Different Farming Intensity - Time to Revise Conservation Strategies?2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, p. e109816-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide conservation goals to protect biodiversity emphasize the need to rethink which objectives are most suitable for different landscapes. Comparing two different Swedish farming landscapes, we used survey data on birds and vascular plants to test whether landscapes with large, intensively managed farms had lower richness and diversity of the two taxa than landscapes with less intensively managed small farms, and if they differed in species composition. Landscapes with large intensively managed farms did not have lower richness than smaller low intensively managed farms. The landscape types were also similar in that they had few red listed species, normally targeted in conservation. Differences in species composition demonstrate that by having both types of agricultural landscapes regional diversity is increased, which is seldom captured in the objectives for agro-environmental policies. Thus we argue that focus on species richness or red listed species would miss the actual diversity found in the two landscape types. Biodiversity conservation, especially in production landscapes, would therefore benefit from a hierarchy of local to regional objectives with explicit targets in terms of which aspects of biodiversity to focus on.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    A social-ecological analysis of ecosystem services in two different farming systems2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. 102-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this exploratory study we use existing in situ qualitative and quantitative data on biophysical and social indicators to compare two contrasting Swedish farming systems (low intensity and high intensity) with regard to ecosystem service supply and demand of a broad suite of services. We show that the value (demand) placed on a service is not necessarily connected to the quantity (supply) of the service, most clearly shown for the services recreation, biodiversity, esthetic experience, identity, and cultural heritage. To better capture this complexity we argue for the need to develop portfolios of indicators for different ecosystem services and to further investigate the different aspects of supply and demand. The study indicates that available data are often ill-suited to answer questions about local delivery of services. If ecosystem services are to be included in policy, planning, and management, census data need to be formatted and scaled appropriately.

  • 5. Beilin, R
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Biodiversity and Land Abandonment:  Connecting Agriculture, Place and Nature in the Landscape2010In: Landscape, identities and development / [ed] Roca, Zoran, Springer , 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers how cultural and social-centric norms influence the management and the meaning of land abandonment and biodiversity in rural landscapes. We describe historically, geologically, ecologically and socially diverse landscapes in three international case studies.  In Australia, rural land abandonment after only 150 years of European agriculture is associated biophysically with salinity, erosion and acidification.  It triggers a potential loss of place and identity for a nation still imagining a frontier past. Trading water away from the land and deregulation of production regimes due to WTO imperatives may create the opportunity for regeneration of indigenous flora and a new identity associated with conservation values.  In Sweden land abandonment reflects entrenched agricultural landscapes of over 1000 years.  Their landscape biodiversity is considered unique and in need of preservation in the face of aging farmer populations and the realities of food imports making production regimes non-viable. Sustainability appears to be associated with maintaining production regimes strongly linked to local cultural identity and sense of place.  In Portugal agricultural land abandonment in the north seems to offer a chance for oak forest regeneration and improved biodiversity outcomes. Identity here is associated with remembered landscapes prior to EU entry and re-imagining landscape connections built on previous cultural ties. In all three cases we consider what this interplay between natural and cultural landscapes will mean to their local communities; and using the historical and cultural lens, examine the theoretical ecological and sociological platforms surrounding the discourse on land use change.  We consider the benefits from interdisciplinary and international comparative research providing local-global insights that emerge to suggest common larger narratives of place and culture despite divergent histories of settlement and cultivation.

  • 6. Beilin, R.
    et al.
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Re-imagined and re-defined meanings: The complexity of land abandonment, identity and place in the quest for sustainable and biodivers rural and regional landscapes2011In: Landscapes, identities, and development / [ed] Zoran Roca, Paul Claval, John Agnew, Ashgate, 2011, p. 243-256Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bringing together theoretical and empirical research from 22 countries in Europe, North America, Australia, South America and Japan, this book offers a state-of-the-art survey of conceptual and methodological research and planning issues relating to landscape, heritage, and development. It has 30 chapters grouped in four main thematic sections: landscapes as a constitutive dimension of territorial identities; landscape history and landscape heritage; landscapes as development assets and resources; and landscape research and development planning. The contributors are scholars from a wide range of cultural and professional backgrounds, experienced in fundamental and applied research, planning and policy design. They were invited by the co-editors to write chapters for this book on the basis of the theoretical frameworks, case-study research findings and related policy concerns they presented at the 23rd Session of PECSRL - The Permanent European Conference for the Study of the Rural Landscape, organized by TERCUD - Territory, Culture and Development Research Centre, Universidade Lusofona, in Lisbon and Obidos, Portugal, 1 - 5 September 2008. With such broad inter-disciplinary relevance and international scope, this book provides a valuable overview, highlighting recent findings and interpretations on historical, current and prospective linkages between changing landscapes and natural, economic, cultural and other identity features of places and regions; landscape-related identities as local and regional development assets and resources in the era of globalized economy and culture; the role of landscape history and heritage as platforms of landscape research and management in European contexts, including the implementation of The European Landscape Convention; and, the strengthening of the landscape perspective as a constitutive element of sustainable development.

  • 7. Beilin, Ruth
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Stenseke, Marie
    Pereira, Henrique Miguel
    Llausas, Albert
    Slätmo, Elin
    Cerqueira, Yvonne
    Navarro, Laetitia
    Rodrigues, Patricia
    Reichelt, Nicole
    Munro, Nicola
    Queiroz, Cibele
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Universidade de Lisboa, Portugal.
    Analysing how drivers of agricultural land abandonment affect biodiversity and cultural landscapes using case studies from Scandinavia, Iberia and Oceania2014In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 36, p. 60-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agricultural land abandonment (ALA) is widespread in many countries of the global north. It impacts rural communities, traditional landscapes, biodiversity and ecosystem services. It is an opportunity for ecosystem restoration or new landscape functions. We explored ALA in study areas in Australia, Portugal and Sweden. In each, we assessed plant species diversity, historical trajectories of land cover change; and the socioeconomic past, present and future in interviews with farmers. The ALA data was integrated and analysed by identifying the drivers of change. The relative importance of each driver and its scale of action was estimated, both in the past (1950-2010) and in the future (2010-2030). ALA has transformed rural landscapes in the study areas of Portugal and Sweden. It is at a much earlier stage with potential to increase in the Australian case. We identified a set of driving forces, classified into pressures, frictions and attractors that clarify why ALA, noting its temporal and spatial scale, occurs differently in each study area. The effect of the drivers is related to social and historical contexts. Pressures and attractors encouraging agricultural abandonment are strongest in Portugal and Sweden. Generally more (institutionalized) frictions are in place in these European sites, intended to prevent further change, based on the benefits assumed for biodiversity and aesthetics. In Australia, the stimulation of driving forces to promote a well-managed abandonment of some cleared areas could be highly beneficial for biodiversity, minimally disruptive for current dairy farming operations and would bring opportunities for alternative types of rural development.

  • 8. Bengtsson, J.
    et al.
    Bullock, J. M.
    Egoh, B.
    Everson, C.
    Everson, T.
    O'Connor, T.
    O'Farrell, P. J.
    Smith, H. G.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Grasslands-more important for ecosystem services than you might think2019In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 2, article id e02582Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensively managed grasslands are recognized globally for their high biodiversity and their social and cultural values. However, their capacity to deliver multiple ecosystem services (ES) as parts of agricultural systems is surprisingly understudied compared to other production systems. We undertook a comprehensive overview of ES provided by natural and semi-natural grasslands, using southern Africa (SA) and northwest Europe as case studies, respectively. We show that these grasslands can supply additional non-agricultural services, such as water supply and flow regulation, carbon storage, erosion control, climate mitigation, pollination, and cultural ES. While demand for ecosystems services seems to balance supply in natural grasslands of SA, the smaller areas of semi-natural grasslands in Europe appear to not meet the demand for many services. We identified three bundles of related ES from grasslands: water ES including fodder production, cultural ES connected to livestock production, and population-based regulating services (e.g., pollination and biological control), which also linked to biodiversity. Greenhouse gas emission mitigation seemed unrelated to the three bundles. The similarities among the bundles in SA and northwestern Europe suggest that there are generalities in ES relations among natural and semi-natural grassland areas. We assessed trade-offs and synergies among services in relation to management practices and found that although some trade-offs are inevitable, appropriate management may create synergies and avoid trade-offs among many services. We argue that ecosystem service and food security research and policy should give higher priority to how grasslands can be managed for fodder and meat production alongside other ES. By integrating grass-lands into agricultural production systems and land-use decisions locally and regionally, their potential to contribute to functional landscapes and to food security and sustainable livelihoods can be greatly enhanced.

