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  • 1.
    Tsoukalas, Ioannis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Apprentice Cosmopolitans: Social identity, community, and learning among ERASMUS exchange students2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present dissertation is an ethnographic study of the Erasmus Programme, the European Union’s student exchange programme. This programme has, for the last three decades, resulted in an unprecedented exchange of ideas and people within the European Union, and it has quite radically changed the conditions for, and the appearance of, student life in many European universities. Over the years the community has developed a distinctive lifestyle, replete with partying and travel, and is characterized by a strong social cohesion and exclusive ethos.  Empirically the study is a multi-local field study involving participant observation and interviews in two European capitals, namely Stockholm and Athens. Both present and former Erasmus students have been included in the study and were followed for an extended period of time. The study takes a close look at some of the experiential and social processes of the ‘Erasmus lifestyle’ and tries to understand them in the light of wider cultural and political processes such as the European unification process, cosmopolitanism, youth culture, and tourism. In the process it surveys part of the programme’s political history, local configuration, social dynamics, communication practices and global interfaces. According to the present thesis, the Erasmus Programme can be seen as a learning apprenticeship through which the young students gain entrance to and get valuable training in the reality of living in an increasingly interconnected world. The strong experiences engendered by the programme, both emotionally and cognitively, lead to a transformation in the student’s self-perception, social representations and social identity. For some students the programme leads to a drastic reconfiguring of their social networks and extant allegiances (e.g., towards their nation, culture), prompting them, after the end of their sojourn, to explore new venues in terms of career development, family life, and place of residence. Although the students do not seem to integrate with the host country to any significant degree, their extended experience of transnational mobility and their first-hand acquaintance with cultural diversity within the group encourages them to develop a more cosmopolitan outlook on the world and their place within it.

  • 2.
    Galli, Raoul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Diskurs2019In: Nyckelbegrepp i socialantropologin / [ed] Raoul Galli, Stockholm: Socialantropologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2019, 4Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    DISKURS | Användningen av den specifika språktermen diskurs i antropologin, kan spåras tillbaka till sent 1960-tal och påverkan från just lingvistiken, men också från semiotik och det framväxande interdisciplinära ämnet ”kulturella studier” (cultural studies). Det diskursbegrepp som har haft särskild stor framgång inom antropologin är hämtat från filosofen Michel Foucault. I centrum för hans idé- och vetenskapshistoriska arbeten stod förhållandet mellan kunskap och makt. Foucaults intresse för maktformer – disciplinering, subjektivering, styrning, styrningsmentalitet (governmentality) – kom tidigt att ingjutna energi i den framväxande ”maktantropologi” som från 1970-talet delvis smälte samman med den sedan länge verksamma politiska antropologin.

  • 3.
    Galli, Raoul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Doxa2019In: Nyckelbegrepp i socialantropologin / [ed] Raoul Galli, Stockholm: Socialantropologiska institutionen, Stockholms universitet , 2019, 4Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    DOXA | (grek., ”åsikt”, ”tro”, ”föreställning”). Doxa är en importerad term från grekisk filosofi, där exempelvis Platon i Staten skiljer på ”kunskap” (episteme) och ”föreställning” (doxa). Termen förekommer i Husserls fenomenologi. Inom antropologin har doxa kommit att stå för det ”osagda”, ”förgivettagna”. Närmast hör begreppet hemma i Pierre Bourdieus teori om symbolisk makt. 

  • 4.
    Rabo, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Formal education systems as arenas of inclusion and exclusion: Comparative case studies from Lebanon and Syria2019In: Sites of Pluralism: Community Politics in the Middle East / [ed] Firat Oruc, London: C. Hurst & Co., 2019, p. 43-61Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Gustafsson, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. University of St Andrews, UK.
    Invisible Craftsmanship: Lulesami Women's Production of Handicraft and Well-Being at Home2019In: Journal of Modern Craft, ISSN 1749-6772, E-ISSN 1749-6780, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 109-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper looks at the contemporary role of handicraft among Lulesami people, a subgroup of the indigenous Sami, in Northern Norway. Many studies have addressed the changes in Sami craftsmanship over time, its symbolic significance for Sami culture and its recent commodification. By contrast, unpaid craft production at home has gained less attention. My ethnography addresses this gap and considers the significance of women's domestic craft production. While women's domestic work cannot easily be measured, this analysis shows that their craftsmanship plays an important part in creating personal and social well-being in everyday life. Paying attention to the demands of domestic handicraft made for non-commercial purposes provides novel insights into Sami handicraft and the significance of women's domestic work in contemporary society.

  • 6.
    Nilsson, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Know your customer: Client captivation and the epistemics of market research2019In: Marketing Theory, ISSN 1470-5931, E-ISSN 1741-301X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 149-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Market research requires both making knowledge and maintaining client relationships. This article inquires into how this feature of commissioned knowledge is dealt with by a group of market researchers. Reception determines the value of the knowledge produced, prompting producers to both prepare informative content and ensure that it lands well with the recipient. Therefore, the nature and dispositions of clients and how their reception can be shaped are integral to the making of knowledge. The article explores an ethnographic case of how market researchers attempt to appeal to and shape the dispositions of their clients throughout the research process. Drawing on means of capture as a metaphor, I show how market researchers frame working with clients as a straightforward issue despite conflicting definitions of just who the client is and what it means to help them.