  • 9.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mwandya, Augustine W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Yahya, Saleh A. S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Kautsky, Nils
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Nyström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Exploring 'knowns' and 'unknowns' in tropical seascape connectivity with insights from East African coral reefs2012In: Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science, ISSN 0272-7714, E-ISSN 1096-0015, Vol. 107, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Applying a broader landscape perspective to understand spatio-temporal changes in local populations and communities has been increasingly used in terrestrial systems to study effects of human impact and land use change. With today’s major declines in fishery stocks and rapid degradation of natural coastal habitats, the understanding of habitat configuration and connectivity over relevant temporal and spatial scales is critical for conservation and fisheries management of the seascape. Coral reefs, seagrass beds and mangroves are key-components of the tropical seascape. The spatial distribution of these habitat-types may have strong influences on cross-habitat migration and connectivity patterns among organisms. However, the consequences of seascape fragmentation and ecological connectivity are largely unknown. Here, we review the literature to provide an overview of current knowledge with regards to connectivity and food-web interactions within the tropical seascape. We show that information on fish acting as mobile links and being part of nutrient transfer and trophic interactions is scarce. We continue by making an in-depth analysis of the seascape around Zanzibar (Eastern Africa) to fill some of the knowledge gaps identified by the literature survey. Our analysis shows that (i) fifty percent of all fish species found within the Zanzibar seascape use two or multiple habitat-types, (ii) eighteen percent of all coral reef-associated fish species use mangrove and seagrass beds as juvenile habitat, and (iii) macrocarnivores and herbivores are highly represented among those coral reef fish species that use mangrove and seagrass beds as juvenile habitat. We argue that understanding the inter-linkages within and between habitat-types is essential for successful management of the tropical seascape.

  • 10.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Assessing connectivity in a tropical embayment: Fish migrations and seascape ecology2013In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 166, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seascape connectivity and configuration of multiple habitats are important features to include in marine spatial planning, and protecting seascapes with high connectivity is recommended. The present study examines the potential connectivity of reef fish assemblages in a shallow-water conservation area in Zanzibar (Tanzania) by analysing relationships between a set of habitat variables and fish diversity and density for different functional groups (based on diet) and life stages of fish using PLS-analysis. We combined spatial pattern metrics (habitat type, patch size, distance to patch) and dispersal abilities of a number of fish species using buffer radius to answer the questions; (i) do coral reefs with high connectivity to seagrass habitats have higher abundances and higher species richness of fish that undertake routine migrations during their life-history? and (ii) do coral reefs closer to mangrove forest support higher abundances of nursery species (i.e., fish species that use mangrove and seagrass beds as juvenile habitat)? Habitat mosaics surrounding fish survey sites and within-patch measurements inside fish survey sites were quantified at multiple scales (meters to kilometers) using aerial photography and scuba. Fish data was collected using a standardized point census method. We found that both fine- and broad-scale variables were important in structuring fish communities and connectivity with surrounding habitats, where predominantly seagrass beds within a 750 m radius had a positive influence on fish abundances of invertebrate feeders/piscivores (especially for lutjanids and lethrinids). Additionally, fine-scale seagrass cover had a positive influence on nursery species. Depth also had a positive influence on total species richness and the abundance of invertebrate feeders/piscivores. This study highlights the importance of combining connectivity and habitat configuration at different scales to fully understand and manage the tropical seascape.

  • 11.
    Berkström, Charlotte
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Thyresson, Matilda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Seascape configuration influences connectivity of reef fish assemblagesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow-water habitats within tropical seascapes are intimately connected through ontogenetic and/or feeding migrations of fish. Knowledge on connectivity in the Indo-Pacific region is however sparse. Landscape ecology has been suggested as a useful approach when studying seascape connectivity. In this study, we examine the influence of habitat connectivity on reef fish assemblages in shallow-water habitats surrounding Zanzibar (Tanzania), using a seascape approach. We tested the relationships between a set of landscape and habitat variables and fish diversity and density for different functional groups and life stages. Habitat data was collected at scales ranging from 1m to >2km using aerial photography and ground-truthing. Fish data was collected using a standardised point census method. Furthermore, semi-structured interviews with 127 fishers in the bay were conducted to account for different fishing activity. We show that coral reefs in a complex seascape of Zanzibar are connected to seagrass beds through migration of fish. Habitat connectivity of seagrass and seagrass/coral mix within a 750m radius of coral reefs had a positive influence on fish abundances in the functional group of invertebrate feeders/piscivores, especially within the family Lutjanidae and Lethrinidae. Within-patch seagrass cover had a positive influence on nursery species. Depth also had a positive influence on fish assemblages, highlighting the importance of considering a third dimension, not accounted for in terrestrial studies. Generally, fishing activity between sites did neither influence species richness nor abundance, except for the abundance of juvenile parrotfish. We demonstrate that a landscape ecology approach, combining connectivity and habitat variables, is important for understanding and managing the tropical seascape, although it must be applied at relevant scales, habitat metrics and seascape configurations to fully capture ecological connectivity.

  • 12. Bernes, Claes
    et al.
    Bullock, James M.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Rundlof, Maj
    Verheyen, Kris
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    How are biodiversity and dispersal of species affected by the management of roadsides? A systematic map2017In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In many parts of the world, roadsides are regularly managed for traffic-safety reasons. Hence, there are similarities between roadsides and certain other managed habitats, such as wooded pastures and mown or grazed grasslands. These habitats have declined rapidly in Europe during the last century. For many species historically associated with them, roadsides may function as new primary habitats or as dispersal corridors in fragmented landscapes. Current recommendations for roadside management to promote conservation values are largely based on studies of plants in semi-natural grasslands, although such areas often differ from roadsides in terms of environmental conditions and disturbance regimes. Moreover, roadsides provide habitat not only for plants but also for many insects. For these reasons, stakeholders in Sweden have emphasised the need for more targeted management recommendations, based on actual studies of roadside biodiversity. Methods: This systematic map provides an overview of the available evidence on how biodiversity is affected by various forms of roadside management, and how such management influences the dispersal of species along roads or roadsides. We searched for literature using 13 online publication databases, 4 search engines, 36 specialist websites and 5 literature reviews. Search terms were developed in English, Danish, Dutch, French, German, Norwegian, Spanish and Swedish. Identified articles were screened for relevance using criteria set out in a protocol. No geographical restrictions were applied, and all species and groups of organisms were considered. Descriptions of included studies are available in an Excel file, and also in an interactive GIS application that can be accessed at an external website. Results: Our searches identified more than 7000 articles. The 207 articles included after screening described 301 individual studies considered to be relevant. More than two-thirds of these studies were conducted in North America, with most of the rest performed in Europe. More than half of the studies were published in grey literature such as reports from agencies or consultants. The interventions most commonly studied were herbicide use, sowing and mowing, followed by soil amendments such as mulching and fertiliser additions. The outcomes most frequently reported were effects of interventions on the abundance or species richness of herbs/forbs, graminoids and woody plants. Effects on insects and birds were reported in 6 and 3% of the studies, respectively. Conclusions: This systematic map is based on a comprehensive and systematic screening of all available literature on the effects of roadside management on biodiversity and dispersal of species. As such it should be of value to a range of actors, including managers and policymakers. The map provides a key to finding concrete guidance for conservation- and restoration-oriented roadside management from published research. However, the map also highlights important knowledge gaps: little data was found for some geographical regions, research is heavily biased taxonomically towards plants, and no study was found on how species dispersal was affected by roadside management. The map could therefore be a source of inspiration for new research.

  • 13. Bernes, Claes
    et al.
    Bullock, James M.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    How does roadside vegetation management affect the diversity of vascular plants and invertebrates? A systematic review protocol2017In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 16Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Roadsides have been acknowledged as potential substitutes for semi-natural grasslands and other open habitats with high biodiversity, many of which are now declining. Current recommendations for roadside management to promote conservation of biodiversity are largely based on studies of plants in meadows or pastures, although such areas often differ from roadsides in terms of environmental conditions and disturbance regimes. Stakeholders in Sweden have emphasised the need for more targeted guidelines for roadside management, based on actual roadside studies. We recently performed a systematic mapping of the evidence on how roadside management affects biodiversity and the dispersal of species. Through this process, we found 98 studies on how the richness or abundance of species on roadsides is affected by management such as regular mowing, burning, grazing or selective mechanical removal of plants. Since all of these interventions entail removal of plant biomass, they are comparable. Most of the studies recorded management effects on vascular plants, but there were 14 investigations of insects and other invertebrates. We now intend to proceed with a full systematic review of how maintenance or restoration of roadsides based on non-chemical vegetation removal affects the diversity of vascular plants and invertebrates. Methods: Most of the evidence on which the proposed systematic review is to be based will be selected from the systematic map. To identify more recently published literature on the topic of the review, we will perform a search update using a subset of the search terms applied for the systematic map. The criteria for inclusion of studies will be the same as for the map, except that interventions and outcomes will be restricted to those relevant to the review. Relevant studies will be subject to critical appraisal and categorised as having high or low validity for the review. Studies with low validity will be excluded from the review. Utilisable data on outcomes, interventions and other potential effect modifiers will be extracted from included articles. A narrative synthesis will describe the validity and findings of all studies in the review. Where a sufficient number of studies report similar outcome types, meta-analysis will be conducted.

  • 14. Birkhofer, Klaus
    et al.
    Andersson, Georg K. S.
    Bengtsson, Janne
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Dänhardt, Juliana
    Ekbom, Barbara
    Ekroos, Johan
    Hahn, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Hedlund, Katarina
    Jönsson, Annelie M.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Olsson, Ola
    Rader, Romina
    Rusch, Adrien
    Stjernman, Martin
    Williams, Alwyn
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Relationships between multiple biodiversity components and ecosystem services along a landscape complexity gradient2018In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 218, p. 247-253Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The assessment of effects of anthropogenic disturbance on biodiversity (BD) and ecosystem services (ES) and their relationships are key priorities of the Intergovernmental Panel for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services. Agricultural landscapes and their associated BD provide multiple ES and it is crucial to understand how relationships between ES and BD components change along gradients of landscape complexity. In this study, we related eight ES potentials to the species richness of five invertebrate, vertebrate and plant taxonomic groups in cereal farming systems. The landscape complexity gradient ranged from areas dominated by annually tilled arable land to areas with high proportions of unfertilized, non-rotational pastures and uncultivated field borders. We show that after accounting for landscape complexity relationships between yield and bird richness or biological control became more positive, but relationships between bird richness and biological control became less positive. The relationship between bird and plant richness turned from positive to negative. Multidiversity (overall biodiversity), was positively related to landscape complexity, whereas multifunctionality (overall ES provision), was not significantly related to either one of these. Our results suggest that multidiversity can be promoted by increasing landscape complexity; however; we found no support for a simultaneous increase of several individual ES, BD components or multifunctionality. These results challenge the assumption that bio-diversity-friendly landscape management will always simultaneously promote multiple ES in agricultural landscapes. Future studies need to verify this pattern by using multi-year data, larger sets of ES and BD components and a study design that is appropriate to address larger spatial scales and relationships in several regions.

  • 15. Birkhofer, Klaus
    et al.
    Busch, Adrien
    Andersson, Georg K. S.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Danhardt, Juliana
    Ekbom, Barbara
    Jonsson, Annelie
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Olsson, Ola
    Rader, Romina
    Stjernman, Martin
    Williams, Alwyn
    Hedlund, Katarina
    Smith, Henrik G.
    A framework to identify indicator species for ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes2018In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 91, p. 278-286Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving our understanding of the relationships between biodiversity and the delivery of ecosystem services is crucial for the development of sustainable agriculture. We introduce a novel framework that is based on the identification of indicator species for single or multiple ecosystem services across taxonomic groups based on indicator species analyses. We utilize multi-species community data (unlike previous single species approaches) without giving up information about the identity of species in our framework (unlike previous species richness approaches). We compiled a comprehensive community dataset including abundances of 683 invertebrate, vertebrate and plant species to identify indicator species that were either positively or negatively related to biological control, diversity of red-listed species or crop yield in agricultural landscapes in southern Sweden. Our results demonstrate that some taxonomic groups include significantly higher percentages of indicator species for these ecosystem services. Spider communities for example included a higher percentage of significant positive indicator species for biological control than ground or rove beetle communities. Bundles of indicator species for the analysed ecosystem service potentials usually included species that could be linked to the respective ecosystem service based on their functional role in local communities. Several of these species are conspicuous enough to be monitored by trained amateurs and could be used in bundles that are either crucial for the provision of individual ecosystem services or indicate agricultural landscapes with high value for red-listed species or crop yields. The use of bundles of characteristic indicator species for the simultaneous assessment of ecosystem services may reduce the amount of labour, time and cost in future assessments. In addition, future analysis using our framework in other ecosystems or with other subsets of ecosystem services and taxonomic groups will improve our understanding of service-providing species in local communities. In any case, expert knowledge is needed to select species from the identified subsets of significant indicator species and these species should be validated by existing data or additional sampling prior to being used for ecosystem service monitoring.

  • 16. Bommarco, Riccardo
    et al.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Marini, Lorenzo
    Öckinger, Erik
    Extinction debt for plants and flower-visiting insects in landscapes with contrasting land use history2014In: Diversity & distributions: A journal of biological invasions and biodiversity, ISSN 1366-9516, E-ISSN 1472-4642, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 591-599Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim Species are lost world-wide because of habitat destruction and fragmentation. Impacted communities can exhibit transient dynamics in response to such environmental changes, where slow extinctions and immigration delay the arrival to a new equilibrium. Life history traits such as generation time, resource use and dispersal capacity, as well as landscape history can be expected to affect possible extinction debt, but few have examined this for multiple taxa in the same study and particularly so for arthropods. The aim was to assess under which current and historical land use circumstances an extinction debt occurs for vascular plants and three insect taxa. Location South-eastern Sweden. Method We sampled current species richness of habitat specialist and generalist butterflies, bees, hoverflies, and vascular plants in 45 dry to mesic semi-natural grassland fragments of various size and degree of connectivity, and situated in landscapes with contrasting land use conversion history. Habitat loss was estimated in each landscape by comparing modern maps to ~45year old digitized aerial photographs. An extinction debt can be assumed if historical habitat size and connectivity better explain current species distribution than current habitat variables do. Results Bees responded rapidly to habitat loss possibly as a result of their primary nesting resource being destroyed. Interestingly, species richness of specialist plants was best explained by historical habitat connectivity, richness of hoverflies by historical habitat area, and richness of butterflies by both historical habitat area and connectivity, indicating extinction debt for these taxa. Habitat generalist butterflies and hoverflies, but not plants and bees, exhibited extinction debt mainly in relation to habitat area. No effect of landscape type was found on the observed extinction debt. Main conclusions Slow extinctions of persistent and long-lived plants might explain extinction debt for both plants and herbivorous insects linked to these plants.

  • 17.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Cousins, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Outside the boundary - land use changes in the surroundings of urban nature reserves2012In: Applied Geography, ISSN 0143-6228, E-ISSN 1873-7730, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 350-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of the landscape surrounding a protected area for sustaining its values is frequently discussed in conservation literature. Studies on the interactions of urbanisation and nature conservation at the global scale suggest that protected nature attracts urbanisation, and that this in turn might negatively impact the area. However, studies specifically addressing such land use dynamics at city scale are largely missing. In this study we examine the change in proportion of built up area in two zones (500 m and 1000 m) surrounding 15 urban nature reserves in southern Sweden. By using comprehensive maps from the last 50 years, we compared the zones to the overall urbanisation in the cities to reveal discrepancies in land use surrounding the nature reserves. We found that the amount of built up area in the buffer zones surrounding nature reserves followed the same trend as the corresponding cities and this relation was stable over time, although the positive relationship was not significant. The establishment of nature reserves had no detectable effect on surrounding land use, however two distinguished groups of reserves were identified with either more or less built up area in buffers zones compared to cities. These differences were related to specific local drivers such as land ownership, land use history and nature reserve location. In contrast to earlier studies at global scale, our study did not show that nature reserves attract urbanisation. Instead, we stress that the great variety of contextual factors at the city scale makes quantitative analysis of this kind extremely difficult. However, a general neglect from planning and nature conservation agencies to recognise nature reserves’ dependence on the surrounding landscape configuration could be detrimental to sustain their values in the long-term. Hence we suggest that zones surrounding nature-protected areas should be planned and managed according to local land use history and current landscape conditions to enable and enhance necessary cross-boundary interactions.