  • 7.
    Uimonen, Paula
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    #MeToo in Sweden: Museum Collections, Digital Archiving and Hashtag Visuality2019In: Ethnos, ISSN 0014-1844, E-ISSN 1469-588XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In October 2017, the Nordic Museum in Stockholm launched its #metoo collection. The aim was to capture the viral #MeToo campaign that in Sweden has been likened to a (feminist) revolution. Based on archival research, interviews and media analysis, this article explores public submissions to the #metoo collection and analyses the museum's rationale for collecting what is considered to be difficult cultural heritage. Noting the absence of images in the collection, the article argues that the iconic hashtag #MeToo constitutes an alternative form of digital visuality, here termed hashtag visuality. Hashtag visuality, the article suggests, is an emerging form of visual representation that captures the multimodal logic of social media, blurring distinctions between texts and images. In Sweden, #MeToo hashtag visuality reveals the contradictory prevalence of structural sexism and sexual violence in a country with a national self-image of gender equality and a self-proclaimed feminist government, while affirming feminist agency.

  • 8.
    Aguirre Vidal, Gladis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Mobilising care: Ecuadorian families and transnational lives between Ecuador and Spain2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on the dynamics of care in the transnational lives of Ecuadorian migrant women in Spain. It is concerned with the various forms of care that take shape and are sustained in the workplace, between friends, and among family members in Ecuador and Spain. Ultimately, it sheds light on how care is mobilised to sustain ideals of solidarity at work as well as togetherness in transnational life. The thesis is set against the background of the economic and political crisis in Ecuador of the late 1990s and early 2000s, which resulted not only in the dollarization of the economy and the removal of the country’s president, but in a dramatic shift of traditional male migration from the southern highlands to the United States, to a new wave of largely middle class female migration to Western Europe, especially Spain. Women from across the country left their children, spouses and elderly parents behind to work in domestic and care jobs abroad. In Ecuador, this disturbed the dominant cultural imaginary of the co-habitating and united family, centred on the presence of the woman as mother and wife. In light of this, the thesis engages with women’s dilemmas in giving and receiving care during years of absence, the role of family members, friends and domestic workers in this process, and the development of long-term goals focused on remittances, reunification, return, and the ultimate goal of creating a better future. Most generally, while challenging a series of dichotomies between love and money, home and work, gift and commodity—which have structured academic discussions concerning the feminization of international migration—the thesis describes the intimate relationship between women’s participation in the gift economy and a global labour market through the lens of care relationships.

  • 9.
    Ekoluoma, Mari-Elina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Moraliska gränser i sexturismen till Filippinerna: Olagligt, reglerat och ambivalent2019In: Turismens och resandets utmaningar / [ed] Sandra Wall-Reinius, Susanna Heldt Cassel, Stockholm: Svenska sällskapet för antropologi och geografi , 2019, p. 155-176Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Galli, Raoul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Hannerz, Ulf (Creator)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Nyckelbegrepp i socialantropologin2019Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Rodineliussen, Rasmus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Organising the Syrian revolution - student activism through Facebook2019In: Visual Studies, ISSN 1472-586X, E-ISSN 1472-5878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article I engage with the use of Facebook by Syrian student activists to mobilise demonstrations and other acts of resistance against the regime of Al-Assad. The material presented was collected during fieldwork among Syrian refugees in Sweden and activists still in Aleppo, Syria, between 2015 and 2016. Methodologically this is an anthropological qualitative study, employing the method of participant-observation, including online interviews with interlocutors in Syria as a compliment to observations and interviews conducted in Sweden. The findings suggest that although Facebook was not a reason behind the revolution it was an important infrastructure for mobilisation during the revolution. Moreover, I show how Facebook not only allowed activists to mobilise, but also to share images of atrocities in Syria with a global public as well as publish paintings and caricatures of the regime as means to situate themselves within the Syrian revolutionary context. My material illustrates the importance of visuals both as 'visual proofs' and as a media of communication. The article follows the developments of the revolution to show how the use of visuals and social media developed as events turned increasingly violent. With the increasing violence I also probe into how the west viewed what was happening in Syria through images, and conclude on some possible reasons behind the lack of action on behalf of the western audience.

  • 12.
    Palaiorouta, Eleni Zoi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Organizational Precarity: An Anthropological study of a Civil Society Organization in austerity-ridden Greece2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines a Greek civil society organization, which is struggling to cope with the precarity caused by the environment of crisis. By looking into the austerity that prevails in Greece, I aim to discuss the connection between the Greek society and the organization, as both of them are struggling with the consequences of the crisis which brings them into a precarious position. The methods used during the fieldwork were mainly participant observation in the space of the organization, and interviews as well as informal conversations with the members and recipients of the Solidarity Association. By analyzing their discourses introduced in the thesis through ethnographic stories, I claim that the interplay between precarious labor and precarious life transforms the organization into a space of silence. I suggest that this deadening of life should not only be seen as an outcome of the long period of living under harsh conditions, but also as one of the factors which brings the organization into dissolution. By looking at the disintegration of the Solidarity Association, I discuss that its solidarian culture turns into a philanthropic one due to individualistic behaviors which I argue are one of the outcomes of people’s precarious living. This thesis focuses more on what precarity does rather on what it is and it should be seen as a contribution to the understanding of the influence that precarity has on an organization placed in the context of contemporary austerity-ridden Greece. 