  • 18.
    Borgström, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Elmqvist, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nature conservation for what?: Analyses of urban and rural nature reserves in southern Sweden 1909-20062013In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 117, p. 66-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To effectively integrate nature conservation in sustainable landscape management, it isessential to deepen the understanding of why, what, where and for whom nature isprotected. This is especially important for nature conservation in human dominatedlandscapes such as cities, where the distance between built up and protected areas is inconstant decline due to urbanisation worldwide. In this study we use historical andcurrent data from Sweden to examine how urban compared to rural nature conservationhave been using formal nature reserve objectives. The focal nature conservationobjectives in our study area were preservation of biodiversity, restoration ofenvironments and outdoor recreation, as well as subdivision of those. The use of theseobjectives were analysed for 1869 nature reserves in relation to degree of urbanisation.We found that nature reserves in more urbanised landscapes were based on a highernumber of objectives. The urban reserves also had a different composition of objectives,where the objectives outdoor recreation and biodiversity preservation were morecommon in urban than in rural reserves. During the last decades we detected a shift inuse of objectives in urban areas, going from biodiversity preservation to a strongerfocus on outdoor recreation. National and global trends in the nature conservationdebate could also be seen as reflected in the use of objectives. To ensure its adaptivecapacity, we stress that urban nature conservation needs a more proactive strategy,where potential future social as well as ecological values must be embraced and notonly existing ones.

  • 19. Clough, Yann
    et al.
    Ekroos, Johan
    Báldi, András
    Batáry, Péter
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Gross, Nicolas
    Holzschuh, Andrea
    Hopfenmüller, Sebastian
    Knop, Eva
    Kuussaari, Mikko
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Marini, Lorenzo
    Öckinger, Erik
    Potts, Simon G.
    Pöyry, Juha
    Roberts, Stuart P. M.
    Steffan-Dewenter, Ingolf
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Density of insect-pollinated grassland plants decreases with increasing surrounding land-use intensity2014In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 17, no 9, p. 1168-1177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pollinator declines have raised concerns about the persistence of plant species that depend on insect pollination, in particular by bees, for their reproduction. The impact of pollinator declines remains unknown for species-rich plant communities found in temperate seminatural grasslands. We investigated effects of land-use intensity in the surrounding landscape on the distribution of plant traits related to insect pollination in 239 European seminatural grasslands. Increasing arable land use in the surrounding landscape consistently reduced the density of plants depending on bee and insect pollination. Similarly, the relative abundance of bee-pollination-dependent plants increased with higher proportions of non-arable agricultural land (e.g. permanent grassland). This was paralleled by an overall increase in bee abundance and diversity. By isolating the impact of the surrounding landscape from effects of local habitat quality, we show for the first time that grassland plants dependent on insect pollination are particularly susceptible to increasing land-use intensity in the landscape.

  • 20.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Kaligaric, Mitja
    Bakan, Branko
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Political Systems Affect Mobile and Sessile Species Diversity - A Legacy from the Post-WWII Period2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 8, p. e103367-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Political ideologies, policies and economy affect land use which in turn may affect biodiversity patterns and future conservation targets. However, few studies have investigated biodiversity in landscapes with similar physical properties but governed by different political systems. Here we investigate land use and biodiversity patterns, and number and composition of birds and plants, in the borderland of Austria, Slovenia and Hungary. It is a physically uniform landscape but managed differently during the last 70 years as a consequence of the political map of Europe after World War I and II. We used a historical map from 1910 and satellite data to delineate land use within three 10-kilometre transects starting from the point where the three countries meet. There was a clear difference between countries detectable in current biodiversity patterns, which relates to land use history. Mobile species richness was associated with current land use whereas diversity of sessile species was more associated with past land use. Heterogeneous landscapes were positively and forest cover was negatively correlated to bird species richness. Our results provide insights into why landscape history is important to understand present and future biodiversity patterns, which is crucial for designing policies and conservation strategies across the world.

  • 21.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Assessing changes in plant distribution patterns - indicator species versus plant functional types2004In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 17-27Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet conservation goals it is necessary to assess vegetation status and to be able to monitor effects of management and environmental change. In northern Europe grazed grasslands are one of the most threatened habitat in the rural landscape and thus in focus for conservation plans. At present managers use species indicator list to assess past and present management status of grassland and succession stages in particular, as well as effects of the environment. However, these indicators have rarely been scientifically tested. In this study we discuss if plant functional traits may be a key to select suitable indicator species for monitoring land-use change in Swedish rural landscape. The suitability of two possible monitoring tools: (i) plant species selected from functional traits (PFTs) and (ii) indicator species commonly used today to assess grassland management status, were tested along two gradients, a succession gradient and a wetness gradient. We found no association between successional change and plant functional traits, but a response in plant functional traits was found along the wetness gradient. However, the more common non-scientific indicator species responded fairly well to the varying gradient categories along both gradients. We believe that there is a need to further validate the ecological mechanisms behind the present-day indicators and to place them in a geographical context.

  • 22.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. växtekologi.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Remnant grassland habitats as source communities for plant diversification in agricultural landscapes2008In: BIOLOGICAL CONSERVATION, Vol. 141, p. 233-240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lately there has been a shift in Sweden from grazing species-rich semi-natural grasslands towards grazing ex-arable fields in the modern agricultural landscape. These fields normally contain a fraction of the plant species richness compared to semi-natural grasslands. However, small remnant habitats have been suggested as important for plant species diversity and conservation as they may function as refugia for grassland specialists in fragmented and highly modified agricultural landscapes. In this study, we examined whether plant communities on small remnant habitats, i.e. midfield islets, can function as sources for grassland species to disperse out into surrounding grazed ex-fields (former arable fields). We examined species richness and grassland specialists (species favoured by grazing) and their ability to colonize fields after 5 and 11 years of grazing. The fields that had been grazed for a shorter time were fairly species-poor with few grassland specialists. A longer period of grazing had a positive effect on total and small-scale species diversity in both islets and fields. Species composition became more similar with time, and the number of grassland specialists in both habitats increased. We found that grassland specialists dispersed step-wise into the fields, and the number of grassland specialists decreased with distance from the source. Our study suggests that remnant habitats, such as midfield islets, do function as a source community for grassland specialists and enhance diversification of grassland species when grazing is introduced. For long-term conservation of plant species, incorporating small refugia into larger grazing complexes may thus enhance species richness.

  • 23. Dahms, Henriette
    et al.
    Lenoir, Lisette
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Wolters, Volkmar
    Dauber, Jens
    Restoration of Seminatural Grasslands: What is the Impact on Ants?2010In: Restoration Ecology, ISSN 1061-2971, E-ISSN 1526-100X, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 330-337Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The number of species-rich seminatural grasslands in Northern Europe has decreased significantly due to the abandonment of traditional land use practices. To preserve these habitats, an increasing number of abandoned and overgrown grasslands have been restored by cutting down trees and shrubs and reintroducing grazing. These practices are considered a useful tool to recover the species richness of vascular plants, but their impact on other taxa is hardly known. Here we studied ants as one important group of grassland insects. We investigated (1) the effects of restoration of nongrazed and afforested seminatural grasslands, compared to continuously managed reference sites; and (2) the modulating impacts of habitat characteristics and time elapsed since restoration. We found a total of 27 ant species, 11 of these were characteristic of open habitats and seven characteristic of forests. Neither species richness per site nor the number of open-habitat species, nor the number of forest species differed between restored and reference sites. Yet, within the restored sites, the total species richness and the number of open-habitat species was positively related to the time since restoration and the percentage of bare rock. High frequencies of most open-habitat species were associated with low vegetation, older restored sites, and reference sites. Most forest species showed their highest frequencies in tree- and shrub-dominated habitat. We conclude that restoration efforts have been successful in terms of retrieving species richness. A regular and moderate grazing regime subsequent to the restoration is suggested in order to support a high abundance of open-habitat species.