  • 13.
    Schwabe, Siri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Resistance in representation: the diasporic politics of Club Deportivo Palestino2019In: Soccer & Society, ISSN 1466-0970, E-ISSN 1743-9590, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 693-703Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the relationship between soccer and diasporic resistancethroughan examination of Club Deportivo Palestino, a professional footballclubbased in Santiago de Chile.The first 'Club Sportivo Palestina' was founded by Palestinian immigrants in the Chilean capital in 1916. Currently, Palestino plays in the Chilean first division and is among the top teams in the country. Meanwhile, the club is often claimed to represent the Palestinian people and has beena foundational pillar of a diasporic communityto whichthe Palestinianstruggle is a central mobilizing force. In this article, which is based on long-term fieldwork, I seek to show that the political potential in this kind of diaspora club lies first and foremost inrepresentation, and, furthermore, that notions of resistance in this case are closely tied to a wider struggle for an enduring Palestinian presence.

  • 14.
    Rabo, Annika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Review of recent books on Syria and Syrian refugees (Chatty, Provence, Pearlman, Rabil)2019In: Mashriq & Mahjar, ISSN 2169-4435, Vol. 6, no 2Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Vonderau, Asta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Scaling the Cloud: Making State and Infrastructure in Sweden2019In: Ethnos, ISSN 0014-1844, E-ISSN 1469-588X, Vol. 84, no 4, p. 698-718Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Popular representations imagine the internet as being immaterial and fluid; hidden from the public eye are the industry and complex infrastructure securing the functionality of the World Wide Web, as well as this industry's social and environmental effects. Focussing on the implementation of a Facebook data centre in the Swedish city of Lulea, this article investigates how the global cloud is localised within a specific historical and social context. It shows how this new industrial development becomes a part of state-making and regional identity-building processes by triggering the re-scaling of territories and shaping new geographies in relation to expanding cloud infrastructures. Tracing those infrastructure-making processes reveals some of the key dynamics between the Swedish state, its regions and the global IT economy.

  • 16.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. Södertörn University, Sweden.
    Hertzberg, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Jonsson, Rickard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    León Rosales, René
    Neergaard, Anders
    Sweden: The Otherization of the Descendants of Immigrants2019In: The Palgrave Handbook of Race and Ethnic Inequalities in Education / [ed] Peter A. J. Stevens, A. Gary Dworkin, Palgrave Macmillan, 2019, 2, no 0721474136, p. 999-1034Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter offers a systematic review of the literature on educational inequality and school attainments of immigrants’ offspring in Sweden. The review covers research conducted between 1990 and 2015 and critically examines how different research traditions explain this inequality. The chapter begins by mapping the key characteristics of the Swedish educational system together with Swedish immigration patterns. Thereafter, five major research traditions that explain educational inequality and ethnic background in Sweden are presented. These perspectives include (1) political arithmetic; (2) racism and discrimination; (3) language proficiency tradition; (4) school choice and school segregation; and (5) cultural and social capital and socio-historical contexts. The ‘political arithmetic’ tradition, which starts mainly from a positivistic approach and employs large-scale, quantitative research strategies, has focused on the individual and demographic characteristics of pupils. The main assumption of the other research clusters is that there are important contextual circumstances (beyond individual factors) which decisively affect the educational achievements of the descendants of immigrants. While often dominated by qualitative approaches, these types of research do sometimes include quantitatively designed studies. These research traditions take a more critical stance on government policies, which have produced an extremely segregated school system, and show the consequences of a concentration of children of families from vulnerable groups (economically disadvantaged and immigrant groups in marginalized neighborhoods) in schools with limited resources.

  • 17.
    Hassanen, Sadia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Woldu, Dawit Okubatsion
    Mkuu, Rahma
    The effects of migration on the practice and perception Female Genital Cutting (FGC) among the Horn of Africa's immigrants in Melbourne Australia2019In: AIMS public health, ISSN 2327-8994, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 67-78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research examines the effects of migration on the practice and perception of Female Genital Mutilation or Cutting (FGM/C) among Horn of Africa immigrants in Melbourne Australia. According to UN 2016 report, on (FGM/C), there are at least 200 million girls and women alive today globally that have undergone some of form of FGM/C. The same report highlights that most of these practices are concentrated in parts of Africa, Middle East and South Asia. Our research employed in-depth semi-structured interviews with 50 men and women informants and five focus groups among the Horn of Africa immigrants living in Melbourne Australia. Interview and focus group data were analysed using MAXQUDA text analysis software to see emerging themes from the data. Upon the examination of the interviews and focus group data, we found that gender and immigration were the two factors that influenced immigrant's perception about FGC. Understanding the social and cultural dynamics on the perception of FGC among immigrant communities in the West could help in devising appropriate interventions to tackle FGC in several groups where this practice is commonly occurring.

  • 18.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. Södertörns högskola, Sweden.
    Høyer Leivestad, Hege
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    The "stranger" among Swedish "homo academicus"2019In: Higher Education, ISSN 0018-1560, E-ISSN 1573-174X, Vol. 77, no 2, p. 213-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with individuals of immigrant background in Swedish higher education—i.e., those who have a PhD and work in Swedish universities. The aim of the study is to examine whether and how factors other than academic qualifications—such as gender and migrant background—may affect the individual’s ability to find employment and pursue a successful career in a Swedish institution of higher education. The data used in the first section are Swedish registry data (LISA database and population), administered by Statistics Sweden. The second part of the paper is based on semi-structured interviews with 19 academics of migrant background. The results show that, given the same work experience and compared to the reference group (born in Sweden with at least one Swedish-born parent), individuals born in Eastern Europe, Asia, Africa, and South America are, firstly, more likely to be unemployed and, secondly, if they are employed, to have a lower income (lower position). The ways in which such gaps arises are also examined.

  • 19.
    Khosravi, Shahram
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    What do we see if we look at the border from the other side?2019In: Social Anthropology, ISSN 0964-0282, E-ISSN 1469-8676, Vol. 27, no 3, p. 409-424Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We live in a time of wall fetishism. Never have human beings been so obsessed with building walls as they are today. Walls are, however, age-old. Empires built walls. And if we look closer, we can see that there are still traces of the old imperial visions in the modern borders and border walls. In this essay I will look at the connections of wars and walls, walls and empires. Through a radical historicisation I will argue that there is a link between the installation of border walls (here) and the unsettling of communities (there). The current border regime is part of a larger and older project of colonial accumulation by dispossession and expulsion; stealing wealth, labour force and time. I will also argue that border crossing discloses the cracks in the dominant narration of borders and that travellers without papers denaturalise what are otherwise naturalised borders, and politicise what are otherwise depoliticised borders. I will illustrate this argument by following travellers without papers along the railways in the Balkans; tracing Afghan deportees in Kabul; and following the social life of the materialities used in the oil sites in Iran and in the wall between Mexico and the USA.

  • 20.
    Khosravi, Shahram
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    A FRAGMENTED DIASPORA: Iranians in Sweden2018In: Nordic Journal of Migration Research, ISSN 1799-649X, E-ISSN 1799-649X, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 73-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of diaspora generally indicates achievements: creating a home outside the homeland, entrepreneurship, the establishment of local and global networks, new organisations, media and spatial as well as social mobility. In studies of Iranian diaspora, a rosy picture of 'super successful' Iranians has often obscured other aspects of the diaspora - failure, conflicts, internal exclusion and fragmentation of the group along various lines, such as ideologies, class, gender, local identification and cause of migration. Through ethnographic vignettes of the Iranian migrants in Sweden, this article demonstrates the segmentation, hybridity and complexity of the experiences of the diaspora. Avoiding the language of generalisation and by focussing instead on particular histories and individual circumstances, it reveals the diversity, disintegration and contradictions within what has been assumed to be a homogeneous and static diaspora.

  • 21.
    Karlsson, Bengt G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    AFTER POLITICAL ECOLOGY2018In: Anthropology Today, ISSN 0268-540X, E-ISSN 1467-8322, Vol. 34, no 2, p. 22-24Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book review article probes present anthropological engagement with the environment through the prism of political ecology, placing political ecology in conversation with newer work in environmnetal anthropology. In situating this conversation, the reviewer draws on four recent anthropological monographs that, in one way or another, deal with aspects of nature'. The four monographs are Tania Murray Li's (2014) Land's end: Capitalist relations on an indigenous frontier; Marianne Elisabeth Lien's (2015) Becoming salmon: Aquaculture and the domestication of fish; Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing's (2015) The mushroom at the end of the world: On the possibility of life in capitalist ruin; and, lastly, Marisol de la Cadena's (2015) Earth beings: Ecologies of practice across Andean worlds. As I suggest, political ecology requires a radical remake, perhaps a political ecology 2.0, which brings in nature in a new way and makes the category of the political more inclusive.

  • 22.
    Rönn, Victoria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    "Att bli sedd är att finnas": En studie om den involverade, men ofta bortprioriterade anhörige2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 23.
    Leivestad Høyer, Hege
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Caravan Cultures: Second Homes on Wheels2018In: The Routledge Handbook on Second Home Tourism and Mobilities / [ed] Michael Hall, Dieter Müller, Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Leivestad Høyer, Hege
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Caravans: Lives on Wheels in Contemporary Europe2018Book (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Leivestad Høyer, Hege
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    "De andra" i den svenska akademiska eliten2018In: Eliter i Sverige: Tvärvetenskapliga perspektiv på makt, status och klass / [ed] Bengt Erik Eriksson, Mikael Holmqvist, Lena Sohl, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2018, p. 247-274Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Strömdahl Östberg, Adam
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Helperin, Simon
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Den (själv)medvetna konsumenten: Politisk konsumtion och studenters strävan efter erkännande2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur åtta studenter som identifierar sig själva som medvetna konsumenter använder politisk konsumtion som strategi för att söka erkännande inför sig själv och andra. Studien tar särskild hjälp av teoretiska begrepp konstruerade av Pierre Bourdieu. Metoden som används för datainsamling är semistrukturerade intervjuer. Utifrån detta syfte har följande frågeställningar formulerats: Vilka strategier använder åtta studenter för att söka erkännande genom politisk konsumtion? Vilka blir konsekvenserna av dessa strategier och hur skiljer de sig mellan männen och kvinnorna i studien?