  • 24. Dainese, Matteo
    et al.
    Isaac, Nick J. B.
    Powney, Gary D.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Öckinger, Erik
    Kuussaari, Mikko
    Pöyry, Juha
    Benton, Tim G.
    Gabriel, Doreen
    Hodgson, Jenny A.
    Kunin, William E.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Sait, Steven M.
    Marini, Lorenzo
    Landscape simplification weakens the association between terrestrial producer and consumer diversity in Europe2017In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 3040-3051Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land-use change is one of the primary drivers of species loss, yet little is known about its effect on other components of biodiversity that may be at risk. Here, we ask whether, and to what extent, landscape simplification, measured as the percentage of arable land in the landscape, disrupts the functional and phylogenetic association between primary producers and consumers. Across seven European regions, we inferred the potential associations (functional and phylogenetic) between host plants and butterflies in 561 seminatural grasslands. Local plant diversity showed a strong bottom-up effect on butterfly diversity in the most complex landscapes, but this effect disappeared in simple landscapes. The functional associations between plant and butterflies are, therefore, the results of processes that act not only locally but are also dependent on the surrounding landscape context. Similarly, landscape simplification reduced the phylogenetic congruence among host plants and butterflies indicating that closely related butterflies become more generalist in the resources used. These processes occurred without any detectable change in species richness of plants or butterflies along the gradient of arable land. The structural properties of ecosystems are experiencing substantial erosion, with potentially pervasive effects on ecosystem functions and future evolutionary trajectories. Loss of interacting species might trigger cascading extinction events and reduce the stability of trophic interactions, as well as influence the longer term resilience of ecosystem functions. This underscores a growing realization that species richness is a crude and insensitive metric and that both functional and phylogenetic associations, measured across multiple trophic levels, are likely to provide additional and deeper insights into the resilience of ecosystems and the functions they provide.

  • 25.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Destouni, Georgia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Angerbjörn, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Borgström, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Boyd, Emily
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of Reading, England.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Dalen, Love
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Ermold, Matti
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Hedlund, Johanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Hylander, Kristoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Jaramillo, Fernando
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lagerholm, Vendela K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Lyon, Steve W.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Moor, Helen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Nykvist, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. Stockholm University, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Pasanen-Mortensen, Marianne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Prieto, Carmen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    van der Velde, Ype
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Wageningen University & Research Center, Netherlands.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Interacting effects of change in climate, human population, land use, and water use on biodiversity and ecosystem services2015In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 20, no 1, article id UNSP 23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human population growth and resource use, mediated by changes in climate, land use, and water use, increasingly impact biodiversity and ecosystem services provision. However, impacts of these drivers on biodiversity and ecosystem services are rarely analyzed simultaneously and remain largely unknown. An emerging question is how science can improve the understanding of change in biodiversity and ecosystem service delivery and of potential feedback mechanisms of adaptive governance. We analyzed past and future change in drivers in south-central Sweden. We used the analysis to identify main research challenges and outline important research tasks. Since the 19th century, our study area has experienced substantial and interlinked changes; a 1.6 degrees C temperature increase, rapid population growth, urbanization, and massive changes in land use and water use. Considerable future changes are also projected until the mid-21st century. However, little is known about the impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services so far, and this in turn hampers future projections of such effects. Therefore, we urge scientists to explore interdisciplinary approaches designed to investigate change in multiple drivers, underlying mechanisms, and interactions over time, including assessment and analysis of matching-scale data from several disciplines. Such a perspective is needed for science to contribute to adaptive governance by constantly improving the understanding of linked change complexities and their impacts.

  • 26.
    Elmhagen, Bodil
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Zoology.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Implications of climate and land-use change for landscape processes, biodiversity, ecosystem services, and governance2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. s1-S5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction to the Special Issue summarizes the results of 14 scientific articles from the interdisciplinary research program Ekoklim at Stockholm University, Sweden. In this program, we investigate effects of changing climate and land use on landscape processes, biodiversity, and ecosystem services, and analyze issues related to adaptive governance in the face of climate and land-use change. We not only have a research focus on the 22 650 km(2) Norrstrom catchment surrounding lake Malaren in south-central Sweden, but we also conduct research in other Swedish regions. The articles presented here show complex interactions between multiple drivers of change, as well as feedback processes at different spatiotemporal scales. Thus, the Ekoklim program highlights and deals with issues relevant for the future challenges society will face when land-use change interacts with climate change.

  • 27. Gotzenberger, Lars
    et al.
    de Bello, Francesco
    Brathen, Kari Anne
    Davison, John
    Dubuis, Anne
    Guisan, Antoine
    Leps, Jan
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Moora, Mari
    Partel, Meelis
    Pellissier, Loic
    Pottier, Julien
    Vittoz, Pascal
    Zobel, Kristjan
    Zobel, Martin
    Ecological assembly rules in plant communities-approaches, patterns and prospects2012In: Biological Reviews, ISSN 1464-7931, E-ISSN 1469-185X, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 111-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how communities of living organisms assemble has been a central question in ecology since the early days of the discipline. Disentangling the different processes involved in community assembly is not only interesting in itself but also crucial for an understanding of how communities will behave under future environmental scenarios. The traditional concept of assembly rules reflects the notion that species do not co-occur randomly but are restricted in their co-occurrence by interspecific competition. This concept can be redefined in a more general framework where the co-occurrence of species is a product of chance, historical patterns of speciation and migration, dispersal, abiotic environmental factors, and biotic interactions, with none of these processes being mutually exclusive. Here we present a survey and meta-analyses of 59 papers that compare observed patterns in plant communities with null models simulating random patterns of species assembly. According to the type of data under study and the different methods that are applied to detect community assembly, we distinguish four main types of approach in the published literature: species co-occurrence, niche limitation, guild proportionality and limiting similarity. Results from our meta-analyses suggest that non-random co-occurrence of plant species is not a widespread phenomenon. However, whether this finding reflects the individualistic nature of plant communities or is caused by methodological shortcomings associated with the studies considered cannot be discerned from the available metadata. We advocate that more thorough surveys be conducted using a set of standardized methods to test for the existence of assembly rules in data sets spanning larger biological and geographical scales than have been considered until now. We underpin this general advice with guidelines that should be considered in future assembly rules research. This will enable us to draw more accurate and general conclusions about the non-random aspect of assembly in plant communities.

  • 28.
    Hahn, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Heinrup, Malena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Landscape heterogeneity correlates with recreational values: a case study from Swedish agricultural landscapes and implications for policy2018In: Landscape research, ISSN 0142-6397, E-ISSN 1469-9710, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 696-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Agri-environmental schemes are often targeted at heterogenic landscapes to support several ecosystem services besides food production. The question is whether heterogenic landscapes also support recreation values. Previous studies suggest this but statistical analysis of the relation between heterogeneity and recreation is lacking. To assess this, we used a quantitative Landscape Heterogeneity Index (LHI), developed for biodiversity conservation. We asked five different user groups to score 12 photographs of landscapes depicting different LHI. All user groups, especially conservationists and hunters, preferred the heterogeneous landscapes and this difference was statistically significant for all groups except farmers. Accessibility, in terms of roads, had no obvious impact on the recreational value conveyed by the photos. The paper provides evidence that the recreational value amplifies biodiversity-based values of heterogeneous landscapes and argues that such landscapes also provide resilience and insurance value buffering against unexpected risks. Implications for policy are discussed.

    HIGHLIGHTS

    Recreational value was positively correlated to landscape heterogeneity.

    This correlation was statistically significant for all user groups except farmers.

    Accessibility, in terms of roads, had no obvious impact on the recreational value.

    The multi-functionality of heterogeneous agricultural landscapes including resilience and the insurance value should be better acknowledged in policy.

  • 29.
    Henriksson Malinga, Rebecka
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Jewitt, Graham P. W.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Andersson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    On the other side of the ditch: exploring contrasting ecosystem service coproduction between smallholder and commercial agriculture2018In: Ecology & society, ISSN 1708-3087, E-ISSN 1708-3087, Vol. 23, no 4, article id 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managing for increased multifunctionality of agricultural landscapes is a crucial step toward a sustainable global agriculture. We studied two contrasting agricultural landscapes that exist in parallel on two sides of a ditch in the South African Drakensberg Mountains. The large-scale commercial and smallholder farmers operate within a similar biophysical context but have different farming intensities, management practices, socioeconomic positions, ethnic identities, cultural contexts, and land tenure systems. To assess multifunctionality, we examined the ecosystem services coproduced within these two social-ecological systems, by applying a mixed-method approach combining in-depth interviews, participatory mapping, and expert assessments. The results indicate clear differences between the two farming systems and farmer groups in terms of supply, demand, and the capacity of the farmers to influence ecosystem service production within their landscapes. Commercial farmers can generally produce agricultural products to meet their demand and have the capacity to mitigate land degradation and erosion. Smallholder food production is low, and the demand for ecosystem services is high. Since the smallholders lack the resources to mitigate unsustainable use, this leads to overuse and land degradation. Both landscape types manifest aspects of multifunctionality but vary in the outcomes. Unequal access to land; skills; and natural, financial, and technical resources can hamper multifunctionality and the development toward an equitable and sustainable agriculture in South Africa.

  • 30.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Bernes, Claes
    Bullock, James M.
    Verheyen, Kris
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    How does roadside vegetation management affect the diversity of vascular plants and invertebrates? A systematic review2018In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 7, no 1, article id UNSP 17Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: With appropriate management, based on vegetation removal that reverses late-successional vegetation stages, roadsides can support high levels of biodiversity. However, current recommendations for roadside management to conserve or restore biodiversity are largely based on research on non-roadside grassland habitats, and much of the evidence on how roadside management practices affect biodiversity is found in non-peer-reviewed grey literature. Therefore, based on suggestions from key stakeholders and an initial systematic map that identified 97 studies on how biodiversity is affected by vegetation removal on roadsides, we conducted a full systematic review of the effects on plant and invertebrate diversity of disturbance-based maintenance of roadsides. Methods: The review was restricted to effects of non-chemical interventions such as mowing, burning, grazing and mechanical shrub removal. Studies were selected from the systematic map and from an updated search for more recent literature using a priori eligibility criteria. Relevant articles were subject to critical appraisal of clarity and susceptibility to bias, and studies with low or unclear validity were excluded from the review. Data on species richness, species diversity and abundance of functional groups were extracted together with metadata on site properties and other potential effect modifiers. Results from the 54 included studies were summarised in a narrative synthesis, and impacts of mowing practices on the total species richness and diversity of plants and on the abundance of forbs, graminoids and woody plants were quantitatively analysed using t tests of study-level effect ratios. Results: Nearly all of the 54 studies included in the review were conducted in Europe (29) or North America (24). The vast majority of studies (48) examined impacts of mowing. Effects on vascular plants were reported in 51 studies, whereas 8 of the studies reported on invertebrates. Quantitative analysis of plant species richness and species diversity showed that mowing effects were dependent on the interplay between mowing frequency and hay removal. Thus, there were no statistically significant overall effects of mowing vs. no mowing, frequency of mowing, timing of mowing or hay removal. However, species richness was higher in roadsides mowed once or twice per year with hay removal than in unmown roadsides, and positively affected by mowing twice compared to once per year. Similar, but less pronounced, effects were found for plant species diversity. In addition, mowing had a negative impact on woody plant abundance, and increased mowing frequency had a negative impact on graminoid abundance. The few studies on invertebrates showed effects that diverged across taxon groups, and there was not enough data for quantitative analysis of these results. Conclusions: The results provide evidence on the effects of mowing on plant species richness. To increase plant species richness, roadsides should be mowed each year, preferably twice per year, and hay should be removed after each cutting. The review also identifies large knowledge gaps concerning roadside management and its effects on biodiversity, especially regarding invertebrates. Hence, this systematic review provides not only a valuable basis for evidence-based management but also guidance for future research on this topic, essential to inform management of road networks for biodiversity conservation.

  • 31.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Governing nature by numbers - EU subsidy regulations do not capture the unique values of woody pastures2015In: Biological Conservation, ISSN 0006-3207, E-ISSN 1873-2917, Vol. 191, p. 1-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A vast majority of European farmers are dependent on EU subsidies, which makes subsidy regulations through the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) powerful tools in shaping agricultural landscapes. Unfortunately, steering recommendations are sometimes arbitrary, like in the case of pasture management, where 50 trees per hectare constitute an upper limit to qualify for subsidies. Although pasture biodiversity is well studied and the core of many CAP conservation programmes, it is seldom studied as direct effects of subsidy systems. In this paper, we examine plant diversity in relation to the impact of subsidy systems in Swedish woody pastures along a gradient from 3 to 214 trees per hectare. We selected 64 sites where we recorded vascular plants, soil properties and canopy cover. We found a general increase in γ- and β-diversity along the gradient, whereas α-diversity and the number of grassland specialists remained indifferent along the gradient. Additionally, tree density, organic content and C:N-ratio were the strongest predictors of species composition. Hence, when CAP regulations encourage tree cutting for pastures to qualify for subsidies there is risk of homogenisation of EU grasslands, leading to decreased γ- and β-diversity. If a general target for the subsidies is to increase biodiversity, there is need to scrutinise these regulation details to preserve the high values of woody pastures. We argue that habitat variation, species diversity and low intensity management, rather than a specific number of trees, should be the main incentives for financial support to preserve biodiversity.

  • 32.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    The importance of trees for woody pasture bird diversity and effects of the European Union's tree density policy2017In: Journal of Applied Ecology, ISSN 0021-8901, E-ISSN 1365-2664, Vol. 54, no 6, p. 1638-1647Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Recent reforms in the Common Agricultural Policy aim for a greening of the subsidy system with potential improvements for biodiversity conservation. As part of that process, the tree density limit for pastures to qualify for European Union subsidies has been increased from 50 to 100 trees per hectare. However, recent studies show that the high biodiversity values of these habitats may be threatened by these limits, highlighting the need for policy improvements. Still, little is known about the direct effects of tree density limitations on bird communities in woody pastures. 2. We investigated how bird diversity and species composition are affected by tree density in 49 Swedish woody pastures along a gradient of 4-214 trees per hectare. We recorded bird communities, tree density and stand structure estimates in the field and estimated forest cover in the surrounding landscape from aerial photos. Using generalised additive models and redundancy analysis, we analysed how bird territorial species richness, bird abundance and species composition are affected by tree density, taking into account other local and landscape scale explanatory variables. 3. Tree density had a significant positive effect on bird species richness at low tree densities and species richness saturated at approximately 50 trees per hectare. Shrub density had a significant positive linear effect on both bird species richness and abundance. Tree and shrub density were also the major drivers of bird community composition, with secondary effects of tree species diversity and landscape forest cover. 4. Policy implications. Our results show that tree density is not the limiting factor, but rather a driver of bird diversity and species composition in woody pastures and that tree density limits may fail to capture the whole range of biological values. To improve policy recommendations, we therefore stress the importance of considering additional social-ecological drivers associated to management quality, e.g. taking into account moral and cultural motivations among farmers, to preserve biodiversity in woody pastures.

  • 33.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Tree density limitations within EU overlook woody pasture bird diversityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Exploring the effects of pasture trees on plant community patternsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 35.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Norwegian Institute for Nature Research, Norway.
    Plue, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Exploring the effects of pasture trees on plant community patterns2019In: Journal of Vegetation Science, ISSN 1100-9233, E-ISSN 1654-1103, Vol. 30, no 5, p. 809-820Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions

    We aim to answer three questions: (a) what are the effects of canopy shading of different tree species on seed germination of eight understorey grassland species? (b) how is plant species’ occurrence in understorey communities affected by differences in canopy cover and does that depend on tree species composition? and (c) are there mechanistic links between the effects of trees on species’ germination and their occurrence in the understorey plant community?

    Location

    Semi‐natural wooded pastures in the biosphere reserve Östra Vätterbranterna, southern Sweden.

    Methods

    In this study, we examined the germination of eight grassland plant species in a seed sowing experiment under natural conditions in the field. Seeds were sown beneath and outside the canopy of two tree species within 48 plots split up by four wooded pasture sites. We combined observed germination responses with a plant community survey to assess the effects of canopy cover in relation to tree species composition on plant community responses. We analysed these data in relation to species’ seed mass and vegetative shade tolerance.