    Tidigare forskning visar att hur mycket av en persons konsumtion som är politisk beror på position och roll i samhället. Framförallt kvinnor och de med akademisk utbildning tenderar att vara de största politiska konsumentgrupperna. Vidare vet vi att Sverige internationellt sett har relativt hög politisk konsumtion. Många upplever att det är svårt att göra rätt inför sig själva och inför samhället i relation till politisk konsumtion. Genom Bourdieus teoretiska perspektiv där både aktören och strukturen fångas in i begreppet habitus har vi undersökt hur åtta studenter i Stockholm hanterar frågor om rätt och fel i relation till politisk konsumtion. Resultat och analys presenteras utifrån följande teman: Att konsumera politiskt; Kunskapskapital; Konstruktionen av ett självreflexivt habitus. De två första temana beskriver strategier för att nå erkännande, det vill säga ackumulera vad Bourdieu kallar symboliskt kapital, det sista temat ämnar till att beskriva aspekter och konsekvenser av respondenternas habitus utifrån dissonans, ambivalens och skam. Slutligen pekar studien på en skillnad i hur män och kvinnor känner kring politisk konsumtion. Denna studie är explorativ och uppmuntrar till vidare studier om såväl studenter som andra samhällsgruppers relation till politisk konsumtion.

  • 27.
    Wulff, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Disaporic Divides: Location and Orientations of "Home" in Pooneh Rohi's Araben2018In: World literatures: exploring the cosmopolitan-vernacular exchange / [ed] Stefan Helgesson, Annika Mörte Alling, Yvonne Lindqvist, Helena Wulff, Stockholm: Stockholm University Press, 2018, p. 119-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter draws on a literary anthropological project which explores the social world of the young generation of diaspora writers and their work (fiction, plays, journalism) in Sweden. It uncovers experiences of racism in a country which boasts an ethnically inclusive policy while identifying instances of literary cosmopolitanism from within. Pooneh Rohi´s novel The Arab (2013) circles around the idea of home in terms of homelessness, and the designation “stranger” as the protagonist leads his lonely life in snow-covered Stockholm where he moved decades ago from Iran. For “the Arab” is actually Persian, but is taken to be an Arab in the Swedish context. Sweden is not home to him, he is homeless in his heart. A young woman in the novel is also from Iran, but she is so well integrated that people think she was adopted. Her childhood memories from Iran are now a mirage from the past, a fading scent of salt from the sea. Later, her longing for “that part of the room that is invisible in the mirror” gets stronger.

  • 28.
    Wulff, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Diversifying from Within: Diaspora Writings in Sweden2018In: The Composition of Anthropology: How Anthropological Texts are Written / [ed] Morten Nielsen, Nigel Rapport, London: Routledge, 2018, p. 122-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Helena Wulff´s chapter begins with an essay drawing on her ongoing literary anthropological study of diaspora fiction writers and their work in Sweden who, she argues, are diversifying the country from within. The essay engages with the work of Pooneh Rohi born in Iran, who is a new voice while Jonas Hassen Khemiri, of Tunisian background, is an established writer. In addition to writing fiction, they sometimes do journalism. By uncovering often cruel experiences of racism in a country which boasts an inclusive policy, yet has an expanding anti-immigration party (the Sweden Democrats) diaspora writers have an impact on political and cultural debate in Sweden, also because they take on the role as public intellectuals. In her Commentary, Wulff explains how Text came about, how it goes back to her intellectual history that was founded during her upbringing when she first became a habitual reader, and later with her education in comparative literature and anthropology that eventually would make her an anthropological writer. Inspired by her research on the ballet world where desire and technique are key for creativity to spring up, Wulff suggests that this is the case in anthropological writing, as well. As to the recent genealogy of the essay, it is an account of preparations for a major multi-disciplinary research program on world literatures which was funded in 2016.      

  • 29.
    Leivestad Høyer, Hege
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    En Brexit-brikke til besvær2018In: KlassekampenArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology. Södertörns högskola, Sverige.
    Etniska hierarkier och (icke-)representation: Partikandidater med migrationsbakgrund vid svenska valet 20142018In: Sociologisk forskning, ISSN 0038-0342, Vol. 55, no 2-3, p. 317-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnic hierarchies and (non)representation. Party candidates with migration background in the general election of 2014This paper analyses the extent to which individuals with migration background were appointed and elected into different levels of public decision-making bodies in the latest Swedish general election (2014). Individuals of migration background refers in this study to those born abroad or born in Sweden with two foreign-born parents. Data for this study is taken from Statistics Sweden's register of candidates elected in municipal, county and national parliamentary elections in 2014, supplemented by information from other Statistics Sweden's registers. The results demonstrate that: (a) individuals with a migration background are severely underrepresented in the Swedish decision-making bodies; (b) even in cases when individuals with a migration background are nominated on the party lists, they have less of a chance of being elected compared to native candidates. (c) The dominant resource theory cannot explain the underrepresentation of the stigmatized migrant groups and their descendants, and finally; (d) the results indicate some support to the hypothesis about the importance of access to social networks in order to be nominated and elected.