    Results

    Shade‐tolerant species germinated better beneath compared to outside tree canopies, without any clear advantage of large‐seeded over small‐seeded species. As expected, species’ shade tolerance was also positively related to canopy cover within the understorey plant community. Importantly, we found strong tree species‐specific effects of canopy shading on the species’ germination response, but not on their presence within the plant community. However, optimal canopy cover conditions for germination and for the mature plants differed across grassland species and depended on tree species.

    Conclusions

    Our results show that different tree species play key ecosystem engineering roles in shaping wooded grassland plant community composition at the germination stage. Management practices favouring specific tree species may therefore be highly relevant for targeted biodiversity conservation of wooded semi‐natural grasslands.

  • 36.
    Jakobsson, Simon
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Wood, Heather
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ekroos, Johan
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Contrasting multi-taxa functional diversity patterns along vegetation structure gradients of woody pasturesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Jonason, Dennis
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Ekroos, Johan
    Öckinger, Erik
    Helenius, Juha
    Kuussaari, Mikko
    Tiainen, Juha
    Smith, Henrik G.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Weak functional response to agricultural landscape homogenisation among plants, butterflies and birds2017In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 40, no 10, p. 1221-1230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Measures of functional diversity are expected to predict community responses to land use and environmental change because, in contrast to taxonomic diversity, it is based on species traits rather than their identity. Here, we investigated the impact of landscape homogenisation on plants, butterflies and birds in terms of the proportion of arable field cover in southern Finland at local (0.25 km2) and regional (> 10 000 km2) scales using four functional diversity indices: functional richness, functional evenness, functional divergence and functional dispersion. No uniform response in functional diversity across taxa or scales was found. However, in all cases where we found a relationship between increasing arable field cover and any index of functional diversity, this relationship was negative. Butterfly functional richness decreased with increasing arable field cover, as did butterfly and bird functional evenness. For butterfly functional evenness, this was only evident in the most homogeneous regions. Butterfly and bird functional dispersion decreased in homogeneous regions regardless of the proportion of arable field cover locally. No effect of landscape heterogeneity on plant functional diversity was found at any spatial scale, but plant species richness decreased locally with increasing arable field cover. Overall, species richness responded more consistently to landscape homogenisation than did the functional diversity indices, with both positive and negative effects across species groups. Functional diversity indices are in theory valuable instruments for assessing effects of land use scenarios on ecosystem functioning. However, the applicability of empirical data requires deeper understanding of which traits reliably capture species’ vulnerability to environmental factors and of the ecological interpretation of the functional diversity indices. Our study provides novel insights into how the functional diversity of communities changes in response to agriculturally derived landscape homogenisation; however, the low explanatory power of the functional diversity indices hampers the ability to reliably anticipate impacts on ecosystem functioning.

  • 38. Knudby, Anders
    et al.
    Nordlund, Lina Mtwana
    Palmqvist, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Wikström, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Koliji, Alan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Gullström, Martin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Using multiple Landsat scenes in an ensemble classifier reduces classification error in a stable nearshore environment2014In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 0303-2434, Vol. 28, p. 90-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medium-scale land cover maps are traditionally created on the basis of a single cloud-free satellite scene, leaving information present in other scenes unused. Using 1309 field observations and 20 cloud- and error-affected Landsat scenes covering Zanzibar Island, this study demonstrates that the use of multiple scenes can both allow complete coverage of the study area in the absence of cloud-free scenes and obtain substantially improved classification accuracy. Automated processing of individual scenes includes derivation of spectral features for use in classification, identification of clouds, shadows and the land/water boundary, and random forest-based land cover classification. An ensemble classifier is then created from the single-scene classifications by voting. The accuracy achieved by the ensemble classifier is 70.4%, compared to an average of 62.9% for the individual scenes, and the ensemble classifier achieves complete coverage of the study area while the maximum coverage for a single scene is 1209 of the 1309 field sites. Given the free availability of Landsat data, these results should encourage increased use of multiple scenes in land cover classification and reduced reliance on the traditional single-scene methodology.

  • 39. Krauss, J
    et al.
    Bommarco, R
    Guardiola, M
    Heikkinen, R
    Helm, A
    Kuussaari, M
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Habitat fragmentation, biodiversity loss and extinction debt2010In: Ecology LettersArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intensification or abandonment of agricultural land use has led to a severe decline of semi-natural habitats across Europe. This can cause immediate loss of species but also time-delayed extinctions, known as the extinction debt. In a pan-European study of 147 fragmented grassland remnants, we found differences in the extinction debt of species from different trophic levels. Present-day species richness of long-lived vascular plant specialists was better explained by past than current landscape patterns, indicating an extinction debt. In contrast, short-lived butterfly specialists showed no evidence for an extinction debt at a time scale of c. 40 years. Our results indicate that management strategies maintaining the status quo of fragmented habitats are insufficient, as time- delayed extinctions and associated co-extinctions will lead to further biodiversity loss in the future.

  • 40.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Effects of land abandonment and restoration on plant species richness in Scandinavian rural landscapes2007In: IALE (International Association for Landscape Ecology) World Conference, Wagenegen, 2007, 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Evaluating the distribution of plant life-history traits in relation to current and historical landscape configurations2007In: Journal of Ecology, ISSN 0022-0477, Vol. 95, no 3, p. 555-564Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Lindborg, Regina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Recreating Grasslands in Swedish Rural Landscapes: Effects of Seed Sowing and Management History2006In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 15, no 3, p. 957-969Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent loss of plant species richness in Swedish semi-natural grasslands has led to an increase in grassland recreation and restoration. To increase the establishment of declining species favoured by grazing and to re-establish original species richness, seed sowing has been discussed as a conservation tool. In this study, I examined to what extent seed sowing in former arable fields increases species richness and generates a species composition typical of semi-natural grasslands. Six grassland species favoured by grazing (target species) and six generalist species favoured by ceased grazing, were studied in a seed-addition experiment. Four different seed densities were used on four different grassland categories, two grazed former arable fields, one continuously grazed grassland and one abandoned grassland. Target and generalist species emerged in all grassland categories, but seedling emergence was higher in the grazed than in the abandoned grassland. Target species had higher emergence in the two grasslands with the longest grazing continuity. Seedling emergence and frequency of established plants of each target species were positively associated. The largest fraction of seeds germinated at an intermediate sowing density, 20–50 seeds/dm2, suggesting that aggregation of seeds positively affects emergence up to a certain threshold. In conclusion, artificial seed sowing may induce the recreation of typical grassland communities on former arable fields, which may be an important contribution to increase the total grassland area and species richness in the landscape.

  • 43.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Berg, Åke
    Cousins, Sara A.O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Gustafsson, Tomas
    Hasund, Knut Per
    Lenoir, Lisette
    Pihlgren, Aina
    Sjödin, Erik
    Stenseke, Marie
    A landscape perspective on conservation of semi-natural grasslands.2008In: AGRICULTURE ECOSYSTEMS & ENVIRONMENT, ISSN 0167-8809, Vol. 125, no 1-4, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current agri-environmental schemes and subsidies for conservation and restoration of semi-natural grasslands do not explicitly assess land use changes affecting whole landscapes, but have so far focused on single objects and small areas. In this paper, we discuss a landscape perspective versus a "single object" perspective when conserving semi-natural grassland in agricultural landscapes. The focus is on the values biodiversity, cultural heritage, a vital countryside, and effects on economy when land use changes. We conclude that when land use change in the landscape surrounding an object, important additional effects on the different values are found. For example, a countryside where animals graze former arable fields and where marginal habitats are managed will have a positive effect, not only on the biodiversity associated to semi-natural grasslands, but also for the image of a vital and dynamic landscape. An increased number of roads, on the other hand, may negatively affect cultural heritage and decrease biodiversity in grasslands, leading to negative effects on the value of common goods through isolation. Placing objects in a larger spatial context and combining several different aspects into a landscape perspective, will improve long-term preservation of values associated to semi-natural grasslands.

  • 44.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Plant species response to land-use change - Campanula rotundifolia, Primula veris and Rhinanthus minor2005In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 29-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Land use change is a crucial driver behind species loss at the landscape scale. Hence, from a conservation perspective, species response to habitat degradation or improvement of habitat quality, is important to examine. By using indicator species it may be possible to monitor long-term survival of local populations associated with land use change. In this study we examined three potential indicator (response) species for species richness and composition in Scandinavian semi-natural grassland communities: Campanula rotundifolia, Primula veris and Rhinanthus minor. With field inventories and experiments we examined their response to present land use, habitat degradation and improvement of local habitat quality. At the time scale examined, C. rotundifolia was the only species responding to both habitat degradation and improvement of habitat quality. Neither R. minor nor P. veris responded positively to habitat improvements although both responded rapidly to direct negative changes in habitat quality. Even though C. rotundifolia responded quickly to habitat degradation, it did not disappear completely from the sites. Instead, the population structure changed in terms of decreased population size and flowering frequency. It also showed an ability to form remnant populations which may increase resilience of local habitats. Although P. veris and especially R. minor responded rapidly to negative environmental changes and may be useful as early indicators of land use change, it is desirable that indicators respond to both degradation and improvement of habitat quality. Thus, C. rotundifolia is a better response species for monitoring effects of land use change and conservation measures, provided that both local and regional population dynamics are monitored over a long time period.

  • 45.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Ehrlén, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Evaluating the extinction risk of a perennial herb: demographic data versus historical records2002In: Conservation Biology, ISSN 0888-8892, E-ISSN 1523-1739, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 683-690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demographic information is frequently used to project the long-term extinction risk of endangered species, but the limitations of this approach have not been extensively discussed. We examined demographic data for the endangered perennial herb Primula farinosa with matrix models to assess population growth rates and extinction risks. The data came from six populations in contrasting habitats followed over a 4-year period. The results of these demographic models were compared to the results of experimental manipulations and to the actual change in occurrence of P. farinosa over a 70-year period in different habitat types. According to demographic models, all managed populations had a projected negative population growth rate and experienced a high extinction risk in 100 years, whereas unmanaged populations had increasing population sizes. In contrast, experiments and historical records suggested that continuous grazing is positively correlated with population persistence. Our results thus show that demographic studies done during a transient phase of population growth after management cessation may not capture the long-term changes. In such cases, projections of population growth rates may give misleading guidance for conservation. Short-term demographic studies are in many cases unlikely to correctly assess the survival probability of a species. We therefore argue that complementary information, such as long-term historical data or experimental manipulations of the environment, should be used whenever possible.

  • 46.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Systems Ecology.
    Eriksson, O.
    Department of Botany.
    Effects of grassland restoration on plant species richness in Swedish agricultural landscapes.2008In: Biodiversity and animal feed - future challenges for grassland production, EGF Conference, Uppsala 2008., 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Effects of restoration on plant species richness and composition in Scandinavian semi-natural grasslands2004In: Restoration Ecology, ISSN 1061-2971, E-ISSN 1526-100X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 318-326Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plant species richness in rural landscapes of northern Europe has been positively influenced by traditional management for millennia. Owing to abandonment of these practices, the number of species-rich semi-natural grasslands has decreased, and remaining habitats suffer from deterioration, fragmentation, and plant species decline. To prevent further extinctions, restoration efforts have increased during the last decades, by reintroducing grazing in former semi-natural grasslands. To assess the ecological factors that might influence the outcome of such restorations, we made a survey of semi-natural grasslands in Sweden that have been restored during the last decade. We investigated how plant species richness, species density, species composition, and abundance of 10 species that are indicators of grazing are affected by (1) the size of the restored site, (2) the time between abandonment of grazing and restoration, (3) the time elapsed since restoration, and (4) the abundance of trees and shrubs at the restored site. Only two factors, abundance of trees and shrubs and time since restoration, were positively associated with total species richness and species density per meter square at restored sites. Variation in species composition among restored sites was not related to any of the investigated factors. Species composition was relatively similar among sites, except in mesic/wet grasslands. The investigated factors had small effects on the abundance of the grazing-indicator species. Only Campanula rotundifolia responded to restoration with increasing abundance and may thus be a suitable indicator of improved habitat quality. In conclusion, positive effects on species richness may appear relatively soon after restoration, but rare, short-lived species are still absent. Therefore, remnant populations in surrounding areas may be important in fully recreating former species richness and composition.

  • 48.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Eriksson, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Botany.
    Historical landscape connectivity affects present plant species diversity2004In: Ecology, ISSN 0012-9658, E-ISSN 1939-9170, Vol. 85, no 7, p. 1840-1845Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Transformation of landscapes is considered to be one of the main drivers behind species loss, regionally and globally. Theory and empirical studies suggest that landscape structure influences species diversity in many habitats. These effects may be manifested at different spatial scales depending on species response to landscape heterogeneity. A similar, but often neglected, scaling issue concerns the temporal scale of species response to landscape change. In this study, we found time lags of 50-100 years in the response of plant species diversity to changing configuration of habitats in the landscape. When analyzing remnants of traditionally managed seminatural grasslands in Sweden, we found that species diversity was not related to present-day connectivity of the investigated sites, irrespective of spatial scale (3.1-12.5 km(2)). However, when using maps depicting landscapes 50 and 100 years ago, respectively, strong positive effects of habitat connectivity appeared, at increasing spatial scale for the older landscapes. Thus, analyses of how species diversity relates to present-day landscapes may be misleading, and future species loss may be expected even if the present landscape is maint.

  • 49.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography. Stellenbosch University, South Africa.
    Gordon, Line J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Malinga, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. University of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Peterson, Garry
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Deutsch, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Gren, Åsa
    Rundlöf, Maj
    Smith, Henrik G.
    How spatial scale shapes the generation and management of multiple ecosystem services2017In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 8, no 4, article id e01741Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The spatial extent of ecological processes has consequences for the generation of ecosystem services related to them. However, management often fails to consider issues of scale when targeting ecological processes underpinning ecosystem services generation. Here, we present a framework for conceptualizing how the amount and spatial scale (here discussed in terms of extent) of management interventions alter interactions among multiple ecosystem services. First, we identify four types of responses of ecosystem service generation: linear, exponential, saturating, and sigmoid, and how these are related to the amount of management intervention at a particular spatial scale. Second, using examples from multiple ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes, we examine how the shape of these relationships can vary with the spatial scale at which the management interventions are implemented. Third, we examine the resulting scale-dependent consequences for trade-offs and synergies between ecosystem services as a consequence of interventions. Finally, to inform guidelines for management of multiple ecosystem services in real landscapes, we end with a discussion linking the theoretical relationships with how landscape configurations and placement of interventions can alter the scale at which synergies and trade-offs among services occur.

  • 50.
    Lindborg, Regina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Helm, Aveliina
    Bommarco, Riccardo
    Heikkinen, Risto K.
    Kuehn, Ingolf
    Pykala, Juha
    Paertel, Meelis
    Effect of habitat area and isolation on plant trait distribution in European forests and grasslands2012In: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 356-363Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of studies show contrasting results in how plant species with specific life-history strategies respond to fragmentation, but a general analysis on whether traits affect plant species occurrences in relation to habitat area and isolation has not been performed. We used published data from forests and grasslands in north-central Europe to analyse if there are general patterns of sensitivity to isolation and dependency of area for species using three traits: life-span, clonality, and seed weight. We show that a larger share of all forest species was affected by habitat isolation and area as compared to grassland species. Persistence-related traits, life-span and clonality, were associated to habitat area and the dispersal and recruitment related trait, seed weight, to isolation in both forest and grassland patches. Occurrence of clonal plant species decreased with habitat area, opposite to non-clonal plant species, and long-lived plant species decreased with grassland area. The directions of these responses partly challenge some earlier views, suggesting that further decrease in habitat area will lead to a change in plant species community composition, towards relatively fewer clonal and long-lived plants with large seeds in small forest patches and fewer clonal plants with small seeds in small grassland patches. It is likely that this altered community has been reached in many fragmented European landscapes consisting of small and isolated natural and semi-natural patches, where many non-clonal and short-lived species have already disappeared. Our study based on a large-scale dataset reveals general and useful insights concerning area and isolation effects on plant species composition that can improve the outcome of conservation and restoration efforts of plant communities in rural landscapes.

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