  • 31.
    González-Fernández, Tania
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Feeling Across Distance: Transnational Migration, Emotions, and Family Life Between Bolivia and Spain2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What are the relational dynamics of family life as it is lived across vast distances and over time? What underpins these relations, practices, and experiences of being apart and yet together? Based on a long-term multi-sited fieldwork carried out in Spain and Bolivia from 2013 to 2015, this study sets out to address these questions by investigating caring practices, mediated connections, (non)material exchanges, and lived experiences of “doing” and “feeling” family across borders. It conveys the story of ten families divided between Madrid and the Bolivian urban areas of Cochabamba, Sucre, and Santa Cruz de la Sierra. Taking as a point of departure the encounters with middle-aged women who migrated to Spain in the early 2000s, the thesis moves back and forth between “here” and “there” to provide a polyphonic account of family relationships as they are sustained, enacted, and experienced by both those who leave and those who stay. It does so by exploring the transnational provision of care, the routines of keeping in touch, the exchange of remittances and material goods, as well as the interplay of these practices with the management of emotions and the circulation of affects. The term “affective maps” is employed here as a concept to capture the myriad of relatives taking part in these connections, in that it points out how these are strongly interdependent relationships through which people have the capacity to affect and to be affected by one another across distance. More specifically, this study demonstrates how the various ways of dealing with transnational family life are constantly shaped by migration regimes, restrictive policies, and global inequalities, on the one hand, and by power social relations, gender and generational roles, and life-course stages, on the other. To illuminate the dynamics at play, the notion of “feel-work” is introduced as a tuned-in ethnographic practice that simultaneously engages the body and the mind, reasoning and feeling. This study is thus a multi-sited ethnography contributing further knowledge into emotions and affects in human mobility, while it consistently uses emotions and affects as methodological and epistemological tools. The thesis argues that family members recreate a sense of “closeness” and maintain their emotional connection despite not being physically together nor seeing each other over long periods of absence. Ultimately, in grappling with the affective dimension of family relationships in the distinct context of current Bolivia-to-Spain migration, this thesis aims to shed some light on the emotional and the corporeal as constitutive aspects of the ethnographic endeavor.

  • 32.
    Linder, Elin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Food: A Sensuous Matter of the Everyday: A sensorial exploration of material and bounded natures of mundane food practices2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines everyday food practices such as sensed by seven households in the city ofStockholm, Sweden. By sensuously exploring the acts of acquiring, preparing, cooking, eating,and wasting food, I analyze how food is a matter of olfactory, gustatory, auditory, tactile, andvisual significance, as much as matter per se. More specifically, I address relational andbounded aspects of food, looking at how ambient surroundings, presences of material andimmaterial factors, sensuously influence everyday experiences of food. Intrigued by the at onceinter-, extra-, and re-corporeal matters of food, I analytically position myself alongside Latour,Ingold, Douglas, and Bennett. In entertaining their theoretical lines of thoughts, using them asanalytical springboards, this thesis explores socio-material dimensions of food practices, as wellas corporeal dynamics of human-material encounters. Methodologically carried out by meansof sensuous ethnography, following Pink’s notion of participatory practice, I have during tenweeks of fieldwork—in people’s homes and in their frequented grocery stores—engaged mysenses to experientially sense the world of food, such as lived by them. In our conjoint sensorialexploration, taken-for-granted mundane understandings of what food constitutes and whatconstitutes it, have emerged as domestically diverse, bounded to sensuous perceptionsderivative of the past, carried out in the presents, and cor(po)related to the future. By surveyingsituated meanings of what is smelled when savored, tasted when flavored, seen when looked,and felt when touched, simultaneously as accounting for nonhuman matters salient to coursesof actions, the thesis remarks context-sensorial-imbued figurations of everyday food.

  • 33.
    Wulff, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Foreword New York: Lexington Books2018In: Apprenticeship Pilgrimage: Developing Expertise through Travel and Training / [ed] Lauren Miller Griffith, Jonathan S. Marion, Lexington Books, 2018, p. vii-xiChapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34. Vandenhelsken, Melanie
    et al.
    Barkataki-Ruscheweyh, MeenaxiKarlsson, Bengt G.Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Geographies of difference: Explorations in Northeast Indian Studies2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book rethinks Northeast India as a lived space, a centre of interconnections and unfolding histories, instead of an isolated periphery. Questioning dominant tropes and assumptions around the Northeast, it examines socio-political and historical processes, border issues, the role of the state, displacement and development, debates over natural resources, violence, notions of body and belonging, movements, tensions and relations, and strategies, struggles and narratives that frame discussions on the region.

  • 35.
    Galli, Raoul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Godmorgon, Sverige!: Projektet Rehabarenan - en socialantropologisk analys2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur genomförs insatsen Rehabarenan i förhållande till sina uppsatta mål? Det är huvudfrågan bakom denna rapport som presenterar resultat från en begränsad antropologisk studie av projektet Rehabarenan i Södertälje, en arbetsmarknadspolitisk insats för ”arbetsträning, rehabilitering och integration” eller, med observatörens utifrånblick, ett socialisationsprojekt. På Rehabarenan tränas ungdomar, unga vuxna och medelålders män och kvinnor till att bli förment bättre fungerande samhällsindivider med närmare till egenförsörjning än bidragsdito. Observationer och intervjuer från en femveckors fältstudie på Torekällbergets friluftsmuseum, där projektet är förlagt, ger etnografiska inblickar i Rehabarenans organisering, deltagarnas vardag och maktförhållandena mellan museets olika yrkesgrupper. Dessa inblickar ställs analytiskt mot projektets uppsatta mål och slutsatser dras om uppfyllelse eller inte av dessa. En prekär fråga ställs i rapporten om vems ”behov” som Rehabarenan i första hand tillgodoser. Rapporten efterlyser en större klarhet och detaljrikedom om projektets bakomliggande intentioner och mål för att undvika att deltagarna efter sin tid på Rehabarenan istället för att komma vidare mot arbetsmarknaden fastnar eller snurrar runt i myndigheternas system.

  • 36.
    Olsson, Erik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Guiden till Spaniensverige: Diaspora, integration och transnationalitet bland svenska föreningar i södra Spanien2018Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur blir de svenska migranterna i södra Spanien en livsstilsdiaspora? Huvudaktören i denna bok är de stora nordiska sociala föreningarna i södra Spanien och de verksamheter de utvecklar för att främja svenskarnas sammanhållning. Studien visar att föreningarna går i spetsen för en diasporisk mobilisering av en svensk gemenskap. Detta görs genom att erbjuda de svenska migranterna sociala arenor, innehållsrika aktiviteter och service av olika slag. Föreningarna kan på så sätt underlätta migranternas förverkligande av sina livsstilsprojekt samtidigt som de också snitslar en väg in i Spaniensverige. Boken handlar om hur diasporagemenskap görs genom en mobilisering kring livsstilsprojektet där ålder, klass och transnationalitet är viktiga ingredienser.

  • 37.
    Larsson, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    I Don't Make Coffee for My Husband in the Morning: Gender and Precarious Life among Home-based Workers in the Philippines2018In: Anthropological Quarterly, ISSN 0003-5491, E-ISSN 1534-1518, Vol. 91, no 1, p. 365-391Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is about precariousness of work and shifting gender roles among Filipina home-based workers, who labor from or nearby their homes either as industrial homeworkers working for an employer, or as own-account laborers sometimes referred to as the self-employed. It demonstrates how gender and the globalization of production are formed, negotiated, and challenged by people through their localized ideas and practices. Focusing on the persons who have mobilized through Patamaba and Homenet Southeast Asia, I examine the relation between work and life, or workplace and home, which for a long time has involved a spatial division of gender roles that increasingly have been called into question. At the center of the analysis are the shrinking national labor market and growing spatial mobility of women due to their mobilization for the rights of the home-based workers. Because of this changing socio-economic environment, people's experiences of labor are much more complex than the binary gender discourses, as they constantly alternate between home and work, and reproduction and production, as well as the private and political. Finally, I suggest that the growing precarization of life must be approached from a gender viewpoint, which often has been bypassed in the scholarly debate.

  • 38.
    Askersjö, Signe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    "I'm not a nationalist but"...: On mobilisation and identity formation of the Scottish independence movement2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the mobilisation and identity formation of the Scottish independence movement post-referendum. By analysing arguments, emotions and actions in support for independence, I aim to discuss how the movement make use of cultural perspectives on history for continuous mobilisation. The study focuses on the members of the umbrella organisation of Yes Scotland, which is a diverse network of activist and party-political groups. To understand the movement, I have made use of a political and active approach such as participating in meetings and at demonstrations. Importantly, while I acknowledge how the Scottish independence movement navigates within a discourse of nationalism because of its nationalist character, I argue that the movement mainly make use of an alternative ideology. This ideology is tied to historical narratives which are remade in present forms and take several expressions. For instance, I claim that this ideology generates the practice of international solidarity as well as a specific identity which is constructed and reproduced for one specific political project: to achieve Scottish independence. This thesis is a contribution to the study of social movements, as well as it provides understanding of reasoning beyond and within nationalism.

  • 39. Xiang, Biao
    et al.
    Lindquist, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Infrastructuralization: Evolving Sociopolitical Dynamics in Labor Migration from Asia2018In: Pacific Affairs, ISSN 0030-851X, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 759-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the trend of “infrastructuralization” in state- sponsored programs of low- and semi-skilled labour migration from Asia. These programs increasingly focus on facilitating migration rather than generating actual opportunities for mobility and substantive development. While providing training to develop skills targeting speci c jobs in speci c countries, the programs generally leave complaints about actual working conditions and wages to be managed by the migrants themselves. In this process, labour migration programs are infrastructuralized, meaning that there is an ongoing expansion and intensi cation of the socio-technical platform that makes mobility possible, as facilitation becomes an end in itself. This trend is tied to changes in the general development paradigm, labour and state-citizen relations across Asia, as well as the increasing importance of brokers in facilitating connection. This article  rst probes a number of internal dynamics around which infrastructuralization unfolds in practice. We then highlight how commercial intermediaries and public institutions, the two key actors in infrastructuralization, shape migration by producing context-speci c migrant subjectivities, making aspirational work a central element of infrastructuralization. In the conclusion, we explore research agendas that can be developed further.

  • 40.
    Lindquist, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Infrastructures of Escort: Transnational Migration and Economies of Connection in Indonesia2018In: Indonesia (Ithaca, N.Y. Online), E-ISSN 2164-8654, Vol. 105, p. 77-95Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Karlsson, Bengt G.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Introduction: Northeastern research entanglements2018In: Geographies of difference: Explorations in Northeast India / [ed] Mélanie Vandenhelsken, Meenaxi Barkataki-Ruscheweyh, Bengt G. Karlsson, London: Routledge, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this chapter I seek to take stock of the present context of research on and in Northeast India.

  • 42.
    Wulff, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Introduction to Part 22018In: World Literatures: Exloring the Cosmopolitan-Vernacular Exchange / [ed] Stefan Helgesson, Annika Mörte Alling, Yvonne Lindqvist, Helena Wulff, Stockholm: Stockholm University Press, 2018, p. 103-106Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Olsson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Behtoui, Alireza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Høyer Leivestad, Hege
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Karriär på spel: Socialt kapital och karriärer för disputerade migranter i den svenska högskolan2018In: Högutbildade migranter i Sverige / [ed] Maja Povrzanović Frykman, Magnus Öhlander, Lund: Arkiv förlag & tidskrift, 2018, p. 195-210Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Leivestad Høyer, Hege
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Moving Containers at Europe’s End2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Galli, Raoul
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Hannerz, Ulf (Creator)
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Nyckelbegrepp i socialantropologin2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Lundberg, Arvid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Openness as Political Culture: The Arab Spring and the Jordanian Protest Movements2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an exploration of the origins of the Arab Spring in Jordan and across the region. Based on ethnographic fieldwork among the leadership of the Jordanian protest movements, it suggests a new way of understanding why these movements fell apart. A recurrent theme in accounts of the political movements that emerged in Jordan and the Arab world more generally in 2011 is that the unity that initially appeared on streets and squares never transformed into a viable coalition but instead dissolved. A common way to understand why the Arab Spring’s promise of a less authoritarian society was not fulfilled is to look at the center of a political system and explain why it did not become more democratic. These explanations depend on an alternative that we know only through our counterfactual imagination: a united opposition capable of bringing about a democratic system. Instead of imagining a united opposition and explaining why it was not realized, the thesis starts with the fact that the Jordanian opposition was deeply fragmented, but that there were attempts to counter this fragmentation by coordinating and specifying its demands. These attempts fell apart due to something more general than ideological, ethnic or religious divisions within the Jordanian opposition. They were based on a way of conducting politics that was uncommon among the leadership of the protest movements as well as among their opponents. These attempts were characterized by an emphasis on political ideas and programs rather than patronage and by an orientation toward political dialogue, which some Jordanians described in terms of “infitāḥ” (openness) and contrasted with a more polemical form of politics. This ethnographic study puts this more unusual form of politics into sharper relief and shows how it was rooted in political practices and values as well as comparable types of education and social life. This allows us to see how democratization is a movement that is not only political but also cultural, which takes shape in political activism, education and social life.

  • 47.
    Schwabe, Siri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Paradoxes of Erasure: Palestinian Memory and the Politics of Forgetting in Post-Dictatorship Chile2018In: Interventions: International Journal of Postcolonial Studies, ISSN 1369-801X, E-ISSN 1469-929X, Vol. 20, no 5, p. 651-665Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this essay I explore the relationship between diasporic Palestinian memory and the politics of forgetting in post-dictatorship Chile. Drawing on ethnographic material from long-term fieldwork in Santiago, I argue that dual processes of remembrance and forgetting are central to a diasporic Palestinian politics that hinges on ideas of resistance and that always refers to the ongoing struggle of the Palestinian people, but that is also located within something of a memory void with regards to the recent Chilean past. The essay points to the paradoxical ways in which Palestinian-Chilean remembrance aiming to counter attempts at negation and erasure elsewhere often entails a compliance with the symbolic violence of a wider-reaching politics of oblivion in the Chilean era of post-dictatorship. By taking such an approach, I seek to nuance our understanding of the political dynamics of memory and to highlight the analytical potential in approaching diasporic practices at the intersection between local context and transnational points of reference.

  • 48.
    Wulff, Helena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Pioneering Doktormutter Remembering Ina-Maria Greverus2018In: Anthropological Journal on European Cultures, ISSN 1755-2923, E-ISSN 1755-2931, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 45-47Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The author reconsiders German scholar Ina-Maria Greverus as a committed feminist supporter of female doctoral students and early career academics. Greverus acted as an innovator especially in the realms of anthropology and aesthetics, and initiated a new international dialogue forum with the Anthropological Journal or European Cultures, which she founded in 1990 together with Christian Giordano.

  • 49.
    Lindquist, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Reassembling Indonesian Migration: Biometric Technology and the Licensing of Informal Labour Brokers2018In: Ethnos, ISSN 0014-1844, E-ISSN 1469-588X, Vol. 83, no 5, p. 832-849Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes as its starting point the Indonesian government's attempt to license informal brokers - field agents, or petugas lapangan - who recruit migrant workers that are sent to destinations across Asia and the Middle East. The licensing programme utilises biometric fingerprint technology in order to reinforce the boundaries of the Indonesian migration assemblage through the rearticulation of the category of the broker. The article argues that this programme and the attempt to license informal brokers through technology should be conceptualised not strictly in relation to the securitisation of migration, nor as a response to fragmentation in the wake of neoliberalisation, but more broadly in relation to concerns with regulating brokers that lead back to the Dutch colonial era.

  • 50.
    Mengiste, Tekalign Ayalew
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Anthropology.
    Refugee Protections from Below: Smuggling in the Eritrea-Ethiopia Context2018In: The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, ISSN 0002-7162, E-ISSN 1552-3349, Vol. 676, no 1, p. 57-76Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article is an analysis of the role of human smuggling practices and of the transnational social relations of Eritrean refugees exiting and transitioning through Ethiopia. Based on two years of multisited ethnographic fieldwork, I explore how smugglers, aspiring migrants, and former migrants, settled en route and in diasporic spaces, try to minimize the risk of violence through communities of support and knowhow. In so doing, I argue that smuggling is a socially embedded collective practice that strives to facilitate safe exit and transitions of Eritrean refugees despite the criminalization of migration, the militarization of borders, and the potential and existing criminal activity along Eritrean, Sudanese, and Ethiopian migratory corridors. The facilitation of irregular transits by migrants themselves reproduces a collective system of migratory knowledge that aims to bring refugees to safetya community of knowledgein which smuggling emerges as a system of refugee protection from below.

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